You are on page 1of 26

Case Study:

Using New Technologies to Design


and Test Wireless Receivers

Agenda
Architecture of a receiver
Basic GPS Receiver Measurements
Case Study 1: GPS Simulation
How Testing Works
Simulation vs. Record and Playback

Additional Test Challenges:


Multi-Standard Receivers
Phase Diversityy / MIMO

Receiver Fundamentals
Over-the-air signals acquired via antenna
Noise floor of antenna is thermal noise
-174 dBm/Hz at room temp

All receivers amplify over-the-air signals with an LNA


Noise figure of LNA determines SNR of acquired signal
Some receivers apply dynamic gain with an AGC
ADC

Rx1

LNA
ADC

LNA has both a Gain


and a Noise Figure

90

Basic Receiver Metric: Sensitivity


Definition: lowest power at which receiver achieves minimum
performance criteria
Can be measured by SNR of IQ signal
Can be measured by BER or FER of receiver

Each standard specifies minimum sensitivity

WLAN: 10% PER at -65 dBm (54 Mbps 802.11g)


WiMAX: 0.1% BER at -80 dBm + 10 log (BW) for 64-QAM
GSM: 0.1% BER at -102 dBm (GSM900)
GPS: Minimum power at which receiver obtains a position fix (C/N0 of 30
dB-Hz)
Not regulated by an standards body
Typical signal power at -130 dBm
Typical receiver sensitivity = -142 dBm (position fix) and -160 dBm (tracking)

Sensitivity of Analog FM Receiver


Analog FM receiver produces analog audio signal
SINAD (Signal to noise and distortion) of single-tone stimulus
correlates with NF
SINAD
SINAD limited by receiver dynamic range
Effect of improving
receiver noise figure
Linear correlation between
SINAD and input power
Minimum SINAD requirement determines sensitivity
sensitivity
RF Power

Case Study 1: GPS Receiver Test


Challenge:
Simulating the real-world environment of a GPS receiver

Requirements:
Simulation of multi-path and ionosphere/troposphere
Simulation of custom receiver movements
Simulation of satellite power fading

Overview of the Satellite Constellation


P Code

L5
(1.18 GHz)

L2
(1.23 GHz)

C/A Code

L1
(1.58 GHz)

Receiver typically sees 7 to 10 satellites


C/A codes (1 MHz) have RF power of -125 to -135 dBm
C
Commercial
i l GPS
GPS: L1 C/A ((course acquisition)
i iti ) codes
d
Military / Precision GPS: all P codes (L1, L2, and L5)
All GPS signals are CDMA-based
CDMA based

How GPS Testing Works


Things to Simulate

Poor signal strength


View of satellites obstructed
Position constantly changing
GPS receiver behaves as if
it sees real satellites

GPS toolkit Creates


Signal in LabVIEW

PXIe-5673 VSG
Generates Signal

GPS Receiver

Sensitivity Measurements
GPS signals are fundamentally weak (-130 dBm)
Receiver uses amplifiers to increase signal power
Amplifiers fundamentally add noise: called Noise Figure

Receiver reports C/N0 (carrier-to-noise) for each satellite


C/N0 of 30 to 32 dB-Hz required for position fix
Position tracking sensitivity = lowest power level where receiver can achieve
position fix (typical is -142 dBm)
Signal tracking sensitivity= Lowest power level at which receiver maintains
position fix (typical is -160 dBm)

Sensitivity = 174dB / Hz + C/N 0 + NFreceiver

Time to First Fix (TTFF) Measurements


GPS receivers obtain position fix by decoding satellite data
TTTF usuallyy measured from Cold Start condition
Receivers memory of location is completely clear
Usually takes 30 to 60 seconds for receiver to obtain position fix

Requires
Req ires sim
simulate
late to generate at least 4 satellites
A-GPS (assisted GPS) receivers have faster TTFF times
Receiver obtains Ephemeris
p
((satellite information)) from cell tower

Approaches to Receiver Test


Simulated Data
Better power accuracy (no noise added)
Simulate custom signal settings
Custom content (latitude/longitude or VIDEO for DVB-T)
Custom bistream (bistream affects PAPR)

Record and Playback


Ability to capture real-world impairments (multipath fading,
etc.)
Is more repeatable that drive/field tests

GPS Simulation
NI GPS Toolkit for LabVIEW main features

C/A codes
d iin the
th L1 band
b d (1.57542
(1 57542 GH
GHz))
Simulation of up to 12 satellites
Up to 24 hours of generation
Custom satellite power profiles
User-defined custom receiver trajectory
j
y

Perform receiver measurements such as:


Sensitivityy determines receiver noise figure
g
Time to first fix (TTFF)
Receiver position accuracy (toolkit accurate to within 2 meters)

Example Application: Motion Trajectory

30.5601, -97.7462
30.5575, -97.7448

30.5599, -97.7455

Receiver path defined through waypoints


Receiver behaves as if it is moving

Simulating GPS Signals


Write Waveform to File

Generate Waveform

RF Record and Playback for GPS


RF record and playback produces a repeatable field test
Signal can be played back from disk with a vector signal generator
2 TB raid drive can playback 25 hours of GPS signal
Antenna

Amplifier

Bandpass
Filter

Vector Signal
Analyzer

Disk Array

LNA

Disk Arrayy

Vector Signal
Generator

Attenuator

GPS
Receiver

Demo: GPS record and playback

Record & playback frequency: 1.57542 GHz


Record
R
d reference
f
level:
l l -50
50 dBm
dB
60 dB of gain should amplify power in L1 band to -56 dBm

Playback power can be adjusted to achieve C/N target


For best results, use direct connect with DC blocker
Download code at: www.ni/com/streaming/rf

Demo

Multi-Protocol Test
Challenge:
Testing Multiple Radios on the Same Device

Requirements:

Generation of GPS navigation signals


Generation of FM/RDS radio signal
Generation of DVB-T radio signal
Measurement of audio/video signals

Example System: Averna URT


Radio Standards

AM/FM with FM fading simulator


RDS andd RDBS an TMC over RDS
Data Radio Channel (DARC)
Sirius / XM
IBOC / HD radio
DAB
DRM

Navigation Standards
TMC over RDS
GPS Constellation

Video Standards
PAL/NTSC RF Signal Generation
DVB-T Player

Multi-protocol Signal Generation


Software-Defined
Test Signal
g

RF Signal
Generator

Demo
Multiple
Receivers

Emerging Technology: Multiple Antennas


Phase Diversity Receivers
Antenna Phase diversityy used in DVB-T,, satellite,, etc.
Rely on array gain to improve receive signal strength

MIMO Channel Systems


y
Typically use multiple transmit and multiple receive antennas
Rely on both spatial diversity and array gain
Examples include: 802.11n, Mobile WiMAX

Phase-Diversity Receivers
Each channel is completely synchronized
Synchronization requires sharing of LO and sample clocks
ADC

Rx0

LNA
ADC

ADC

Rx1

I
Q

DSP

LNA
ADC

90

2-Channel
C a e ZIF Receiver
ece e

Diversity and Signal Power


Diversity increases receive signal strength

What is MIMO?
Stands for Multiple Input Multiple Output
g
are 2x2 and 4x4
Common Configurations
Used ins: 802.11n, WiMAX, LTE

Transmitter

Free Space

Receiver

Architecture of a 4-channel VSA

DDC

ADC

Shared clocks

DDC

ADC

DDC

ADC

ADC

Shared Local
Oscillator

16

Rx3

Q
I

16

Rx2

16

Rx1

10 MHz
OCXO

16

Rx0

Local oscillator
ADC clock
NCO on DDC
Example shown
with PXIe-5663
PXIe 5663

Demo

DDC

Shared ADC
Sample Clock

Synchronized VSAs and VSGs


Up to 2 VSGs and 4 VSAs concurrently in a 18-slot chassis
Phase coherent generation & acquisition with less than 0.1
0 1 jitter

Data from all channels can be streamed to/from disk

Typical 4x2 MIMO Test System

Summary
All wireless receivers require similar measurements
Sensitivity / BER

Multiple methods can be used to generate signal


Simulated waveforms
Recorded RF waveforms

MIMO is an emerging wireless technology


Requires phase-coherent generators / analyzers