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PLATYHELMINTHES

Acoelomic
Complex reproductive system
Lack a circulatory system diffusion limited animals

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PLATYHELMINTHES
TURBELLARIA
FLAT WORMS

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TURBELLARIA
Free-living flat worms
Bottom dwellers but a few are pelagic
Macroturbellaria large, visible Turbellaria
Flat and thin; the larger the worm, the more
pronounced flattening
Rimacephalusarcepta planarian; largest of all
macroturbellarians
Microturbellaria may be flat, but are commonly
cylindrical or arched above and
are flattened below to form a
creepsole.
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TURBELLARIA: Body plan


Monolayered, ciliated epidermis
Turbellaria whirlpool
Basal lamina and intracellular fibers to support body
wall since cuticle is absent
Actin filaments intracellular skeleton
Rhabdoids membrane-bounded, rod-shaped
secretions
-Released to the surface of the
epidermis, where they expand to
produce mucus
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TURBELLARIA: Body plan


Rhabdite most common kind of rhabdoid;
characterized by a specific, layered
ultrastructure
-Slime production for locomotion,
cocoon formation, and predator
repellant.
Frontal gland an anterior aggregation of secretory
cells

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TURBELLARIA: Body plan


Duo-gland organs glandular adhesive organs which
adhere to sand grains in many interstitial marine
species
Two different kinds of gland cells:
Viscid gland secretes the adhesive and cements the
animal to the sand sand grains
Releasing gland secretes the de-adhesive, the substance
that breaks the attachment

The gland necks of both viscid and releasing pass


through a third cell, an epidermal anchor cell
specialized to bear the strain of attachment.
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TURBELLARIA: Musculature
Diagonal muscles between outer circular and inner
longitudinal that crisscross each
other

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TURBELLARIA: Parenchyma
Parenchyma
Connective-tissue compartment between the
body-wall musculature and gut
Macroturbellarians cells in a fibrous extracellular
matrix
Microturbellarians contains little extracellular matrix
Hemocoel internal transport; hydrostatic skeleton
Epidermal replacement cells migrate from the
parenchyma to the body surface and replace any
damaged epidermal cells
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TURBELLARIA: Parenchyma
Neoblasts totipotent cells of many turbillarians
Important in wound healing and regeneration
Fixed parenchymal cell large, branched cell that
makes gap junctions with other parenchymal cells as
well as epidermal and gastrodermal cells
Links together all tissue layers of the body
Pigment cells & chromatophores enable the animal
to lighten and darken when the pigment in the cell is
concentrated or dispersed
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TURBELLARIA: Digestive
-The gut is a blind sac and mouth is used for
ingestion and egestion
Acoela lack of a gut cavity
Zero pharynx lacks a pharynx mouth opens directly
into the cytoplasm of the digestive tract
Simple pharynx the pharynx is a simple ciliated
tube; feed on unicellular algae

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TURBELLARIA: Digestive
Plicate pharynx - chiefly macroturbellarians with
branched intestines
-long muscular tube that, when retracted, has
a fold or pleat in its wall and is enclosed in a
sheathlike cavity ; predatory species
Bulbous pharynx a muscular sucking bulb
separated from the parenchyma bya septum
predators and parasitic flukes

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TURBELLARIA:Repro:Regeneration
Blastema dome-shaped mass of neoblast that
forms beneath the epidermis
Missing parts of the body differentiate to form
blastema cells
Janus heads head is regenerated at both ends

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TURBELLARIA: Clonal Repro


Paratomy a process where the parents body
differentiates into a chain of zooids before
fission separates them into new individuals
Architomy differentiation/regeneration occurs after
fission

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TURBELLARIA: Sexual Repro


Uterus female accessory reproductive organ used
as a temporary storage sac for ripe eggs
Homocellular ovary produces eggs in which yolk is
an
integral part of each eggs cytoplasm
(entolecithal
egg)
Primitive turbellarians Archoophora
Heterocellular ovary Neophora
Divided into 2 special regions
Germarium (ovary proper) for the production of eggs
Vitellarium (yolk gland) production of yolk-filled cells
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TURBELLARIA: Sexual Repro


Germovitellarium germarium and vitellarium are united;
they may be separated but linked together by a
common duct
Capsule where vitellocytes are enclosed after yolkless eggs
are released from thegermarium
Ectolecithal egg what encapsulated egg and vitellocytes are
sometimes called
Nemertodermatida turbellarian sperm are highly modified
for internal fertilization

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TURBELLARIA: Sexual Repro


Hypodermic impregnation the penis, which bears stylets, is
pushed through the body wall of the
copulating partner, depositing sperm into the
parenchyma
Acoels lack oviducts and release their eggs through the mouth
or by temporary rupture of the body wall.
Freshwater turbellarians produce two types of eggs
Summer eggs enclosed in a thin egg capsule and
hatch in a relatively short period of time
Resting eggs produced in the fall and hatch in the
spring; have thicker and more resistant capsule
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TURBELLARIA: Sexual Repro


early development of the entholecithal eggs is by spiral
cleavage
Gastrulation is by epiboly and produces a stereogastrula.
Mesoderm gives rise to the musculature, parenchyma, and
germ cells
Turbellarians in general have direct development, but some
polyclads produce uniformly ciliated, planktotrophic larvae:
Goettes larva four arms
Muellers larva eight arms

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TURBELLARIA: Diversity
CatenulidaO
Euplatyhelminthes
Acoelomorpha
NemertodermatidaO
AcoelaO
Rhabditophora
Macrostomorpha
MacrostomidaO
HaplopharyngidaO
Trepaxonemata
PolycladidaO
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Neoophora
LecithoepithaliataO
ProlecithophoraO
Seriata
ProseriataO
TricladidaO
RhabdocoelaO
TyphloplanoidasO
DalyellioidasO
TemnocephalidasO
Neodermata
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TURBELLARIA: Phylogeny
Planula theory devised by L. von Graff
States that Turbellarians and cnidarians arose from
a common ancestor, the planuloid, resembled a
cnidarians planula larva
Coelomate theory turbellarians are not primitive
bilaterians, but have evolved from a coelomate
ancestor by anatomical simplification
Pedomorphism from an early developmental
stage of a coelomate ancestor before
differentiation of the coelom
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TURBELLARIA: Phylogeny
NEODERMATA
Neodermis new nonciliated, syncytial layer that is the
partial or complete replacement of the cellular
epidermis
Encloses the body in a syncytium
Cytons the neoblast cell bodies
Each containing a nucleus, remain below the basal
lamina in the parenchyma
Syncytial layer lacks intercellular space; substances
cannot slip unregulated between cells to enter/leave the
body
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PLATYHELMINTHES
TREMATODE
FLUKES

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TREMATODA
sC
DIGENEA
Digeneans flukes
-endo parasites
NEODERMIS for protection and respiration, excretion

Digenea = two generations


Infective stages
First intermediate host typically a gastropod mollusk
Second intermediate host usually an arthropod or fish
Definitive host final stage and is usually a vertebrate

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Stage

Egg
(encapsulated
zygote)

Miracdium
(larva)

sporocyst

Redia

Cercaria (larva)

Habitat

Water or
vegetation

Water

Snail (1st int.


host)

Snail (1st int.


host)

water

Role

Dispersal; direct
infection

Dispersal;
infection (1st
int. host)

replication

Dispersal in
host; replication

Dispersal; direct
infection (2nd
int. host);
encystment

Functional gut
and
musculature;
stem cells /
embryos

Swimming tail;
gut;nonciliated
epidermis;
sensory and
penetration
structures;
protonephridia;
germ cells

Anatomy

Nutrition

reproductio
n

Encapsulated
embryo +
vitellocytes

yolk

cleavage

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progeny
miracidium

Gutless; ciliated
epidermis;
protonephridia; Gutless sac with
sensory and
stem cells /
penetration
embryos
structures; stem
cells / embryo

Yolk

Metamorphosis
; neodermis
replaces
epidermis

sporocyst

Endocytosis by
neodermis

Clonal
(pathogenesis)

Gut ingestion of
host tissues;
Endocytosis by
neodermis

Clonal
(pathogenesis)

Sporocysts
Rediae or
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or Redaie
cercariae

Metacercaria
(encysted
juvenile or
sexual adult)
Watter; aquatic
vegetation;
inanimate
objects;
arthropod (2nd
int. host)
Dispersed;
persistence;
infection

adult

Vertebrate
(definitive host)

replication

Functional gut;
Like cercaria but
neodermis;
encysted
protonephridia;
without tail or
hermaphroditic
epidermis
gonad

Non feeding

Non feeding or
endocytosis by
neodermis

Ingestion of
host tissues;
endocytosis by
neodermis

Metamorphosis
; neodermis
replaces
epidermis; cyst
wall secreted by
neodermis

Emcystment (in
definitive host);
growth

Sexual
reproduction

metacercari
a

Sexual adult

23eggs

TREMATODA
sC
DIGENEA
Generalized digenean life cycle:
Zygote

miracidium larva
sporocyst
redia

cercaria
metacercaria
adult

The cycle begins when an adult fluke releases eggs that leave the vertebrate
host in its feces, urine or sputum
eggs may be ingested by terrestrial snails & released into water. Once hatched,
they release a ciliated, swimming miracidium larva that penetrates the body
wall of an aquatic snail.
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TREMATODA
sC
DIGENEA
Miracidium epidermis becomes neodermis
Inside the snail, miracidium metamorphoses into a saclike, gutless
sporocyst that contains embryos
Each embryo develops into a redia mouth, pharynx, & gut
Within the redia, each embryo develops into a cercaria digestive
tract, suckers, & tail
Cercaria leaves snail host and swims in search of 2nd intermediate
host or encysts as a metacercaria on aquatic vegetation
If the life cycle includes a 2nd intermediate host, arthropod/fish, the
cercaria penetrates its skin, casts off its tail, & encysts as a
metacercaria in the hosts tissues
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TREMATODA
sC
DIGENEA
Oral sucker surrounds the mouth, and many, but not all
have a ventral sucker
Digeneans are facultative anaerobes and both blood and
liver flukes derive most of their energy from glycocysts
Nervous system similar to Turbillarians
Brain pair of anterior cerebral ganglia from which
several longitudinal nerve cords extend posteriorly
Has sensory papillae

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TREMATODA
sC
DIGENEA
Heterocellular ovary
Male; two testes & accessory reproductive organs
Cirrus sac this sac contains the internal seminal vesicle,
prostate glands, & copulatory cirrus protrudes into a
common genital atrium shared with the female
reproductive system

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TREMATODA
sC
DIGENEA
Female; consists of a single ovary (germarium) & an
oviduct that leads into a small sac, called the ootype
Mehlis gland open into the ootype & may secrete eggcapsule components, most are produced by vitellocytes
Downstream from the ootype is the uterus, runs
anteriorly to the genital atrium and gonopore
A short, inconspicuous canal (Laurers canal), extends
from the duct of the seminal receptacle to the dorsal
surface of the worm

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TREMATODA
sC
DIGENEA
The zygote divides into two distinguishable cells:
Somatic cell establishes the body
Stem cell establish the germ line the cells committed
to sexual and asexual reproduction
Polyembryony division of the zygote into two or more
blastomeres, each developing into a complete organism
Parthenogenesis how stem cells develop
In the stem-cell masses of the sporocyst and redial stages

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TREMATODA
sC
DIGENEA
Larval stages of parthenogenetic adult:
Sexual adult (in definitive host)
Zygote
Miracidium larva (in water)
Parthenogenetic adult (sporocyst - redia intermediate host)
Cercaria larva (in H2O)
Encysted juvenile (metacercaria)
Sexual adult (in definitive host)
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TREMATODA
sC
DIGENEA
Clonorchis sinensin Chinese liver fluke
Infects dogs
Schistosoma mansoni best-known blood fluke; causes
schistosomiasis
Inhabits the intestinal veins
Gonochoric
schistosomules carried by the bloodstream first to the
lungs, then to the liver, then finally to the veins of the
intestine or bladder
Schistosomiasis, malaria, & hookworm infections are the
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three great parasitic scourges
of humankind

TREMATODA
sC
ASPIDOGASTREA
Small trematode taxon similar to parasitic flatworms, but
closer to Digenea
Adhesive organ distinguishable trait
Single septate sucker covering the entire ventral surface
Longitudinal row of suckers

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TREMATODA
sC
ASPIDOGASTREA
Cercomeromorpha:
Important parasitic worms that have
crescent-shaped hooks on a posterior
appendage cercomer

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PLATYHELMINTHES
MONOGENEA
One life
Host-specific ectoparasites, or occasionally
endoparasites of aquatic vertebrates, but amphibians
and reptiles are also hosts

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MONOGENEA
Haptor large, posterior attachment organ

No intermediate host
One egg gives rise to only one adult worm
Clonal reproduction is absent
Monogenea = one generation

Oncomiracidium what the egg fist develops into


Adhesive glands also called head organs; used for
attachment

Digestive system similar to Digeneans but the pharynx of


monogeneans secrete a protease that digests the hosts skin,
parasite ingests blood and cellular debris
Aerobic metabolism
Inconspicuous protonephrida

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MONOGENEA
Reproduction
Male: circular or oval testis, but a few species have
two or more
Sperm generally stored in a seminal receptacle
Single heterocellular ovary
Diplozooid paradoxum parasite of European
freshwater fishes, larvae fuse in pairs
During metamorphosis, sperm duct of each worm fuses
with the vagina of the other, joining them permanently
in copula
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MONOGENEA
Life Cycle Examples
Dactylogyrus ectoparasites on gills of various
freshwater fishes
Smothering by excess mucus production or
loss of blood
Polystoma integerrimum found in bladders of Old
World frogs and toads;
example of a remarkable
synchronization of the
parasite with the host
P. nearticum eggs are produced and stored until the
frog returns to the water
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PLATYHELMINTHES
CESTODA
TAPE WORMS

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CESTODA
Most evolutionarily derived of the flatworm taxa
Endoparasites of guts of vertebrates
No gut
tapeworms

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CESTODA : Form & Function


Scolex adapted for the attachment to the host
Neck growth zone with stem cells
Strobila constitutes most of the worms body;
segmented trunk
Proglottid each of the trunk segments neodermis
plays a vital role in the active uptake of host
carbohydrates and amino acids.

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CESTODA : Form & Function


Microtriches spiny tips in the specialized
microvilli
Tapeworm musculature consists of circular and
longitudinal layers, but additional longitudinal,
transverse, & dorsoventral fibers enclose the
interior parenchyma
Protonephridial system
Anterior nerve mass lies in the scolex
Protonephridial terminal cells & tubules

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CESTODA : Reproduction
Strobilation
Complete neoophoran reproductive system occurs
in each proglottid

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CESTODA : Life cycles


Zygote
Oncosphere larva (ingested by intermediate or definitive host)
Extraintestinal juvenile (metacestode)
Intestinal adult

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CESTODA : Life cycle


Diphyllobothrium parasitic in the gut of many fisheating carnivores, including humans
eggs in feces are deposited in water, each egg develops
into a free-swimming oncosphere
Oncosphere is ingested by a copepod crustacean. It
penetrates its intestinal walls, sheds its ciliated
epidermis, enters hemocoel and develops into a
procercoid
When copepod is eaten by a fish, procercoid penetrates
the fishs gut & migrates to striated muscles,where it
transforms into a juvenile called a metacestode, known
as the plerocercoid
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CESTODA : Life cycle


Taenia saginata beef tapeworm
Oncosphere develops into cysticercus oval worm
that has its scolex retracted and inverted, like a
nemertean proboscis
Taenia solium porkl tapeworm
Taenia pisiformis occurs in cats and dogs
Taenia solium dog tapeworm

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PLATYHEMINTHES
CLASS TURBELLARIA

Order
Family
Genus

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Tricladida
Planariidae
Planaria sp.

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Auricle

Pharynx

Posterior
branch of GVC

Anterior
Eyespot branch of GVC
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rhabdites
epidermis

Cuboidal
epithelium

pharynx

intestine
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Pharyngeal cavity
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PLATYHEMINTHES
CLASS TREMATODA
Subclass
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Digenea
Echinostomida
Echinostomatidae
Echinostoma
ilocanum

Hermaphroditic

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Ventral sucker

Vitellaria
uterus

Oral
sucker

ovary
Mehlis gland

testes

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PLATYHEMINTHES
CLASS TREMATODA
Subclass
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Digenea
Echinostomida
Fascioliidae
Fasciola
hepatica

SHEEP LIVER FLUKE


Infective stage: metacercariae
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Feces>water>snail>water plants>sheep/human

Uterus with eggs

Vitellaria
(yolk glands)

Pharynx
Oral sucker

Acetabulum
(posterior sucker)

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Di kita ung sucker

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Miracidium

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PLATYHEMINTHES
CLASS TREMATODA
Subclass
Order
Family
Genus
Species

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Digenea
Plagiorchiida
Dicrocoellidae
Eurytrema
pancreaticum

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Feces>water>snail>grasshopper>sheep/human
Excretory
bladder
Yolk Gland
Uterus
Ventral sucker

Intestine
Pharynx
Oral sucker
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PLATYHEMINTHES
CLASS TREMATODA
Subclass
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Digenea
Plagiorchiida
Opisthorchiidae
Clonorchis
sinensis

CHINESE LIVER FLUKE


Bile duct / gall bladder
Feeds on bile

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Pharynx
Intestine

Vitellaria

Eggs (feces)
Water
Snail
-Miracidia
-Sporocyst
-Redia
-Cercaria
water (cercaria)
Fish(encyst)
-Metacercaria
Eaten by human
Excyst in duodenum
Adults in bile duct
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Uterus(eggs)

Ovary
Seminal receptacle

Testes
Excretory bladder

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PLATYHEMINTHES
CLASS TREMATODA
Subclass
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Digenea
Strigeidida
Schistosomatidae
Schistosoma
japonicum

Blood
Dioecious

Feces > water (miracidia)> snail (s.specie)>sporocyst> asexual


(cercaria)>water >vertebrate (skin)> loses tail
(schistosomule)> blood> intestine.

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Cercariae

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PLATYHEMINTHES
CLASS CESTODA
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Cyclophyllidea
Hymenolepididae
Hymenolepis
nana

Beetles / flea

Human &
rodents
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Feces ~ food ~ eggs @ duodenum ~


oncospheres ~ penetrates mucosa ~
cysticercoids (tail & scoles) ~ attached to the
lumen of the small intestine, mature.

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PLATYHEMINTHES
CLASS CESTODA
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Cyclophyllidea
Hymenolepididae
Hymenolepis
diminuta

RAT TAPEWORM
Beetles / flea

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Human &
rodents
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Enlarged uterus
containing eggs

Photo credits to lourdex


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PLATYHEMINTHES
CLASS CESTODA

Order
Family
Genus
Species

Cyclophyllidea
Taeniidae
Echinococcus
granulosus

DOG TAPEWORM
Humans,
sheep, goats,
pigs and cattle
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Dogs
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PLATYHEMINTHES
CLASS CESTODA

Order
Family
Genus
Species

Cyclophyllidea
Taeniidae
Taenia
pisiformis

RABBIT TAPEWORM
Lagomorphs

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Dogs

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Gravid
proglottids

Mature
proglottids
Immature
proglottids

Scolex
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PLATYHEMINTHES
CLASS CESTODA

Order
Family
Genus
Species

Cyclophyllidea
Taeniidae
Taenia
solium

PORK TAPEWORM
Pig

Human

Infective stage: oncosphere


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Rostellum
Scolex

Hooks
Suckers

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Cysticercus

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Hook

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Photo credits to lourdex

Scolex
72

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PLATYHEMINTHES
CLASS CESTODA

Order
Family
Genus
Species

Cyclophyllidea
Dilepididae
Dipylidium
caninum

DOUBLE-PORED DOG TAPEWORM


Dog / Cat flea

Dog, cat, fox,


human

Infective stage: cysticercoid


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Photo credits to lourdex

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scolex

Suckers

neck

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