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2.

Changes Among the Various States of Matter (Ch-1)

In daily life, we see different kinds of changes in the states of matter. The formation of ice cubes
from water in the refrigerator is an example of change in the state of matter from liquid to solid.
When water is boiled, vapours are formed. This is an example of change in the state of matter
from liquid to gas.
The following terminologies are used to describe the changes in the states of matter.

Change from the solid state to the liquid state is called melting.

Change from the liquid state to the solid state is called freezing.

Change from the liquid state to the gaseous state is called vapourisation.

Change from the gaseous state to the liquid state is called condensation.

There are two other changes between the three states of mattersublimation and deposition.
Sublimation: It is the process in which a substance changes directly from the solid state to the
gaseous state without entering into the liquid state. The changing of snow into water vapour is an
example of sublimation. Some common examples of substances that sublime are dry ice,
camphor and naphthalene.
Deposition: It is the process opposite to sublimation. In this, a substance changes directly from
the gaseous state to the solid state. Frost is an example of deposition.
When we open the refrigerator, we see freezing fog. This is nothing but condensed water.
Air contains vapours. When we open the refrigerator, the temperature comes down. This
condenses the vapours into tiny drops of water and produces freezing fog.
Let us perform an activity to understand the effect of temperature on the different states of
matter.
Procedure: Take about 150 g of ice in a beaker and use a laboratory thermometer to note the
temperature of ice. Start heating the beaker on a low flame and record the temperature when the
ice starts melting. Observe the temperature when all the ice gets converted into water. Stir the
water with a glass rod till it starts boiling.

Result: In the beginning, the temperature of ice is below 0C. When ice begins melting, the
temperature is recorded to be 0C. Temperature remains constant at 0C till all the ice melts. The
continued heating of water causes its temperature to rise.
Conclusion: It can be concluded from this activity that an increase in temperature changes a
substance from its solid state to its liquid state, and further heating (i.e., further increase in
temperature) changes the liquid so formed into vapour.
You know that matter, irrespective of its state, consists of particles. What happens to these
particles of matter while it is undergoing a change in its state? For us to understand this, we need
to first know that:

A force of attraction exists between any two particles.

Kinetic energy of the particles of matter: A moving particle/object possesses a certain amount
of energy because of its motion. This energy is called kinetic energy. The particles of matter are
in constant motion. Therefore, they possess kinetic energy.
Particleparticle force of attraction: Every particle of matter attracts the particles near it. An
increase in the distance between particles decreases the force of attraction between them.
Conversely, a decrease in distance increases this force of attraction.
The given figure shows the kinetic energy of particles and the particleparticle force of attraction
in the three states of matter.
Kinetic energy of particles: Gas > Liquid > Solid
Particleparticle force of attraction: Solid > Liquid > Gas

When a solid substance is heated, there is an increase in the kinetic energy of its constituent
particles. As a result, the particles start vibrating with greater speed. This extra energy helps the
particles to overcome the particleparticle force of attraction. Soon, they leave their positions
and start moving more freely. Consequently, the substance melts into its liquid state. This is
known as melting point. The melting point of ice is 0C.
Liquids have a characteristic temperature at which they turn into solids. This is called freezing
point. The freezing point of water is 0C.
Further heating increases the kinetic energy of the liquid particles. This increases the velocity of
the particles. At a certain temperature, they obtain enough energy to break free from the
particleparticle force of attraction. At this point, the liquid changes into its gaseous state. This is
known as boiling point. The boiling point of water is 100C.
During the conversion of ice into water, the temperature remains constant till all the ice melts
into water. The supplied heat is used up for changing water from its solid state to its liquid state.
The heat energy is absorbed by the ice without showing any rise in temperature. This heat energy
is called latent heat.
The amount of heat required to convert 1 kg of a solid into its liquid state without a change in
temperature (i.e., at its melting point) is called latent heat of fusion. For ice, the latent heat of
fusion is 334 kJ kg1. This implies 334 kJ of heat has to be provided to convert 1 kg of ice at 0C
into 1 kg of water at 0C. Conversely, 334 kJ of heat is released when 1 kg water freezes at 0C
to give 1 kg of ice at 0C.
Latent heat of vapourization is the amount of heat required to convert 1 kg of a liquid into its
vapour state without a change in temperature. For water, the latent heat of vapourization is 2260
kJ kg1. This means that 2260 kJ of heat must be provided to convert 1 kg of water at 100C into
1 kg of vapour at 100C. Conversely, 2260 kJ of heat is released when 1 kg of water vapour
condenses at 100C to give 1 kg of water at 100C.
Heating curve

If the increase in temperature during heating and the absorbed heat are plotted on a graph, then
the curvature which is formed is called the heating curve.
In the figure, A represents the rise in the temperature of the substance in its solid state from
50C to 0C; B shows the latent heat of fusion; C shows the increase in the temperature of
the substance in its liquid state from 0C to 100C; D shows the latent heat of vapourisation;
and E shows the increase in the temperature of the substance in its gaseous state.
Example 1:
If the melting point of a solid is high, then the __________ between the particles is stronger.
Solution:
force of attraction
Example 2:
Which has more energy: solid wax at 42C or liquid wax at 42C?
Solution:
Liquid wax at 42C has more energy than solid wax at the same temperature.
Example 3:
Choose the process which will absorb heat/energy from the surroundings.
A.Conversion of ice into water

B.Conversion of water vapour into snow

C.Precipitation of water vapour as rain
Solution:
1. Temperature Affecting the Change of State (video)
2. Temperature Affecting the Change of State (video)
Three scales are commonly used for measuring temperature, namely, the Celsius scale, the
Fahrenheit scale and the Kelvin scale.
The relation between the Celsius and the Kelvin scale can be expressed as C + 273 = K
The relation between the Celsius and the Fahrenheit scale can be expressed as follows:

Example: 30C can be expressed as 303 K and 86 oF.

Celsius to Kelvin: 30 + 273 = 303 K
Celsius to Fahrenheit:

Cool Facts

The temperature zero Kelvin is known as absolute zero. Nothing can be colder than zero
Kelvin.

Dry ice is frozen carbon dioxide. Its temperature is 78.5C. It turns directly into carbon
dioxide gas without undergoing a liquid phase. Its sublimation characteristic and supercold temperature make dry ice suitable for refrigeration. It is commonly used to export
frozen materials across long distances.

Take some ammonium chloride salt in a china dish. Crush the salt and cover the dish with a
funnel, as shown in the figure. Plug the stem of the funnel using some cotton. After this, start
heating the dish slowly using a burner.

Result of the activity:

Upon heating, ammonium chloride will vapourise without transforming into its liquid form
(sublimation). Later, the vapours will get cooled on the walls of the funnel and will directly
convert into solid ammonium chloride (deposition).
Note: The same activity can be done using camphor or naphthalene.
We know that change in temperature affects the state of matter. Change in pressure, too, affects
the state of matter. Let us see how.
We have a gas in a closed container. Say, we put some weight on the lid of the container. This
increases the pressure on the container, which in turn causes the gas particles to come close to
one another. As a result, the kinetic energy of the particles reduces. Nevertheless, the particles are
still quite far away from one another and, hence, are still in gaseous state. When the pressure on
the container is increased further, the gas particles come very close to one another. Gradually, the
gas liquefies.

Water boils below 100C (at approx. 92C) in Mussoorie.

Mussoorie is a hill station set at a height of about 2000 m above sea level. Atmospheric pressure
decreases as you go up from the sea level. Decrease in pressure lowers the boiling point of water
below 100C.
Liquid crystals are believed to be an independent state of matter as their properties lie in between
those of liquids and solid crystals. They exist in a specific temperature range. They behave as
solids below that temperature range and as liquids above that temperature range.
Why we need to liquefy gases
Together with low temperature, high pressure is generally used to liquefy gases.
A highly combustible gas is released during the fractional distillation of crude oil. This gas is
known as petroleum gas. Petroleum gas is also trapped over the reserves of oil present beneath
Earths crust. Petroleum gas is liquefied by applying high pressure and low temperature. This is
known as liquefied petroleum gas or LPG. LPG is used as a domestic fuel.
Other uses of liquefaction of gases

Liquefaction of gases is helpful for their easy storage and transportation.

Liquefied gases can be used in various fields; for example, in air conditioning and
refrigeration systems (gases used are liquid ammonia and liquid sulphur dioxide).

Liquid oxygen is supplied to hospitals for patients. It is also used as a rocket propellant.

Liquid chlorine is supplied to water treatment plants for purification of water.

Liquid hydrogen in combination with liquid oxygen forms the fuel for rocket propulsion.