Sie sind auf Seite 1von 81

CHAPTER ONE

1.1

Background

INTRODUCTION

Now a days, apparently its a well-known fact that most of transportation


systems are built either on earth, in earth, and/or with earth. To the
transportation facility designer and builder, geo-materials (soil and rock) not
only form the foundation for their structures but they also constitute a large
portion of the construction materials. Unlike manufactured construction
materials, the properties of soil and rock are the results of the natural
processes that have formed them, and natural or man-made events following
their formation. The replacement of inferior foundation materials often is
impractical and uneconomical.
The geotechnical engineer in designing and constructing transportation
facilities is faced with the challenge of using the foundation and construction
materials available on or near the project site. Therefore, the designing and
building of such structures requires a thorough understanding of properties of
available soils and rocks that will constitute the foundation and other
components of the structures.
Many geotechnical investigations involve rehabilitation and remediation of
highway projects around the globe; including landslide failures, embankment
stability, slope stabilization, subgrade & pavement settlement, and replacement
of old foundation systems (see Figure 1-1).

Figure 1-1: Rehabilitation Projects Including: (a) Highway Slope Failure


Involving Loss of Life;(b) Roadway Landslide; (c) Sinkhole in Orlando, Florida;
and (d) Slope Stabilization.
(CSA, 2007) Ethiopia is a country with a population of 90 million and land area
of 1.1 million-sq.km. Out of the total population, 85 % are living in rural areas,
the remainder is urban. Urban areas include all administrative capitals of
Regions, Zones and Weredas as well as localities primarily engaged in nonagricultural activities. The life expectancy at birth is still below 50 years. The
population distribution and settlement patterns vary among Regions, Zones
and Weredas. The Ethiopian economy is highly dependent on agriculture,
which accounts for almost 45% of GDP. An estimated 85% of the population
gain their livelihood directly or indirectly from agricultural production. Coffee
exports account for 50 60% of foreign exchange earnings.
An efficient road transport service can help to widen the market and increase
the volume and efficiency of trade. Transport costs are sensitive to the riding
quality of road network. Hence, investment to improve the road network can
substantially reduce these costs. Depending on market conditions, reduced
transport costs will help to both reduce prices to the final consumer and also
help to increase farm gate prices and thus increase returns to farmers and
other primary producers.
As it is mentioned in the Government Poverty Reduction Strategy Program,
without an adequate road network connecting to rural areas it is highly likely
that intervention in all sectors to improve rural livelihoods and reduce poverty
will be severely constrained. Poor physical communications will naturally
reduce efficiency and raise the costs of delivery of all services to rural areas.
Responsibility for the road network is divided principally between (a) the
Ethiopian Roads Authority (ERA), with an executive Board oversight, for federal
roads and road sector policy implementation and coordination under the
overall guidance of the Ministry of Infrastructure and (b) Regional Roads
Authorities for the regional rural roads within their boundaries.

Ethiopian Roads Authority (ERA)


The Ethiopian Roads Authority is the legally autonomous agency responsible
for policy formulation and standard setting of the countrys road network. Its
responsibilities include overall planning, construction and maintenance of
trunk and major link roads. Currently ERA has ten road maintenance district
2

offices throughout the country. In each district there are maintenance sections
responsible for maintaining road segments. Each maintenance section is
assigned a total road distance of not less than 180 km, with a few exceptions.
More autonomy is now given to maintenance districts in the areas of planning,
programming, monitoring, personnel administration, financial activities,
procurement and equipment management.

Regional Rural Roads Authorities (RROs)


The responsibility of maintenance and construction of regional roads has been
delegated to the regional governments. They are directly responsible for the
planning, management and implementation of the development and
maintenance of regional road networks. They are responsible for overall
planning, construction and maintenance of rural roads under their regions.
ERAs support to the regions has been mainly through overall co-ordination,
training and technical assistance on rural road matters.
The major focus of the proposal is on searching the causes of asphalt and
gravel pavement damages and proposing preventive remedial measures or
maintenance activities which are performed while the road way is still in good
condition with only minimal distress, before the pavement falls in to a condition
where structural overlay, major milling or reclaiming or replacement is
necessary.
According to ERAs, Road Functional classification System (RFCS) my research is
located at Endiber Section which has two main groups. The first is from
Welkitie to Atat Junction which is asphalt road construction by a China
contractor called C.G.G.C, consulted by Beza Consulting Engineers and owned
by Ethiopian Road Authority for the Welkitie-Hosahina Road Upgrading Project.
The second one is from Atat Junction to Kose Gravel Maintenance Road
Project. The construction is done by Afewerk Gidey General Contractor,
consulted by Transport Construction Share Company (TCDSCo.) and owned by
Ethiopian Road Authority under Alemgena Road Network Management
Directorate. The two roads are significant for me in order to consider the paved
and unpaved part road damages.
In Guragie Zone specifically in Enamor Wereda most of the areas are covered by
expansive soil. This type of soil is significant and appreciable when we consider
3

the suitability of soil in terms of production of important food ingredients.


However, when we consider it in the construction industries it creates
numerous problems unless otherwise special treatment of best design and
construction methods are undertaken.
The Welkite Hosahina Road project lies in the Southern Nations Nationalities
and Peoples Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia and will connect three Zones of the
region namely; Guragae, Silte and Hadiya zones. The road project starts at a
junction on the Addis Ababa Jimma Asphalt road just within the Municipal
area of Welkite town and ends at Hosahina town of Hadiya Zone. Wolkite town
is found about 158 km from Addis Ababa in the southern part of the country,
while Hosahina is at 260km distance on the Addis Ababa Butajira Hosahina
trunk road.
The road project traverses Cheha & Gumer Woredas of Guragea zone, Geto and
West Azernet Berbere Woredas of Silt zone, Limo Woreda and Hosahina special
Woredas of Hadiya zone. The Woredas have high agricultural potential and are
densely populated rural settlement areas of the country.
The proposed project work is an upgrading work of the existing deteriorated
gravel road to an asphalt road standard and will have an estimated road length
of about 121kms. But, I consider only the first 24 kms of the project i.e. from
Welkitie to Atat Junction as a representative from the whole Stretch.
The Atat Junction Kossie Gravel Road project lies in the Southern Nations
Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia and will connect two
towns Enemor Woreda in region namely; Atat Hospital and Kossie Towns. The
road project starts at a junction on the Welkitie Hosahina Asphalt road just
at the Junction of Atat Hospital. Atat Hospital town is found about 24 km from
Welkitie in the southern part of the country, while Kossie is at around 285 km
distance on the Addis Ababa Butajira Hosahina trunk road. The road
project traverses Mazoria, Gunchire, Gusbaja, Weira & Kossie of Enemor
Wereda. The Woreda have high agricultural potential and are densely populated
rural settlement areas of the Guragae zone.
The proposed project work is a maintenance work of the existing deteriorated
gravel road to a better road standard and will have an estimated road length of
about 46 kms. But, I consider only the first 30 kms of the project i.e. from Atat
Junction to Weira as a representative from the whole Stretch.
4

1.2

Statement of the problem

Campbell-Allen (1987) observes that much can be learned from the majority of
failures that are non-catastrophic, in addition to the less common catastrophic
failures.
If learning is to be achieved, the information should be available to interested
parties, but this can be quite difficult to achieve in practice, due to difficulty
disseminating information, because of limitations in communications
technology and other factors.
Campbell-Allen (1987) has classed failures as either technical or procedural
failures, and the application of lessons learned from failures as either general
or specific.
General application may be in the form of changes to codes of practice,
industry norms or legislation. As mentioned, all of these have both advantages
and disadvantages, and should be carefully considered before carrying out
changes.
Specific application can be by correction of technical defects, due to reports on
similar structures. However, this may leave the structure vulnerable to other
deficiencies.
Campbell-Allen (1987) concludes that:
There is a need to ensure records of accidents/failures are published so they
are accessible to all engineers, and there must be a willingness to do this for it
to be successful.
He states that information of a forensic nature should be available, in the form
of case studies, reports on errors in methods or procedures, and the types of a
certain distress. He acknowledges that the motivation for this to occur must
come from within the industry and profession if it is to be successful.
The investigation is the process by which information is gathered to determine
the probable cause of failure.
Stresses producing minor defects are constantly working in all pavements. The
major types of pavements distresses in paved roads are cracks, disintegrations,
5

and slippery surfaces. Early detection and repair of minor defects is the most
important work done by maintenance crews up on detection of pavement
distress, a detailed investigation should be made to determine the kind of
repair or remedial measure needed repairs then should be made as quickly as
possible.

1.3

Research Questions

a) What are the causes and effects of road failures?


b) How the engineering properties of base course, sub base course and
the subgrade materials affect the quality of asphalt pavement layers?
c) What is the extent or degree of improvement for such type of road
failures?
d) What kind or type of remedial measures or improvement to be needed
in order to correct the type of road failures?

1.4 Objective
1.4.1 General objectives
The general objective of this research is to undertake investigation of the
causes of asphalt concrete pavement damages at Wolkitie Atat Junction
Asphalt Road and Atat Junction- Kossie gravel Roads, central Ethiopia.

1.4.2 Specific Objective


The specific objectives of this research are:a) To identify the causes of road failures and its effect to the travelling
public.
b) To determine the engineering properties of soil used for base course,
sub base course and the subgrade materials.
c) To evaluate the degree of improvement due to road failures.

d) To recommend appropriate improvement to correct such type of road


failures.
1.5 Significance of the study
The study is significant in such a way that most of the roads constructed on
expansive soils around the world experience a lot of effects when they are
giving functions for the community. Therefore, my research place as a case
study consists of a pure class black cotton soil which has characteristics of
swelling when it gains water in summer season and shrinks when it is dried in
the winter season. This behavior of the soil is important in order to investigate
the causes and effects of such a soil for a specified place on road construction
sectors.
1. Scope and Limitation of the study
The study can be limited according the general and specific objectives. It can be
used in national and international community so it can satisfy the whole
construction sector all over the world.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
Road network is considered very vital in the economies of many nations,
especially the developing ones, like Ethiopia, that require(s) roads and
highways for transportation of most goods and services. However, construction
and maintenance of good road and highway networks in these parts of the
world (i.e., the developing countries) are often problematic, and have resulted to
economic setbacks. Causes of road failures in these areas include inadequacy
of construction materials and poor quality of construction.

Expansive soil is a term generally applied to any soil or rock material that has
a potential for shrinking or swelling under changing moisture conditions the
primary problem that arises with regard to expansive soil is that deformations
are significantly greater than elastic deformation and they cant be predicted by
classical elastic or plastic theory. Movement is usually in an uneven pattern
and of such a magnitude as to cause extensive damage to the structures and
pavements resting on them.
In Ethiopia there is no exact record for cost incurred for damage caused by
expansive soil. However, evidences showed that some structures constructed in
expansive soil areas are damaged. Damages are significantly high in road
construction and the country is spending billions of Birr for maintenance.

Figure 2.1 Pictures of failed road sections and some accidents.


2.2 Theoretical Review/Conceptual Framework
8

2.2.1 Site characterization


In any geotechnical site investigation, the subsoil profile and the physical
properties of the sub surface materials must be investigated. Normal soils
investigation practices for non-expansive sites is often not adequate in
providing sufficient information to quantify the potential for expansion. If
expansive soils are present, more extensive site investigation and specialized
testing programs are justified even for small structures such as residential
houses and one-story buildings. For a large project, site investigation should be
conducted in stages so as to optimize the use of results obtained and to
enhance the amount of pertinent data that can be obtained.
2.2.2 Materials and Methods
Soil samples were obtained from foundation of the road; these samples were
collected from 6 different locations of the road with worst failure rates. These
samples were first air dried under the sun to allow moisture to escape before
basic test were performed. The tests were conducted in accordance with the
British & AASHTO Standard. 9 soil geotechnical properties were tested. They
include Atterberg limit comprising of liquid limit and plastic limit test, particle
size analysis comprising determination of percentage clay, silt and sand the
determination of coefficient of uniformity and curvature were also carried out.
Other test includes, compaction, Specific Gravity, Permeability, Free Swell,
Direct Shear test and the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test, which were
conducted to test likely failure due to the geotechnical properties along road
under investigation. However, particle size Distribution shows composition of
sand and gravel more so, plasticity chart was plotted to determine clayey and
silt composition of the soil samples under investigation.
2.2.3 Organization of sub-grade soil investigation
Soil investigation in expansive soil areas should be organized as follows:

Figure 2.2 Pictures of black cotton soil or sub-grade material.


i.

Reconnaissance: - is the first phase, it includes the use of maps, field or areal
observations, and local experience to locate potential problem areas. This
information is then used to define the scope of the preliminary investigation.

ii.

Preliminary investigation: - is intended to confirm whether the soil at the site


have a potential for swelling and shrinking. This investigation may include
some preliminary subsurface sampling and initial laboratory testing and
analysis. The subsurface profile should be defined as closely as possible and
should be identified and classified. Shrink-swell potential can be identified on
the basis of various classification schemes based on the preliminary
investigation. A final, more detailed investigation can be defined.

iii.

Detailed investigation: - includes detailed definition of the soil profile,


determination of soil properties, and quantification of the shrink-swell potential
at the site.
2.2.4 Engineering classification tests for expansive sub-grade soil
Classification tests for soil index properties such as grain size distribution, clay
content, and plasticity are the most widely used practice for identifying and
classifying expansive soils.
Atterberg limits define moisture content boundaries between states of
consistency of fine grained soils.

2.2.5 Sub-grade materials

10

The purpose of pavements is to provide a smooth surface over which vehicles


may pass under all climatic conditions. Although a pavements wearing course
is most prominent, the success or failure of a pavement is more often
dependent upon the underlying sub grade, the material upon which the
pavement structure is built.
Sub-grade performance
A sub grades performance generally depends on three of its basic
characteristics all of which are highly interrelated.
Load bearing capacity:-the subgrade must be able to support load
transmitted from the pavement structure. This load bearing
capacity is often affected by degree of compaction, moisture content,
and soil type.
Moisture content:-moisture tends to affect a number of subgrade
properties including bearing capacity, shrinkage and swelling.
Moisture content can be influenced by a number of things such as
drainage, groundwater table elevation, infiltration or pavement
porosity (which can be assisted by cracks in the pavement).
Generally, highly wet sub-grades will deform excessively under load.
Shrinkage and/or swelling:-some soils shrink or swell depending
on their moisture content. Additionally, soils with excessive fines
content may be susceptible to frost heave in some climates.
Shrinkage, swelling and frost heave will tend to deform and crack
any pavement type constructed over them.
Strength-density-moisture relationship
Compaction of sub-grade materials increases density resulting in lower affinity
to moisture. Both of these factors results in an increase in strength. The
strength values that are used for design should be based on the results of a
thorough study of the moisture-density-strength relationships that can be
attained after construction and during the lifetime of the pavement. Normally,
it is specified that the subgrade can be compacted to 100% of the dry density
achieved in the laboratory up to a depth of 30cm.

11

Characterization of sub-grade soils based on their resistance to


deformation
Sub-grade materials are typically characterized by their resistance to
deformation under load, which can be either a measure of their strength. The
more resistant to deformation of a subgrade is the more loads it can support
before reaching a critical deformation value.
Three basic subgrade stiffness/ strength characteristics measurement
commonly used are: California Bearing Ratio (CBR), Resistance Value (R-value)
and elastic (resilient) modulus.
The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test is a simple strength test that compares
the bearing capacity of a material with that of a well-graded crushed stone,
thus a high quality crushed stone material should have a CBR value of 100%.
The strength of subgrade soils is dependent on the type of soil, density and
moisture content. The design CBR of the subgrade soil, therefore, should be
evaluated at the moisture content and density representative to the subgrade
condition during the service time of the pavement structure. A road section for
which a pavement design is under taken should be subdivided in to subgrade
areas where the subgrade CBR can be reasonably expected to be uniform, i.e
without significant variation.
2.2.5 Distress Conditions of pavement
I. Distress
Distress is an important factor of pavement design. In the empirical methods
each failure criterion should be developed separately to take care of each
specific distress. Unfortunately, most of the distresses are caused by the
deficiencies in construction, materials and maintenance rather than design.
However, knowledge of the various types of distress is important to pavement
designers. It can help to identify the causes of the distress. If distress is due to
improper design, improvement in the design method can be made.
Furthermore, the evaluation of pavement distress is an important part of the

12

pavement management system by which an effective strategy can be developed


for maintenance and rehabilitation.

II. Types of distress and their cause


i.

Alligator or Fatigue cracking


Alligator or fatigue cracking is a series of interconnecting cracks caused by the
fatigue failure of asphalt surface or stabilized base under repeated traffic
loading. The cracking initiates at the bottom of the asphalt surface or stabilized
base, where the tensile stress or strain is highest under a wheel load. The
cracks propagate to the surface initially as one or more longitudinal parallel
cracks. After repeated traffic loading the cracks connect and form many sided,
sharp-angled pieces that develop a pattern resembling chicken wire or the skin
of an alligator, as show in Fig 2.3 the pieces are usually less than 30cm on the
longest side. Alligator cracking occurs only in areas that are subjected to
repeated traffic loadings. It would not occur over an entire area unless the
entire area is subjected to traffic loading. Alligator cracking does not occur in
asphalt overlays over concrete slabs. Patter-Type cracking, which occurs over an
entire area that is not subject to loading, is rated as block cracking. This is not
a load-associated distress. Alligator cracking is considered a major structural
distress. It is measured in square feet or square meters of surface area.
Fatigue (also called alligator) cracking, which is caused by fatigue damage, is
the principal structural distress which occurs in asphalt pavements with
granular and weakly stabilized bases. Alligator cracking first appears as
parallel longitudinal cracks in the wheel-paths, and progresses into a network
of interconnecting cracks resembling chicken wire or the skin of an alligator.
Alligator cracking may progress further, particularly in areas where the support
is weakest, to localized failures and potholes.
Factors which influence the development of alligator cracking are the number
and magnitude of applied loads, the structural design of the pavement (layer
materials and thicknesses), the quality and uniformity of foundation support,
the consistency of the asphalt cement, the asphalt content, the air voids and

13

aggregate characteristics of the asphalt concrete mix, and the climate of the
site (i.e., the seasonal range and distribution of temperatures). 2,3
Considerable laboratory research into the fatigue life of asphalt concrete mixes
has been conducted. However, attempting to infer from such laboratory tests
how asphalt concrete mix properties influence asphalt pavement fatigue life
requires consideration of the mode of laboratory testing (constant stress or
constant strain) and the failure criterion used. Constant- stress testing
suggests that any asphalt cement property (e.g., lower penetration, higher
viscosity) or mix property which increases mix stiffness will increase fatigue
life. Constant-strain testing suggests the opposite: that less brittle mixes (e.g.,
higher penetrations, lower viscosities) exhibit longer fatigue lives. The
prevailing recommendations are that low-stiffness (low viscosity) asphalt
cements should be used for thin asphalt concrete layers (i.e., less than 5
inches), and that the fatigue life of such mixes should be evaluated using
constant-strain testing, while high- stiffness (high viscosity) asphalt cements
should be used for asphalt concrete layers 5 inches and thicker, and the
fatigue life of such mixes should be evaluated using constant-stress testing.3
In practice, however, it is not common to modify the mixture stiffness for
different asphalt concrete layer thicknesses.

Figure 2.3 Alligator Fatigue cracking in wheel Paths.

ii.

Block cracking
14

Block cracking divides the asphalt surface in to approximately rectangular


pieces, as shown in Fig 2.2. The block range in size from approximately 0.1 to
9.3m2. Cracking in to larger block is generally rated as longitudinal and
transverse cracking. Block cracking is caused mainly by the shrinkage of hot
mix asphalt and daily temperature cycling, which results in cyclic stress and
strain. It is not load associated, although loads can increase the severity of the
cracks. The occurrence of block cracking usually indicated that the asphalt has
hardened significantly. Block cracking normally occurs over a large portion of
pavement area, but sometimes it occurs only in non-traffic areas. Block
cracking is measured in square feet or square meters of surface area.
Block cracking occurs over large paved areas such as parking lots, as well as
roadways, primarily in areas not subjected to traffic loads, but sometimes also
in loaded areas. Thermal cracks typically develop transversely across the traffic
lanes of a roadway, sometimes at such regularly spaced intervals that they may
be mistaken for reflection cracks from an underlying concrete pavement or
stabilized base.
Block cracking and thermal cracking are both related to the use of an asphalt
cement which is or has become too stiff for the climate. Both types of cracking
are caused by shrinkage of the asphalt concrete in response to low
temperatures, and progress from the surface of the pavement downward. The
key to minimizing block and thermal cracking is using an asphalt cement of
sufficiently low stiffness (high penetration), which is nonetheless not overly
temperature-susceptible (i.e., likely to become extremely stiff at low
temperatures regardless of its penetration index at higher temperatures).

Figure 2.4 Medium-severity Block Cracking.

15

iii.

Joint reflection cracking from concrete slab


Reflection cracking occurs in asphalt overlays of concrete pavements as a
result of stress concentration in the asphalt concrete layer, due to movement
at joints, cracks, asphalt patches, and expansion joints in the underlying
concrete slab. This movement may be either bending or shear induced by
wheel loads, or may be horizontal contraction and expansion induced by
temperature changes. The magnitudes of load-induced movements are
influenced by the overlay thickness and the thickness and stiffness of the
concrete pavement and supporting layers.
The magnitudes of horizontal movements are influenced by daily and seasonal
temperature cycles, the coefficient of thermal expansion of the concrete slab,
and the spacing of joints and cracks.
Joint reflection cracking is shown in Fig 2.5. In an asphalt overlay of a jointed
concrete pavement, some reflection cracks typically develop within the first
few years after placement of an overlay, and sometimes within the first year.
The quantity of reflection cracking that is likely to occur is very difficult to
predict without knowing how much of the crack and joint deterioration
present prior to overlay was repaired, and what type of repairs were placed.
Reflection cracks should not appear for several years in an asphalt overlay of a
continuously reinforced concrete pavement, as long as the CRCP is adequately
repaired with tied or welded reinforced concrete. The rate at which reflection
cracks deteriorate depends on the factors listed above as well as the number
and magnitude of applied loads. The rate of initial occurrence of reflection
cracks is easier to model and predict, but arguably less important, than the
rate of deterioration of reflection cracks to medium and high severity levels.
Reflection cracking can have a considerable, often controlling, influence on
the life of an asphalt-overlaid concrete pavement. Deteriorated reflection
cracks reduce a pavements serviceability and also require frequent
16

maintenance, such as sealing, milling, and patching. Reflection cracks also


permit water to enter the pavement structure, which may accelerate loss of
bond between the asphalt and concrete layers, stripping in the asphalt, D
cracking or reactive alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete prone to these
problems, and softening of the base and subgrade.

Figure 2.5 Reflections Cracking at Joints.


iV. Lane/shoulder drop off or heave
This distress occurs where there is a difference in elevation between traffic lane
and shoulder, as seen in Fig 2.6. Typically, the outside shoulder settles due to
the consolidation settlement, or pumping of the underlying granular or sub
grade material heave of the shoulder may be caused by frost action or swelling
soils. Lane/shoulder drop-off is a difference in elevation between the pavement
edge and the shoulder. Drop off granular soil shoulders is generally caused
from bellowing away of shoulder material from passing truck. Lane/ shoulder
drop off or heave is measured every 100ft (30m) in inches (or mm) along the
pavement edge. The mean difference in elevation is computed and used to
determine severity level.
Lane/shoulder separation is a widening of the joint between the edge of the
pavement and the shoulder. It may result from differential movement of the
pavement and the shoulder, or erosion of the shoulder material. Separation
makes the lane/shoulder more difficult to maintain sealed, and permits the
easier entry of water into the pavement structure, at the place where pavement
deflections are already highest and foundation support to the pavement

17

structure tends to be weakest. A wide separation along the lane/shoulder joint


could also pose a safety hazard.

Figure 2.6 Lane/shoulder drop off & Lane-to-shoulder separation.


V. Longitudinal and transverse cracking
Longitudinal cracks are parallel to the pavement centerline while transverse
cracks extend across the centerline, as shown is Fig 2.7. They may be caused
by the shrinkage of asphalt surface due to low temperature or asphalt
hardening or from reflective cracks caused beneath the asphalt surface,
including cracks in concrete slabs but not at the joints. A poorly constructed
paving lane joint may also cause longitudinal cracks. These types of cracks are
not usually load associated. Longitudinal and transverse cracking are
measured in linear feet or linear meters.
Transverse cracking is the predominant structural distress in jointed plain
concrete highway pavements. Repeated heavy wheel loads cause fatigue
damage in the concrete slab, which eventually results in slab cracking. Since
the greatest stresses are generally produced by wheel loads at the outer slab
edge, midway between the transverse joints, transverse cracking most
commonly results at mid-slab. Factors which influence the development of
transverse fatigue cracking include the number and magnitude of applied
loads, the thickness and stiffness of the concrete slab, the stiffness and
uniformity provided by the base and foundation, the degree of friction between
the slab and base, the degree of load transfer at transverse and longitudinal
joints and cracks, the quality of drainage, and climatic influences (daily and
seasonal temperature and moisture cycles which influence slab curling, joint
and crack opening, and foundation support).

18

Figure 2.7 Longitudinal & Transverse crack in jointed plain


concrete pavement.
Vi Pumping and water bleeding
Pumping is the ejection of water and erodible fine materials under pressure
through cracks under moving loads as shown in Fig 2.8. On asphalt
pavements, pumping is typically evidenced by light-colored stains on the
pavement shoulder near joints and cracks. As the water is ejected, if carries
fine material, thus resulting in progressive material deterioration and loss of
support. Surface staining or accumulation of material on the surface close to
cracking is evidence of pumping. Water bleeding occurs where water seeps
slowly out of cracks on the pavement surface. Pumping and water bleeding are
measured by counting the number that number that exists.
In addition to the manifestations of pumping in asphalt and concrete
pavements described earlier, pumping of water and fines out through
lane/shoulder joints may result in staining of the shoulder surface (which is
merely a cosmetic problem), and the formation of blowholes along the
lane/shoulder joint in an asphalt shoulder.
This type of distress is often accompanied by or progresses into degradation of
a width of about 6 inches of shoulder material along the lane/shoulder joint.

19

Figure 2.8 Staining on shoulder due to pumping of fi nes &


Pumping of Stabilized Base under Asphalt Pavement.
Vii Rutting
Rutting is a surface depression in the wheel paths. Fig 2.9 pavement uplift may
occur along the side of the rut. However, in many instances ruts are noticeable
only after a rainfall, when the wheel paths are filled with water. Rutting stems
from the permanent deformation in any of the pavement layers or the sub
grade, usually caused by the consolidation or lateral movement of the materials
is the result of traffic loads. Plastic movement of the asphalt mix in hot weather
or inadequate compaction may cause rutting during construction. Significant
rutting can lead to major structural failures and hydroplaning potentials.
Rutting is measured in square feet or square meters of surface area for a given
severity level based on rut depth.
Deformation which occurs only in the asphalt concrete later may be the result
of either consolidation or plastic flow. Consolidation is the continued
compaction of asphalt concrete by traffic loads applied after construction.
Consolidation may produce significant rutting in asphalt layers which are very
thick and which are compacted during construction to initial air void contents
considerably higher than the long-term air void contents for which the mixes
were designed. Plastic flow is the lateral movement of the mix away from the
wheel-paths, most often as a result of excessive asphalt content, exacerbated
by the use of small, rounded aggregates and/or inadequate compaction during
construction.
Asphalt cement stiffness is believed to play a relatively minor role in rutting
resistance of asphalt mixes which contain well-graded, angular, rough-textured
aggregates. Stiffer asphalt cements can increase rutting resistance somewhat,
but the tradeoff is that mixes containing stiffer cements are more prone to
cracking in cold weather.
Wheel-path ruts greater than a third to a half an inch in depth are considered
by many highway agencies to pose a safety hazard, due to the potential for
hydroplaning, wheel spray, and vehicle handling difficulties.

20

Figure 2.9 Rutting At The Wheel Path.


Viii. Swell
Swell is characterized by an upward bulge on the pavement surface. A swell
may occur sharply over a small area or as a long gradual wave. Either type of
swell can be accompanied by surface cracking. A swell is usually caused by
frost action in the sub grade or by swelling soils, but a swell can also occur on
the surface of an asphalt overlay on concrete pavement as a result of blowing of
in the concrete slab, as shown in Fig 2.10. Swell can often be identified by oil
dropping due to the bumpy surface. Swells are measured in square meters of
surface area.
Swelling soils are those clays and shales which are susceptible to
experiencing significant volume increases when sufficient moisture is available
to increase the ratio of voids (air and water) to solids, especially in the absence
of an overburden pressure. Overburden pressure may be reduced when
underlying material is excavated, and replaced by a pavement. If the moisture
content of these soils is normally low (i.e., in a dry climate), and evaporation of
moisture from the soil is hindered by the presence of the pavement,
considerable swelling may result. Swelling soils are responsible for pavement
heaving, poor ride quality, and cracking in many areas.

Figure 2.10 Swell at a patch due to buckling of concrete slab.


Ix: - Disintegration
21

Disintegration is the breaking up of pavement in to small, loose fragments. This


includes the dislodging of aggregate particles. If not stopped in its early stages,
disintegration can progress until the pavement requires complete rebuilding.
Potholes and raveling are two of the more common types of early stage
disintegration. Repair ranges from simple seals to deep patches.
i)

Potholes- bowl shaped holes resulting from localized disintegration, due to too
little asphalt, tooth in asphalt surface, too many fine, too few fines, or poor
drainage. Potholes grow in size and depth as water accumulates in the hole and
penetrates into the base and subgrade, weakening support in the vicinity of the

ii)

pothole.
Raveling- Progressive loss of surface material by weathering and /or traffic
abrasion. Raveling and weathering occur as a result of loss of bond between
aggregates and the asphalt binder. This may occur due to hardening of the
asphalt cement, dust on the aggregate which interferes with asphalt adhesion,
localized areas of segregation in the asphalt concrete mix where fine aggregate
particles are lacking, or low in-place density of the mix due to inadequate
compaction. High air void contents are associated with more rapid aging and
increased likelihood of raveling.

Figure 2.11: Potholes

Figure 2.12: Reveling

X: - Shoving, Corrugation and Bleeding


Shoving and corrugation are terms which refer to longitudinal displacement
of asphalt concrete in a localized area. Shoving and corrugation are produced

22

by traffic loading, but are indicative of an unstable liquid asphalt mix (e.g.,
cutback or emulsion).

Bleeding is the accumulation of asphalt cement material at the pavement


surface, beginning as individual drops which eventually coalesce into a shiny,
sticky film. Bleeding is the consequence of a mix deficiency: an asphalt cement
content in excess of that which the air voids in the mix can accommodate at
higher temperatures (when the asphalt cement expands). Bleeding occurs in
hot weather but is not reversed in cold weather, so it results in an
accumulation of excess asphalt cement on the pavement surface. Bleeding
reduces surface friction and is therefore a potential safety hazard.

Figure 2.13. Tire marks evident of bleeding.

Figure 2.14. Shoving in pavement

surface.

Xi:-Slippery Surfaces
Excess Asphalt (Bleeding)-excess asphalt or a film of asphalt on the pavement
surface, due to rich asphalt mixes or too heavy prime coat/tack coat
Polished Aggregates- aggregates on the surface of pavement worn smooth
under the abrasive action of traffic.
Xii: - Surface Treatment problems

23

Loss of Cover Aggregate Whipping off aggregate under traffic from a surface
treated pavement, leaving the asphalt. Several things can cause loss of cover
aggregates:

Figure 2.15. Loss of Cover Aggregates


-

Aggregates spread after asphalt has cooled too much,


Aggregates dusty or wet when spread,
Aggregates not rolled or seated immediately after spreading,
Steel wheel roller bridged over low spot,
Traffic allowed on new surface treatment too soon, and
Not enough or wrong grade of asphalt or an absorbent surface.
Hot, coarse sand spread over the affected area may be used to replace lost
aggregates. It should be rolled immediately with a pneumatic roller so that it is
seated in the asphalt.
Xiii. Streaking
Longitudinal Streaking- alternating lean and heavy lines of asphalt running
parallel to the center line of the road. At the time of asphalt spraying, the spray
pattern did not provide a uniform coverage, hence the longitudinal streaking
occurs.
Transverse Streaking: - alternation lean and heavy lines of asphalt running
across the road that may result in corrugations.
Possible causes are: Spray bar not at proper height above the ground;
24

Nozzles on spray bar not set at correct angle


Wrong asphalt pump speed,
Too cold asphalt or too high viscosity; and
Too low pump pressure.
Correction: Plane off the streaked surface and apply a new surface

treatment.
2.3. Summary of Causes and Maintenance of Pavement Distresses
A. Bleeding:Description: - Localized accumulations of bitumen at road surface, making the
road appear black and shiny.
Probable Cause and Contributing Factors: Caused by excess asphalt in the surface layer and /or low air void content.
Insufficient or excess covering stone
Lack of proper rolling curing placement
Failure to protect a newly constructed surface from traffic until the asphalt
has cured sufficiently.
upward movement of excess bitumen in hot weather
Figure 2.16 Very marked continuous bleeding in
wheel tracks.

How to maintain:
Minor Bleeding can be corrected by applying coarse sand

or stone
screening asphalt up (secure) excess asphalt
Major Bleeding can be corrected by cutting off excess
asphalt with motor grade. If the surfacing is excessively
rough, resurfacing may be necessary.
B. Potholes: - Potholes most often result from wear or destruction of the
wearing course, sometimes from the presence of foreign bodies in the
surfacing.
They are small when they first appear. In the absence of maintenance, they
grow and reproduce in rows, often with a pitch equal to the circumference of a
truck type.
How to Measure:25

Measure the depth, count the number of potholes, and measure the diameter
of the pothole on a length of 100m.

Figure 2.17. Measuring depth of potholes


Severity Rate:
Severity 1: Low density of small potholes (No.<5 and/or Diam.<30cm) / Small
number of potholes that can be plugged by ordinary patching
Severity2: High density of small and medium potholes (5<No.<10 and
Diam.>30cm or No.>10 and Diam.>100cm) / Large number of small potholes in
surface
Severity 3: High density of small and medium potholes (No.>10 and
Diam.>30cm or 5<No.>10 and Diam.>100cm) / Potholes or crazing formation
pavement must be rebuilt or overlaid

Severity 1

Severity 2

Severity 3

Reference ERA Design Manual (Draft 2001)


26

How to maintain;
Top repair potholes take following actions:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Clean out hole


Remove any wet base
Shape hole so that it has vertical sides
Prime hole
Fill hole with Ac/Surface treatment
Properly compact with hand tamper or any appropriate means
C. Rutting or Channeling
Severity
Severity
Severity
Severity

Rate
1: If h is smaller than 2cm
2: If h is between 2 and 4cm
3: If h is larger than 4cm

Severity 1

Severity 2

Severity 3

Reference ERA Design Manual (Draft 2001)


How to measure:Rutting is measured by using a 1.5 m long straight edge placed cross- wide
placed cross- wide the pavement above the deformed area and the height his
recorded classify the severity.
How to maintain:
When there is rutting without cracking, repair the area by replacing the
bituminous layers by materials of better compaction and if rutting is
associated with cracking, remove the old surface, if the area shows signs of
mud being pimped to the surface, remove all wet material and reconstruct
the pavement.
D. Subsidence:- affects the entire edge of the pavement. It is a result of
deficiencies of bearing capacity or of stability, possibly caused by materials of
27

poor quality or excessively high water contents. Subsidence often occurs in


bends and in zones of very high stress:

Severity
Severity
Severity
Severity

Rate
1: If h is smaller than 2cm / Localized subsidence of severity 1
2: If h is between 2 and 4cm / Ridge of severity 2
3: If h is larger than 4cm / Subsidence of severity 3

Severity 1
Severity 2

Severity 3

Reference ERA Design Manual (Draft 2001)


How to maintain:
Repair the affected area by replacing the base or sub base material of better
quality and composition and proper compaction. If depression is server, start
reconstructing from the sub grade.
E. Alligator cracking /crocodile Cracking/:- This category does not include
cracks resulting from faulty construction, such as the longitudinal joint
between two mix spreading bands, or cracks caused by some particular
behavior of the material, such as longitudinal or transverse thermal shrinkage
cracks or clay shrinkage cracks.
Longitudinal fatigue cracks, on the other hand, are recorded. Most often
initially single and isolated, they evolve toward continuous cracking,
sometimes branching, before multiplying in the wheel tracks to the point of
becoming very closely spaced.
Severity
Severity
Severity
Severity

Rate
1: Single or clearly separated longitudinal cracks
2: Continues cracks, branched or clearly open
3: Extensive branched cracks or open cracks

28

Severity 1

Severity 2

Severity 3

Reference ERA Design Manual (Draft 2001)


How to maintain:
Visual assessment of the surface area affected.
F. Corrugation
Severity
Severity
Severity
Severity

Rate
1: If d is smaller than 2cm
2: If d is between 2 and 4cm
3: If d is larger than 4cm

Severity 1

Severity 2

29

Severity 3

Reference ERA Design Manual (Draft 2001)


How to maintain:
Place a 1.5m straight edge perpendicular to the ripples and measure the
maximum depth d (depth of the wavelength)

G. Raveling:- some raveling is caused by excessive wear of the wearing


course and may lead to the formation of potholes. It is normally counted as
cracking or crazing. Other raveling is caused by defective construction.
More or less large losses of gravel from surface dressings (deficiency of
bonding, hence of the quality and/or quantity of bitumen)
Severity Rate
Severity 1: Localized or Discontinuous raveling of plucking type
Severity 2: Continuous raveling

Severity 1

Severity 2

Reference ERA Design Manual (Draft 2001)


How to maintain:
Visual assessment of the surface area affected
H. transverse cracking
30

Severity Rate
Severity 1: Single straight, sharp and thin transverse crack
Severity 2: Crack branching or double or multiple cracks without loss of
material
Severity 3: Crack open and branching or multiple open cracks with los of
material
How to maintain:
Visual assessing affected surface area.

I.

Longitudinal Cracking: This is a failure of bonding between two


adjacent bands of coated materials. This type of crack is initially
single and straight, and can be repaired by treatment specific to such
cracking (severity 1). Traffic causes the crack to branch or double and
lose material at the edges (severity 2, 3). Repairs are more costly:
complete rebuilding of the damaged zone or placement of a new
wearing course.

Severity Rate
Severity 1: Single straight, sharp and thin longitudinal crack
Severity 2: Crack branching or double or multiple cracks without loss of
material
Severity 3: Crack open and branching or multiple open cracks with loss of
material

Severity 1

Severity 2

Reference ERA Design Manual (Draft 2001)


How to maintain:
By visual assessment of the surface area affected.
31

Severity 3

K. Surface Loss
Severity
Severity
Severity
Severity

Rate
1: If h is smaller
2: If h is between 2 and 4cm
3: If h is larger than 4cm

Severity 1

Severity 2

Severity 3

Reference ERA Design Manual (Draft 2001)


How to maintain
Visual assessment of the affected surface area i.e. the number defects, area
coverage of individual defects and the thickness of layer removed
L. Shoulder and Ditch Erosion
There are other forms of damage that are specific to a climate, a country, or a
given traffic pattern and that may require rebuilding of the shoulders as part of
maintenance:

Lacy edge: this damage occurs in pavements in which the road base and
shoulders are of the same type, and is caused by the frequent stopping of
vehicles on the shoulders. The extent of the damage is more important than
its severity.
Severity
Severity
Severity
Severity

Rate
1 Onset of lacy edges
2 Lace cutting more than 0.50 m into the pavement
3 Extreme erosion approaching destruction of the pavement

32

Severity 1

Severity 2

Severity 3

Reference ERA Design Manual (Draft 2001)

Low shoulders: this damage is caused by maintenance of the shoulders,


which gradually become lower than the pavement surface.
Severity Rate
Severity 1 From 1 to 5 cm lower
Severity 2 From 5 to 10 cm lower
Severity 3 More than 10 cm lower

33

Severity 1:-Shoulder substantially lower than pavement (up to 10 cm)


Reference ERA Design Manual (Draft 2001)
Ditch and shoulder erosion: the erosion may take a number of forms (rainwash of ditch; rain-wash and destruction of ditch; destruction gravely
endangering a part of the pavement). The severity code follows this
progression:
Severity
Severity
Severity
Severity

Rate
1 Erosion of ditch repairs limited to ditch
2 Erosion and rain-wash of shoulder
3 Threat to or destruction of a part of the pavement

Severity 1:-Erosion of ditch.


undermining

Severity 2:- Destruction by

Reference ERA Design Manual (Draft 2001)


CHAPTER THREE
3. LABORATORY AND FIELD TEST RESULTS
3.1 General
For the design and construction of highway and airfield, it is imperative to
carry out tests on construction materials. The inherent economy in
34

construction depends upon the maximum use of local material. The prime
objective of the different tests in use is to know and to classify the pavement
materials into different groups depending upon their physical and strength or
stability characteristics.
Soil is very essential highway material because of:
a. Soil sub-grade is part of the pavement structure; further the design
and behavior of pavement especially the flexible pavements depend to
a great extent on the subgrade soil.
b. Soil is one of the principal materials of construction in soil
embankment and in stabilizing soil base and sub base courses.

3.2 Test Pit Location and reconnaissance survey


3.2.1 Test pits locations for pavement material sampling
During the field observation, it was found necessary to start by visual
inspection of the whole stretch of: Welkitie Atat Junction asphalt road
Atat Junction-Kossie gravel road.
During initial visit the whole portion of the road was covered and the failed
sections were identified visually for further detailed observation. In the
following visit six failed sections were inspected visually and approximate
measurements of width and length of the cracks were recorded. The
observation results and relevant remarks about the cracks condition are
presented in Table 3.1.

35

Table 3.1 Representative failed road por tions


No.

Station

App
crack

Side

length

App
Width of
depth of
crack
(cm)
crack (cm)

Remak

Welkitie - Atat Junction Asphalt Road Project


1

2+000

12

RHS

10

30

7+000

43

LHS

41

14+000

60

RHS

16

20

Atat Junction to Kossie Gravel Road Project


4

1+000

23

RHS

13

45

15+000

14

LHS

16

27+000

RHS

36

After finishing the initial visual inspection and categorizing the conditions of
road into two, such as slightly and extremely damages. Subsequently, Ill select
the representative locations for sampling. Based on their failure conditions, six
test pits were selected which represent the two conditions. For each condition
three test pits were dug for laboratory testing as well as field tests. The
stations, locations and date of sampling of the six test pits are listed in Table
3.2.

Table 3.2 stations and locations of t he six test pits


No

Station

Side

Distance from the

Damage type

Data of

sampling
center line
Welkitie - Atat Junction Asphalt Road Project
1

2+000

RHS

3.0

Slightly damaged

08/08/07

7+000

LHS

3.0

Slightly damaged

08/08/07

36

14+000

RHS

2.5

Extremely damaged 08/08/07

Atat Junction to Kossie Gravel Road Project


4

1+000

RHS

2.5

15+000

LHS

3.0

27+000

RHS

2.5

Extremely damaged 05/08/07


Slightly damaged

05/08/07

Extremely damaged 05/08/07

3.2.2 Rep resent ative ph otog r aph s of fa ile d por tions on roads.
Figs 3.1 to 3.8 are representative photographs of the Welkitie Atat Junction
asphalt and Atat Junction-Kossie gravel roads. Figs 3.1 to 3.8 are
representative failed sections, which show the degree of failure of the road. As it
is seen clearly from the photographs the road is highly damaged and there are
cracks at the shoulder carriageway interface, inside the carriageway and also
along the centerline. In the newly rehabilitated sections of Welkitie Atat
Junction asphalt and Atat Junction-Kossie gravel road it is not difficult to find
different type of cracks presented in this paper especially in areas of expansive
natural subgrade soil.

F i g 3 . 1 S h o u l d e r c a r r i a g ew ay i n te r fa c e & e x t r e m e l y d a m a g e d
l o n g i t u d i n a l crack

37

Fig 3.2 Longitudinal crack fully inside the carriage way

Fig 3.3 Major longitudinal crack inside the shoulder

Fig 3.4 Major longitudinal crack inside car r iage way.

38

Fig 3.5 Maintenance of Major transversal crack inside car riage way.

Fig 3.6 Maintenance of gravel road car riage way showing gullies.

Fig 3.7 Per iodic Maintenance of gravel road in addition to some new
alignments.

39

Fig 3.8 Cor rugation on sub-base & sub-grade.

3.3 Test results


For the materials on road construction weather for pavement or subgrade soil
the tests are performed and for convenience I classify as laboratory and field
tests. Under these classification we are going to analyze each type of tests for
different type of material according to their specification.

3.3.1 Laborator y test results

Water Content and Absorption (AASHTO T84/T85)


Specific gravity test (ASTM D854-00)
Procter test (AASHTO T180)
Atterberg Limits (ASTM D 423/424 AASHTO T89/T90)
Gradation tests (sieve analysis) (AASHTO T27 / ASTM C 136)
(ASTM D 2172 - 05)
(AASHTO T30-06)
CBR test (AASHTO T-193)
CBR swell test (AASHTO T-193)
Permeability Test (BS 1377)
Free swell test (BS 1377)
Direct shear test
Los Angeles abrasion test (AASHTO T-96)
Aggregate crushing value (BSI 812:PART110:1990)
Ten % fineness value (BS812:111:1990)
Flakiness index (BS PART 105.1)
Soundness test using sodium sulfate (AASHTU 104-99)
Marshal properties of bituminous mix (AASTM D1559 /AASHTO T246)
Marshall Mix Design and Test (ASTM D1559 or AASHTO T245)

40

3.3.2 Field test results


Field density test (ASTM Test Method D - 1556 - 96 (1996)
Degree of compaction and Void analysis
3.3.1.1 Water Content
The water-content determination is a routine laboratory procedure, and will be
used in other experiments. ASTM has designated it with a Standard, ASTM D2216-90 which can be found in ASTM Standards vol. 4.08, and also AASHTO
T-265, found under AASHTO Materials: Part II: Tests.

This is a laboratory procedure to determine the amount of water Ww present in


a quantity of soil in terms of its dry weight Ws. The water content w is usually
expressed in percent.

W = (Ww/Ws)*100 %

Although it is a simple experiment to perform, there are several sources of


error that can occur. The most significant is the oven temperature. Natural
soils almost always are composed primarily of minerals that are derived from
mechanical or chemical weathering of bedrock. Many soil-forming minerals are
hydrous, meaning they contain water within their crystal structures. Normally,
the water content of a soil is measured by oven drying the soil at 110 C. This
temperature is used because it is high enough to evaporate all the water
present in the pore spaces of the soil but is not so large that it drives water out
of the structure of most minerals. There is nothing special about 110 C;
however, experience indicates that higher drying temperatures produce drier
soil samples and hence higher water contents for essentially all types of soils.
Sand, because of its crystal structure, does not contain much water and is
relatively insensitive to oven temperature. In contrast, clay may be relatively
sensitive to oven temperature because clay minerals often contain appreciable
quantities of water in their structures. Furthermore, the water content of
41

organic soils may be very sensitive to oven temperature because higher


temperatures promote the oxidation of its organics.

Other sources of error include: the time period used for drying the soil, the
sample size, and weighing errors.

There are many other methods available to determine a soils water content
such as the Microwave Oven Method, Direct Heating Method, and the Calcium
Carbide Gas Pressure Tester Method (field determination).
Water content is an important measurement in determining the bearing
capacity (shear strength) and the possible settlement (deformation under load)
of a soil.
Equipment:

Three to five moisture cans (tin or aluminum) with their lids;

Temperature controlled oven (a forced-draft type). The oven should be kept


at a temperature of 110 5C;

An electronic scale.

Figure 3.9 A sample moisture can and a sample of soil to be tested.

Figure 3.10 The labs electronic scale and drying oven.


42

Type of
Material

Sub-grade

Station

Location

Water
Content

Standard

Absorptio
n

2+000

Maremia

11.97

8.44

7+000

Gumire

10.82

7.71

14+000

Asp Plant

9.77

6.56

1+000

Atat Hos

11.63

8.18

15+000

Mazoria

11.06

7.82

27+000

Weira

10.92

7.32

Standard

Remark

Table 3.3 Values of Nor mal Water Content and Absor ption For
selected sites on subgrade soil.
3.3.1.2 Specific gravity test results
The specific gravity of a given material is defined as the ratio of the weight of a
given volume of the material to the weight of an equal volume of distilled water.
In soil mechanics, the specific gravity of soil solids (which is often referred to as
the specific gravity of soil) is an important parameter for calculation of the
weightvolume relationship. Thus specific gravity, Gs, is defined as

43

Table 3.4 Range of specifi c gravity test results for diff erent mater ials
Material type

Specific gravity

Base course

2.73 2.90

Sub base

2.20 - 2.58

Fill mater ial

2.40 - 2.67

3.3.1.3 Procter test results (compaction test)


Compaction tests were performed for base course, sub base course and
selected materials based on AASHT0 T-180 test procedure for compaction. Test
results for compaction are presented in Table 3.17 to 3.19 for the three cases.
As it is shown from the test result values for maximum dry density and
44

optimum moisture content, the materials used as base course in all the three
cases have shown similar Procter test result values. The sub base course also
has similar values in all the three cases. For extremely damaged road section,
the selected material has relatively higher value of optimum moisture content
than the others.
Table 3.5 Values of proctor test for Sub-grade soil
Type of
Material
Sieve

Location

Sub-grade
27+00
0

14+000

1+000

Maremia

7+000
Gumir
e

Asp Plant

Atat Hos

15+000
Mazori
a

0ptimum
moisture
content

59.070

37.710

9.890

20.000

39.665

9.550

Maximu
m dry
density
(gm/cc)

1.048

1.387

1.947

1.264

1.407

1.593

Size

Standar
d

2+000

Remarks

Weira

Table 3.6 Values of proctor test for sub-base and capping soil
Sub-Base

Sieve Size
Asphalt
0ptimum
moisture
content
Maximum
dry
density
(gm/cc)

Standard

Gravel

Capping
Standard

Asphalt

10.500

15.150

11.800

2.010

1.650

1.945

Remarks

Standard

3.3.1.4 The Atterberg Limits


When a cohesive soil is mixed with an excessive amount of water, it is in a
somewhat liquid state and flows like a viscous liquid. However, when this
viscous liquid is gradually dried, with the loss of moisture it passes into a
45

plastic state. With further reduction of moisture, the soil passes into a
semisolid, and then into a solid state. The moisture content (as a percentage)
at which the cohesive soil passes from a liquid state to a plastic state is called
the liquid limit of the soil. Similarly, the moisture content (also as a percentage)
at which the soil changes from a plastic to a semisolid state, and from a
semisolid state to a solid state, are referred as to the plastic limit and the
shrinkage limit, respectively (Fig. 3.11). These three limits are collectively
referred to as the Atterberg limits, named after Albert Atterberg, the scientist
who initially developed them in 1911.

Fig. 3.11 Atterberg Limits


The Atterberg limit tests were later adapted by two scientists, Karl Terzaghi and
Arthur Casagrande (1930), to be used as a means of soil classification, and of
the determination of soil behavior under different conditions. For instance, one
method of differentiating between clay and silt is by determining the plasticity
of the soil. Plasticity refers to the response (change in consistency from hard to
soft, for example) of a soil to changes in moisture content (Coduto, 128). Clays
can be very plastic and silts slightly plastic, whereas clean sands and gravels
do not exhibit any plasticity at all. The plasticity index is a measure of the
range of moisture contents that encompass the plastic state (Coduto 130) and
is the numerical difference between the liquid and plastic limits.
Casagrande used his mechanical liquid limit device with a number of different
soils (Fig 4.2). He found that plots of water content versus logarithm of the
46

number of blows (drops of the cup) were straight lines for all soils tested. He
called such plots flow curves and described them with the following equation.

w = - F log (N) + C
Where:
w = water content in percent
F = constant, called flow index
N = number of blows
C = constant

In this experiment, the Casagrande liquid limit device will be used to determine
the liquid limit of the soil sample. The liquid limit is found when 25 drops of
the liquid limit device are required to close the groove cut through the sample a
distance of 1/2 in. The plastic limit is found when the soil sample being rolled
breaks at 1/8 in diameter. The moisture content at these limits gives a
quantitative measure of these limits. The following equations for the mass,
liquid limit, plastic limit, moisture content, flow index and plasticity index will
be used in the determination of the Atterberg limits of the soil sample, and to
further classify the soil type.
47

Fig. 3.12 Liquid and Plastic Limits

Table 3.7 Char t for values of Specifi c Gravity For selected sites

Type of
Material
Sub-grade

Station
2+000
7+000

Location
Maremia
Gumire

Liquid
Limits
106.41
64.71

Standard

Plastic
Limits
40.80
29.55

48

Standard

Plastic
Index
65.61
35.16

Standard

Remark

Capping

Sub-base

14+000

Asp Plant

61.27

31.05

30.22

1+000

Atat Hos

99.94

49.40

50.54

15+000

Mazoria

97.90

56.92

40.98

27+000

Weira

76.49

65.85

10.64

2+000

Maremia

7+000

Gumire

31.16

16.2

14.96

14+000

Asp Plant

1+000

Atat Hos

15+000

Mazoria

27+000

Weira

2+000

Maremia

7+000

Gumire

36.39

26.9

9.49

14+000

Asp Plant

1+000

Atat Hos

15+000

Mazoria

27+000

Weira

41.98

30.1

11.88

3.3.1.5 Gradation te st results


Hydrometer and standard sieves are used for gradation tests. For materials
less than 0.075 mm hydrometer analysis was performed and for grains larger
than 0.075mm standard sieves were used. Based on the test results the range
of values for black and red clay soils are presented in Table 3.8
Based on AASHTO grain size classification soils having less than 0.002mm
grain sizes are classified as clay soils, grains between 0.002-0.075mm are
considered as silt, grains between 0.075-2.0mm are considered as sand and
grains greater than 2.00mm are gravels. On the other hand USCS classification
system uses the same grain sizes as that of AASHTO for clay and silt but it
49

takes for sand grains between 0.075mm 4.0mm and for gravel greater than
4.75mm. For this thesis work AASTHO is followed.
The Unified Soil Classification System uses Coefficient of Uniformity (Cu) and
Coefficient of Concavity (Cc) as a classification criterion for coarse-grained
soils. Based on the gradation test results found the base course materials for
all the three conditions have the value of Cc ranging between 1 to 3 and Cu is
greater than 4. According to the unified soil classification criteria the base
course materials are well-graded gravel with little fines.
The sub-base materials according to the unified soil classification criteria are
well-graded gravelly sands with Cu greater than 6 and Cc is ranging between 1
to 3. The selected materials show similar Cc and Cu values as that of sub base
material for all cases.

Sieve
Size

Type of
Material

Sub-grade

Remarks

Location

2+000

7+000

14+000

1+000

15+000

27+000

Standard

Maremia

Gumire

Asp Plant

Atat Hos

Mazoria

Weira

4.750

78.676

76.403

76.759

79.096

76.410

80.260

2.800

63.324

65.316

66.098

64.038

65.151

69.942

2.000

40.954

54.606

55.768

41.946

54.770

59.175

1.180

33.345

50.524

51.027

33.805

50.361

52.343

1.000

31.352

49.013

49.791

31.620

48.817

50.627

50

0.500

13.485

34.162

37.579

13.620

34.283

38.595

0.150

3.061

13.356

15.711

3.616

13.907

16.502

0.075
0.035
3
0.025
6
0.016
8
0.010
0
0.007
2
0.005
1
0.003
7
0.002
7
0.001
9
0.001
3
0.001
1

1.441

6.599

7.568

1.815

7.092

8.282

15.777

19.209

18.571

15.354

18.725

21.314

14.343

17.074

16.429

13.958

14.404

19.182

13.626

13.517

14.286

13.261

13.684

17.051

12.191

12.094

13.571

11.865

12.243

15.630

11.474

10.671

12.143

11.167

10.803

13.499

10.757

9.249

10.714

10.469

10.083

12.078

10.040

5.691

9.286

9.771

8.642

9.946

9.323

3.557

8.571

9.073

7.922

6.394

6.454

1.423

5.714

6.281

6.482

4.973

5.737

0.711

5.000

5.583

5.676

4.263

5.020

0.000

4.286

4.885

5.761

2.842

Table 3.8 Values of sieve analysis for Sub-Grade

51

Fig 3.13 Char t of sieve analysis for Sub-Grade

Table 3.9 Values of sieve analysis for Sub-Base


Sub-Base
Sieve Size

Asphalt
Road

Standard

Gravel Road

50.000

78.676

100.000

37.500

63.324

89.561

25.000

40.954

68.495

19.000

33.345

30.289

12.500

31.352

26.198

4.750

13.485

18.128

2.000

3.061

12.055

1.180
0.425
0.300
0.075

52

7.911
4.238
1.803

17.310

Standard

Remarks

Fig 3.14 Char t of sieve analysis for Sub-Base course

Table 3.10 Values of sieve analysis for Base course


Base Course
Sieve Size

Standard

Asphalt Road

37.500

100.000

20.000

91.988

9.500

64.823

5.000

39.661

2.360

21.621

0.425

3.877

0.075

1.279

Fig 3.15 Char t of sieve analysis for Base course

53

Remarks

3. 3. 1. 6 Califor nia be ar ing r atio te st re sults (C BR test)


The California Bearing Ratio test results for the sub-grade, Sub-base and Base
course materials are listed in Table 3.11
Soaked and un-soaked CBR tests for the expansive subgrade soils were
performed to observe the effects of soaking on their strength characteristics.
The CBR test results for the six soil samples are presented in table 3.11. As it
was expected the test results revealed that there is significant difference
between the soaked and un-soaked CBR values. Based on the test results the
CBR values when soaked for four days reduce by 95 % to 97% of their unsoaked values.
Table 3.11 Values of CBR for Sub-grade section
Type of
Material

Station

Location

10 Blow

30 Blow

65 Blow

Average

2+000

CBR

7.392

9.727

11.905

9.675

Maremia

% Swell

3.643

3.557

3.505

3.568

7+000

CBR

5.447

12.450

15.952

11.283

% Swell

2.208

2.216

2.019

2.148

14+000

CBR

7.781

12.839

17.119

12.580

Asp Plant

% Swell

1.976

2.113

2.534

2.208

1+000

CBR

7.003

8.948

13.384

9.778

Atat Hos

% Swell

3.780

3.479

3.540

3.600

15+000

CBR

7.003

9.727

14.784

10.505

% Swell

2.131

2.139

1.718

1.996

CBR

21.787

43.575

51.356

38.906

% Swell

0.129

0.301

0.344

0.258

CBR

16.788

29.112

40.721

28.874

% Swell

0.266

0.473

0.859

0.533

Gumire

Sub-grade

Mazoria
27+000
Weira
Capping

Quary
Site

For Asphalt Road

Sub-base

Quary
Site

CBR

58.759

109.169

150.667

106.199

% Swell

0.026

0.034

0.043

0.034

For Gravel Road


Quary
Site

CBR

32.318

43.668

45.200

40.395

% Swell

0.077

0.137

0.163

0.126

54

Type of
Soil

Remark

3.3.1.7 Permeability
The phenomenon of permeability in soils is an important soil property that is
considered when planning and designing geotechnical projects. To illustrate the
importance of permeability in geotechnical design and in civil engineering in
general, consider the following applications where knowledge of permeability is
required:

Permeability influences the rate of settlement of a saturated soil under


load.
The rate of flow to wells from an aquifer is dependent on permeability.
The design of earth dams is very much based upon the permeability of
the soils used.
The performance of landfill liners is based upon their permeability.
The stability of slopes and retaining structures can be greatly affected by
the permeability of the soils involved.
Filters to prevent piping and erosion are designed based upon their
permeability.

Soils are permeable (water may flow through them) because they consist
not only of solid particles, but a network of interconnected pores. The
degree to which soils are permeable depends upon a number of factors,
such as soil type, grain size distribution and soil history. This degree of
permeability is characterized by the coefficient of permeability.
Table 3.12 Values of Per meability for Sub-grade section
Type of Material

Sub-grade

Station

Location

Permability

OMC

MDD

2+000

Maremia

0.008

59.070

1.048

7+000

Gumire

0.040

37.710

1.387

14+000

Asp Plant

0.009

9.890

1.947

1+000

Atat Hos

0.953

20.000

1.264

15+000

Mazoria

0.014

39.665

1.407

27+000

Weira

0.004

9.550

1.593

55

Remark

3.3.1.8 Free swell test results


First took two representative oven dried samples each of 10 g passing through
0.425 mm sieves and pour each soil sample into each of the two glass
graduated cylinder of 100 ml capacity then filled one cylinder with kerosene
and the other with the distilled water up to the 100 ml mark and removed the
entrapped air in the cylinder by gentle shaking and stirring with a glass rod.
Next allowed the samples to settle in both cylinders for 24 h then after 24 h
was allowed for soil sample to attain equilibrium state of volume without any
further change in the volume of the soils.
Free swell test was performed in both red clay and black expansive soils. The
results are shown in table 3.13. The test results show that the red clay has a
lesser value of free swell, which is about 16 %, but on the other hand the free
swell test results for the expansive soils are ranging between 61.5% - 100%,
which is an indicator for the higher swelling potential of the soils under
investigation.

Table 3.13 Free swell test results

Type of Material

Sub-grade

Station

Location

Free Swell (%)

2+000

Maremia

61.685

7+000

Gumire

23.611

14+000

Asp Plant

59.881

1+000

Atat Hos

61.250

15+000

Mazoria

44.652

27+000

Weira

17.992

56

Color of Soil

Remark

3.3.1.9 Direct Shear test results


The sieve analyses of soil from five test pits were determined in the laboratory
according to ASTM (2001), testing procedures. The initial mass of soil was
weighted in the pan and the diameter and height of the shear box was
measured and carefully assembled the shear box and placed it in the direct
shear device. Then, a porous stone and a filter paper were placed in the shear
box. Afterwards the soil sample placed into the shear box and leveled off the
top. Placed a filter paper, a porous stone, and a top plate (with ball) on top of
the sample and Completed the assembly of the direct shear device and
initialized the three gauges (Horizontal displacement gage, vertical
displacement gage and shear load gage) to zero. The vertical load was set (or
pressure) to a predetermined value, bleeder and the valve then closed and the
load was applied to the soil specimen by raising the toggle switch. The motor
was started with selected speed so that the rate of shearing was at a selected
constant rate, and taken the horizontal displacement gauge, vertical
displacement gage and shear load gage readings. The readings were recorded
on the data sheet. Readings was Continue until the horizontal shear load
peaks and then falls. In this study the shear failure diagram and shear
strength parameters has been a done and explained in chart and tables for
each samples collected from the studied area. The shear strength parameters
include both Angle of internal friction and cohesion (Bowles, 1978).
Table 3.14 Direct Shear test results

Sub-grade

Station

Location

2+000
7+000

Normal Stress
100

200

300

Maremia

14.778

17.500

22.361

Gumire

16.431

18.278

22.944

14+000

Asp Plant

15.361

18.083

22.458

1+000

Atat Hos

13.844

16.816

23.528

15+000

Mazoria

15.680

17.946

26.947

27+000

Weira

33.644

59.781

74.429

57

Remark

Maximum shear
stress, kPa

Type of Material

3.3.1.10 Los Angeles abrasion test


A common test used to characterize toughness and abrasion resistance is the
Los Angeles abrasion test. For the L.A abrasion test, the portion of aggregate
sample retained on the 1.70mm (No. 12) sieve is placed in a large rotating
drum that contains a shelf plate attached to the outer wall (the Los Angeles
machine). A specified number of steel spheres are then placed in the machine
and the drum is rotated for 500 revolution at a speed of 30-33 revolutions per
minute (RPM). The material is then extracted and separated into material
passing the 1.70mm (No.12) sieve and material retained on the 1.70 (No. 12)
sieve. The retained material (larger particles) are then weighed and compared to
the original sample weight. The difference in weight is reported as a percent of
the original weight and called the "percent loss".
The abrasion test result value is shown in table 3.15 for base course. The
abrasion values are very good and are within the acceptable limit based on
ERA standard.
Table 3.15 Value for Loa Angeles abrasion test
Material type

Abrasion

Base Course

21 %

3.3.1.11 Aggregate Crushing Value test


These tests are commonly empirically based, and are used as a guide to how
prone a surfacing aggregate or pavement material is to crushing under an
applied load. They may also be used to provide a tentative guide to the strength
and quality of the material. Since the tests are empirically based, it is difficult
to relate the values found by using different test methods.
Table 3.16 Value for Aggregate Cr ushing Value test
58

Material type

ACV

Base Course

21 %

3.3.1.12 10% Fine Value test


Table 3.17 Value for 10% Fine Value test
Material type
Base Course

10% FV Wet Cond


196.0 KN

10% FV Dry Cond


233.3 KN

3.3.1.13 Flakiness Index test


Table 3.18 Value for Flakiness Index test
Material type

Flakiness Index

Base Course

12%

3.3.1.14 Soundness test using sodium sulfate


These tests, empirically based, are used to assess the soundness of an
aggregate, which is a general measure of the durability of the material when
exposed to attack by chemical or physical conditions. A variety of tests are
used, and it is difficult to relate the resulting values to each other, due to the
different testing methods and conditions used.
The most common test used to assess the soundness of an aggregate is
conducted using a sodium sulphate solution. In this test, single sized portions
of the aggregate are subjected to cycles of immersion in sodium sulphate
solution and drying. After the specified number of cycles, the % of fine particles
(below a certain size) is found. This is repeated for various sizes within the
aggregate grading, and the overall soundness of the aggregate found from this.

59

This test may give an indication of the susceptibility of the aggregate to


chemical attack by sodium sulphate. Various other empirical tests may also be
used, including weak particle tests, and degradation factor tests
Table 3.19 Value of weight % loss
Material type

Soundness Test

Base Course

7.73 %

3.3.1.15 Mix Design of Asphalt


These testing methods are used for the mix design of asphalt, by measuring the
stability (maximum load that can be carried) and flow (deformation of sample)
found for the standard conditions used in the test.
In these empirical tests, varying binder contents are used for a number of
samples and measuring the stability and flow of each can enable the optimal
binder content to be selected. A lack of stability, flow or stiffness (stability/flow)
may be a cause of problems in the asphalt.
Test methods include the Marshall method, used in Queensland, which uses
impact compaction techniques. However, since this is dissimilar to the
vibratory compaction techniques used in the placement of real asphalt, other
procedures have been developed that allow asphalt stiffness and deformation
properties to be tested, while better simulating the actual heating and
compaction process used in the placement of asphalt.
The choice of which testing method to use would be strongly dependent upon
the testing apparatus, expertise and preferences of the particular road agency.
Deformation of Asphalt
One test used for the measurement of asphalt deformation is the wheel tracker
test, used to estimate the possible rutting potential of an asphalt sample. While
there are a wide variety of conditions used, in all a test sample is subjected to a
wheel being run across the top of it for a number of cycles. The test may also
be used for granular materials or aggregates as needed.

60

Properties that can be found from the test include the rutting profile, rutting
rate and final rut depth. This test simulates the actual traffic-loading situation
where wheels run across the pavement, and therefore could be expected to give
a good indication of the expected rutting behavior under traffic.
In addition, the influence of the moisture content or degree of saturation on the
performance of the material could be examined by testing the material at
varying degrees, and comparing the results. It should be noted however, that
like any empirical test, it is difficult to use the values for anything outside the
particular test, and a range of typical values are required to enable the test
results to be used correctly.

Other tests used for asphalt include those for the measurement of sensitivity to
water, susceptibility to abrasion loss, binder content, aggregate grading,
compacted relative density, and air voids calculations. Generally, the grading
and density tests are similar to those for soils and aggregates, while taking
account of the different materials being tested.

Fig 3.16 Asphalt Testing.


a) Wheel Tracker Test.
b) The Marshall testing apparatus, commonly used for the mix design of
asphalt
3.3.1.16 Dry Density
61

The dry density (and also moisture content) of an in-situ soil may be
measured using the sand replacement, water balloon or nuclear gauge
methods. The dry density is calculated from the bulk density of the sample
using the moisture content.
Samples of the material may be taken and tested at a standard compactive
effort and varying moisture contents. The relationship between dry density
and moisture content is usually similar to that shown in the Figure 3.17.
Once this testing is complete, the optimum moisture content (OMC) and
maximum dry density (MDD) can be found. The relative density of the
measured in-situ dry density can be found by comparing it to maximum dry
density found from the testing. Low relative density may indicate poor
compaction.
For a cohesion less material, the procedure is different, with the in-situ
density of the material being compared to the minimum and maximum dry
densities, allowing the density index to be calculated.
Other tests may be used to measure the particle density of the soil or
aggregate. This density is that of the particles, and does not include
moisture or air voids.

Fig 3.17 Field Density Testing.


I.
II.

A Nuclear Gauge.
A Sand Cone Apparatus

62

3.4 General Causes of Failure


3.4.1 Construction Problems
There may have be insufficient compliance with the relevant specifications,
or an incompatibility between design, materials and construction.
There also may have been incorrect curing conditions or exposure to traffic,
inexperienced personnel or inadequate testing and inspection. There may
have also been a particular problem during construction that may have
contributed to the failure.
Information about these possible problems may be found from reviewing
documents and literature, interviewing personnel, and sampling and testing
of materials.
3.4.2 Materials Problems
There could have been a large variability of materials or their properties,
including larger than expected changes in material properties over time due
to moisture and temperature.
Material function and location may have varied along the road length,
leading to incorrect placement. There also could have been improper testing
or blending of materials. In some cases, materials are incompatible and
should not be used together.
Information about these possible problems may be found from reviewing
documents and literature, interviewing personnel, and sampling and testing
of materials.
63

3.4.3 Design Problems


There may have been insufficient site inspection prior to design, and hence
insufficient information about the pavement and its existing condition. This
may have led to constraints on the design not having been understood or
incorporated.
There could have been poor design of drainage structures, insufficient
projection of traffic volumes, not enough attention paid to material design in
the design process, or a design constrained by a lack of funds.
Information about these possible problems may be found from reviewing
documents and literature and interviewing personnel.

3.4.4 Environment Problems


These can be widely varied, but high moisture content or changes in it are
often a problem. There may have been chemical conditions that contributed
to the failure, or some other environmental aspect that was overlooked or
not anticipated.
Information about these possible problems may be found from onsite visual
investigation and materials sampling and testing, especially specialized
chemical testing as required.
3.4.5 Specific Causes of Failure

This section lists important possible failure causes for each failure type,
shown as below. Considering these may reveal what the probable cause(s) of
failure was. Possible sources of the information are listed as required

64

1) Failure causes and information sources for bleeding and


flushing.

o
o
o

Possible Failure Cause


Too much binder sprayed
Insufficient surface aggregate applied
Non-uniformity/patching of original surfacing, leading

to rise of binder
o Embedment of surface aggregate, due to weakness of
base layer below
o Lack of proper rolling during placement
o Failure to protect newly constructed surface from
o
o
o
o
o

traffic for long enough


Loss of surface aggregate due to stripping or raveling
Breakdown of surface aggregate
Poor spreading of aggregate
Over-filled voids in asphalt
Lack of size of aggregate leading to being covered by
binder

Possible Information Source


o Seal design calculations, actual spray rate
Construction personnel
o Any information about patching work Area inspector
o Visual inspection of non-uniformity
o Visual inspection of weak base or moisture entry,
deflection testing
o Strength/stability/moisture of base
o Rolling during construction and effectiveness
Construction personnel
o Traffic control information Construction personnel
o Visual inspection of stripping or raveling
o Visual inspection of breakdown Grading
o
o
o
o
o
o

/strength/crushing
Spread rate and uniformity
Construction personnel
Visual inspection of poor spreading
Mix design of asphalt
Visual inspection of over-filled voids
Voids content
65

o Original reports on grading / particle size

2) Failure causes and information sources for cracking


Possible Failure Cause
o Cracking due to ageing and degradation of surfacing
- Old Seal
- Degradation of binder due to other influences
o Block Cracking
- Inability of binder to expand and contract, due to aged
& stiff binder
o Reflection Cracking
- Caused by horizontal or vertical movements of
pavement below overlay due to temperature or
moisture changes
o Shrinkage Cracking
- Volume change within surfacing, base or subgrade
o Cracking due to structural failure
- Fatigue failure of one or more pavement layers
- Excessive moisture or poor drainage
- Permanent severe deformation of the subgrade due to
repetitive loading
- Instability in upper pavement layers
- Repeated deflection causing fatigue in the surfacing
- Inadequate pavement thickness
- Lack of stiffness in base
- Increase in traffic loading, not accounted for in design
- Poor construction, including poor compaction
o Joint Cracking
- Weak seams of adjoining pavement spreads in the surface
-

layers
Wetting or drying action beneath shoulder surface
caused by trapped water standing and seeping through

joint between shoulder and mainline pavement


o Longitudinal Cracking
- Poor joint construction or location
- Reflective cracking from below
- Onset of structural failure, leading to crocodile cracking
o Slippage Cracking
66

Insufficient bond between the surface and underlying

courses, caused by dust, oil, rubber, dirt, water.


No tack coat between the two courses.

o Transverse Cracking
- The result of reflection cracking
- Stresses induced by low-temperature contraction of the
pavement, especially if the asphalt is hard and brittle

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Possible Information Source


Seal age
Visual inspection
Binder testing
Evidence of cracked pavement underneath
Past evidence & Shrinkage / plasticity
Age of pavement
Loading on pavement
Strength / stability / moisture
Deflection testing
Pavement design, Traffic records
Construction records & Construction personnel
Mix design and previous use, Past temperatures
Material s officer
Testing: hardness / brittleness

3) Failure causes and information sources for corrugations

Possible Failure Cause


- Inadequate stability of asphalt surfacing or base under
-

traffic
Non-uniform compaction of the surfacing or base during
construction

Possible Information Source


Mix design, compaction, strength / stability
Visual inspection of lack of stability or moisture
Compaction and variation
Evidence of variance in testing
67

Strength / stability / moisture

4) Failure causes and information sources for depressions

Possible Failure Cause


Settlement of embankments (e.g. near bridge abutments)
Poorly compacted surface trenches
Moisture weakening pavement

Possible Information Source


- Visual inspection
- Moisture / strength
5) Failure causes and information sources for potholes

Possible Failure Cause


Inadequate pavement or aged surfacing
Moisture entry into pavement
Cracked surface
High shoulders or pavement depressions ponding water

on the pavement
Porous or open surface
Clogged side ditches

Possible Information Source


Age of seal and pavement
Visual inspection, Deflection testing & Strength
Voids / permeability
Moisture / strength

6) Failure causes and information sources for rutting


Possible Failure Cause
- Inadequate pavement thickness
- Weak subgrade (adjacent bulging of pavement or
-

shoulder surface)
Weak base
68

Surfacing lack of strength / stability


Inadequate Compaction
Poor Material Quality
Excessive Moisture
Inappropriate mix design (asphalt): - Too much binder
- Too much filler
- Insufficient angular aggregates

Possible Information Source


Pavement Design
Visual inspection, Deflection testing & Strength
Mix design and past use
Evidence due to construction procedure
Compaction testing
Traffic volumes and loading

7) Failure causes and information sources for shoving

Possible Failure Cause


- Inadequate strength/stability in surfacing or base
-

material
Poor bond between pavement layers
Lack of containment of pavement edge
Inadequate pavement thickness overstressing the

subgrade
Excessive moisture
Contamination caused by oil spillage
Lack of curing time between placing seal treatments
A mixture that is too rich in asphalt
Asphalt has too much fine aggregate
Asphalt has too much aggregate that is rounded or

smooth-textured
Asphalt cement is too soft

Possible Information Source


Strength / stability
Testing during construction
Trenching: bond between layers
Mix design and use past
69

Asphalt grading
Hardness of asphalt
Asphalt, high temperatures

8) Failure causes and information sources for stripping and


raveling

Possible Failure Cause


- Inadequate binder application
- Lack of bond between aggregate and binder, due to lack
of pre-coating or adhesion agents, or dirty, dusty or soft
-

aggregate
Degradation of binder through ageing or traffic damage,

solvent or chemical spillage


Incompatibility between aggregate rock type and binder
Insufficient/excessive cutter in binder when sprayed,
leading to reduced wetting or too soft to hold aggregate

under traffic
Excessively open-graded asphalt mix
Insufficient blending of binder before spraying
Poor mix design
Aggregate segregation
Lack of compaction of surface during construction
Aggregate size incompatible with that of previous seal
Fracturing of aggregate
A dry brittle surface
Patching beyond base material
Construction during wet or cold weather

Possible Information Source


Compaction
Construction records, rolling
Evidence of similar problems, guidelines
Testing: breakdown / grading
Materials officer
70

Patching work
Visual inspection: non-uniformity of stripping
Construction Records & personnel

9) Failure causes and information sources for patching and


polishing

Possible Failure Cause


- Localized remedial work in response to some form of
-

surface distress.
Many recent patches indicating an ongoing problem

requiring overall retreatment.


Some aggregates including
limestones becoming polished and slick, especially when
wet

Possible Information Source


Maintenance
Visual inspection: reason for patching
Past evidence of polishing in material
Polishing

71

4. DISCUSSI0N 0F TEST RESULTS


4.1 Comparison of test results with requirements in the specification
4.1.1 Wearing course material requirement
According to the Ethiopia Roads Authority Pavement Design Manual Volume-I
Flexible Pavement and Gravel Roads (2002), the pavement materials should
fulfill the following requirements.
Table 4.1 Coarse aggregate for bituminous mixes
Property

Test

Specification

Cleanliness

Sedimentation or
decantation

<5 per cent passing


0.075mm sieve

Particle shape

Flakiness index

<45 percent passing

Strength values
(ACV)

Aggregate crashing
value

< 1 0 p e r c e n t fi n e
va l u e s fo r weaker
aggregates

Strength values

Aggregate impact
value

<25 percent

Strength values

Los Angeles Abrasion


value test (LAA)

<30percent(wearing
course)

Strength values
Polishing (wearing

Aggregate abrasion
value (AAV)

<35percent(other)
<15 percent
<12 percent (very heavy
traffic)
Not less than 50-75

course only)

Polished stone
value

Durability

Sodium test

<12percent

Durability

Magnesium test

<18 percent

Water
Absorption
Bitumen
affi nity

Water absorption

<2percent

Coating and
stripping

>95 percent

72

depending on location

non-stripped

area aggregate

Table 4.2 Fine aggregate for bituminous mixes


Property
Cleanliness

Test

Specification

Sedimentation or

Percent passing 0.075mm sieve

decantation

Wearing course:
<8% for sa nd fi ne s
<17% for crushed rock fines

Sand
equivalent

Material passing

Traffic

4 . 7 5 mm sieve)

Light (<T3)
M ediu m
/heavy

Plasticity
Index
Durability

Mater ial passing

Wear ing
course
>35%

Base
course
>40%

>40%

>50%

<4 percent

0.425 mm sieve
Soundness

test

(5 cycles)

Magnesium

<20%

Sodium

<15%

4.1.2 Comparison of base course materials


Based on the project specification, the materials to be used for the
construction of the granular base course of Welkitie Atat Junction asphalt
road will be crashed stone out cropping in several places along the road route.
The material should meet the following requirements.

73

Table 4.3 Gradation and other requirements for the base course
based on the specifi cation of Welkitie Atat Junction asphalt road
rehabilitation project.
Sieve size (mm)

Percent passing (by weight)

100

100

50

60-80

20

40-60

25-40

15-30

0.42

7-19

0.075

5-12
OTHER REQIREMENTS
Los Angeles < 35
PI = 0

CBR=80 at 100% MDD AASHT0 T180 4 days soaking


In addition to the above requirements, the base course should be compacted
by one layer, the moisture content during compaction should be +/-1% of 0MC
and the dry density of each layer will be 100% MDD AASHT0 T180.
Comparing the laboratory test results for gradation with that of the
specification for base course, the results showed that for all the two i.e. For
slightly damaged and extremely damaged, the base course materials used are
slightly coarser than what is required in the specification. But on the other
hand in all the two cases the results of the sieve analysis are more or less
similar.
The Los Angeles Abrasion Test results for the base course material are within
the limits of the specification. The specification requires the value to be less
than or equal to 35, but the actual value is 21% and the material is non
plastic. The CBR values are more than 80% in all the two cases.

74

4.1.3 Comparison of sub-base course materials


Material coming from borrow pit used as a sub base course material for
Welkitie Atat Junction asphalt and Atat Junction-Kossie gravel road for the
construction of the sub - base, and the material should meet the requirements
given in table 4.4
Table 4.4 Gradation and other requirements for t he sub-base
course based on the specification of Welkitie Atat Junction asphalt and
Atat Junction-Kossie gravel road rehabilitation project
Sieve size (mm)

Percent passing (by weight)

100

100

50

70-100

20

50-90

25-70

18-50

0.42

15-40

0.075

8-25
OTHER REQIREMENTS
PI <15

CBR=30 at 95% MDD AASHT0 T180 4 days soaking.


The sieve analysis test results for sub-base course show that they are more or
less within the limits of the specification and the materials are non-plastic.
CBR value (for 4-day soaking) greater than 40 for all the two cases. According
to the specification the material fulfill all the requirements

75

4.1.4 Comparison of selected (Capping) material


The selected material must fulfill the CBR value of 10% and above at 95%
compaction. The results found during our laboratory test showed that the
materials used are above the requirement.
4.2 Field test results analysis
4.2.1 Natural sub-grade properties
From the test results the natural sub-grade has high swelling pressure and
swelling potential.
The tests showed that the natural sub-grade has high PI and LL and the CBR
values are very small when soaked for four days. Based on AASHT0 T258 the
degree of expansion is high with PI values greater than 35 and LL greater than
60. Based on Wilson-modified Van der Merwe classification for potential
activity, the Welkitie Atat Junction asphalt and Atat Junction-Kossie gravel
roads expansive soils fall into very high category with PI greater than 32.
Based on the Australian Road Research, Vol. 12. N0.3, sep. 1982, the
expansive soils of above roads are categorized as having a high potential
volume change with linear shrinkage greater than 12 and plasticity index
greater than 30.
4.2.2 Drainage conditions
As we all know the problems of expansive sub-grade soils are always related to
moisture variations. This in turn is related to the drainage condition of the
road.
Even though the sub-grade soils show a potential to swell and have a potential
of high swelling pressure during the laboratory test, this potential will come to
effect if there is a possibility of moisture fluctuation because of poor drainage
condition.
During site investigation, observation has been made in areas of major crack.
There is always ponding of water at the toe of the shoulder during the rainy

76

season. 0n the other hand, in areas of good drainage, even if the sub- grade
has a potential to swell, any kind of failure is not seen.

4.2.3 0bser vations and remedial measures


From the findings of the test results and field observations, all the problems
are related with water from rain or/and water from showering of pavement
layers. Therefore, for the problems related to drainage, the Contractor, through
the supervision of the Consultant, must provide drainage facilities further
from the toe of the shoulder to prevent the ingression of water in to the
pavement. Water from showering can be minimized by first checking the
moisture content of the original pavement layers and subgrade, and then
properly control the amount of water according to the original moisture
content.
During the process of construction, the contractor must perform the activities
immediately after excavating the original road not exposing the pavement
materials and embankment expansive soils for longer wetness or dryness.
In areas of embankment fill where the fill materials are expansive soils, it is
better to think about stabilizing it or replacing it with non-expansive material.
Trees near the road which are within 15 meters limit from the edge of the
shoulder must be removed.
In areas where cracks have already occurred, sealing the cracks with bitumen
or any other available material to prevent further cracking is advisable as a
short-term solution.
The most necessary thing in road network systems is provision of better and a
good quality of drainage systems.

77

5.
C0NCLUSI0NS AND REC0MMENDATI0NS
5. 1 Conclusions
From the findings of the field and laboratory test results the following
conclusions are drawn
a) The methodology developed in this project has been based on similar
work previously conducted in various locations. It was found that the
method was good as a general guide, particularly for people
inexperienced in the area of pavements and road engineering.
b) The study showed that for most pavement failures it is necessary to carry
out some form of materials sampling and testing, if conclusive evidence
regarding the failure cause is to be found. Otherwise, interpretation of
the limited data available can be difficult, or even impossible.
c) The laboratory test results found during investigation proved that the
pavement materials used for the construction of the road under
investigation are as per the specification, and fulfill all the requirements.
d) The causes of failure investigation methodology developed in this project
can serve as a useful guide for the investigation of pavement failures.
The method, combined with the experience of the investigator and
adequate materials investigation, will help to ensure that the cause of a
pavement failure can be reliably determined.
e) The field test results observed during the field investigation showed that
the dry density values of the pavement layers are less than the values
stipulated in the specification. The CBR values found related to the field
dry density for base course are less for slightly damaged road sections
and extremely damaged road sections.
f) In areas of extremely damaged road sections the moisture content for
sub base and selected materials are much higher than the moisture
content in non-affected areas (Intact).
g) 0ne of the reasons for low field dry density is the expansive soil under
the pavement. The swelling and shrinking of this soil loosen the
pavement materials especially in areas of big cracks.
h) The swelling potential and swelling pressure of the natural subgrade
soils are high enough to create problems on the pavement when there is
water at the toe of the road shoulder.
78

i) It is likely that the bleeding of the surface is occurring due to


embedment of the surface aggregate into the base material. The
weakness of the base is shown by the low CBR values from the materials
testing, and the increase of the plasticity index near the top of the base,
and by the pavement deformation and rutting that is starting to occur in
the outer wheel paths.
j) During the field investigation, it is also found that expansive soils are
used as embankment fill material in areas where expansive subgrade
soil is prevalent. 0ne of the main reasons for the causes of failure is this
embankment expansive soil. The water used during showering is enough
to initiate the swelling characteristics of the expansive soil which creates
the cracking of the road.
k) The other finding is that in areas where extreme failure occurred, the
material used for capping material is tuff and highly contaminated
which is highly permeable. This facilitates ingression of water in to the
natural subgrade which in turn creates the swelling problem. This ends
up with deforming the pavement layers and finally creates longitudinal
as well as transversal cracks.
l) The other observation is that trees near the road are creating problems.
There are eucalyptus trees near the road approximately ten meters from
the end of the shoulder. The presence of these trees cause the problem
of moisture change and trigger the swell-shrink characteristics of the
soil.
m) From the findings of the test results and field observations, the
problems encountered are related to water from rain or/and water from
showering of pavement layers.
n) At the road sections where extreme damage has occurred, the drainage
conditions are not good and they are areas where pounding of water at
the toe of the shoulder is prevalent during rainy seasons.
5.2 Recommendations
a) Preparation of guide lines for design as well as construction of roads
on expansive soils is essential.
b) Effectiveness of road rehabilitation on expansive soil areas of
Ethiopia which includes expansion of existing roads is need to be
investigated in detail.
79

c) Studying the conditions of other roads with similar subgrade soil


properties.
d) It is recommended that subgrade soils should be proof rolled and the
poor subgrade soils should be replaced or mechanically / chemically
stabilized. Poor to marginal sub-base or base materials should be
avoided or stabilized.
e) Proper drainage should be an integral part of any road system. There
should not be an open excavation of a median or longitudinal
drainage especially during the rainy season.
f) It is recommended that a comprehensive quality control and quality
assurance program with dedicated supervisory team to enforce it.
5.3 References

1) AASHTO, American Association of state Highway and Transportation


office.1993
2) Road Pavement on Expansive Clays. Australian Road
Research.1982;12(3)
3) Pavement and Material Design Manual.Tanzania.1999
4) Ethiopia Roads Authority. Road sector development: 1997-2007,
Final Draft. Addis Ababa Ethiopia. 1996
5) Basics of Highway Engineering. Road Sector Development program.
Capacity Building Service Project. Road Construction Materials.
Europe Aid.
6) Merwe VD, D.H. The prediction of heave from the plasticity index and
clay fraction of soils. The Civil Engineer In South Africa, 1964;6(6)
7) Basics of Highway Engineering. Road Sector Development program.
Capacity Building Service Project. Road Construction Materials.
Europe Aid.
8) Paul WM, Berry RC and Jason D. Manual of Subsurface
Investigation. Laboratory Testing of Soils. 2001; 7
9) Mohamed HH and Fredrick SM. Geotechnical Engineering Site
Investigation.
10) Distress Identification Manual, U.S. Department of
Transportation, FHWA-RD-03-031, June 2003.
11) Australian Road Research, Road Pavement on Expansive Clays
Vol.12 No.3, Sep 1982.

80

12)

Yang. H. Huang, Pavement Analysis and Design," University of

Kentucky, 1993.
13) Smith B. Richard, Forensic Investigation of Pavement Failures,
October 2004.
14) AACRA Design Manual, February 2003.

81