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9/24/2016

SedimentationTankDesign

9/24/2016 SedimentationTankDesign Home Lecture Quiz DesignExample Settling PurposeofSettling PrincipleofSettling

Settling

PurposeofSettling

PrincipleofSettling

TypesofSettling

TypeISettling

TypesofSettlingTanks

InletandOutletArrangement

WeirOverflowRates

SettlingOperations

DesignDetails

Settling

Solidliquidseparationprocessinwhichasuspensionisseparated

intotwophases–

Clarifiedsupernatantleavingthetopofthesedimentationtank

(overflow).

Concentratedsludgeleavingthebottomofthesedimentation

tank(underflow).

PurposeofSettling

Toremovecoarsedispersedphase.

Toremovecoagulatedandflocculatedimpurities.

Toremoveprecipitatedimpuritiesafterchemicaltreatment.

Tosettlethesludge(biomass)afteractivatedsludgeprocess/

trickingfilters.

PrincipleofSettling

trickingfilters. PrincipleofSettling Suspended solids present in water having specific gravity

Suspended solids present in water having specific gravity greaterthanthatofwatertendtosettledownbygravityas soonastheturbulenceisretardedbyofferingstorage. Basininwhichtheflowisretardediscalledsettlingtank. Theoreticalaveragetimeforwhichthewaterisdetainedinthe settlingtankiscalledthedetentionperiod.

TypesofSettling

Type I: Discrete particle settling ­ Particles settle individually withoutinteractionwithneighboringparticles. TypeII:FlocculentParticles–Flocculationcausestheparticlesto increaseinmassandsettleatafasterrate. TypeIII:HinderedorZonesettling–Themassofparticlestends to settle as a unit with individual particles remaining in fixed positionswithrespecttoeachother. TypeIV:Compression–Theconcentrationofparticlesissohigh

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SedimentationTankDesign

that sedimentation can only occur through compaction of the structure.

TypeISettling

Size,shapeandspecificgravityoftheparticlesdonotchange

withtime.

Settlingvelocityremainsconstant.

Ifaparticleissuspendedinwater,itinitiallyhastwoforcesacting

uponit:

(1)forceofgravity:F g =r p gV p

(2)thebuoyantforcequantifiedbyArchimedesas:F b =rgV p Ifthedensityoftheparticlediffersfromthatofthewater,anetforce isexertedandtheparticleisaccelaratdinthedirectionoftheforce:

F net =(r p ­r)gV p Thisnetforcebecomesthedrivingforce. Oncethemotionhasbeeninitiated,athirdforceiscreateddueto viscousfriction.Thisforce,calledthedragforce,isquantifiedby:

F d =C D A p rv 2 /2 C D =dragcoefficient. A p =projectedareaoftheparticle. Becausethedragforceactsintheoppositedirectiontothedriving forceandincreasesasthesquareofthevelocity,accelarationoccurs at a decreasing rate until a steady velocity is reached at a point wherethedragforceequalsthedrivingforce:

(r p ­r)gV p =C D A p rv 2 /2 Forsphericalparticles, V p =pd 3 /6andA p =pd 2 /4

Thus,v 2 =4g(r p ­r)d

3 C D r

Expressions for C D change with characteristics of different flow regimes.Forlaminar,transition,andturbulentflow,thevaluesofC D are:

C D =24 (laminar)

R e

C D =24+3 +0.34(transition)

R e

R e 1/2

C D =0.4 (turbulent) whereReistheReynoldsnumber:

R e =rvd

m

Reynoldsnumberlessthan1.0indicatelaminarflow,whilevalues

greaterthan10indicateturbulentflow.Intermediatevaluesindicate

transitionalflow.

StokesFlow

Forlaminarflow,terminalsettlingvelocityequationbecomes:

v=(r p ­r)gd 2

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SedimentationTankDesign

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whichisknownasthestokesequation.

TransitionFlow

Needtosolvenon­linearequations:

v 2 = 4g(r p ­r)d

3 C D r C D =24+3 +0.34

R

R e

e =rvd

m

R e 1/2

CalculatevelocityusingStokeslaworturbulentexpression. CalculateandcheckReynoldsnumber.

CalculateC D . D .

Usegeneralformula.CalculateandcheckReynoldsnumber. CalculateC D . Repeatfromstep2untilconvergence. TypesofSettlingTanks

Repeatfromstep2untilconvergence.

TypesofSettlingTanks

Sedimentation tanks may function either intermittently or continuously.Theintermittenttanksalsocalledquiescenttype tanksarethosewhichstorewaterforacertainperiodandkeep itincompleterest.Inacontinuousflowtypetank,theflow velocity is only reduced and the water is not brought to completerestasisdoneinanintermittenttype.Repeatfromstep2untilconvergence. TypesofSettlingTanks Settling basins may be either long rectangular or circular

Settling basins may be either long rectangular or circular in plan. Long narrow rectangular tanks with horizontal flow are generally preferred to the circular tanks with radial or spiral flow.is not brought to completerestasisdoneinanintermittenttype. LongRectangularSettlingBasin

LongRectangularSettlingBasin

Longrectangularbasinsarehydraulicallymorestable,andflow controlforlargevolumesiseasierwiththisconfiguration.

Atypicallongrectangulartankhavelengthrangingfrom2to4

times their width. The bottom is slightly sloped to facilitate sludge scraping. A slow moving mechanical sludge scraper continuouslypullsthesettledmaterialintoasludgehopperfrom whereitispumpedoutperiodically.

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SedimentationTankDesign

Alongrectangularsettlingtankcanbedividedintofourdifferent

functionalzones:

Inletzone:Regioninwhichtheflowisuniformlydistributedover thecrosssectionsuchthattheflowthroughsettlingzonefollows horizontalpath. Settlingzone:Settlingoccursunderquiescentconditions. Outletzone: Clarified effluent is collected and discharge through outletweir. Sludgezone:Forcollectionofsludgebelowsettlingzone.

InletandOutletArrangement

Inlet devices: Inlets shall be designed to distribute the water equally and at uniform velocities. A baffle should be constructed acrossthebasinclosetotheinletandshouldprojectseveralfeet below the water surface to dissipate inlet velocities and provide uniformflow;

Outlet Devices: Outlet weirs or submerged orifices shall be designedtomaintainvelocitiessuitableforsettlinginthebasinand tominimizeshort­circuiting.Weirsshallbeadjustable,andatleast equivalentinlengthtotheperimeterofthetank.However,peripheral weirs are not acceptable as they tend to cause excessive short­ circuiting.

WeirOverflowRates

Largeweiroverflowratesresultinexcessivevelocitiesattheoutlet. These velocities extend backward into the settling zone, causing particles and flocs to be drawn into the outlet. Weir loadings are generallyusedupto300m 3 /d/m.Itmaybenecessarytoprovide specialinboardweirdesignsasshowntolowertheweiroverflow rates.

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SedimentationTankDesign

InboardWeirArrangementtoIncreaseWeirLength

InboardWeirArrangementtoIncreaseWeirLength CircularBasins Circularsettling basinshave

CircularBasins

Circularsettling basinshave thesamefunctionalzonesasthe longrectangularbasin,buttheflowregimeisdifferent.When the flow enters at the center and is baffled to flow radially towardstheperimeter,thehorizontalvelocityofthewateris continuously decreasing as the distance from the center increases. Thus, the particle path in a circular basin is a parabola as opposed to the straight line path in the long rectangulartank.InboardWeirArrangementtoIncreaseWeirLength CircularBasins Sludge removalmechanismsin circular tanksare simplerand

Sludge removalmechanismsin circular tanksare simplerand requirelessmaintenance.to the straight line path in the long rectangulartank. SettlingOperations

SettlingOperations

Particlesfallingthroughthesettlingbasinhavetwocomponents

ofvelocity:

1)Verticalcomponent:v t =(r p ­r)gd 2

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SedimentationTankDesign

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2)Horizontalcomponent:v h =Q/A

18 m 2)Horizontalcomponent:v h = Q/A Thepathoftheparticleisgivenbythevectorsumofhorizontal

Thepathoftheparticleisgivenbythevectorsumofhorizontal velocityv h andverticalsettlingvelocityv t . Assumethatasettlingcolumnissuspendedintheflowofthe settlingzoneandthatthecolumntravelswiththeflowacross thesettlingzone.Considertheparticleinthebatchanalysisfor type­1 settling which was initially at the surface and settled throughthedepthofthecolumnZ 0 ,inthetimet 0 .Ift 0 also correspondstothetimerequiredforthecolumntobecarried horizontallyacrossthesettlingzone,thentheparticlewillfall intothesludgezoneandberemovedfromthesuspensionat thepointatwhichthecolumnreachestheendofthesettling zone. All particles with v t >v 0 will be removed from suspension at

somepointalongthesettlingzone. Now consider the particle with settling velocity < v 0 . If the

0 ,thisparticle

initialdepthofthisparticlewassuchthatZ p /v t =t

will also be removed. Therefore, the removal of suspended particlespassingthroughthesettlingzonewillbeinproportion totheratiooftheindividualsettlingvelocitiestothesettling velocityv 0 . Thetimet 0 correspondstotheretentiontimeinthesettling zone.t=V=LZ 0 W

Q

Q

Also,t 0 =Z 0

v 0

Therefore, Z 0 =LZ 0 Wandv 0 = Q

v 0

orv 0 = Q

A S

Q

LW

Thus,thedepthofthebasinisnotafactorindeterminingthesize particlethatcanberemovedcompletelyinthesettlingzone.The determining factor is the quantity Q/A s , which has the units of velocityandisreferredtoastheoverflowrateq 0 .Thisoverflowrate is the design factor for settling basins and corresponds to the

terminalsettingvelocityoftheparticlethatis100%removed.

DesignDetails

1.Detentionperiod:forplainsedimentation:3to4h,andfor

coagulatedsedimentation:2to2.5h.

2.Velocityofflow:Notgreaterthan30cm/min(horizontalflow).

3.Tankdimensions:L:B=3to5:1.GenerallyL=30m(common)

maximum100m.Breadth=6mto10m.Circular:Diameter

notgreaterthan60m.generally20to40m.

4.Depth2.5to5.0m(3m).

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SedimentationTankDesign

5.SurfaceOverflowRate:Forplainsedimentation12000to18000

L/d/m2tankarea;forthoroughlyflocculatedwater24000to

30000L/d/m2tankarea.

6.Slopes:Rectangular1%towardsinletandcircular8%.

Worked­outExample