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Basic probability

Part 1: Probability
RAROC

Probability distribution
Special distributions

Economic Capital
Strategic Capital Allocation

Descriptive statistic

Reasons for Banking Regulation


Basel I

Quantitative Analysis
Regulatory Capital

Capital Allocation

Sampling Theory
Estimation Theory

Part 2: Statistic Theory

Basel II

Hypothesis Testing

Financial Conglomerate Regulation

Regression and correlation

Market Risk
Market Risk Management

Foreign Exchange Risk

Define Operation Risk

Liquidity

Measuring Operational Risk

Bond Valuation with a Parallel Term Structure

Define and Measuring Operation Risk


Operation Risk Management

Bond Valuation with a Non-Parallel Term Structure

Operation Risk

Operational Risk and Economic Capital

Interest Rate Risk


Fixed income securities

Case Studies

Interest Rate Sensitivity

Best Practices for Risk management

Bond Pricing
Mortgage-Backed Securities
Determination of Forward and Futures Prices

External

FINANCIAL
RISK
MANAGEMENT

Rating

Internal
Loan

Hedging Strategies Using Futures


Forwards and Futures, Swaps
Interest Rate Futures
Swaps

Default Risk
Recovery Rate and Recovery Function

Mechanics of Options Markets

Probability Default And Loss Given Default

Measurement

Properties of Stock Options

Others

Option Pricing

Counterparty Risk

Credit Risk

Credit Risk Portfolio Models

Options

Market Risk

The Greek Letters


Option Strategies

Sovereign Risk

Volatility Smile
Loan Sales
Securitization

Complex Derivatives

Management
Introduction to VaR

Credit Derivatives

Quantifying Volatility in VaR


Putting VaR to Work
Delta-Normal

Local-valuation
VaR Methods
Portfolio Theory
Creating Firm Value

Full-valuation

Historical Simulation
Monte Carlo Simulation

Portfolio Management

VaR

Performance Analysis

Methods Comparison and Appropriate Uses


A Firm-Wide Approach to Risk Management

Hedge Fund Classifications

Investment and
Risk Management

Hedge Fund Benchmarks


Hedge Fund Management

Role of Stress testing


Stress Testing

Primary Approaches to Stress Testing


Scenario Analysis

Hedge Fund Risks


Large Stress Losses
Hedge Fund Developments

Extreme Value Theory


Risk Budget

FRM

.mmap - 2007-8-22 -

random variables
outcome
important terms

events
mutually exclusive events

Basic probability

exhaustive events
Total Probability Rule
Important rules

Bay's Rules
unconditional and conditional Probabilities

Part 1: Probability

Univariate probability distribution

Probability distribution

Joint distribution for two random variables


Uniform distribution
Binomial distribution
Normal distribution
Special distributions

Poisson distribution
Lognormal distribution

the relationship between normal and lognormal

T , chi and F distribution


the relationship between distributions

Quantitative Analysis

Frequency Distribution
Mean
Measures of central tendency

Median
Mode

Descriptive statistic

The Expectation of a Random Variable

E(cX)=cE(X), E(X+Y)=E(X)+E(Y),
E(XY)=E(X)E(Y)

Measures of variance and derivation


Covariance and correlation
Chebyshev's inequality
Skewness and kurtosis
The law of large number
Population, sample and parameters
Central Limit Theorem
Sampling Theory

The Sample Mean and the Distribution of the Sample Mean

standard error of the sample mean

The Sample Proportion and the Distribution of the Sample Proportion


The Sample Difference and the Distribution of the Sample Difference
The Sample Variance and the Distribution of the Sample Variance
population mean
Point Estimate

population proportion
difference between the means of two populations
the properties of an efficient point estimate

Part 2: Statistic Theory


Estimation Theory

population mean with known population variance


Confidence interval estimate

population mean with unknown population variance


population proportion
difference between the means of two populations

The difference between point and confidence interval estimate


Basic Concepts

Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis


One-tail test vs. Two-tail test

Type I and a Type II error and Significance level


The p-value
Hypothesis Testing

Test Statistic and Critical Value and Decision Rule


Test of Single Population Mean
Test of Differences between Means
Test of Single Population Variance
Test of Variances Difference
Summary of Hypothesis Testing
the standard error of estimate(SEE)
Coefficient of Determination( R2), SST, SSR and SSE

Regression and correlation

Test of Significance of Regression Coefficients


Predicted value for dependent variable
Significance Test of The Correlation Coefficient

1.Quantitative Analysis.mmap - 2007-8-22 -

The reasons for widespread adoption of VaR


Definition and assumptions
Calculate a single period VaR for single asset
Diversified Portfolio VaR
Individual VaR
Marginal VaR

Portfolio Risk Analysis


Introduction to VaR

Use of Marginal VaR

Incremental VaR
Portfolio VaR

Variance Minimizing Allocation or "Best Hedge"


Two-Assets Have a Zero Correlation
Calculate the Portfolio VaR

Two-Assets Have a Correlation of One


Equally Weighted Portfolio

Estimate Component VaR


Time Conversion for VaR
The Stochastic Behavior of Returns
Deviation from the Normal Distribution

Fat tail
Left skewed
Unstable
Standard Approach

Simplification Usually Made


ARCH(m)

Estimating Volatilities and Correlations

RiskMetrics(EWMA)

Approaches to Estimate Volatility

Attractions of EWMA

GARCH(p,q)
Choose between the Models
Forecasting Correlations Can be More Important that Forecasting Volatilities
Quantifying Volatility in VaR

RiskMetrics Approach (EWMA Model)


Parametric

GARCH Model
Historical Standard Deviation Approach

Historical-based Approaches

Historic Simulation
Non-parametric

Multivariate Density Estimation

Approaches for Estimate VaR

Hybrid
Advantages

Implied-Volatility Based Approaches

Disadvantages
Implications of Mean Reversion in Returns and Return Volatility
for Forecasting VaR Over Long Time Horizons
The Non-synchronous Data Problem
Differentiate between linear and non-linear derivatives
Calculating the VaR for a Linear Derivatives
Delta-Normal
Putting VaR to Work

Delta-Gamma-Normal

VaR for Derivatives


Calculating the VaR for a non-linear Derivatives

Taylor Approximation
The Limitation of Taylor Approximation
The Difference Between Full-revaluation Method and Delta-normal Method for
Measuring the Risk of Non-linear Derivatives

Components of a VaR Model

VaR

Model Itself
Mapping System

Four Steps to Determining VaR


Three Qualities of Successful Futures contracts

Choosing Primitive Risk Factors

Three Approaches for Mapping

Market Risk 1

Delta-Normal

Local-valuation

Delta-Normal Method for Fixed-Income Portfolios

Mapping Approaches for Fixed-Income Portfolios


Mapping Interest Rate Swap and Options

Delta-Normal VaR with Linear Derivatives

Delta-Normal Method Can Provide Accurate estimates of VaR for


Many Types of Financial Instruments

Derivatives and Option: A Note of Caution


VaR Methods

Benchmarking a Portfolio
Historical Simulation
GBM
Compute VaR Using Monte Carlo Simulation

Monte Carlo Simulation Using Single Variable

Using Monte Carlo Method Value an Option


Full-valuation

Models of Interest Rate Dynamics

Monte Carlo Simulation


Monte Carlo Simulation Using Multiple Variable

Correlation Among the Variable

Tradeoff btw Speed and Accuracy


Structured Monte Carlo (SMC) Approach to Measuring VaR
Methods Comparison and Appropriate Uses
VaR and CFaR
VaR impact of Small Trade

Project impact on VaR and CFaR

Project Impact on CFaR


A Firm-Wide Approach to Risk Management

Allocating the Costs of CFaR and VaR


Reducing the cost of risk for a given level of VaR or CFaR
Reducing the Costs of CFaR and VaR

limitations on project selection and the use of derivative


instruments as ways to decrease

Role of Stress testing


Primary Approaches to Stress Testing
Unidimensional Scenario Analysis
Stress Testing

Scenario Analysis

Prospective Scenarios
Multidimensional Scenario Analysis
Historical Scenarios
Worst Case Scenario Measure as an Extension to VaR

Large Stress Losses


Role of EVT
Extreme Value Theory

Block Maxima Models

Two broad classed of models in EVT

Peaks-Over-Threshold(POT) Models
Tail Size and Time Dependency

Clustering Analysis

Definition
Risk Budget

Use VaR to Design Better Investment Guidelines


Budget Risk across Asset Classes
Budget Risk across Active Managers

Market Risk 1.mmap - 2007-8-22 -

Conditional Scenario

Define Market Risk


Five Reasons Why Market Risk Measurement Is Important
Market Risk

Models Beings Used to Calculate Market Risk Exposure


Methods The Bank for International Settlement (BIS) Uses
to Regulate Market Risks
Different Sources of Foreign Exchange Risk Exposure
Different Types of Foreign Trading Activities
Sources of Most Profits and Losses on Foreign Exchange Trading
Mismatches Between Foreign Financial Asset and Liability Portfolios

Foreign Exchange Risk

On-Balance-Sheet Hedging
Off-Balance-Sheet Hedging With Forwards

Market Risk Management

Diversification in Multicurrency Foreign Asset-Liability Positions


Identifying and Managing Cash Flow Exposures

Estimate Cash Flow Exposures


Calculate Optimal Hedge Ratios

Know that Liquidity Risk is Comprised of Funding Risk and Market Liquidity Risk
Alternatives for Measuring Liquidity Risk lnclude: Liquidity Gap and Liquidity Risk Elasticity
Asset's Liquidation Cost

Liquidity

VaR Can Be Adjused for Liquidity Risk (LVaR) By Incorporating the


Impact of the Bid-Ask Spread
Ways Firms Can Minimize Their Exposure to Liquidity Risk

Fundamentals of Bond Valuation(three steps)


Determining the Cash Flows
Price Quotations
Treasury Coupon Bonds and Treasury Strips

Differentiate between P-Strips and C-Strips

Definition
Bond Valuation with a Parallel Term Structure

Yield to Maturity

Calculate a bond's YTM


Calculate the Price of an Annuity and a Perpetuity
Relationship between Par Value, Coupon Rate, and Price

Price between Coupon Dates

Market Risk 2

Accrued Interest
Clean and Dirty(Invoice) Prices

Compounding Conventions

Effective Annual Yield(EAY)

Discount Factors
Spot Rate Curve

Definition
Calculate a Series of Spot Rates

Bond Valuation with a Non-Parallel Term Structure

Forward Rates
Pricing a Bond
Determining Value Using Discount Functions
Linear Yield Interpolation

Fixed income securities

Dollar Value of a Basis Point and Price Change


Hedge Ratio
Duration, Convexity and Price Change
Interest Rate Risk

Convexity's Role and Portfolio Duration, Effective Duration


Yield-Based DV01, Modified and Macaulay Duration
Effect of Coupon Rates, and Maturity
Yield-Based Convexity and Maturity, Barbells and Bullets
Single-Factor Approaches, Key Rate Shift Technique

Interest Rate Sensitivity

Key Rate Exposure, Hedging Based on Key Rates


Key Rate Shift vs. Bucket Shift Approaches

Interest Rate Tree (Binomial) Model and Risk-Neutral Interest Rate Tree
Bond Pricing

Fixed-Income Securities and Black-Scholes-Merton


Bonds with Embedded Options
Mortgages, Fixed Rate, Level Payment Mortgage, Prepayment Option
Static Cash Flow Models, Implied Models, Prepayment Models
Price- Rate Curve of Mortgage Pass-Through

Mortgage-Backed Securities

Planned Amortization Class(PAC)


Prepayment Risk

Principal Only(PO) Strips


Interest Only Strip

Monte Carlo Simulation for Valuing MBS

Market Risk 2.mmap - 2007-8-22 -

Arbitrage Strategy

Whether a Bond Is Trading Cheap or Rich

A Long(Short) Futures Positions


Characteristics of a Futures
Marking-to-Market, Initial Margin and Maintenance Margin

Margins

Variation Margin
Role of the Clearinghouse
With No Cash Flows
Cost-of-Carry Model

With Cash Flows


With a Continuous Dividend Yield

Value of a Forward Contract


Determination of Forward and Futures Prices

Forward and Futures Contracts


Basic Equilibrium Formula for Pricing Commodity Forwards and Futures
Lease Rate

Calculating Lease Rate for Commodity Forwards and Futures


Determine the Contango or Backwardation of Forward Market Using Lease Rate

Calculate the Forward Price of Commodity with Storage Costs


Pricing Commodity Forwards and Futures

The No-Arbitrage Bounds for the Forward Price of Commodity when Considering
a Convenience Yield
The Factors that Impact the Pricing of Gold, Corn, Natural Gas and Oil Futures
Calculate a Commodity Spread
Basis Risk and the Differential between a Strip Hedge and a Stack Hedge

A Short Hedge and a Long Hedge


Hedging with Futures

Forwards and Futures, Swaps

Basis Risk

Definition
Types of Basis Risk

Hedging Strategies Using Futures


Optimal Hedge Ratio
Hedging with Stock Index Futures
Rolling a Hedge Forward
Day Count Conventions

U.S Treasury Bond (T-Bond) Futures Contract Conversion Factor

T-Bond Futures

Cheapest-to-Deliver Bond
Interest Rate Futures
Eurodollar Futures

Futures Contract Convexity Adjustment

Formulate a Duration-Based Hedging Strategy Using Interest Rate Futures


Limitations of Using a Duration-Based Hedging Strategy
Mechanics and Cash Flow of a Plain Vanilla
Interest Rate Swap

Mechanics of Interest Rate Swaps

Interest Rate Swap combined with an Existing Asset or Liability


Comparative Advantage
Discount Rate
Swaps

Equivalent to a Simultaneous Position in Two Bonds


or a Series of FRAs

Valuing Interest Rate Swaps

Calculate the Value of an Interest Rate Swap


Currency Swaps

Mechanics and Calculate the Value of Currency Swap

Swap Credit Risk


Expiration
Strike Prices
Stock Options Specifications

Moneyness, Time Value, and Intrinsic Value


The Effect of Dividends and Stock Splits

Mechanics of Options Markets

Position and Exercise Limits


Option Trading

Market Risk 3

Margins
Other Option-Like Securities

Six Factors that Affect Option Prices


Upper and Lower Pricing Bound
Properties of Stock Options

Computing Option Value Using Put-Call Parity


Call on a Non-dividend-Paying Stock
European and American Option

Early Exercise Features of American Call and Put Options


Prices of American Call and Put Options

Calculate the Value of a European Call or Put Option

One-Step Binomial Model

Hedge Ratio
American Options

Calculate the Value of a European Call or Put Option Using a Two-Step Binomial Model

Option Pricing

Binomial Model Value Converges


Assumptions
The Black-Scholes-Merton Model

Value of a European Option Using BSM Model


BSM Model with Dividends
Use BSM Model to Estimate Future Volatility

Naked Position and Covered Position


Optimal Hedge
Delta

Optimal Duration Hedges


Delta-Neutral Hedges

Theta

The Greek Letters


Stop-Loss Trading Strategies

Options

Gamma
Vega
Rho
Scenario Analysis
Portfolio Insurance

A Covered Call or A Protective Put Strategy


Option Strategies

Spread Strategy
Combination Strategy
Volatility Smile for Foreign Currency

Volatility Smile

Volatility Smile for Equities


Volatility Smile with Price Jump
Use of Packages
Various Option Characteristics Can Transform Standard
American Options into Nonstandard American Options
Forward Start Options
Compound Option
Exotic Derivatives

Chooser Option
Barrier Option
Binary Option

Complex Derivatives

Lookback Option
Shout Option
Asian Option
Basket Options
Costs and Risks of Alternative Types of Options for Hedging
Financial Intermediaries that Sell Complex Derivatives
Issues in Hedging Exotic Options

Financial Engineering and Innovations in Derivatives


Securities with Embedded Derivatives
Selecting Derivatives Hedges to Maximize Firm Value

- -

Risk and Return of Portfolios of Risky Assets


Portfolio Theory

The Efficient Frontier and the Capital Market Line


The Security Market Line (SML)
Market Efficiency
Strategies that Reduce the Firm's Diversifiable Risk Do Not Increase Firm Value
Hedging Strategies and Firm Value

Differentiate btw. Firm Strategies and Policies to Reduce the Firm's Systematic Risk
Hedging a Firm's Price Risk with Respect to Its Output Will Not Affect Firm Value
Reducing the Potential Costs of Financial Distress and Bankruptcy
Reducing the Volatility of Taxable Income

Creating Firm Value

Reducing the Weighted Average Cost of Capital


Ways to Increase the Firm Value

Reducing Diversifiable Risk


Improving Management Incentives
Reducing Probability of Debt Overhang
Reducing Information Asymmetries

Portfolio Management

Treynor Measure, the Sharp Measure, and Jensen's Alpha


Measures of Performance

Extensions to Jensen's Alpha


Tracking Error, The Information Ratio, and The Sortino Ratio

Measuring Performance with Multifactor Models


Explicit and Implicit Factor Methods for Determining Factors in Multifactor Models

Comparison of Approaches

Three Categories of Multifactor Models


Performance Analysis

Portfolio Risk Analysis

Application of Multifactor

Portfolio Performance Decomposition


Returns vs.Protfolio-Based Style Analysis
Modeling the Yield Curve

Managing the Risk of Bond Portfolios

Yield to Maturity Method


Zero-Coupon Rate Method

Analyzing Bond Portfolio Performance


Equity Long/Short Strategies
Equity Market Neutral Strategies
Equity Market Timing Strategies
Short-Selling Strategies
Convertible Arbitrage Strategies
Fixed-Income Arbitrage Strategies
Volatility Arbitrage Strategies
Hedge Fund Classifications

Capital Structure Arbitrage Strategies


Event-Driven Strategies
Merger Arbitrage Strategies
Distressed Securities Strategies
Regulation D Strategies

Investment and Risk


Management

Global Macro Strategies


Managed Futures Strategies
Fund of Hedge Funds
Alpha Returns

Challenges
Problems with Existing Hedge Fund Indices

Hedge Fund Indices

Attributes of A Good Hedge Fund Index


Creating A More Useful Hedge Fund Index

Hedge Fund Benchmarks

Convergence Trading Strategy and


Trend-Following Strategy
The Risk in Fixed-Income Hedge Fund Strategies

Strategies Using Options

Five Primary HFR Fixed-Income Index Categories


Actual and Hypothetical Performance of Fixed-Income Hedge Funds
During Market Extremes
Fixed-Income Hedge Fund Asset-Based Style (ABS)

Types of Risk

Hedge Fund Management

Primary Risk Factors


The Role of Leverage
Hedge Fund Transparency
Proactive Risk Management

Asset Allocation
Due Diligence

Hedge Fund Risks


Risk Monitoring and Management

Investment Level
Portfolio Level

Investment Style
Definition
Style Drift

Reasons for Style Drift


Approaches for Monitoring and Detecting Style Drift
The Economic Function and Most Basic Choices
Size

Hedge Funds and Mutual Funds

How Hedge Funds are Usually Organized


Symmetric Compensation and Asymmetric Compensation
Withdrawing Capital
Hedge Fund Diversification
Hedge Fund Developments

Hedge Funds Might Make Markets More Efficient


Hedge Fund Returns and Volatility
Gauging Hedge Fund Performance
Alpha of Hedge Funds
Risk Considerations
The Future of Hedge Funds

Institutionalization
Regulation

Trends in Hedge Funds and Mutual Funds

- -

External

Rating

Internal
Gross Rate Of Return
Marginal Default Probability

Individual Loan Credit Risk


Loan

Cumulative Default Probability


Credit Deviling
Loan Portfolio Credit Risk

Recovery Rate and Recovery Function


Default Risk

Probability Default And Loss Given Default


Linear Discriminant Analysis
Parametric Discrimination

Credit Scoring Models

K-nearest Neighbor
Support Vector Machines

Others

Minimum Error
Decision Rules In Credit Analysis

Minimum Risk
Neyman-Pearson
Minimax for Classification

Terms Related to Counterparty Risk / Lending Risk VS Counterparty Risk


Potential Future Exposure

Measurement

Mean Loss Rate

Mean Loss Rate=PD(1-Recovery Rate)

Counterparty Risk

One side

(EE*)x(L*)

Two side

V(B)-V(A)

Market Value Of Credit Risk

Current Exposure For A Counterparty

CEC TCEC
Simple Transaction Method/Portfolio Simulation Method

Compute Equity and Debt Value/Firm Value and Volatility


Merton Models

Subordinate Debt/Interest Rate Dynamic


Application
KMV

Credit Risk Portfolio Models

Credit Metrics
Portfolio Manager
Portfolio Risk tracker
Credit Portfolio View
CreditRisk+

Difference Between Credit and Sovereign Risk

Credit Risk
Sovereign Risk

Debt Repudiation And Debt Rescheduling


Country Risk Analysis (CAR) Model
Address Sovereign Risk

Introduction
Loan Sales

Market

Participation VS. Assignment


The Buyer and The Seller

Introduction

Definition
Participants

Securitization

Securitization Guidelines

FAS140
FIN46R

Internal and External Credit Enhancements


liquidity Risk/Interest Risk
MBS
Credit Default Swaps

Default Events of ISDA

Total Rate Of Return Swaps


Types of Credit Derivatives

Credit Spread Option And Forward


Synthetic Structures

Management

Credit-Linked Notes
Collateralized Debt Obligations
Market Risk
Hedge

Credit Risk
Operational Risk
Using a TROR

Credit Derivatives

Cost Reduction

Using Credit Spread Options


Using Repo

Application

Using Other Credit Derivatives


Application Of Credit Derivatives

Using Default Swaps


Arbitrage

Using TRORs
Using Credit Spread Options

Basel II Risk Weights


VaR For Options
Management

CAR
Portfolio CAR

4.Credit Risk.mmap - 2007-8-22 -

Using Default Swaps to Reduce Capital Requirements

BIS definition
Definition
Incorrect Model Specification
Incorrect Model Application
Implementation Risk

Sources
Model Risk

Calibration Error
Programming Errors

Define Operation Risk

Data Problems
Under the Efficient Market Hypothesis

Managing

Outside Of the Efficient Market Hypothesis


Technology On Revenues and Costs

Technology Risk

Economic Of Scale and Scope


Daylight Overdraft Risk
HFLS and LFHS
Multifactor Models
Income-Based Models
Top Down

Expense-Based Models
Operating Leverage Models
Scenario Analysis

Define and Measuring Operation Risk


Measuring Operational Risk

Risk Profiling Models


Causal Networks
Connectivity Models
Bottom-up

Reliability Models
Empirical Loss Distributions
Parametric Loss Distributions
Extreme Value Theory

Evolution
Insurance

Operation Risk
Operational Risk Hedging

Self-Insurance
Derivatives

Catastrophe Options and Catastrophe Bonds

Operation Risk Management


Limits
Basic Indicator Approach
Basel II Related

The Standardized Approach


Internal Measurement Approach

Loss Data
Operational Risk and Economic Capital

Tail-Adjust Normal Distribution Binomial and Poisson Distributions


Models For Determining OpRisk Economic Capital

Metallgesellschaft
Sumitomo Bank

Case Studies

Long-Term Capital Management


Bankruptcy Of Barrings
The Amarranth Debacle
The Value Of Reducing Corporate Diversifiable Risk
Enterprise Risk Management

Determining The Optimal Amount Of Corporate Risk


The Conceptual Framework For ERM
Introduction

Best Practices for Risk management

The Counterparty Risk Management Policy Group II Report

The common Traits Associated With Past Major Financial Shocks


Recommendations
Supervisory Challenges

Key Principles
Private Pools of Capital-PW G

Principles For Protecting Investors


Principles For Reducing Systemic Risk

- -

RAROC=(revenues-expected loss-expenses+return on economic capital +transfer price)/economic capital


RAROC

RAROC=F1*VaR+F2*MAX(VaR Limit-VaR,0)+F3[MAX(VaR-VaR Limit),0]

Capital Attributed To Market,Credit,Operational Risk

Credit Capital Charge=Capital Factor*Market Value Of Position


First and Second Generation of RAROC

ARRAROC=(RAROC- Rf)/ e

Definition
Stand-alone Method
Scaling Method

Economic Capital
Top-Down and Bottom-Up

Strategic Capital Allocation


Allocating Economic Capital

Six Methods

Internal Betas Method


Marginal Capital Method
Arbitrage Pricing Theory
Fair Value Method

Liquidity and Information


RAROC and EVA
Protect Bank Depositor From Loss In Bankruptcy
Provide Stability For Transactions

Reasons for Banking Regulation

Avoid Contagion Effects In The Banking Industry


Maintain Stability In The Economy
Basel I

Capital Allocation

Benefit and Weakness


Type Of Capital
Minimum Capital Requirements
Three Pillar

Supervisory Review Process


Market discipline
The Standardized Approach
Risk Components

Regulatory Capital

Internal Rating-based Approaches


Credit Risk
Basel II

Risk-weight Functions
Minimum Requirements

Credit Risk Concentration


Credit Risk Mitigation
Asset Securitization
Basic Indicator Approach (BIA)
Operational Risk

Standardized Approach(AS)
Advanced Measurement Approach(AMA)
Negative Bank Behaviors

Areas Of Continuing Research

Potential Problems
Issues About Pillar2 and Pillar 3

Silo Approach

Financial Conglomerate Regulation


- -

Building-block Approach
3+1 Pillars Approach