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An Introduction to Surface Analysis by XPS and AES. John F.

Watts and John Wolstenholme


Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBNs: 0-470-84712-3 (HB); 0-470-84713-1 (PB)

An Introduction to Surface Analysis by XPS and AES. John F. Watts and John Wolstenholme
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBNs: 0-470-84712-3 (HB); 0-470-84713-1 (PB)

An Introduction to Surface Analysis by XPS and AES. John F. Watts and John Wolstenholme
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBNs: 0-470-84712-3 (HB); 0-470-84713-1 (PB)

An Introduction to Surface Analysis by XPS and AES. John F. Watts and John Wolstenholme
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBNs: 0-470-84712-3 (HB); 0-470-84713-1 (PB)

An Introduction to Surface Analysis by XPS and AES. John F. Watts and John Wolstenholme
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBNs: 0-470-84712-3 (HB); 0-470-84713-1 (PB)

An Introduction to Surface Analysis by XPS and AES. John F. Watts and John Wolstenholme
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBNs: 0-470-84712-3 (HB); 0-470-84713-1 (PB)

Structure

AC

AEB Ti 1s

Ad

Vanadium

AC

AEB Ti Is

Ac*

Titanium

AEB Al 2p

AC

AEB Al 1s

Aa

Aluminium

A3 (hcp)

-0.1
-0.3
-0.4

-0.9
-1.1
-2.1
-0.6

Ti-l0Al

a2-DO19

-0.1
-0.2

0.0

-0.7
-1.0
-1.8
-0.6

Ti-20A1

Q2-DO19

+ 0.1
-0.1
-0.5

-0.7
-0.9
-2.1
-0.7

Ti-30Al

A2 (bcc)

+ 0.3
+ 0.2
+ 0.3

-0.3
-0.3
-0.5

Ti-50V

-0.1
-0.2

0.0

-0.2
-0.2
-0.3

-0.7
-1.0
-2.5

Ti-25V-5Al

B2 (bcc)

-0.1
-0.1
-0.5

-0.1
-0.1
-0.1

-0.6
-0.8
-2.0

Ti-20V-40Al

Table 5.1 Differences in core-level binding energies of Al, V and Ti, and initial and final state Auger parameters, for the alloy relative
to the pure metal; the negative sign indicates a decrease in the value for the alloy compared with the pure metal

An Introduction to Surface Analysis by XPS and AES. John F. Watts and John Wolstenholme
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBNs: 0-470-84712-3 (HB); 0-470-84713-1 (PB)

Energy

ions
ions
e

ions
ions
X-rays

* V very good, 0 = reasonable , X poor


'Without conductive coating
'Cryo-stage required

Energy

All

Li on

All

3-10nm

He on

Mass

ions
ions
ions

laser
ions
ions

LAMMS
RBS
SIMS
(static)
SIMS
(dynamic)
SIMS
(imaging)
XPS

See text

All

Mass

ions

ions

ISS

<

C(E)
E, C

STD 1 mm2
small area:
10 um imaging
XPS: <3um

<

C(E)

'
s*
s

s
'
s
X
X
X
E

E, C

S
0

X
X'
X

'

E
E

E(C)

0
0*
s

Information Quantification* Applicability Applicability


level
to inorganics* to organics*
E = elemental
C = chemical

50 nm

50 um

See text

All

Mass
Energy
Mass

Li on

3-10nm
<12nm
1 um
1 um
Depends
l0 nm
on foil
thickness
Outer
100 um
atom layer
0.5 um
1 um
1 mm
1 um
1.5 nm
1 um

Li on
Be on
Li on

Energy
Energy
Energy

e
X-ray

e
e

AES
EDX
EELS

Spatial
resolution

Depth of
analysis

Features of various analytical methods discussed in the text

Incident Emitted Property Elements


radiation radiation monitored detectable

Table 6.1

>

m
X

51

i
0
x
3

in
f\

70

8
2
TJ

ON

An Introduction to Surface Analysis by XPS and AES. John F. Watts and John Wolstenholme
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBNs: 0-470-84712-3 (HB); 0-470-84713-1 (PB)

An Introduction to Surface Analysis by XPS and AES. John F. Watts and John Wolstenholme
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBNs: 0-470-84712-3 (HB); 0-470-84713-1 (PB)

An Introduction to Surface Analysis by XPS and AES. John F. Watts and John Wolstenholme
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBNs: 0-470-84712-3 (HB); 0-470-84713-1 (PB)

An Introduction to Surface Analysis by XPS and AES. John F. Watts and John Wolstenholme
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBNs: 0-470-84712-3 (HB); 0-470-84713-1 (PB)