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Checklist F6 term 2



7 Chemical Energetics (18)

Candidates should be able to:

7.1 Enthalpy changes

reaction, H

(a) exothermic or endothermic

(b) define enthalpy change of reaction, H, and state the
standard conditions;(objectif)
(c) define enthalpy change of formation, combustion, hydration,
solution, neutralisation, atomisation, bond energy, ionisation
energy and electron affinity;
(d) calculate the heat energy change from experimental
measurements using the relationship: heat change,
q = mc T or q = mc ;

7.2 Hess law

Candidates should be able to:

(a) state Hess law,
(b) construct energy level diagrams relating the enthalpy to
reaction path and activation energy;
(c) calculate enthalpy changes from energy cycles.

7.3 Born-Haber cycle

7.4 The solubility of

solids in

(a) define lattice energy for simple ionic crystals in terms of the
change from gaseous ions to solid lattice;
(b) explain qualitatively the effects of ionic charge and ionic
radius on the numerical magnitude of lattice energy values;
(c) construct Born-Haber cycle for the formation of simple
ionic crystals.
Candidates should be able to:
(a) construct energy cycles for the formation of aqueous
solutions of ionic compounds;
(b) explain qualitatively the influence on solubility of the
relationship between enthalpy change of solution, lattice
energy of solid and enthalpy change of hydration or other
solvent-solute interaction.

8 Electrochemistry (26)

candidates should be able to:

8.1 Half-cell and redox


(a) explain the redox processes and cell diagram (cell notation)
of the Daniell cell;
(b) construct redox equations.


8.2 Standard electrode


(a) describe the standard hydrogen electrode;

(b) use the standard hydrogen electrode to determine standard
electrode potential (standard reduction potential), E;
(c) calculate the standard cell potential using the Eo values, and
write the redox equations;
(d) predict the stability of aqueous ions from E values;
(e) predict the power of oxidising and reducing agents from E
(f) predict the feasibility of a reaction from Ecell value and from
the combination of various electrode potentials: spontaneous
and nonspontaneous electrode reactions.

8.3 Non-standard cell


(a) calculate the non-standard cell potential, Ecell, of a cell using

the Nernst equation.

8.4 Fuel cells


(a) describe the importance of the development of more efficient

batteries for electric cars in terms of smaller size, lower mass
and higher voltage, as exemplified by hydrogen-oxygen
fuel cell.

8.5 Electrolysis

(a) compare the principles of electrolytic cell to electrochemical

(b) predict the products formed during electrolysis;
(c) state the Faradays first and second laws of electrolysis;
(d) state the relationship between the Faraday constant, the
Avogadro constant and the electronic charge;
(e) calculate the quantity of electricity used, the mass of material
and/or gas volume liberated during electrolysis.

8.6 Applications of

(a) explain the principles of electrochemistry in the process and

prevention of corrosion (rusting of iron);
(b) describe the extraction of aluminium by electrolysis, and
state the advantages of recycling aluminium;
(c) describe the process of anodisation of aluminium to resist
(d) describe the diaphragm cell in the manufacture of chlorine
from brine;
(e) describe the treatment of industrial effluent by electrolysis to
remove Ni2+, Cr3+ and Cd2+;
(f) describe the electroplating of coated plastics.


9 Periodic Table: (10)

9.1 Physical properties
elements of Period
and Period 3

Candidates should be able to:

(a) interpret and explain the trend and gradation of atomic radius,
melting point, boiling point, enthalpy change of vaporisation
and electrical conductivity in terms of structure and bonding;
(b) explain the factors influencing ionisation energies;
(c) explain the trend in ionisation energies across Period 2 and
Period 3 and down a group;
(d) predict the electronic configuration and position of unknown


9.2 Reactions of Period

elements with
and water

9.3 Acidic and basic
properties of oxides
hydrolysis of oxides

elements in the Periodic Table from successive values of

ionisation energies.
(a) describe the reactions of Period 3 elements with oxygen and
(b) interpret the ability of elements to act as oxidising and
reducing agents.
(a) explain the acidic and basic properties of the oxides of Period
3 elements;
(b) describe the reactions of the oxides of Period 3 elements with
(c) describe the classification of the oxides of Period 3 elements
as basic, amphoteric or acidic based on their reactions with
water, acid and alkali;
(d) describe the use of sulphur dioxide in food preservation.


10 Group 2 (10)

Candidates should be able to:

10.1 Selected Group 2

elements and

(a) describe the trends in physical properties of Group 2

elements: Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba;
(b) describe the reactions of Group 2 elements with oxygen and
(c) describe the behaviour of the oxides of Group 2 elements
with water;
(d) explain qualitatively the thermal decomposition of the
nitrates, carbonates and hydroxides of Group 2 elements in
terms of the charge density and polarisability of large
(e) explain qualitatively the variation in solubility of sulphate of
Group 2 elements in terms of the relative magnitudes of the
enthalpy change of hydration for the relevant ions and the
corresponding lattice energy.


10.2 Anomalous
of beryllium

10.3 Uses of Group 2


(a) explain the anomalous behaviour of beryllium as exemplified

by the formation of covalent compounds;
(b) describe the diagonal relationships between beryllium and
(c) explain the similarity of aqueous beryllium salts to aqueous
aluminium salts in terms of their acidic property.
(a) state the uses of Group 2 compounds in agriculture, industry
and medicine.

11 Group 14 (10)
11.1 Physical properties
Group 14 elements
11.2 Tetrachlorides and
of Group 14
elements (4)

Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the trends in physical properties (melting points
and electrical conductivity) of Group 14 elements: C, Si,
Ge, Sn, Pb.
(a) explain the bonding and molecular shapes of the
tetrachlorides of group 14 elements;
(b) explain the volatility, thermal stability and hydrolysis of
tetrachlorides in terms of structure and bonding;
(c) explain the bonding, acid-base nature and the thermal
stability of the oxides of oxidation states +2 and +4.
(a) explain the relative stability of +2 and +4 oxidation states
of the elements in their oxides, chlorides and aqueous

11.3 Relative stability of

and +4 oxidation
of Group 14
elements (2)
11.4 Silicon, silicone and
silicates (1)

(a) describe the structures of silicone and silicates (pyroxenes

and amphiboles), sheets (mica) and framework structure
(quartz) (general formulae are not required);
(b) explain the uses of silicon as a semiconductor and silicone
as a fluid, elastomer and resin;
(c) describe the uses of silicates as basic materials for cement,
glass, ceramics and zeolites.
(a) describe the uses of tin in solder and pewter.

11.5 Tin alloys (1)

12 Group 17 (8)
12.1 Physical properties
selected Group 17
elements (1)
12.2 Reactions of
Group 17 elements

12.3 Reactions of

Candidates should be able to:

(a) state that the colour intensity of Group 17 elements: Cl 2,
Br2, I2, increase down the group;
(b) explain how the volatility of Group 17 elements decreases
down the group.
(a) deduce and explain the relative reactivities of Group 17
elements as oxidising agents from E values;
(b) explain the order of reactivity of F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 with
hydrogen, and compare the relative thermal stabilities of
the hydrides;
(c) explain the reactions of chlorine with cold and hot aqueous
sodium hydroxide.
(a) explain and write equations for reactions of Group 17 ions
with aqueous silver ions followed by aqueous ammonia;
(b) explain and write equations for reactions of Group 17 ions
with concentrated sulphuric acid.

halide ions (2)

12.4 Industrial
of halogens and
compounds (1)

13 Transition Elements (14)

13.1 Physical properties
first row transition
elements (2)

13.2 Chemical properties

first row transition
elements (8)

13.3 Nomenclature and

bonding of
complexes (3)

(a) describe the industrial uses of the halogens and their

compounds as antiseptic, bleaching agent and in black-andwhite photography;
(b) explain the use of chlorine in water treatment.

Candidates should be able to:

(a) define a transition element in terms of incomplete d orbitals
in at least one of its ions;
(b) describe the similarities in physical properties such as
atomic radius, ionic radius and first ionisation energy;
(c) explain the variation in successive ionistion energies;
(d) contrast qualitatively the melting point, density, atomic
radius, ionic radius, first ionisation energy and conductivity
of the first row transition elements with those of calcium
as a typical s-block element.
(a) explain variable oxidation states in terms of the energies of
3d and 4s orbitals;
(b) explain the colours of transition metal ions in terms of a
partially filled 3d orbitals;
(c) state the principal oxidation numbers of these elements in
their common cations, oxides and oxo ions;
(d) explain qualitatively the relative stabilities of these
oxidation states;
(e) explain the uses of standard reduction potentials in
predicting the relative stabilities of aqueous ions;
(f) explain the terms complex ion and ligand;
(g) explain the formation of complex ions and the colour
changes by exchange of ligands. (Examples of ligands:
water, ammonia, cyanide ions, thiocyanate ions,
ethanedioate ions, ethylenediaminetetraethanoate, halide
ions; examples of complex ions: [Fe(CN) 6]4, [Fe(CN)6]3,
(h) explain the use of first row transition elements in
homogeneous catalysis, as exemplifed by Fe 2+ or Fe3+ in the
reaction between I and S2O8 2;
(i) explain the use of first row transition elements in
heterogeneous catalysis, as exemplifed by Ni and Pt in the
hydrogenation of alkenes.
(a) name complexes using International Union of Pure and
Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature;
(b) discuss coordinate bond formation between ligands and the
central metal atom/ion, and state the types of ligands, i.e.
monodentate, bidentate and hexadentate
(a) describe the use of chromium (in stainless steel), cobalt,

manganese, titanium (in alloys) and TiO2 (in paints).

13.4 Uses of first row
elements and their
compounds (1)

Panitia Kimia Tingkatan Enam