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Problem 786: Right Triangle, Altitude, Hypotenuse, Cevian, Perpendicular,

Ratio, Metric relations. Level: High School, SAT Prep, College, Mathematics
Education
The figure below shows a right triangle ABC with the altitude BH and cevians BD and BE, so that AD
= DE = EC. DF is perpendicular to BE and ratio BH / AC = 2 /5. Find ratio DF / BF.

3 comments:
Peter TranJuly 18, 2012 4:48 PM

http://img7.imageshack.us/img7/479/problem786.png

Draw lines per sketch.


Let AC=3, AH=x => BH=6/5
We have BH^2=AH.HC ( relation in right triangle)
Or 36/25=x(3-x)
We get 2 solutions : x=3/5 or x=12/5
For x=3/5 , HD=2/5 and HE=7/5
So tan(beta)=1/3 and tan(alpha)=7/6
DF/BF=tan(alpha-beta)= 3/5
Due to symmetric , we will get the same result for x=12/5
Jacob HaJuly 18, 2012 6:30 PM

Let AB=a, BC=b, AC=c, BH=h.


Since ab=ch, h/c=2/5,
ab:c^2 = ab:(a^2+b^2) = 2:5
Solving it, we have
1

a:b = 1:2 or a:b = 2:1


WLOG, let a:b = 1:2.
Let vecBC = 2i, vecBA=j.
Using vector, we have
vecBD=2/3 (i+j)
vecBE=1/3 (4i+j)
Therefore, angle DBC = 45 degrees
also, tan(angle EBC)=1/4
Hence,
DF/BF
= tan(angle DBE)
= tan(45 - angle EBC)
= [1 - 1/4] / [1 + 1/4]
= 3/5
How to Graph a CircleJuly 19, 2012 2:34 AM

These types of questions can be solved by general concept,area of triangle and


properties of altitude.
Problem 787: Right Triangle, Inradius, 18 Equal Circles, Line Tangent, Legs,
Hypotenuse, Ratio, Metric Relations. Level: High School, SAT Prep, College,
Mathematics Education
The figure below shows a right triangle ABC with inradius x and 18 equal tangent circles of radius r,
so that leg AB is tangent to 6 circles, BC is tangent to 13 circles and AC is tangent to 2 circles. Prove
that x = 5.r

5 comments:
Peter TranJuly 19, 2012 6:07 PM

http://img836.imageshack.us/img836/5494/problem787.png

Draw lines per attached sketch


We have AB=10r
BC=24r
And AC=26r . ( Pythagoras theorem)
Half of perimeter of ABC= p= (10r+4r+26r)/2=30r
And radius of internal circle= p-AC= 4r
So x= x+r=5r
Jacob HaJuly 19, 2012 8:35 PM

Let AB=a, BC=b.


From two pairs of similar triangles, we have
(1): x/(a-x) = r/(a-11r)
(2): x/(b-x) = r/(b-25r)
(1) simplifies to: a(x-r) = 10rx ... (3)
(2) simplifies to b(x-r) = 24rx ... (4)
(3)/(4): a/b = 5/12
WLOG, let a=5, b=12. Then x=2.
Substitude into (3) or (4),
from (3): 5(2-r) = 20r
from (4): 12(2-r) = 48r
Both of them are equivalent to
3

2-r = 4r
r = 2/5
Hence, x=5r.
AjitJuly 20, 2012 2:10 AM

From the figure: a=25r+r*cot(C/2) ---(1) & c=11r+r*cot(A/2)---(2). It's reasonably


easy to show that:cot(A/2)=c/(b-a) while cot(A/2)=a/(b-c) which we can substitute in
(1)&(2) to obtain:[25(b-a)+c]/[11(b-c)+a)]=[a(b-a)/c(b-c)]. We've b^2=a^2+c^2 as
well which yields:a=12b/3 & c=5b/13
For a right triangle: x=(a+c-b)/2 or x=2b/13.
We can also plug in values of a and cot(C/2) in equation (1) to obtain r=a/30=2b/65 or
x=5r
AnonymousJuly 20, 2012 4:03 AM

Draw tangents to the last little circles,// to BC at A;// to AB at C,we obtain 2


congruent triangles similar to ABC,so:
c=10r+kc and a=24r+ka and r=kx
hence
a=24t;c=10t (t positive real number)
ABC is a right triangle b=26t
with the area x=4t
this gives k=1/5
x=5r
PravinJuly 20, 2012 6:51 AM

Let A, B, C be the centres of the smaller circles (each of radius r) nearest to A, B, C


respectively.
Consider triangle ABC. It is right angled at B
AB = 10r, BC = 24r. Follows AC = 26r by Pythagoras.
AA, BB, CC concur at the (common) incentre I of the similar and similarly situated
right triangles ABC and ABC.
Let x be the inradius of the right triangle ABC.
Clearly 2x = AB + BC AC = 8r and
Hence x = x + r = 4r + r = 5r
Problem 788: Intersecting Circles, Secant Line, Midpoint, Cyclic Quadrilateral.
Level: High School, SAT Prep, College, Mathematics Education
In the figure below, the circles O and Q intersect at A and B. G is the midpoint of a secant line CAD,
H is the midpoint of a secant line EAF. Prove that AHBG is a cyclic quadrilateral.

2 comments:
Jacob HaJuly 20, 2012 5:01 PM

Join BC, BD, BE and BF.


Angle AFB = angle ADB
Angle AEB = angle ACB
Thus, triangle BCD ~ triangle BEF.
Now rotate triangle BCD to triangle BEF,
with center B, such that
BC and BE coinside, BD and BF coinside,
with different lengths.
Then
CD becomes EF (with different lengths),
BG becomes BH (with different lengths).
Therefore, the rotation angle is
angle GBH, and also same as angle CAE.
Hence, AHBG is concyclic.
PravinJuly 21, 2012 8:58 AM

Let M be the midpoint of OQ. Join OA, QA, MB


Power of H w.r.t. circle (O) = HA.HE = OA - OH
Power of H w.r.t. circle (Q)= HA.HF = HQ - QA
So OA - OH = HQ - QA (since HE = HF),
OA + QA = OH + HQ which is same as
2AM + MQ/2 = 2HM + MQ/2
Follows MA = MH
5

Similarly equating powers of G w.r.t. circle (Q),it can be shown that MA = MG


OQ being the perpendicular bisector of AB,we have MA = MB
Hence MA = MH = MG = MB and A, H, B, G are concyclic.
Problem 789: Right Triangle, Altitude, Angle Bisector, Incircle, Tangency Point,
Inradius, Circles, Tangent Line. Level: High School, SAT Prep, College,
Mathematics Education
The figure below shows a right triangle ABC with the altitude BH and the bisector BD of the angle
HBC. The incircle of radius r is tangent to AC at E. Prove that DE = r.

6 comments:

Peter TranJuly 23, 2012 2:01 PM

http://img138.imageshack.us/img138/1382/problem789.png

( complete solution)
drawing lines and circle per attached sketch
We have Arc BF= Arc FC and Arc AB=Arc AB
ABD=1/2(Arc AB +Arc BF)
ADB=1/2(Arc AB +Arc FC) = ABD
So ABD is an isosceles triangle with AB=AD
We also have HBD=DBK=BDK.. ( alternate angles)
So BKD is an isosceles triangle with KB=KD
A,I and K are collinear ....(located on perpen. Bisector of BD)
IK is an angle bisector of BKD
So IM=IL=ED=r
AjitJuly 23, 2012 6:34 PM

CD/HD = BC/BH or CD = CH *BC/(BC+BH) = a^2/(b+c). Now let the in-circle


touch AB at F. AE =AF = c - r or CE = b-c+r which gives us:DE = CE-CD=b-c+r-a^2/
(b+c)= (b^2-c^2-a^2)/(b+c) + r = r since b^2=a^2+c^2. Thus, DE = r
W FungJuly 23, 2012 6:40 PM

Simply let AB = a, BC = b, AC = c
By using the properties of inradius, r = ab/(a+b+c)
Our target is DE = ab/(a+b+c)
The altittude = ab/c
CH = sqrt(b^2-(ab/c)^2) = (b^2)/c
Using angle bisector theorem, CD = CH*(BC/(BC+CH)) = (b^2)/(a+c)
By incircle properties, CE = (b+c-a)/2
7

Then DE = CE - CD = (b+c-a)/2 - (b^2)/(a+c)


By trigonometry, we can easily prove the remainings.
AnonymousJuly 23, 2012 7:30 PM

Anonymous
1. AB=AD We put M and N the points where they match with AB and BC
IM=EN=NB=BM=r
AM=AE AD-AE= AB-AM=r so in this case ED=r
Eder Contreras OrdenesJuly 24, 2012 12:44 PM

http://img507.imageshack.us/img507/9789/p781resuelto.png
(look at the picture)
Let be P the intersection point of the ray AI and segment BC. Note that as triangle
ABC is rectangle, we know that then the quadrilateral ADPB is cyclic. immediately
the incircle is tangent to DP too.
Now let Q be the tangency point of incircle with DP. Note that IQED is a square of
side r. Therefore DE=r
Greetings :)
Eder Contreras OrdenesJuly 24, 2012 5:04 PM

Look at THIS picture! Sorry :P


http://img27.imageshack.us/img27/8784/p789resuelto.png

blem 790: Right Triangle, Altitude, Angle Bisector, Incircle, Tangency Point, Inradius, Circles,
Tangent Line, Congruence. Level: High School, SAT Prep, College, Mathematics
Education
The figure below shows a right triangle ABC with the incenter I, the inradius r, the altitude BH and the
bisector BD of the angle HBC. I 1 is the incenter of the triangle AHB and I 2 is the incenter of triangle
BHC. Prove that

Peter TranJuly 24, 2012 1:24 PM

http://img269.imageshack.us/img269/4894/problem790.png

Draw lines per attached sketch


We have DE perpen. to AC
angle(HBD)= angle(DBE)= angle(BDE) => EB=ED
Triangle ABE congruence to tri. AED (Right triangle Case HL)
So AB=AD => A, I1, I and E are collinear
And IB=ID= r.sqrt(2)
Right triangles AHB, HBC and ABC are similar
And r1/r=AB/AC= cos(A)
9

r2/r=BC/AC= sin(A)
In right triangle I1HI2 we have (I1I2)^2=(I1H)^2+I2H)^2
=2(r1)^2 +2(r2)^2 = 2.r^2 (cosA^2+sinA^2)=2.r^2
So I1I2=r.sqrt(2)
Jacob HaJuly 24, 2012 5:31 PM

BI=r*sqrt(2) is obvious since angle IBA=45 degrees.


DI=r*sqrt(2) is followed from Problem 789 that "DE=r".
Let AB=a, BC=b, AC=c.
Then
BH=ab/c
AH=a^2/c
CH=b^2/c
r=ab/(a+b+c)
Denoted the radius of circle I1 and I2 by r1, r2 respectively.
Then
r1=[a^3 b/c^2] / [a + ab/c + a^2/c] = (a/c)*r
r2=[a b^3/c^2] / [b + ab/c + b^2/c] = (b/c)*r
I1H = r1*sqrt(2) = (a/c)*r*sqrt(2)
I2H = r2*sqrt(2) = (b/c)*r*sqrt(2)
Since angle I1HI2 = 90 degrees, using Pythagoras theorem,
I1I2 = r*sqrt(2)
W FungJuly 24, 2012 5:55 PM

BI = r*sqrt2 is straight forward by right-angled triangle and the properties of incircle.


DI = r*sqrt2 is also obvious by the previous problem 789.
For I1I2, Let AC = b, angle BCA = x, then BH = b*sinx*cosx, AH = b*(sinx)^2, CH
= b*(cosx)^2
then using the relationship between inradius and triangle area of ABC, AHB and
BHC, we have
r = b*sinx*cosx / (1+cosx+sinx)
r1 = (b)*(sinx)^2*cosx*sinx / (1+sinx+cosx) = r*(sinx+cosx)
r2 = (b)*(cosx)^2*cosx*sinx / (1+sinx+cosx) = r*(cosx-sinx)
Now the horizontal distance between two incenters would be
x = r1 + r2 = r*(sinx+cosx)

10

the vertical distance between two incenters would be


y = r2 - r1 = r*(cosx-sinx)
By pyth. theorem,
I1I2 = sqrt(x^2 + y^2)
= r*sqrt(2)
q.e.d.

blem 791: Regular Hexagon, Midpoints of Side and Diagonal, Equilateral Triangle, Area.
Level: High School, SAT Prep, College, Mathematics Education
The figure below shows a regular hexagon ABCDEF of area S. M and N are the midpoints of CD and
AE, respectively, Prove that BMN is an equilateral triangle and

Peter TranJuly 25, 2012 10:03 PM


http://img822.imageshack.us/img822/2764/problem791.png

11

Draw lines per attached sketch


Let AB=a
we have AE=BF=BD=a3
and MD=FN=a/2
BDC= AFB=30 and AFN=60
BFN congruence to BDM .. ( case SAS)
So BN=BM and NBM=FBD=60 => triangle BMN is equilateral
In right triangle BAN , BN^2=AB^2+AN^2= 7/4 a^2
S(BMN)/S(BFD)= BN^2/BF^2 = (7/4a^2)/(3a^2)= 7/12
But S(ABCDEF)=2S(BFD)
So S(BMN)/S(ABCDEF)=7/24
Jacob HaJuly 25, 2012 10:48 PM

Part 1
Embed the figure in the complex plane,
such that z(D)=1, z(A)=-1.
Let w be the primitive cube root of unity,
i.e. w = cos120 + i sin120
With this notation, we have
z(B)=w, z(F)=w^2, z(C)=-w^2, z(E)=-w
Now
z(M) = 1/2 (1-w^2)
12

z(N) = 1/2 (-1-w) = 1/2 w^2


Since
z(B) + w z(N) + w^2 z(M)
= w + 1/2 + 1/2 w^2 - 1/2 w
= 1/2 (1 + w + w^2)
=0
Thus triangle BMN is equilateral.
***
Part 2
Let AB = 2a.
Then
S = 6*sqrt(3)/4 (2a)^2 = 6*sqrt(3) a^2
On the other hand, by cosine law on triangle BCM,
BM^2 = (2a)^2 + a^2 - 2(2a)(a)cos120 = 7 a^2
Area of triangle BMN
= sqrt(3)/4 * BM^2
= 7*sqrt(3)/4 a^2
Hence, Area of BMN = 7/24 S.
W FungJuly 26, 2012 12:50 AM

Using vector approach to solve the problem. Let vectorDC = a, vector CB = b, then
vector BA = b - a.
Hence MB = (1/2)a + b ; BN = (1/2)b - (3/2)a ; MN = -a + (3/2)b
For simplicity, let the length of the hexagon be 1, then |a|=|b|=1.
|MB| = |BN| = |MN| = sqrt(7/4)
So triangle BMN is equilateral.
The area of triangle would be 7*sqrt(3)/16.
Yet, the area of hexagon in this case, would be 6*(|aXb|)=3*sqrt(3)/2
q.e.d.
Problem 792: Right Triangle, Altitude, Angle Bisector, Three Incircles, Incenters, Five
Concyclic Points, Circles. Level: High School, SAT Prep, College, Mathematics
Education

13

The figure below shows a right triangle ABC with the incenter I and the altitude BH. BD and BE are
bisectors of angles HBC and ABH, respectively. I 1 is the incenter of the triangle AHB and I 2 is the
incenter of triangle BHC. Prove that the points E, I 1, I, I2, and D are concyclic.

http://img88.imageshack.us/img88/5497/problem792.png

Draw lines per attached sketch


14

Per the result of problem 789 we have FD=FI= FE= inradius of triangle ABC
In Problem 789 we prove that triangle BEC is isosceles , C, I ,I2 are collinear and CI
is the perpendicular bisector of BE .
We have LBI2=45
Due to symmetric property of symmetric line CIL, we have LEI2=LBI2=45 =>
EI2 perpendicular to BD
Similarly we also have DI1 perpendicular to BE
So E , I1,I, I2 and D are concyclic in a circle diameter ED
Jacob HaJuly 26, 2012 5:37 PM

First of all, since


angle ABD
= angle ABH + angle HBD
= angle BCH + angle CBD
= anle ADB
So AB = AD.
Now since AI1 is angle bisector of angle BAD,
and triangle ABD is isosceles,
thus AI1 is perpendicular to BD.
Consider triangle I1BD,
from the above result, it is isosceles.
Since I1B = I1D, and angle I1BD = 45,
so angle BI1D = 90.
Therefore, angle EI1D = 90.
Similarly, angle EI2D = 90.
(Indeed, BH, DI1 and EI2 are concurrent,
and they intersect at the orthocenter of triangle BED. )
On the other hand,
since AI1 is perpendicular to BD,
AI is also perpendicular to BD, so IB = ID.
Similarly, IB = IE. So IB = ID = IE.
Therefore, I is the circumcenter of triangle BED.
Consequently,
angle EID = 2 * angle EBD = 90.
As angle EI1D = angle EID = angle EI2D = 90,
thus E, I1, I, I2, D concyclic, with diameter DE.
W FungJuly 26, 2012 8:50 PM

Simply let AB = a, BC = b and AC = c.

15

By Van Aubel theorem, on triangle ABH and BHC,


BI1/I1E = (BH+BA)/AH = (b+c)/a,
BI2/I2D = (BH+BC)/HC = (a+c)/b,
By angle bisector theorem,
EH = BH/(BA+BH)*AH = (ab/c)*(a/(b+c))
HD = BH/(BH+BC)*HC = (ab/c)*(b/(a+c))
Hence EH/HD = (a(a+c))/(b(b+c))
And further,
(BI1/I1E) * (BI2/I2D) * (EH/HD) = 1
So BH, I1D, I2E are concurrent.
In addition,
S(BOD)/S(DOE) = BI1/I1E = BH/EH = tan(BED)
S(BOE)/S(DOE) = BI2/I2D = BH/DH = tan(BDE)
As a result, by the barycentric coordinate system on triangle BDE, the concurrent
point is the orthocenter.
So Angle EI1D = Angle DI2E = 90 and I1, I2, D, E are concyclic.
For the remaining, EBD = 45, while BI = ID = IE , so I is the circumcenter of BDE,
and IDE = 90.
So the point I also lies on the circle I1, I2, D, E.
Q.E.D.
ErinaJuly 27, 2012 7:14 AM

EBD=90:2=45
ABD, CEB=> isosceles
AI I =>perpendicular bisector [BD] =>ID BE
CI2I perpendicular bisector [BE] =>EI2 BD
IM AC MD=r EM=r IM=r
Points E, I, I, I2 and D are in the circles with the center M and radius r
AnonymousJuly 27, 2012 8:29 AM

[ Erina from NJ]


Angle EBD=90:2=45
ABD, CEB => isosceles
AI I => perpendicular bisector [BD]=> ID BE
CI2I perpendicular bisector [BE]=> EI2 BD
IM AC MD=r EM=r IM=r
Points E, I, I, I2 and D are in the circles with the center M and radius r
16

AnonymousJuly 27, 2012 1:03 PM

Angle EBD=90:2=45
ABD, CEB => isosceles
AI I =>perpendicular bisector [BD] =>ID BE
CI2I perpendicular bisector [BE] =>EI BD
IM AC MD=r EM=r IM=r
Points E, I, I, I2 and D are in the circles with the center M and radius r
...ERINA....
Problem 793: Right Triangle, Altitude, Three Incircles, Incenters, Circumcircle,
Circumradius, Perpendicular, Distance, Metric Relations. Level: High School, SAT
Prep, College, Mathematics Education
The figure below shows a right triangle ABC with the incenter I and the altitude BH. D and E are the
incenters of triangles AHB and BHC, respectively. IM, IN, and IF are perpendicular to BD, BE, and
DE, respectively. If R is the circumradius of triangle DEI, prove that

3 comments:
AnonymousJuly 30, 2012 6:40 PM

1)angle DBE=90/2=45 degrees


2)points A,D,I,N are in the same line and this line is perpendicular to BE. This way
the angle BDE is 45 degrees.
Similarly, points C,E,I,M are in the same line and this liner is perpendicular to BD.
This way the angle BEI=45 degrees
3)bxc=2RxHa(b,c are triangle sides and Ha is altitude)
17

IDxIE=2RxIF
IDxIE=2IMxIN
IMxIN=RxIF, => R=(IMxIN)/IF.
Erina
Jacob HaJuly 30, 2012 7:11 PM

Note that angle IDM = angle IEN = 45 degrees


R
= [ID*IE*DE] / [4*S(IDE)]
= [sqrt(2)*IM*sqrt(2)*IN*DE] / [4*S(IDE)]
= [IM*IN*DE] / [2*S(IDE)]
= IM*IN/IF
mtzJuly 31, 2012 10:56 PM

Let IK is perpendicular to AC. From similarity of IKM and INF, we have that
IK/IM=IN/IF or R/IM=IN/IF.
Problem 794: Right Triangle, Altitude, Three Incenters, Circumcircles, Incircle,
Congruence. Level: High School, SAT Prep, College, Mathematics Education
The figure below shows a right triangle ABC with the incenter I and the altitude BH. D and E are the
incenters of triangles AHB and BHC, respectively. Prove that the incircle of triangle ABC and the
circumcircles of triangles BDE and DEI are congruent.

W FungAugust 3, 2012 6:20 PM

18

AC passes through the center of c3 and touches c1. So the radius of c3 and c1 must be
the same.
By previous problem we know that I is the orthocenter of the triangle BDE, hence the
circumcircle of IDE and BDE must be in same size. This implies c1 and c2 are
congruent .
zs359142279August 8, 2012 12:40 AM

I'm not gonna post a picture for this proof but here is my plan:
First prove that I,D,A and I,E,C are collinear.
then use the law of sines to prove that the radii of C2 and C3 are the same.
As for the radius of C1, you can use the formula for the inradius of a right triangle to
prove the radii of C1 and C2 are the same.
And it works! By the way, this proof requires some similarities between triangles.
AnonymousAugust 16, 2012 4:56 AM

Let r, a, b, are the inradiis of the triangles ABC, ABH and BHC respectively.
Hence we get:
(1) r^2 = a^2 + b^2 (Problem 25) ;
BH = r + a + b (Problem 23).
P and Q are the points at which incircles of Tr. ABH and BHC touche AB and BC
respectively.
Then:
BP = BH - a = r + b ; BQ = BH - b = r + a.
Now we take BA & BC as the x-axis and y-axis.
B(0 ; 0) ; D(r + b ; a) ; E(b ; r + a).
The equation of the circumcircle of tr. BDE is:
X^2(a+b+r)+Y^2(a+b+r)+X(a^2-2ab-b^2-2br-r^2)-Y(a^2+2ab+2ar-b^2+r^2)=0.
By (1) we have:
a^2-r^2= -b^2 and r^2 - b^2 = a^2.
By the substitution in the equation we have:
X^2(a+b+r)+y^2(a+b+r)-2bX(a+b+r)-2aY(a+b+r)=0
or X^2 + Y^2 - 2bX - 2aY = 0.
The center of the circumcircle C2 is G(b ; a) and the radius of the circle C2 is R
=(a^2+B^2) = r.
Therefore all the circles C1, C2 and C3 has radius r.
Infact also the radius of C1 and C3 is r (problem 792 - 793).
AnonymousAugust 16, 2012 10:58 AM

In the precedent solution of the problem 794 there is a careless mistake:


.... The center of the circumcircle C2 is G(b ; a) and the radius of the circle C2 is R
=sqrt(a^2 + b^2) = r.

19

Problem 795: Intersecting Circles, Common Chord, Midpoint, Tangent, Secant Line,
Perpendicular, 90 Degrees. Level: High School, SAT Prep, College, Mathematics
Education
The circles O and Q intersect at A and B (see the figure). M is the midpoint of AB and CAD is a
secant line. The tangents at C and D meet at E. BF is perpendicular to CE and BG is perpendicular
to DE. If FG cuts CD at H, prove that MH is perpendicular to FG.

mtz256August 7, 2012 11:22 PM


Let KL is perpendicular to AB. Then, FBGE, CBDE and KBHF are all subscribed-able
quadrilaterals. So, BH is perpendicular to CD and from this MH is perpendicular to FG. You
can see this here: http://mtz256.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/7953.jpg

20

zs359142279August 8, 2012 12:24 AM

Proof(I will post a link with a picture):


Connect CB,BD.
By a property of tangent lines:
ECD=CBA,EDC=ABD
180-CED=ECD+EDC
180-CED=CBA+ABD=CBD
C,B,D,E are concyclic points
EFB=EGB=90
E,F,B,G are also concyclic points
Connect BE
By properties of concyclic figures:
BED=DCB, BEG=BFG
DCB=BFG
C,F,H,B are concyclic points
Connect BH
CHB=CFB=90
To prove that MHFG, we just need to prove that FHC=MHB
By properties of concyclic figures:
FHC=FBC,HBF=FCH=CBA
HBA=CBF=FHC
AHB is a right triangle and M is that midpoint of AB.
MHB=HBA=FHC Done
FHC+CHM=MHB+CHM=90

(*)CBD = CBA + DBA


= ECD + EDC
= 180 - CED

21

zs359142279August 8, 2012 12:30 AM

Picture for the proof above:


http://i1237.photobucket.com/albums/ff480/Evan_Liang/795.png
PravinAugust 12, 2012 9:04 PM

(*)CBD = CBA + DBA = ECD + EDC = 180 - CED


B, D, E, C are concyclic (*)
So BDC =BEC
B, G, E, F are concyclic
So BEF = BGF
Follows
BDH = BDC = BEC = BEF = BGF= BGH
So B, G, D, H are concyclic; also BGD = 90
Hence BHD = 90
(*)CBD = CBA + DBA = ECD + EDC = 180 - CED
Problem 796: Triangle, Altitude, Measurement of Angles. Level: High School, SAT
Prep, College, Mathematics Education
The figure below shows a triangle ABC with a point D on the altitude BH. If angles DAC, ABD, DBC,
and BCD are equal to x, x + 6, x, and x+9 degrees, respectively, find x.

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3 comments:
AnonymousAugust 19, 2012 11:36 AM

Al prolongar AD intersecta a BC en ngulo recto por ser el ngulo C=90-x. As D es


el ortocentro del tringulo y debe cumplirse que: x+6+x+x+9=90 y por tanto x=25.
Peter TranAugust 19, 2012 1:39 PM
http://img13.imageshack.us/img13/6435/problem796.png

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Draw lines per attached sketch


Quadrilateral AHEB is cyclic => AE BC
Quadrilateral ACEF is cyclic => CF AB
In AHEB angle BAE= (180-4x-12)=84-2x .(1)
In ACEF angle BAE=x+9 (2)
From (1) and (2) we have 84-2x=x+9 => x=25
W FungAugust 19, 2012 7:04 PM

Angle HDC = 2x+9


By comparing triangle ADH and DHC, we have HC/AH = tan(2x+9)*tan(x)
By comparing traingel ABH and HBC, we have HC/AH = tan(x) / tan (x+6)
Therefore, tan(2x+9)*tan(x) = tan(x) / tan (x+6) => tan(2x+9)*tan(x+6) = 1
Using product to sum, of sine and consine, we have
cos((2x+9)-(x+6)) - cos((2x+9)+(x+6)) = cos((2x+9)-(x+6)) + cos((2x+9)+(x+6))
cos((2x+9)+(x+6))=0
3x + 15 = 90
x = 25.

Geometry Problem 797: Parallelogram, Angle Bisector, Isosceles and Similar


Triangles. Level: High School, SAT Prep, College, Mathematics Education
The figure below shows a parallelogram ABCD, AE is the bisector of angle BAD. If AE and DC meet
at F, prove that triangles ABE, ECF, and ADF are isosceles and similar.

2 comments:
Jacob HaAugust 23, 2012 4:15 PM

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(1)
Since angle BAE = angle DAE = angle BEA,
thus BA = BE, and so ABE is isosceles.
(2)
Since AB//DC, so
angle BAE = angle CFE & angle ABE = angle FCE
which means ABE and ECF are similar.
Since BC//AD, so
angle FEC = angle FAD & angle FCE = angle FDA
which means ECF and ADF are similar.
Combining (1) & (2),
they are isosceles and similar.
W FungAugust 23, 2012 4:52 PM

Angle BAE = angle FAB


Angle BAE = angle AFB (parallel lines)
Angle BEA = angle FAB ( parallel lines)
So all these four angles are the same and hence the required triangles are isos and
similar

blem 798: Parallelogram, Secant Line, Tangent Circles, Circumcircles, Triangle. Level: High
School, SAT Prep, College, Mathematics Education
The figure below shows a parallelogram ABCD, a secant line meets DA extended, AB, BC, and DC
extended at E, F, G, and H, respectively. Prove that the circumcircles of triangles EDH and GCH are
tangent at H.

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Since ABCD is a parrallelogram, GC//ED and therefore angle HGC = angle HED.
So the tangent lines for the 2 circles must be exactly the same at H.
q.e.d.

2 comments:
W FungAugust 23, 2012 8:38 PM

Since ABCD is a parrallelogram, GC//EB and therefore angle HGC = angle HEB.
So the tangent lines for the 2 circles must be exactly the same at H.
q.e.d.
Peter TranAugust 23, 2012 10:25 PM

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http://img577.imageshack.us/img577/6738/problem798.png

Draw lines per attached sketch


Note that HGC and HED are similar
Consider dilation transformation centered H , scale factor= HC/HD=HG/HE
This transformation , circumcircle of HGC will become circumcircle of HED and
O will become O
So H, O and O are collinear => circumcircles of 2 triangles will tangent at H

metry Problem 799: Parallelogram, Angle Bisector, Parallel, Triangle, Circumcircle,


Circumcenter. Level: High School, SAT Prep, College, Mathematics Education
The figure below shows a parallelogram ABCD, AE is the bisector of angle BAD. If AE and DC meet
at F, prove that the circumcenter Q of triangle CEF lies on the circumcircle of triangle BCD.

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2 comments:
Peter TranAugust 26, 2012 12:06 AM

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http://img19.imageshack.us/img19/9383/problem799.png

Draw angles and lines per attached sketch


We have ABE and ECF are isosceles triangles
QE=QC (Q is circumcenter of CEF)
AB=CD=BE
EQH=CQH=EFC=
ECD=2 ( external angle of ECF)
QCD= +90 and QEB=external angle of EQH= +90
So BQE congruence to DQC ( Case SAS) => BQD=2 = BCD
So quadrilateral BDCQ is cyclic
W FungAugust 26, 2012 3:17 AM

Our target is to prove that B,Q,C,D concyclic.


Let x be the angle FAD (=angle BAE = angle BEA = angle FEC = EFC) [from
previous problem797]
Since EFC is isos., QC is the perpendicular bisector of EF and angle QCE = 90-x.
Then angle QCD = 90 + x.
Now observe that
QC = QE
BE = BA = CD
Angle QCD = 90 + x = 180 - (90+x) = 180 - (angle QEC) = angle QEB
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Hence triangle QEB is congruent to triangle QCD.


Therefore angle QBC = angle QBE = angle QDC.
By the converse of angle in the same segment, it is proved.

metry Problem 800: de Gua's Theorem, Pythagorean theorem in 3-D, Tetrahedron, Cubic
Vertex, Triangular Pyramid, Apex, Height, Right Triangle Area, Base Area,
Projected Area. Level: High School, SAT Prep, College, Mathematics
Education

n any tetrahedron with a cubic vertex O-ABC the square of the area of the face opposite the cubic
vertex O-ABC is equal to the sum of the squares of the areas of the other three faces AOB, AOC,
BOC.

3 comments:
Peter TranAugust 26, 2012 1:42 PM

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http://img15.imageshack.us/img15/3285/problem800.png

Denote S(XYZ)= area of triangle XYZ


Draw lines per attached sketch
Let K is the projection of O over AB.
AB to OK and AB orthogonal to OC => AB to CK
In right triangle COK , draw altitude OH .
Since AB to plane CKO => OH orthogonal to AB
OH to KC and orthogonal to AB => OH to plane ABC
1. We have S(AOB)=1/2. AB.OK and S(AHB)=1/2.AB.KH
So S(AOB)=S(AHB)/cos(x) where x is the angle form by 2 planes AOB and ABC
Similarly we have S(AOB)=S(ABC).cos(x) ( O is the projection of C over plane
AOB )
From above expression we have S(AOB)^2=S(ABC).S(ABH)
2. S(AOB)^2=S(ABC).S(ABH)
S(AOC)^2=S(ABC).S(AHC)
S(BOC)^2=S(ABC).S(BHC)
Add above expression side by side we have
S(AOB)^2+S(AOC)^2+S(BOC)^2=S(ABC)^2
Note that S(ABC)=S(ABH)+S(AHC)+S(BHC)
3. Calculation volume of tetrahedron OABC
V=1/3.a.b.c=1/3.h.S(ABC) => a.b.c=S(ABC).h
4. In right triangle KOC we have 1/h^2=1/c^2+1/k^2 (relationship in a right
triangle)
In right triangle AOB we have 1/k^2=1/a^2+1/b^2
Combine 2 above expressions we get 1/h^2=1/a^2+1/b^2+1/c^2

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Peter TranAugust 26, 2012 6:20 PM

In my opinion, there is possible error in question #3 of problem 800 (Mr. Antonio


Gutierrez, please review )
The correct question ,in my opinion should be a.b.c = 2. A(ABC). h
The answer for this question is:
3. Calculation volume of tetrahedron OABC
V(OABC)=1/6.a.b.c=1/3.h.S(ABC) => a.b.c=2. S(ABC).h
Peter Tran
Antonio GutierrezAugust 26, 2012 7:15 PM

Thanks Peter, conclusion 3 has been updated.

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