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Mathematics

Formula List

Trigonometry
1.

sin 2 cos 2 1

sin( ) sin

2.

sec 2 1 tan 2

cos( ) cos

3.
4.
5.

tan( ) tan
cos ec 2 1 cot 2
sin( A B) sin A cos B cos A sin B
cos( A B) cos A cos B sin A sin B
tan A tan B
tan( A B)
1 tan A tan B
cot B cot A 1
cot( A B)
cot B cot A
tan A tan B tan C tan A tan B tan C
tan( A B C )
1 tan A tan B tan B tan C tan C tan A
sin( A B) sin( A B) sin 2 A sin 2 B cos 2 B cos 2 A

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

18.
19.
20.
21.

22.
23.

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cos( A B) cos( A B) cos 2 A sin 2 B cos 2 B sin 2A


2 sin A cos B sin( A B) sin( A B)
2 cos A sin B sin( A B) sin( A B)
2 cos A cos B cos( A B) cos( A B)
2 sin A sin B cos( A B) cos( A B)
CD
CD
sin C sin D 2 sin
cos
2
2
CD
CD
sin C sin D 2 cos
sin
2
2
CD
CD
cos C cos D 2 cos
cos
2
2
CD
DC
cos C cos D 2 sin
sin
2
2
sin 2 A 2 sin A cos A
cos 2 A cos 2 A sin 2 A 2 cos 2 A 1 1 2 sin 2 A
A
A
30. sin A 2 sin cos
2 sin 2 A 1 cos 2 A
2
2
A
A
A
A
31. cos A cos 2 sin 2 2 cos 2 1 1 2 sin 2
2 cos 2 A 1 cos 2 A
2
2
2
2
A
1 cos 2 A
32. 2sin 2 1 cos A
tan 2 A
2
1 cos 2 A

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17.

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Mathematics

Formula List

1 tan 2 A
1 tan 2 A
2 tan A
25. sin 2 A
1 tan 2 A

24. cos 2 A

26. tan 2 A

33.
34.

2 tan A
1 tan 2 A

35.

27. sin 3 A 3 sin A 4 sin 3 A

36.

28. cos 3 A 4 cos A 3 cos A

37.

3 tan A tan 3 A
29.. tan 3 A
1 3 tan 2 A

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A
1 cos A
2
A 1 cos A
tan 2
2 1 cos A
A
1 tan 2
2
cos A
A
1 tan 2
2
A
2 tan
2
sin A
A
1 tan 2
2
A
2 tan
2
tan A
A
1 tan 2
2
A
A
sin A 3 sin 4 sin 3
3
3
A
A
cos A 4 cos 3 3 cos
3
3
A
A
3 tan tan 3
3
3
tan A
A
1 3 tan 2
3
2 cos 2

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39.

40.

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38.

SOME IMPORTANT RELATIONS


If A B C
1.
sin 2 A sin 2 B sin 2C 4 sin A sin B sin C
2.
cos 2 A cos 2 B cos 2C 1 4 cos A cos B cos C
A
B
C
sin A sin B sin C 4 cos cos cos
3.
2
2
2
A
B
C
cos A cos B cos C 1 4 sin sin sin
4.
2
2
2

General Solution
1. If sin sin
sin 0

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Then n (1) n
Then n

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Mathematics

Formula List

Then (4n 1)
sin 1
2
If cos cos Then 2n

Then (2n 1)
cos 0
2
Then 2n
cos 1
Then (2n 1)
cos 1

Then (4n 1)

sin 1

2.

3.

If tan tan Then n


Then n
tan 0

4.

If sin 2 sin 2
Then n

For all these cases n 0 1,2,3,........

OR cos 2 cos 2

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OR tan 2 tan 2

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Inverse Trigonometric Function

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1. If be the principle value of sin 1 x then

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2
2

2. If be the principle value of cos 1 x then 0

3. If be the principle value of tan 1 x then


2
2
1
4. If be the principle value of cot x then 0
5. If be the principle value of sec 1 x then 0

6. If be the principle value of cos ec 1 x then


2
2
1
1
1
7. sin(sin x) x ; sin (sin x) x ; cos(cos x) x ; cos 1 (cos x) x ; tan(tan 1 x) x ;

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tan 1 (tan x) x ; cos ec(cos ec 1 x) x ; cos ec 1 (cos ecx) x ; sec(sec 1 x) x ;

sec 1 (sec x) x ; cot(cot 1 x) x ; cot 1 (cot x) x

8. sin 1 ( x) sin 1 x ; cos 1 ( x) cos 1 x ; tan 1 ( x) tan 1 x


cot 1 ( x) cot 1 x ; cos ec 1 ( x) cos ec 1 x ; sec 1 ( x) sec 1 x
1
1
1
9. sin 1 x cos ec 1 ; cos 1 x sec 1 ; tan 1 x cot 1
x
x
x

10. sin 1 x cos 1 x


; sec 1 x cos ec 1 x ; tan 1 x cot 1 x
2
2
2

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Mathematics

Formula List

11. (a) tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1

x y
1 xy

When xy 1

x y
When xy 1 and x 0, y 0
1 xy
x y
tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1
When xy 1 and x 0, y 0
1 xy
x y
tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1
When xy 1
1 xy
x y
tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1
When xy 1 , x 0 , y 0
1 xy
x y
tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1
When xy 1 , x 0 , y 0
1 xy

(b) tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1


(c)
12. (a)
(b)
(c)

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13. sin 1 x sin 1 y sin 1 ( x 1 y 2 y 1 x 2 )

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14. cos 1 x cos 1 y cos 1 ( xy 1 x 2 1 y 2 )


2
2x
1 1 x
15. 2 tan x sin
cos
1 x2
1 x2
Trigonometry Table
0
30
45
Sin 0

1/2
cos 1
3/2
1/2
tan 0
1/3
1
cot
3
1
sec 1
2/3
2
cosec
2
2
1

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1. sin 18 0

3. sin 36 0

5 1
4

1
10 2 5
4

4.

2x
1 x2

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2.

tan 1

60
3/2

3
1/3
2
2/3

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90
1
0

1
10 2 5
4
5 1
cos 36 0
4

cos18 0

Properties of Triangle
The angles of a triangle ABC are denoted by A,B,C and the corresponding opposite sides by
a,b,c
s denotes the semi-perimeter of triangle ABC, its area, R the radius of the circle
circumscribing the triangle ABC i.e. R is the circum-radius.

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Mathematics

Formula List

a
b
c

2R
sin A sin B sin C
2
a b cos C c cos B ; b c cos A a cos C ; c a cos B b cos A
b2 c2 a2
3 i) a 2 b 2 c 2 2bc cos A OR cos A
2bc
c2 a2 b2
2
2
2
ii) b c a 2ca cos B
OR cos B
2ca
2
a b2 c2
iii) c 2 a 2 b 2 2ab cos C
OR cos C
2ab
abc
1
abc
1
abc
1
4
;
;
tan A
tan
B

tan
C

R b2 c2 a2
R a2 c2 b2
R a2 b2 c2

A
( s b)( s c)
B
( s a )( s c)
; sin
;

2
bc
2
ac
B
s ( s b)
A
s( s a)
;
;
cos
cos
2
bc
2
ac
A
( s b)( s c)
B
( s a)( s c)
; tan
;
tan
2
s( s a)
2
s ( s b)
A B ab
C
BC bc
A
tan

cot
tan

cot ;
2
ab
2
2
bc
2

sin

6
7

8
9

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1
x product of length of two sides x sine of their included angle
2

1
1
1
bc sin A ca sin B ab sin C
2
2
2
s ( s a )( s b)( s c)
abc
R
4
A ( s b)( s c)
B ( s c)( s a)
tan
; tan
;
2

A s( s a)
B s ( s b)
cot
cot
;
;
2

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10

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c

C
( s a )( s b)

2
ab
C
s ( s c)
cos
2
ab
C
( s a)( s b)
tan
2
s ( s c)
C A ca
B
tan

cot
2
ca
2

sin

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C ( s a )( s b)

C s ( s c)
cot
2

tan

Basic Algebra
1

(a b) 2 a 2 2ab b 2 (a b) 2 4ab

(a b) 2 a 2 2ab b 2 (a b) 2 4ab

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Mathematics

Formula List

(a b c) 2 a 2 b 2 c 2 2ab 2bc 2ca

a 2 b 2 (a b) 2 2ab (a b) 2 2ab

a 2 b 2 (a b)(a b)

(a b) 3 a 3 3a 2 b 3ab 2 b 3 a 3 b 3 3ab(a b)

(a b) 3 a 3 3a 2 b 3ab 2 b 3 a 3 b 3 3ab(a b)

a 3 b 3 (a b)(a 2 ab b 2 ) (a b) 3 3ab(a b)

a 3 b 3 (a b)(a 2 ab b 2 ) (a b) 3 3ab(a b)

10

a 3 b 3 c 3 3abc (a b c)(a 2 b 2 c 2 ab bc ca)

1
2
3.
4

6
7

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Progression(AP,GP,HP)

n(n 1)
2
n(n 1)(2n 1)
12 2 2 3 2 ......... n 2
6
2
n(n 1)
3
3
3
3
1 2 3 ......... n

2
If a,b,c are in AP then b - a = c - b = common difference
ac
AM =
2
b c
If a, b, c are in GP then common ratio
a b
GM = ab
1 1 1
If a, b, c are in HP then , , are in AP and
a b c
2ac
HM =
ac
A.M G.M H .M
1 2 3 ....... n

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If a = first term , d = common difference , r = common ratio , l = last term


In AP nth term t n a (n 1)d
n
n
Sum up to nth term S n 2a (n 1)d (a l )
2
2
th
n 1
In GP n term t n ar
r n 1
Sum up to n term S n a
when r > 1
r 1
th

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Mathematics

Formula List

1 rn
when r < 1
1 r
a
S
1 r
Sn a

Theory of Quadratic equation


ax 2 bx c 0 is a quadratic equation where a, b, c are the co-efficients of x 2 and x ,
constant respectively and a, b, c R and a 0

1.
2.
3.

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b b 2 4ac
b b 2 4ac
Roots are
,
2a
2a
b
c


a
a

D = Discriminant = b 2 4ac
If D > 0 the roots are real and unequal
If D = 0 the roots are real and equal
If D < 0 0 the roots are imaginary

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If D < 0 and a > 0 the sign of the expression ax bx c is always positive


and if D < 0 and a < 0 the sign of the expression ax 2 bx c is always negative

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If D = 0 sign of ax 2 bx c is always same as that of a


Let two roots of ax 2 bx c be , then
ax 2 bx c = a ( x )( x ) where

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If x and x then sign of ax 2 bx c is same as that of a but


If x then sign of ax 2 bx c is opposite to that of a

Complex Number
1.
2.

i = 1
If any complex number Z = x + iy then
|Z| =

x2 y2

Amp. Z = = tan 1

y
x

If x = +ve and y = +ve then =


If x = +ve and y = -ve then = -
If x = -ve and y = +ve then = -
If x = -ve and y = -ve then = -( - )

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Mathematics
3.

Formula List

4.

If w is the cube root of unity then


w3 = 1
1 + w + w2 =0
1 i 3
1 i 3
w=
, w2 =
2
2
If x + iy = p + iq x = y and p = q

5.

(cos i sin ) n cos n i sin n e i [De Moivers Theorem]

n
i
s.

Permutation & Combination


1
2.

n!
Pr
(n r )!
n!
n
Cr
r!(n r )!

3.

Pr = r! n C r

4.

C r + n C r 1 =

5.

n 1

Cr

Cr
n r 1

r
C r 1

C r = n C nr

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c

6.

If n C p n C q either p = q or p + q = n

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Pr n 1Pr r.n 1 Pr 1

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9.

The number of permutations of n things taken all at a time , when p, q, r things are alike
n!
and rest are all different is
p!q!r!

Logarithm
1
2
3
4

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log(ab) loga logb


a
log( ) = loga - logb
b
log x m m log x
log a
log b a
log b

tt p

a loga b b

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11.

log a b x log b a 1
1
10. log x m a log x a
m
If log a x log a y then x y

12.

log a x y if a 1 then x a y

13.

but if 0 a 1 then 0 x a y
log a x y if a 1 then 0 x a y
but if 0 a 1 then x a y

log b a

1
log a b

14.

c log a x d if a 1 then a c x a d

but if 0 a 1 then a d x a c

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Mathematics
7

log1 0

log a a 1

Formula List

log a x log b x if a 1 then x y


but if 0 a 1 then 0 x y

15.

Series and Expansions

8.

x3 x5 x7
sin x x

.......................
3! 5! 7!
x2 x4 x6
cos x 1

.........................
2! 4! 6!
x3 2 5
tan x x
x ...............................
3 15
x2 x3 x4
log(1 x) x

..............
2
3
4
x2 x3 x4
log(1 x) x

..............
2
3
4
x x2 x3 x4
x
e 1

..........................
1! 2! 3! 4!
x x2 x3 x4
x
e 1

..........................
1! 2! 3! 4!
(1 x) 1 1 x x 2 x 3 x 4 .........................

9.

(1 x) 1 1 x x 2 x 3 x 4 .........................

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

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10. (1 x) 2 1 2 x 3 x 2 4 x 3 .................

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11. (1 x) 2 1 2 x 3 x 2 4 x 3 .................
n(n 1) 2 n(n 1)(n 2) 3
12. (1 x) n 1 nx
x
x ..........
2!
3!
n(n 1) 2 n(n 1)(n 2) 3
13. (1 x) n 1 nx
x
x ..........
2!
3!

Binomial Theorem
1. (a b) n a n nC1a n1b nC 2 a n2b 2 nC3 a n3b 3 .................... b n
2. (a b) n a n n C1a n 1b n C 2 a n 2 b 2 n C3 a n 3b 3 .................... (1) n b n
3. C 0 C1 C 2 ......... C n 2 n
4. C 0 C 2 C 4 ......... C1 C3 C5 ......... 2 n 1
5. General term = t r 1 n C r a n r b r

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Mathematics

Formula List

10

n
6. When n is even there will be one middle term of the expansion (a b) n and it is the ( 1 )
2
th term.
7. When n is odd there will be two middle terms of the expansion (a b) n and they are
n 1
n 1
1th term.

th and
2
2

Inequality
1.

Arithmetic mean of n quantities Geometric mean of n quantities


a1 a 2 ...... a n
(a1a 2 ......a n )1 / n
n
m
am bm a b

if m 0 or m 1
2
2
m

a b
2

3.

4.

2.
3.
4.

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c

a b

if 0 m 1
2

a1 a 2 ........ a n
n

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m

a a 2 ...... a n
1
if m 0 or m 1
n

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a1 a 2 ........ a n
a a 2 ...... a n
1
if 0 m 1
n
n

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(a1b1 a 2 b2 ....... a n bn ) (a1 a 2 ..... a n )(b1 b2 ..... bn )

Limits
1.

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lim
x0
lim
x0
lim
x0
lim
xa

sin x
1
x
e x 1
1
x
a x 1
log e a
x

xn an
na n1
xa

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5.
6.
7.
8.

lim
tan x
1
x0 x
lim
log(1 x)
1
x
x0
lim
(1 x)1 / x = e
x0
x
lim
1
1 = e
x
x

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Mathematics

Formula List

11

Derivatives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

d n
( x ) nx n1
dx
d x
(a ) a x log a
dx
d
1
(log x)
dx
x
d
(c) 0 c is a constant
dx
d x
e ex
dx
d
(sin x) cos x
dx

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

7.

d
(cos x) sin x
dx

16.

8.

d
(tan x) sec 2 x
dx

17.

9.

d
(cot x) cos ec 2 x
dx

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tt p

d
dx
d
dx
d
dx
d

dx
d
dx
d
dx
d
dx

10.

19.

(cos ecx) cos ecx cot x


1

(sin 1 x)

1 x2
1
(cos 1 x)
1 x2
1
(tan 1 x)
1 x2
1
(cot 1 x)
1 x2
1
(sec 1 x)
| x | x2 1
d
1
(cos ec 1 x)
dx
| x | x2 1
d
d
d
(uv) = u (v) v (u ) (Product Rule)
dx
dx
dx
d
d
v (u ) u (v)
d u
dx
dx
(Quotient Rule)

2
dx v
v

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18.

(sec x) sec x tan x

Indefinite Integral
1.
2.

n
x dx

x n1
c
n 1

dx e x c

15.
16.

dx

a
c
log a

3.

4.

dx x c

5.

dx
log | x | c
x

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17.

18.

19.

dx
2

sin 1 x c

1 x
dx

1 x
dx

x2 1
dx

cos 1 x c
sec 1 x c

cos ec 1 x c

x x2 1
dx
1
1 x 2 tan x c

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Mathematics

Formula List

6.

cf ( x)dx c f ( x)dx

20.

7.

sin xdx cos x c

21.

8.

cos xdx sin x c

22.

9.

tan xdx log | sec x | c

23.

10.

cot xdx log | sin x | c

24.

11.

sec

sec x tan xdx sec x c

27.

14.

cos ecx cot xdx cos ecx c

28.

26.

13.

1
x
tan 1 c
a
a
1
xa

log
c
2a
xa
1
ax

log
c
2a
ax

x2 a2
dx
2

x a
dx

a2 x2

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log x x 2 a 2 c

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c
2

log x x a c
sin 1

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x
c
a

x x2 a2 a2
x a dx

log x x 2 a 2 c
2
2
x x2 a2 a2
2
2
x a dx
log x x 2 a 2 c
2
2
2

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cot 1 x c

25.

xdx tan x c

2
cos ec xdx cot x c

12.

dx
1 x2
dx
x2 a2
dx
x2 a2
dx
a2 x2
dx

12

x a x
a
1 x

sin
c

2
2
a
30. sec xdx log | sec x tan x | c
a 2 x 2 dx

29.

31.

t
h

32.

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tp

cos ecxdx log | cos ecx cot x | c log | tan 2 | c


d

U .Vdx U Vdx dx (U ) Vdx dx

Where U and V are functions of x

Definite Integral
b

1.

f (t )dt f ( x)dx
a
b

2.

a
a

f ( x)dx f ( x)dx
a
b

3.

b
c

f ( x)dx f ( x)dx f ( x)dx


a

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Mathematics

Formula List

4.

f ( x)dx f (a x)dx
0
2a

5.

0
a

f ( x)dx 2 f ( x)dx if
0

6.

f ( 2a x ) f ( x )

if f (2a x) f ( x)

0
a

f ( x)dx 2 f ( x)dx
a

if f ( x) f ( x) i.e. f(x) is an even function

if f ( x) f ( x) i.e. f(x) is an odd function

f ( x)dx f (a b x)dx
a

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l
c

8.
b

n
i
s.

7.

13

n 1

f ( x)dx limh f (a ) f (a h) f (a 2h) ..... f a n 1h lim h f (a rh)


h 0

9.

e
je

t
i
.i

h 0

r 0

n 1

r
1
f (a )

n n
n
r 0

lim

Newton-Leibnitzs theorem
( x)
d
d
I ( x) f (t )dt = f { ( x)} ( x) f { ( x)} ( x)
dx
dx
( x)

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