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Articolul nehotarat si articolul hotarat

Articolul nehotarat a se foloseste inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu o


consoana sau cu unul din sunetele w si y (semiconsoane):
a book = o carte ; a window = o fereastra ; a year = un an
Articolul nehotarat an se foloseste inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu o
vocala sau cu h mut:
an exercise = un exercitiu ; an hour = o ora ; an arm = un brat
In limba engleza, articolul nehotarat este acelasi pentru toate genurile
si se foloseste numai la singular; el se traduce prin un sau o in functie
de genul substantivului din limba romana:
a pupil = un elev, o eleva ; a desk = o catedra, un birou ; a boy = un
baiat
Spre deosebire de limba romana, articolul nahotarat se foloseste in
limba engleza inaintea numelor predicative desemnand sexul,
profesiunea, titlul,calitatea cuiva etc.:
Jack is a boy. Ann is a girl. She is a teacher. He is a student.
Articolul hotarat in limba engleza este the. El se aseaza intotdeauna
inaintea cuvintelor pe care le determina si are aceeasi forma pentru
toate genurile, atat la singular, cat si la plural:
the teacher = profesorul ; the students = studentii ; the girl = fata
Genul substantivelor
In limba engleza sunt trei genuri:
a) substantivele care desemneaza persoane de sex barbatesc si
uneori animale sunt de gen masculin:
father = tata ; dog = caine
b) substantivele care desemneaza persoane de sex femeiesc si
uneori animale sunt de gen feminin:
mother = mama ; cat = pisica

c) substantivele care desemneaza obiecte, notiuni abstracte si


animale, cand nu se specifica sexul, sunt de gen neutru:
chair = scaun ; horse = cal
Unele substantive care pot desemna atat persoane de gen masculin, cat
si de gen feminin sunt de gen comun:
teacher = profesor, profesoara ; student = student, studenta ; pupil =
elev, eleva ; friend = prieten, prietena
Pronumele personal
Pronumele personale in limba engleza sunt:
I = eu ; you = tu, d-ta, dv. ; he = el ; she = ea ; it = el, ea ; we =
noi ; you = voi, dv. ; they = ei, ele
Pronumele I (eu) se scrie intotdeauna cu litera mare, indiferent de
locul sau in propozitie. He (el) se foloseste pentru persoane de gen
masculin, iar she (ea), pentru persoane de gen feminin; it este
pronumele personal pentru genul neutru, persoana a III-a singular, si
inlocuieste restul substantivelor din limba engleza, adica cele ce
denumesc lucruri si animale. In mod exceptional, se foloseste uneori
pronumele he sau she pentru unele animale domestice, ca dog, cat.
Spre deosebire de limba romana, in engleza este obligatorie prezenta
pronumelui inainte de verb (intrucat engleza este o limba analitica si
nu are desinente deosebite pentru fiecare persoana).
I am a teacher (sunt profesor, profesoara)
you are boys (sunteti baieti)
he is a student (e student)
we are woman (suntem femei)
they are men (sunt barbati)
Pluralul substantivelor
Pluralul substantivelor se formeaza in general adaugand terminatia -s
la forma singularului:

a boy - boys ; a desk - desks ; a pen - pens ; a cat - cats


Substantivele man si woman fac exceptie de la aceasta regula, avand
pluralul neregulat:
a man - men ; a woman - women
Verbul TO BE
Indicativul prezent (The Present Indicative)
Forma
afirmativa
(The
Affirmative
Form)

Forma
Interogativa
(The
Interrogative
Form)

Forma
Forma interogativnegativa
negativa
(The Negative (The InterrogativeForm)
Negative Form)

I am = (eu)
sunt

am I ? = sunt
(eu) ?

I am not = (eu) am I not ? = nu sunt


nu sunt
(eu) ?

you are = (tu)


esti

are you ? = esti


(tu) ?

he is = (el) este

you are not =


(tu) nu esti

are you not ? = nu


esti (tu) ?

is he ? = este (el) he is not = (el) is he not ? = nu este


?
nu este
(el) ?

she is = (ea)
este

is she ? = este
(ea) ?

she is not =
(ea) nu este

it is = (el, ea)
este

is it ? = este (el, it is not = (el,


ea) ?
ea) nu este

we are = (noi)
suntem

are we ? =
suntem (noi) ?

you are = (voi)


sunteti

are you ? =
sunteti (voi) ?

we are not =
(noi) nu
suntem

is she not ? = nu
este (ea) ?
is it not ? = nu este
(el, ea) ?
are we not ? = nu
suntem (noi) ?

you are not = are you not ? = nu


(voi) nu sunteti
sunteti (voi) ?

they are = (ei, are they ? = sunt they are not = are they not = nu
ele) sunt
(ei, ele) ?
(ei, ele) nu sunt
sunt (ei) ?
In vorbirea curenta, se folosesc adesea forme contrase ale verbelor
auxiliare (la afirmativ si la negativ). Formele contrase pentru verbul to
be se obtin fie prin reducerea primei vocale a verbului si punerea unui
apostrof intre subiect si verb, fie prin contragerea vocalei o din negatia
3

not si inlocuirea acestei litere prin apostrof:


Afirmativ

Negativ (2 forme posibile)

I'm

I'm not / -

you're

You,'re not / you aren't

he's, she's, it's he's, she's, it's not / he, she, it isn't
we're

we're not / we aren't

you're

you're not / you aren't

they're

they 're not / they aren't

Nota: La cea de-a doua forma a negativului prescurtat negatia not este
legata de verb, iar vocala o cade si se inlocuieste cu apostroful.

Pronumele si adjectivele demonstrative THIS si THESE


This desemneaza un obiect apropiat in spatiu sau timp.
El are aceeasi forma pentru toate genurile si se traduce prin acesta,
aceasta, acest sau aceast in functie de genul substantivului romanesc
pe care il determina:
This student is good. (Acest /aceast/ student/ este bun/).
This poate fi atat pronume, cat si adjectiv demonstrativ.
This exercise is good. (adjectiv)
This is a good exercise. (pronume)
Forma corespunzatoare plurala pentru this este these = acestia,
acestea.
These boys are pupils. (adjectiv)
These are good books. (pronume)
Nota: Adjectivul folosit atribut este asezat inaintea substantivului:

a good student, a bad pencil

Adjectivul
In limba engleza adjectivul este invariabil, avand o singura forma
pentru toate genurile si pentru ambele numere:
a good boy = un baiat bun ; a good girl = o fata buna ; two good
boys = doi baieti buni ; two good girls = doua fete bune
In limba engleza, adjectivele folosite ca atribute, oricate la numar,
preceda in general substantivul pe care il modifica:
a good red pencil ; a bad brown paper
In exemplele: the sky is blue; the chairs are brown...adjectivele blue si
brown sunt folosite ca nume predicative; ca atare, ele urmeaza
substantivele pe care le modifica.

Genitivul in limba engleza


In engleza contemporana deosebim doua feluri de genitive:
1. Genitivul in 's (The Possessive Case, numit uneori si Saxon
Genitive) sau genitivul sintetic, care se formeaza cu ajutorul
apostrofului plus s ('s) adaugat substantivului care indica pe posesor,
atunci cand substantivul este la singular, si al apostrofului fara s,
atunci cand substantivul posesor este la plural (in cazul substantivelor
cu pluralul regulat):
the student's teacher = profesorul studentului ; the students' teacher
= profesorul studentilor
insa: the children's desks = bancile copiilor.
Genitivul in 's este folosit aproape exclusiv cu substantive care
desemneaza persoane sau uneori cu substantive nume de animale:

John's hair is brown.


The pupil's book is on the table.
The dog's name is Spot.
2. Genitivul prepozitional (The Prepositional Genitive) sau
genitivul analitic, care poate fi folosit atat pentru fiinte, cat si pentru
lucruri:
The walls of the room are white.
The chair of the teacher is brown.

Constructii cu prepozitii
In lima engleza, ca regula generala si spre deosebire de limba
romana, substantivul se articuleaza cand este precedat de o prepozitie:
The flowers on the table are pink and blue. (Florile de pe masa sunt
roz si albastre.)
The man is in the room. (Omul este in camera.)
The teacher's pen is on the desk. (Stiloul profesorului este pe
catedra.)
Pronumele si adjectivele demonstrative THAT si THOSE
Pronumele demonstrativ that desemneaza un obiect mai departat in
spatiu sau in timp. El are aceeasi forma pentru toate genurile si se
traduce prin: acela, aceea, acel, acea, in functie de genul
substantivului romanesc pe care-l determina:
That is a student. (Acela /aceea/ este student/a/.)
That poate fi atat pronume, cat si adjectiv demonstrativ:
That boy is a pupil.(adjectiv) (Acel baiat este elev.)
That is a wall.(pronume) (Acela este un perete.)

Pluralul lui that este those. El se traduce prin aceia, acelea, acei,
acele:
Those girls are pupils. (Acele fete sunt eleve.)
Those are good pupils. (Aceiaa /acelea/ sunt elevi /eleve/ buni
/bune.)

Numeralele cardinale
a) Numeralele cardinale reprezentand numerele intre 13 si 19 se
termina in sufixul -teen:
13 thirteen ; 14 fourteen ; 15 fifteen ; 16 sixteen ; 17 seventeen ; 18
eighteen ; 19 nineteen
b) Numeralele cardinale reprezentand zecile intre 20 si 90 se termina
in sufixul -ty:
30 thirty ; 40 fourty ; 50 fifty
c) Intre zeci si unitati se pun liniute de unire:
68 sixty-eight ; 23 twenty-three
d) Dupa sute, cand acestea sunt urmate de zeci sau unitati, se pune
conjunctia and:
105 one hundred and five ; 738 seven hundred and thirty-eight ;
217 two hundred and seventeen
e) Numeralele hundred, thousand si million nu primesc terminatia -s
cand sunt precedate de alte numerale:
300 three hundred ; 5,000 five thousand (fifty hundred) ; 2,000,000
two million
Nota: Aceste numerale (inclusiv ten) cand sunt folosite nedeterminat
devin substantive si primesc terminatia -s:
Thousands and thousands of young people practise sports. (Mii si
mii de tineri fac sport.)

There are hundreds of old trees in the park. (Sunt sute de copaci
batrani in parc.)
f) Grupele de trei cifre reprezentand sute, mii, milioane etc. se despart
prin virgula:
6,000 six thousand ; 1,000,000 one million
In schimb, zecimalele se despart prin punct:
1.5 one point five ; 8.56 eight point fifty-six sau eight point five
six ; 0.4(.4) (ou) point four
g) Numeralul a (one) billion are sensul de un trilion in Anglia si un
miliard in S.U.A.
h) Anii se citesc in grupe de doua cifre:
1968 nineteen sixty-eight sau nineteen hundred and sixty-eight
i) Numerele de telefon se citesc pronuntandu-se fiecare cifra:
163809 one-six-three-eight-o(ou)-nine
j) Numeralul cardinal se foloseste cand se indica numarul unei case, al
unui tramvai, al lectiei etc. si el urmeaza substantivului respectiv:
no.12-number twelve ; tram 5-tram five ; lesson 2-lesson two
Numeralele adverbiale
once = o data ; twice = de doua ori ; three times = de trei ori ; four
times = de patru ori s.a.m.d. (a.s.o. = and so on)
Cele patru operatii aritmetice de baza se numesc :
addition = adunare ; subtraction = scadere ; multiplication =
inmultire ; division = impartire

THERE IS - THERE ARE


1. There is (forma de singular) si there are (forma de plural)
reprezinta o constructie cu intelesul de se afla, este, se gaseste - se

afla, sunt, se gasesc. De cele mai multe ori there is si there are se
folosesc la inceputul propozitiilor precedand subiectul:
There is a bag on the writing-table.
There are not many mistakes in the dictation.
Are there many chairs in the room?
Is there a long ruler on the table?
2. Forma interogativa se obtine prin inversarea celor doi termeni:is
there?, are there?
3. Forma negativa se construieste prin adaugarea negatiei not dupa
verb: there is not, there are not.
Nota: Expresia there is sau there are nu trebuie confundata cu
adverbul there (acolo).
There is a man there. (Se afla un om acolo.)
There are not many chairs there. (Nu sunt multe scaune acolo.)
Pluralul Substantivelor
a) Pluralul substantivelor in limba engleza se formeaza prin adaugarea
desinentei -s la singular:
a student - students ; a teacher -teachers ; a pencil - pencils
Substantivele compuse din doua elemente formeaza in general
pluralul prin adaugarea desinentei -s la forma de singular a ultimului
element:
The test-papers are good. (Lucrarile de control sunt bune.)
b) Pronuntarea desinentei -s:
1. Desinenta -s se pronunta [z] dupa substantivele terminate in
vocala sau consoane sonore ca b, d, g, l, m, n, v sau th[]:
a table - tables ; a pupil - pupils ; a pen - pens ; a chair chairs ; a wall - walls ; a flower - flowers
2. Desinenta -s se pronunta [s] dupa substantivele terminate in
consoane surde ca f, k, p, t sau th[?]:

a book - books ; a set - sets ; a mistake - mistakes ; a sheett sheets


3. Substantivele terminate la singular in consoane sibilante (-s, -ss,
-se, -x, -z, -sh, -ge, -ch) formeaza pluralul prin adaugarea desinentei
-es pronuntata [iz]; substantivul primeste astfel o silaba in plus:
a class - classes ; a box - boxes ; an exercise - exercises ; a
brush - brushes ; a page - pages ; a bus - buses
Verbul TO HAVE
Indicativul pezent
Forma
afirmativa

Forma
interogativa

Forma negativa

Forma interogativnegativa

I have=(eu) am

have I? = am
(eu)?

I have not = (eu) have I not? = nu


nu am
am (eu)?

you have=(tu)
ai

have you? = ai
(tu)?

you have not = have you not? = nu


(tu) nu ai
ai (tu)?

he,she,it has = has he,she,it? = he,she,it has not has he,she,it not? =
(el,ea) are
are (el,ea)?
= (el,ea) nu are
nu are (el,ea)?
we have = (noi) have we? = avem we have not =
avem
(noi)?
(noi) nu avem
you have =
(voi) aveti
they have =
(ei,ele) au

have you? =
aveti (voi)?

have we not? = nu
avem (noi)?

you have not = have you not? = nu


(voi) nu aveti
aveti (voi)?

have they? = au they have not = have they not? = nu


(ei,ele)?
(ei,ele) nu au
au (ei,ele)?

Formele contrase, la afirmativ, negativ si interogativ-negativ sunt:

The
Affirmative

The Negative (2 forme


posibile)

The InterrogativeNegative

I've

I've not / I haven't

haven't I?

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10

you've

you've not / you haven't

haven't you?

he's, she's, it's

he's, she's, it's not / he, she, it


hasn't

hasn't he, she, it?

we've

we've not / we haven't

haven't we?

you've

you've not / you haven't

haven't you?

they've

they've not / they haven't

haven't they?

Nota: Expresiile have got si has got se folosesc in limba vorbita cu


acelasi sens ca si have si has:
She has got much work to do (she has much work to do).
We have got many lessons today (we have many lessons today).
What have you got in this bag? (what have you in this bag?)
Adjectivele nehotarate SOME, ANY, NO
1) Some se foloseste in propozitii afirmative:
My friend has some books of geography.
They have some new curtains at the window.
2) Any se foloseste:
a) in propozitii interogative:
Has your friend any books of English history?
Have you got any red pencils?
b) in propozitii negative:
We haven't any lessons now.
There isn't any map on the wall.
Nota: Any folosit in propozitii afirmative are sensul de orice, oricare,
orice fel de, indiferent ce, indiferent care:
Read any of these books. (Cititi oricare din aceste carti.)
Ask any student here. (Intrebati pe oricare student de aici.)
3) No se foloseste pentru exprimarea negatiei, atunci cand verbul
propozitiei este la afirmativ:
We have no lessons now.
There is no map on the wall.
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Nota: Adjectivul nehotarat no nu trebuie confundat cu cuvantul de


negatie no, asezat inaintea unei propozitii si despartit de aceasta din
urma printr-o virgula:
No, we have no lesson now.
Are you busy now? No, I am not.
Some (niste) si any (orice. vreun) pot fi folosite si ca pronume
nehotarate
There are no mistakes in this exercise, there are some in the
translations.
I have no questions to ask. Have you any?
Observatia1: Pronumele nedefinit corespunzator lui no este none =
nici unul, nici una:
We have some English books, they have none.
Observatia2: Some poate fi folosit in propozitii interogative, cand are
sensul de ceva, cativa, parte din, un oarecare numar.
Comparati:
Have you some money? (Ai ceva, niste bani?)
Have you any money? (Ai vreun ban?)
May I see some of your exercises? (Pot vedea cateva din exercitiile
tale?)
Have you any exercise in this copy-book? (Ai vreun exercitiu in
acest caiet?)

Adjectivele nehotarate LITTLE, A LITTLE ; FEW, A FEW


Little (putin) si a little (putin, ceva) ca adjective preceda substantivele
desemnand nume de materie sau abstractiuni (substantive folosite
numai la singular):

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12

They know little English. (Ei stiu putina engleza.)


We are not so busy now, we have a little time for English. (Nu
suntem asa de ocupati acum, avem putin (ceva) timp pentru engleza.)
Deosebirea intre ele este ca:
a) little se traduce prin putin, indicand o cantitate insuficienta;
b) a little se traduce prin ceva, putin, indicand o cantitate mica dar
totusi suficienta.
He has little spare time for his friends. (Are putin (aproape
deloc) timp liber pentru prietenii sai.)
He has a little spare time Tuesday. (Are (ceva) putin timp liber
marti.)
Nota: Atat little cat si a little pot fi intrebuintate si ca adverbe:
He speaks little. (Vorbeste putin, aproape deloc.)
He speaks English a little. (Vorbeste putin englezeste.)
Few si a few sunt adjective determinative sau pronume si preceda
substantivele folosite la plural:
Few students are absent. (adjectiv) (Putini studenti sunt absenti.)
A few students are in the teachers' study. (adjectiv) (Cativa studenti
sunt in cabinetul de lucru al profesorilor.)
Have you many books? Yes, I have a few. (pronume) (Ai multe
carti? Da, am cateva.)

Indicativul prezent al verbelor principale


Acesta se formeaza din infinitivul scurt (fara to) la care se adauga
terminatia -s (sau -es) numai la persoana a III-a singular:
The day begins (Ziua incepe); Then comes noon ; My watch goes
too slowly ; It loses ; It gains ; It stops
Conjugarea verbului to begin la Prezent (Present Indefinite Tense):

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13

I begin = (eu) incep ; you begin = (tu) incepi ; he, she, it begins =
(el,ea) incepe ; we begin = (noi) incepem ; you begin = (voi)
incepeti ; they begin = (ei) incep
1) Pronuntarea desinentei -s:
a) Desinenta -s se pronunta surd [s] dupa sunetele consonantice
surde: [p], [t], [k], [f] si [] (in scris th):
to want - he, she, it wants ; to ask - he, she asks ; to look - he,
she, it looks ; to stop - he, she, it stops
b) Desinenta -s se pronunta sonor [z] dupa sunetele vocalice si dupa
sunetele consonantice sonore: [b], [d], [g], [] (in scris th), [m], [n],
[l]:
to gain - he, she, it gains ; to see -he, she, it sees ; to give - he,
she, it gives
c) Desinenta -s(-es) se pronunta ca o silaba separata [iz] dupa
sunetele consonantice, in scris: -ss, -ce, -x, -ze, -ch, -sh, -ge:
to lose - he, she, it loses ; to teach - he, she teaches ; to dress he, she dresses
2) Ortografia desinentei -s:
a) Verbele terminate la infinitiv in consoana sibilanta (in -s, -ss, ch,
-sh, -x) primesc la persoana a III-a singular desinenta -es.
b) Exista numai doua verbe terminate in -o la infinitiv, care primesc
desinenta -es:
to go - he, she, it goes = a merge ; to do - he, she, it does = a face
c) Verbele terminate in litera -y formeaza persoana a III-a singular
in felul urmator:
- y precedat de o consoana se transforma la persoana a III-a
singular in i, la care se adauga desinenta -es:
to try - he, she it tries
- y precedat de o vocala ramane neschimbat; el este urmat de
desinenta -s:
to play - he, she, it plays ; to say - he, she, it says
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14

Numeralele ordinale si numeralele


a)Numeralele ordinale:
(1) the first

(8) the eighth

(15) the fifteenth

(22) the twentysecond

(2) the
second

(9) the ninth

(16) the sixteenth

(23) the twentythird

(3) the third

(10) the tenth

(17) the
seventeenth

(30) the thirtieth

(4) the fourth (11) the eleventh

(18) the
eighteenth

(40) the fourtieth

(5) the fifth (12) the twelfth

(19) the
nineteenth

(50) the fiftieth

(6) the sixth

(13) the
thirteenth

(20) the twentieth

(60) the sixtieth

(7) the
seventh

(14) the
fourteenth

(21) the twentyfirst

(70) the seventieth

Numeralele ordinale, cu exceptia primelor trei, se formeaza din


numeralele cardinale corespunzatoare, prin adaugarea sufixului -th.
Nota: Grupul de litere ve din five (5) si twelve (12) devine f in
numeralele ordinale corespunzatoare: the fifth (al cincilea), the
twelfth (al doisprezecelea).
Eight primeste doar un h: the eighth (al optulea).
Vocala e din nine cade: the ninth (al noualea).
Vocala y de la sfarsitul zecilor se inlocuieste cu ie: the twentieth
(al douazecelea).
b) Numeralele fractionare: fractii simple (Common Fractions)
1/8 (a) one eighth ; 2/7 two sevenths ; 1/3 (a) one third ; 3/5 three
fifths ; 1/4 a (one) quarter (fourth) ; 1 1/2 one and a half
Nota: Datele se exprima cu ajutorul numeralelor ordinale (citite astfel
chiar daca cifra respectiva este, formal, un numeral cardinal):

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(On) the 1st of December ((on) the first of December)


December 1st (December the first)
March 16th (March the sixteenth)
June 23rd (June the twenty-third ; the twenty-third of June)
Pluralul substantivelor terminate la singular in -F, -FE
Se formeaza prin schimbarea consoanei f in v si adaugarea desinentei
-es (la substantivele terminate in -f) si a desinentei -s (la substantivele
terminate in -fe):
The leaf is green. (Frunza e verde.) ; The leaves change their colour.
(Frunzele isi schimba culoarea.)
His wife is a teacher. (Sotia sa e profesoara.) ; Their wives work in a
hospital. (Sotiile lor lucreaza intr-un spital.)
Exceptii: roof (=acoperis) - roofs ; cliff (=stanca) - cliffs ;
handkerchief ((=batista) - handkerchiefs
hoof (= copita) - hoofs, hooves ; wharf (=chei, debarcader) wharfs, wharves
Pronumele si adjectivele interogative WHAT si WHICH
What (ce) si which (care dintre, care anume) pot fi pronume sau
adjective interogative. In primul caz ele sunt folosite singure, in al
doilea, ele preceda un substantiv:
What book is this? (adjectiv) (Ce carte este aceasta?)
What is this? (pronume) (Ce este aceasta?)
Spre deosebire de what, which are intotdeauna un sens selectiv:
In which season is it cold? (In care anotimp este frig?)
Which of the students is John? (Care din studenti este John?)
Un al treilea pronume interogativ este who = cine. Acesta nu poate fi
folosit ca adjectiv interogativ:
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16

Who is this boy? (Cine este acest baiat?)


Who is your teacher? (Cine este profesorul vostru?)
Folosirea catorva prepozitii in limba engleza
at

= la (static) arata locul

to

I go to the
= la (arata directia si se foloseste dupa
blackboard.
verbe de miscare)
Exceptie: I go home.

on

upon

I am at the faculty.

= pe

The book is on the


desk.

= in ziua de (folosit pentru a arata


data, ziua)

There are no classes


on Sunday.
He returns on the 2nd
of June.

= la

They live on a farm.


I am working on a
report.

= pe (implicand si miscare)

Put these books upon


the others.

= n (in cateva cazuri corespunde cu


pe din limba romana)

They are in the


garden.
There is a plane in the
sky.
There are boys and
girls in the street.
The farmers are in the
fields.

in se foloseste deasemenea cu
substantive care exprima anul, luna,
anotimpul sau partile zilei (cu sens
adverbial)

In summer we go on
holidays.
It often rains in
October.
I go to my lectures in
the morning.

in

17

17

Come into the garden.


into

= n (implica directia si patrunderea)


Go into the study.

between = ntre (doua persoane sau lucruri)

among

of

from

At the table I sit


between Mother and
Father.
The bookcase is
between the window
and the door.

= printre (mai multe persoane sau


obiecte)

The teacher is among


his students.
You are happy among
your friends.

= folosit in special pentru genitiv

The pages of this


book.
The cildren of my
brother.

= din, de la (aratand provenienta)

He comes from
London.
These apples are from
that tree.

Adjectivele posesive
Formele adjectivului posesiv sunt paralele cu formele pronumelui
personal: ele corespund celor trei persoane (singular si plural), avand
forme deosebite pentru cele trei genuri ale persoanei a III-a singular:
I have a name. - My name is Tom.
You have a teacher. - Your teacher is a man.
He has a hat. - His hat is grey.
She has a new wrist-watch. - Her wrist-watch is fast.
It (the room) has two windows. - Its windows are open.
We have some friends. - Our friends are here.
You have two jumpers. - Your jumpers are made of wool.
They have fine shirts. - Their shirts are white.
Adjectivele posesive sunt:
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18

my = meu, mea, mei, mele


your = tau, ta, ti, tale
his = su, sa, si, sale, lui
her = ei, su, sa, si, sale
its = su, sa ; lui, ei
our = nostru, noastra, nostri, noastre
your = vostru, voastra, vostri, voastre
their = lor
Spre deosebire de limba romana, in limba engleza adjectivul posesiv
se acorda in persoana si numar cu posesorul, nu si cu obiectul posedat:
my sister = sora mea ; my teacher = profesorul meu ; my friends =
prietenii mei ; my clothes = hainele mele
In timp ce in limba romana, adjectivul posesiv se aseaza dupa
substantiv, in limba engleza el precede substantivul, nemaifiind
necesara si folosirea unui articol:
What time is it by your watch?
Their socks have a nice pattern. (Sosetele lor au un desen frumos.)
In limba engleza, substantivele care desemneaza parti ale corpului si
obiecte de imbracaminte sunt deseori insotite de un adjectiv posesiv:
It is cold. Put on your overcoat. (E frig. Pune-ti pardesiul.)
We see with our eyes. (Vedem cu ochii.)
He has a book in his hand. (Are o carte in mana.)
Put your hat on your head. (Pune-ti palaria pe cap.)
Pronumele posesive
Pronumele posesive inlocuiesc numele unui obiect posedat. Ele au
forma asemanatoare cu cele ale adjectivelor posesive. Nu exista
pronume posesive pentru persoana a III-a neutru, singular.
Pronumele posesive sunt:
Adjective posesive

Pronume posesive

This is my book.

It is mine.

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19

This is your hat.

It is yours.

This is his coat.

It is his.

This is her bag.

It is hers.

This is its leg.


(the leg of the table)

These are our gloves.

They are ours.

These are your umbrellas. They are yours.


These are their suits.

They are theirs.

Pronumele posesive se acorda in numar si persoana cu posesorul, nu si


cu obiectul posedat, ca in limba romana:
This dog is mine. (Acest caine este al meu.)
These clothes are mine. (Aceste haine sunt ale mele.)
Forma nepersonala ING
1) Forma nepersonala -ing poate fi interpretata ca:
a) un participiu nedefinit (Indefinite Participle), aratand o actiune in
desfasurare sau o stare:
.....briskly walking to or comig from..... - .....ducandu-se repede
sau intorcandu-se de la
.....getting off the tram..... - .....dandu-ne jos din tramvai
Participiul nedefinit se traduce de obicei prin gerunziul romanesc.
b) un adjectiv verbal, traducandu-se in acest caz printr-un adjectiv
sau printr-un substantiv cu valoare de atribut:
shining eyes - ochi stralucitori ; loving parents - parinti iubitori
c) un substantiv verbal:
The building of a house takes about six months. (Construirea unei
case dureaza circa sase luni.)
d) un gerund, constructie specifica limbii engleze, caracterizata prin
natura sa dubla verbala si substantivala. Se poate traduce in limba
romana fie printr-o forma verbala, fie printr-una substantivala:
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20

Learning a foreign language is not difficult. (A invata o limba


straina nu este greu / Invatarea unei limbi straine nu este grea.)
They all enjoy seeing a good performance. (Le place sa vada un
spectacol bun / Vederea unui spectacol bun ii incanta.)
Retineti ca forma verbala folosita dupa o prepozitie in limba engleza
este gerund-ul si nu infinitivul sau conjunctivul ca in limba romana:
I think of going to a concert. (Ma gandesc sa merg la concert.)
He persists in making spelling mistakes. (Continua sa faca greseli
de ortografie.)
2) Construirea formei nepersonale in -ing:
Forma nepersonala -ing se construieste cu ajutorul terminatiei -ing
adaugata la infinitivul scurt al verbului:
to read - reading ; to be - being
dupa urmatoarele reguli ortografice:
a) verbele terminate la infinitiv in e mut pierd aceasta vocala
inaintea desinentei -ing:
to write - writing ; to come - coming ; to love - loving
b) verbele monosilabice terminate intr-o consoana precedata de o
vocala scurta dubleaza consoana finala inaintea terminatiei -ing,
precum si verbele bisilabice, cand accentul cade pe ultima silaba:
to sit - sitting ; to stop - stopping ; to beg - begging ; to begin beginning ; to prefer - preferring
c) verbele terminate la infinitiv in y precedat de o consoana sau de
o vocala pastreaza terminatia neschimbata inaintea desinentei -ing:
to study - studying ; to play - playing
Nota: Trei verbe terminate la infinitiv in ie schimba aceste vocale in y
inaintea desinentei -ing:
to lie - lying (a sta culcat, a zacea) ; to die - dying ; to tie - tying (a
lega)
Adverbul de mod

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21

Adeverbele de mod se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ly la


adjective:
new(adj.) - newly(adv.) ; brisk - briskly ; usual - usually ; bad badlly ; nice - nicely ; slow - slowly
Unele adjective au doua forme adverbiale, una identica cu aceea a
adjectivului, cealalta formata din adjectiv prin adaugarea sufixului -ly;
cele doua adverbe au sensuri deosebite:
Adjective
hard (tare, greu)
late (tarziu)
near (aproape)

adverbe traducerea
hard

din greu, staruitor

hardly

de-abia, cu greu

late

tarziu

lately

in ultimul timp

near

aproape

nearly

aproape ca, aproximativ

They work hard. (Ei muncesc staruitor.) - I can hardly understand


what they say. (De-abia inteleg ce spun.)
He never comes home so late. (Nu vine niciodata tarziu acasa.) Lately he has been busy. (Este ocupat in ultimul timp.)
They live near. (Stau aproape.) - She nearly cut her finger.
(Apropape ca s-a taiat la deget.)
Unele adverbe au aceeasi forma ca si adjectivele corespunzatoare:
fast(adj.) - fast(adv.) = rapid, repede, iute ; far - far = departe ;
hard - hard = din greu
Substantivele care denumesc o materie ; Anotimpurile
Substantivele care denumesc o materie se folosesc fara articol:
Chalk is white. (Creta este alba) ; Grass is green. (Iarba este verde.)
; Ink is black, red and blue. (Cerneala este neagra, rosie si albastra.)
In limba engleza substantivele care denumesc anotimpurile se
folosesc:
a) fara articol, daca sunt folosite ca substantive, in sens general:
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22

Autumn has three months. (Toamna are trei luni.)


b) insotite de prepozitia in daca sunt folosite adverbial:
In autumn the days are not very long. (Toamna zilele nu sunt
prea lungi.)
In winter it is sometimes very cold. (Iarna uneori este foarte frig.)
c) folosim articolul hotarat daca ne referim la un anumit anotimp:
The winter of 1972. (Iarna anului 1972.) ; The summer of 1963.
(Vara anului 1963.)

Prezentul Continuu
In limba engleza exista doua sisteme de conjugare din punctul de
vedere al aspectului, al duratei actiunii:
1) Aspectul nedefinit sau comun (The Common Aspect), care arata
ca o actiune se petrece in mos obisnuit, fara a indica durata
desfasurarii ei:
The family generally spend their evening together. (De obicei
familia isi petrece seara impreuna.)
John writes his exercises and learns his lessons every day. (John
isi scrie exercitiile si invata lectiile in fiecare zi.)
2) Aspectul continuu (The Continuous Aspect), care exprima o
actiune in curs de desfasurare la un moment dat. Prezentul continuu
arata ca actiunea are o oarecare durata in prezent, se petrece in
momentul vorbirii:
What are they doing now? (Ce fac ei acum?)
They are listening to a beautiful concert. (Asculta un concert
frumos.)
Prezentul continuu (The Present Continuous Tense) se formeaza cu
ajutorul timpului prezent al auxiliarului to be, urmat de participiul
nedefinit al verbului de conjugat.
Conjugarea verbului to read la Present Continuous Tense

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23

Affirmative
Form

Interrogative
Form

Negative Form

InterrogativeNegative Form

I am reading
(citesc)

am I reading?
(citesc?)

I am not
reading (nu
citesc)

am I not reading?
(nu citesc?)

you are not


reading (nu
citesti)

are you not


reading? (nu
citesti?)

you are reading are you reading?


(citesti)
(citesti?)
he, she is
reading
(citeste)

is he, she
reading?
(citeste?)

he, she is not


is he, she not
reading (nu
readig? (nu citeste?)
citeste)

we are reading are we reading?


(citim)
(citim?)

we are not
reading (nu
citim)

are we not reading?


(nu citim?)

you are reading are you reading?


(cititi)
(cititi?)

you are not


reading (nu
cititi)

are you not


reading? (nu cititi?)

they are
are they reading?
reading (citesc)
(citesc?)

they are not


reading (nu
citesc)

are they not


reading? (nu
citesc?)

Formele contrase:
Affirmative
Form

Negative Form

Interrogative-Negative
Form

I'm reading

I'm not reading

you're reading

you're not (you aren't)


reading

aren't you reading?

he's, she's
reading

he's, she's not (he isn't, she


isn't) reading

isn't he, she reading?

we're reading

we're not (we aren't) reading

aren't we reading?

you're reading

you're not (you aren't)


reading

aren't you reading?

they're reading they're (they aren't) reading

24

aren't they reading?

24

Nota1: Atat formele prezentului nedefinit, cat si cele ale prezentului


continuu din limba engleza se traduc la fel in limba romana:
He reads interesting books. (El citeste carti interesante.)
He is reading a very interesting book. (El citeste o carte foarte
interesanta.)
Comparati:
Present Continuous Tense

Present Indefinite Tense

John is doing his homework. He does his homework every day.


I am learning English now.

I learn English at the Faculty.

Nota2: Prezentul continuu poate fi folosit in locul viitorului pentru a


exprima actiuni de care suntem siguri ca se vor infaptui:
They are broadcasting another English lesson next wednesday. (Vor
transmite o alta lectie de engleza miercurea viitoare.)
Where are you spending your summer holiday this year? (Unde iti
vei petrece vacanta de vara anul acesta?)
Nota3: Prezentul continuu al verbului to go + infinitivul lung al
verbului de conjugat reda actiuni care urmeaza sa aiba loc intr-un
viitor apropiat. In acest caz el exprima:
- o intentie (a intentiona, a avea de gand sa):
She is going to make a report. (Va face un raport /referat/.)
I am going to ask them to come to supper. (Intentionez /am de
gand/ sa-i invit la cina.)
- o probabilitate sau o certitudine:
I think I'm going to have the flu. (Cred ca voi face o gripa.)
I think it is going to rain. (Cred ca o sa ploua.)
Nota4: Intrucat aspectul continuu exprima actiuni ca procese care se
desfasoara in timp implicand ideea de durata, el nu poate fi folosit cu
verbe ca: to arrive (a sosi), to jump (a sari), etc.
Categorii de verbe care nu sunt folosite la prezentul continuu:

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25

to understand = a
intelege

The students understand


english.

to know = a sti

They know English.


I think this is a good novel.
(Cred ca este un roman bun.)
We are thinking of our
holidays. (Ne gandim la
vacanta noastra.)

to think = a crede
insa to think = a
Verbe care exprima
gandi
procese
mintale sau actiuni
to hear = a auzi
They hear a boy calling.
ale
simturilor
I see an English paper on your
desk. (Vad o lucrare de
to see = a vedea
engleza pe biroul tau.)
insa to see = a se
He is seeing her every
vedea cu, a se
Sunday. (El o vede, o
intalni cu
intalneste, in fiecare
duminica.)
Verbe care exprima to love = a iubi
John loves his little sister.
actiuni
I like the new buildings of our
sau stari nelimitate to like = a placea
town.
ca durata,
to hate = a ur
We hate war.
sentimente
Substantive colective
a) Cuvantul family este un substantiv colectiv atunci cand se refera la
membrii componenti ai familiei. In acest caz el este insotit de un verb
la plural.
The family are listening to a concert.
The family spend their time together.
Referirea se face la membrii familiei respective.
b) Cuvantul people (oameni, lume) se acorda deasemenea cu verbul la
plural:
Many people are in the street. (Sunt multi oameni pe strada.)
Nota: Atat family, cat si people pot fi si substantive individuale, in
care caz au si forma de plural. People folosit ca substantiv individual
are sensul de popor:
26

26

a family = o familie ; two families = doua familii


the Romanian people = poporul roman ; the peoples of Europe =
popoarele Europei
Pronumele relativ pentru persoane
Who, pronume interogativ are aceeasi forma ca si pronumele relativ
who folosit atunci cand substantivul antecedent desemneaza o
persoana:
Who is there? (pronume interogativ) (Cine e acolo?)
The boy who is singing is John. (pronume relativ) (Baiatul care
canta este John.)
Verbe modale
Verbele can, may, must se numesc verbe modale, pentru ca exprima
atitudinea vorbitorului fata de actiunea pe care urmeaza sa o
indeplineasca. Actiunea este considerata ca:
- posibila: I can read English now. (Pot sa citesc /stiu sa citesc/
englezeste acum.)
- necesara: You must do it today. (Trebuie sa o faci azi.) ; They must
stay here. (Ei trebuie sa ramana aici.)
- permisa: You may go there (at) any time. (Poti /ai voie/ sa te duci
acolo oricand.)
- probabila: It may rain. (Se poate /e posibil/ sa ploua.)
Aceste verbe se numesc si verbe defective pentru ca nu pot fi folosite
la toate timpurile si modurile conjugarii, ele avand cel mult doua
forme verbale (prezent si trecut):
Prezent

Trecut

can

could

may

might

must

pentru trecut se foloseste had to


27

27

Verbele can, may, must au urmatoarele caracteristici:


- sunt urmate de alte verbe la infinitivul scurt:
You may go there when your classes are over-Te poti duce acolo
cand se termina orele.
We can go there by bus or we may take a tram-Ne putem duce
acolo cu autobuzul sau putem lua tramvaiul.
He must keep indoors-Trebuie sa ramana in casa.
- formeaza interogativul si negativul ca si verbele auxiliare:
Can your friend speak English? -Stie prietenul tau sa vorbeasca
englezeste?
He cannot speak it very well-N-o vorbeste prea bine.
Must you work all the time?-Trebuie sa lucrati tot timpul?
You must not smoke so much-Nu trebuie sa fumezi atat de mult.
May I ask you a question-Pot sa va pun o intrebare?
He may not find my address-S-ar putea sa nu-mi gaseasca
adresa.
Nota: Forma negativa a verbului can se scrie intr-un singur
cuvant: cannot, iar forma contrasa este can't.
- verbele modale nu primesc terminatia -s la Prezent, persoana a IIIa singular:
She can translate an English text-Ea stie sa traduca un text
englezesc.
It may be late. He must leave-Poate sa fie tarziu. Trebuie sa
plece.
Nota: Verbul can este adeseori folosit cu sensul de a sti sa:
I can speak English. He can read well.

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28

Forma interogativa
La Prezent, spre deosebire de verbele auxiliare si de verbele
modale care formeaza interogativul prin simpla inversiune, celelalte
verbe formeaza interogativul cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to do la
prezent (do pentru persoana I si a II-a singular si plural, precum si
pentru persoana a III-a plural; does pentru persoana a III-a singular)
urmat de infinitivul scurt al verbului principal.
Numai auxiliarul (do, does) se conjuga, verbul principal
ramanand invariabil (la infinitiv).
Ordinea cuvintelor in propozitia interogativa:
Se remarca o inversiune partiala in ordinea cuvintelor:
infinitivul scurt
al
alte elemente
verbului
sintactice
principal

verb
auxiliar
(do, does)

grupul subiect
(pronume sau
substantiv)

Do

you

like

winter sports?

Does

George

help

you?

Do

these students

study

well?

Present Tense (The Interrogative Form):


to know

to do (ca verb notional, de sine statator)

do I know?

do I do?

do you know?

do you do?

does he, she, it know?

does he, she, it do?

do we know?

do we do?

do you know?

do you do?

do they know?

do they do?

Forma negativa

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29

La Prezent, forma negativa a verbelor (cu exceptia verbelor


auxiliare si modale) se construieste cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar do
urmat de particula negativa not si de infinitivul scurt al verbului de
conjugat.
Ordinea cuvintelor in propozitia negativa:
infinitivul scurt
alte
negatia
al
elemente
not
verbului de
sintactice
conjugat

subiect
(pronume sau
substantiv)

verbul
auxiliar
(do, does)

do

not

like

rain.

She

does

not

come

with us.

to know

to do (ca verb notional, de sine statator)

I do not know

I do not do

you do not know

you do not do

he, she, it does not know

he, she, it does not do

we do not know

we do not do

you do not know

you do not do

they do not know

they do not do

In vorbirea de toate zilele se foloseste forma negativa contrasa (sau


forma negativa scurta). Aceasta forma se obtine din contragerea
negatiei not cu auxiliarul to do:
to know

to do (ca verb notional, de sine statator)

I don't know

I don't do

you don't know

you don't do

he, she, it doesn't know

he, she, it doesn't do

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30

we don't know

we don't do

you don't know

you don't do

they don't know

they don't do

Forma interogativ-negativa
Forma interogativ-negativa se caracterizeaza prin folosirea
inversiunii partiale (ca la interogativ) si a negatiei not (ca la negativ).
Ordinea cuvintelor in propozitia interogativ-negativa:
verb
subiect
negatia
auxiliar
(pronume)
not
(do, does)

infinitivul scurt
al
verbului
principal

alte elemente
sintactice

Do

they

not

learn

foreign
languages?

Does

it

not

suit

you?

to know

to do (ca verb notional, de sine statator)

do I not know?

do I not do?

do you not know?

do you not do?

does he, she, it not know?

does he, she, it not do?

do we not know?

do we not do?

do you not know?

do you not do?

do they not know?

do they not do?

La forma contrasa, folosita in vorbirea curenta, se observa o


schimbare in ordinea cuvintelor. Negatia not se contopeste cu formele
verbale ale auxiliarului si de aceea preceda subiectul:
to know

to do (ca verb notional, de sine statator)


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31

don't I know?

don't I do?

don't you know?

don't you do?

doesn't he, she, it know?

doesn't he, she, it do?

don't we know?

don't we do?

don't you know?

don't you do?

don't they know?

don't they do?

Nota: Cand subiectul propozitiei interogativ-negative nu este exprimat


prin pronume, ci printr-un substantiv, grupul negatiei verbale do not
(sau does not) va fi asezat inaintea subiectului:
Do you not like my compositions? (subiect - pronume)
Does not the teacher like my composition? (subiect - substantiv)
Insa prin folosirea formelor prescurtate, aceasta deosebire se
elimina de la sine:
Don't you like my composition?
Doesn't the teacher like my composition?
Declinarea pronumelui personal
Cuvintele me, you, him, her, it, us, them sunt formele de dativ
si acuzativ ale pronumelui personal. Deoarece joaca rolul de
complement in propozitie, cazurile dativ si acuzativ sunt denumite si
Objective Case - cazul complementului. Pronumele care urmeaza o
prepozitie este intotdeauna la Objective Case:

Nominativ:

you

he

she

it

we

you

they

Dativ:

(to)
me

(to)
you

(to)
him

(to)
her

(to)
it

(to)
us

(to)
you

(to)
them

Acuzativ:

me

you

him

her

it

us

you

them

Forma dativului este uneori precedata de prepozitia to. Aceasta


se intampla ori de cate ori intr-o propozitie, complementul indirect,
exprimat printr-un pronume (sau substantiv), se aseaza dupa
complementul direct. Aceasta reprezinta un mod de a sublinia, de a
scoate in evidenta, complementul indirect. Astfel ordinea normala a
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32

cuvintelor este:
subiect predicat
John

gives

subiect predicat
John

gives

complement
indirect
Ann

complement direct
a book of sketches sau

complement direct
a book of sketches

complement indirect (cu


prepozitia to)
to Ann

Nota: Trebuie retinut ca ordinea cuvintelor in limba engleza este


stricta si ca pozitia unui substantiv, inainte sau dupa predicat,
determina functia lui sintactica (subiect sau complement):
John sees the bear. (complement direct) (John vede ursul.)
The bear (subiect) sees John. (Ursul il vede pe John.)
Cazuri speciale de ortografiere a pluralului
Substantivele terminate in y precedat de o vocala formeaza
pluralul, in mod obisnuit, prin simpla adaugare a lui -s:
a boy - boys ; a day - days ; a toy - toys
Substantivele terminate in y precedat de o consoana schimba pe y in i
si se adauga -es:
a study - studies ; a copy - copies ; a library libraries ; factory - factories ; city - cities
Substantivele woollies (lucruri de lna) si undies (lenjerie de corp) se
folosesc numai la plural.
Timpul Trecut
Verbul in limba engleza are trei forme de baza: Infinitivul,
Trecut si Participiul.
Toate verbele din limba engleza contemporana se grupeaza in
functie de formele lor de baza (forma a II-a si a III-a) in doua mari
categorii: verbe regulate (Regular Verbs) si verbe neregulate
(Irregular Verbs).

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33

Verbele regulate formeaza Timpul trecut si Participiul trecut


prin adaugarea desinentei -ed sau -d la toate persoanele:
to call - ed - ed ; to dress - ed - ed ; to watch - ed - ed ; to love - d d
Conjugarea unui verb la Timpul trecut: to work - ed - ed:
I worked / you worked / he, she, it worked / we worked / you
worked / they worked
Desinenta -ed se pronunta [t] cand verbul se termina in
consoana surda ( she asked [a:skt]; she looked [lukt] ) si [d]cand
verbul se termina in consoana sonora sau vocala ( it gained [geind];
we listened ['lisnd] ). Ea se pronunta [id] cand verbul se termina in
sunetele [t] sau [d]( she regretted [ri'gretid]; she added [aedid] ).
Daca verbul se termina la infinitiv in -e, sufixul -ed se reduce la -d:
to live - I lived ; to promise - you promised ; to receive - we
received
Verbele terminate in -y precedat de o consoana schimba la
Timpul trecut pe y in i la care se adauga desinenta -ed:
to try - I tried ; to carry - they carried
Verbele terminate in -y precedat de vocala il pastreaza si adauga
numai desinenta -ed:
to play - they played ; to enjoy - you enjoyed
Verbele terminate la infinitiv in consoana precedata de o vocala
scurta accentuata dubleaza consoana finala inaintea desinentei -ed:
to stop - we stopped ; to regret - she regretted ; to beg - he begged
Timpul trecut exprima:
a) o actiune trecuta, terminata, de obicei localizata in timp. El este
prin excelenta forma verbala folosita in naratiune:
Yesterday we had a nice breakfast. (Ieri am avut un mic dejun
delicios.)
I enjoyed the book. (Mi-a placut cartea.)

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34

b) o actiune care s-a produs in mod repetat in trecut:


Last year they had English lessons twice a week. (Anul trecut ei
aveau lectii de engleza de doua ori pe saptamana.)
Timpul trecut se poate traduce prin trei timpuri romanesti: perfectul
compus, imperfectul si perfectul simplu, in functie de
context.
Timpul trecut al verbelor neregulate
Verbele neregulate nu formeaza Timpul trecut si Participiul trecut prin
adaugarea desinentei -ed, ci au forme diferite.
Lista verbelor neregulate poate fi consultata in Anexa A.

Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare to be si to have la Timpul


Trecut
to be
Affirmative
Form

Interrogative
Interrogative-Negative
Negative Form
Form
Form

I was

was I?

I was not
(wasn't)

was I not? (wasn't I?)

you were

were you?

you were not


(weren't)

were you not?


(weren't?)

he, she, it was


not (wasn't)

was he, she, it not?


(wasn't he, she, it?)

he, she, it was was he, she, it?


we were

were we?

we were not
(weren't)

were we not? (weren't


we?)

you were

were you?

you were not


(weren't)

were you not? (weren't


you?)

they were

were they?

they were not were they not? (weren't


(weren't)
they?)

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35

to have
Affirmative
Form

Interrogative
Interrogative-Negative
Negative Form
Form
Form

I had

had I?

I had not
(hadn't)

had I not? (hadn't I?)

you had

had you?

you had not


(hadn't)

had you not? (hadn't


you?)

he, she, it had


not (hadn't)

had he, she, it not?


(hadn't he, she, it?)

he, she, it had had he, she, it?


we had

had we?

we had not
(hadn't)

had we not? (hadn't


we?)

you had

had you?

you had not


(hadn't)

had you not? (hadn't


you?)

they had

had they?

they had not


(hadn't)

had they not? (hadn't


they?)

Trecutul continuu
Se formeaza din Timpul trecut al verbului auxiliar to be si
participiul nedefinit al verbului de conjugat.
Timpul trecut continuu prezinta de obicei o actiune in
desfasurare, in trecut, si se traduce in limba romana cu ajutorul
imperfectului.
Conjugarea verbului to walk la Timpul trecut continuu:
Affirmative Form

Interrogative
Form

Negative
Form

InterrogativeNegative Form

I was walking (eu) umblam

was I walking?

I was not
walking

was I not walking?

you were walking -

were you

you were not

were you not

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36

(tu) umblai
he, she, it was
walking - (el, ea)
umbla

walking?

walking

walking?

was he, she, it he, she it was was he, she, it not
walking
not walking
walking?

we were walking (noi) umblam

were we
walking?

we were not
walking

were we not
walking?

you were walking (voi) umblati

were you
walking?

you were not


walking

were you not


walking?

they were walking (ei, ele) umblau

were they
walking?

they were not


walking

were they not


walking?

Participiul trecut
Aceasta forma este echivalenta cu participiul trecut din limba romana:
covered - acoperit ; looked after - ingrijit
La verbele regulate participiul trecut englez are aceeasi forma ca
Timpul trecut, iar la verbele neregulate el poate avea forme deosebite:
to wash - ed - ed ; to eat - ate - eaten
Printre verbele neregulate se numara si verbele auxiliare si verbele
modale.
Absenta articolului la unele substantive
In limba engleza nu se articuleaza numele meselor: breakfast,
lunch, dinner, supper.
De asemenea nu primesc articol: numele alimentelor, numele de
substante si materiale in general, decat atunci cand sunt determinate
de un atribut sau propozitie atributiva, sau cand acestea sunt
cunoscute dinainte de cititor sau vorbitor, fiind determinate (in acest
caz) printr-un adjectiv demonstrativ sau prin folosirea articolului
hotarat, cu valoare anaforica (aratand ca notiunea este cunoscuta in
prealabil de vorbitor sau cititor):

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37

We have breakfast. Supper is quite nice.


We have plenty of bread and butter-Avem paine si unt din belsug.
dar:
The hot milk (which we get for breakfast) tastes good.
Helen regretted the cake (which she refused).
Nota: Observati, de asemenea, ca sunt lipsite de articol:
a) substantivele nume de abstractiuni:
Time is up! Life is beautiful. (Viata e frumoasa.)
b) substantivele nedeterminate, folosite la plural, intr-un sens
general, nedefinit:
meeting friends ; arranging things ; climbing hills ; social
evenings
Prepozitii exprimand miscare; Prepozitii care arata starea
pe loc
Prepozitii exprimand miscare (Prepositions showing direction)
over = peste

The cat jumps over the box.

to = la, spre
(directie)

I go to the Institute every day. dar: In the evening I


go home.

into = n
(miscare)

They come into the room. We translate from


English into Romanian.

down = n josul

They climbed down the mountain.

up = n susul

They climbed up the the mountain.

through = prin

They passed through a forrest.

out of = (afara)
din

He walked out of the house. The girl looked out of


the window.

from = de la, din

Mary comes from the library. I am busy from 9 a.m.


to 3 p.m.

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Prepozitii care arata starea pe loc (Prepositions showing place)


between = ntre

There is a picture between the two windows.

among = printre

Parents are happy among their children.

around = n jurul

There is a large garden round the house.

above = deasupra

A lamp hangs above the table.

behind = n spatele,
ndaratul

The blackboard is behind the teacher's desk.

at = la (static)

At 6 o'clock we shall be at the library. When will


you be at home?

in = n (stare pe loc)

We are all in the classroom.

on = pe

The clock is on the table.

under = sub,
dedesubt

The floor is under our feet.

by, near = lnga,


alaturi de

Come and sit by me near the fire.

before = naintea, in
fata

In the morning he leaves before me. The man


was waiting before the door.

in front of = n fata

There are some trees in front of my study.


Viitorul

Viitorul este un timp analitic. Atat verbele regulate, cat si cele


neregulate formeaza viitorul in acelasi fel:
We shall walk up to our room.
I shall tell you some jokes.
Andy will sing us some songs.
You will tell us some interesting stories.
Viitorul se formeaza cu ajutorul auxiliarelor shall la persoana I
(singular si plural) si will la persoana a II-a si a III-a (singular si
plural) la care se adauga infinitivul scurt al verbului principal.

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39

La forma interogativa a viitorului are loc inversiunea partiala intre


subiect si predicat:
Auxiliar Subiect Infinitiv scurt (al verbului principal)
Shall

come ?

Will

you

sing ?

La forma negativa, negatia not urmeaza dupa auxiliarul shall sau will:

Subiect Auxiliar Infinitiv scurt (al verbului principal)


We

shall not

come.

They

will not

walk up.

La forma interogativ-negativa, negatia not se aseaza dupa


subiect cand acesta este exprimat printr-un pronume, iar in cazul unui
subiect exprimat printr-un substantiv, negatia not se pune inaintea
subiectului:
Will they not tell us some interesting jokes? (subiect = pronume)
Will not the man tell us a joke? (subiect = substantiv)
La forma contrasa, insa, negatia not se contopeste cu auxiliarul shall
sau will si intotdeauna preceda subiectul:
Shan't we go to the movie? -Nu vom merge la film?
Won't the three men tell us the end of the story? -Cei trei barbati nu
ne vor spune sfarsitul povestirii?
Conjugarea verbului la viitor - exemplu: verbul to come - came
- come = a veni

Affirmative
Form

Interrogative
Form

Negative
Form

I shall (I'll)
come

Shall I come?

You will

Will you come? You will not

InterrogativeNegative Form

I shall not
Shall I not come?
(shan't) come (Shan't I come?)

40

Will you not come?


40

(you'll) come
He will (he'll)
come

(won't) come (Won't you come?)


Will he come?

He will not
Will he not come?
(won't) come (Won't he come?)

She will (she'll)


She will not Will she not come?
Will she come?
come
(won't) come (Won't she come?)
It will (it'll)
come

Will it come?

It will not
Will it not come?
(won't) come (Won't it come?)

We shall (we'll)
We shall not Shall we not come?
Shall we come?
come
(shan't) come (Shan't we come?)
You will
(you'll) come

Will you come?

You will not Will you not come?


(won't) come (Won't you come?)

They will
(they'll) come

Will they come?

They will not Will they not come?


(won't) come (Won't they come?)

Nota: Prezentul continuu al verbului to go este adesea folosit, in


special in vorbirea curenta, pentru a exprima, impreuna cu infinitivul
lung al verbelor notionale, actiuni ce urmeaza sa fie savarsite sau sa
aiba loc intr-un viitor apropiat fata de momentul vorbirii.
Constructia to be going + infinitiv inlocuieste viitorul cu shall si
will si are de obicei o implicatie modala, de intentie (a avea de gand
sa, a intentiona sa), de certitudine sau probabilitate (redata in romana
prin viitor).
Their professor is going to lecture to them on Tuesday.
Profesorul lor le va tine o conferinta marti. (are sa le tina..... ;
intentioneaza a le.....)
Forma interogativa, Forma negativa si Forma interogativnegativa a verbelor la Past Tense
Formele interogativa, negativa si interogativ-negativa se
construiesc la fel atat pentru verbele regulate, cat si pentru cele
neregulate.
Ca si la Timpul present , aceste forme se construiesc analitic,
folosindu-se timpul Timpul trecut al verbului auxiliar to do (did) si
infinitivul scurt al verbului principal:
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41

Did it upset you? I did not wish any other tea.


Ordinea cuvintelor in propozitia interogativa:
Auxiliar subiect

verb principal (infinitiv


scurt)

alte elemente
gramaticale

Did

they

come

in time?

Did

Mike

see

your work?

Ordinea cuvintelor in propozitia negativa:


Subiect auxiliar + not verb (infinitiv scurt) alte elemente gramaticale
They

did not

come

in time.

Mike

did not

see

your work.

Ordinea cuvintelor in propozitia interogativ negativa:


a) cand subiectul este exprimat prin pronume:
Auxiliar subiect

negatie
(not)

verb (infinitiv
scurt)

alte elemente
gramaticale

Did

they

not

call

you up?

Did

we

not

meet

last week?

b) cand subiectul este exprimat prin substantiv:


Auxiliar

negatie
(not)

subiect

verb (infinitiv
scurt)

alte elemente
gramaticale

Did

not

Mary

know

your address?

Did

not

the boys

understand

the lesson?

Conjugarea verbului to bring - brought - brought ( = a aduce) la


Timpul trecut
Affirmative
Form

Interrogative
Form

Negative Form

42

InterrogativeNegative Form

42

I did not (I didn't)


bring

Did I not (didn't I)


bring?

You did not (you


didn't) bring

Did you not (didn't


you) bring?

He,she,it did not


(he,she,it didn't)
bring

Did he,she,it not


(didn't he,she,it)
bring?

We brought Did we bring?

We did not (we


didn't) bring

Did we not (didn't


we) not bring?

You brought Did you bring?

You did not (you


didn') bring

Did you not (didn't


you) not bring?

I brought

Did I bring?

You brought Did you bring?


He,she,it
brought

Did he,she,it
bring?

They brought

Did they
bring?

They did not


Did they not (didn't
(they didn't) bring
they) not bring?

Nota: La forma contrasa a interogativ-negativului ordinea cuvintelor


este:
Auxiliar + negatie
(forma contrasa)

subiect

verb principal
(infinitiv scurt)

alte elemente
gramaticale

Didn't

they

follow

their teacher's
advice?

Didn't

the
visitors

drink

coffee?

Tipuri de propozitii interogative


a) Intrebarile generale, privitoare la predicat incep, de obicei, cu un
auxiliar (to have, to be, to do). Printr-o intrebare generala, vorbitorul
se intereseaza daca relatia intre subiect si predicat este pozitiva sau
negativa:
Are you a student?
Is he very busy now?
Were you here at 6 o'clock?
Have you any question to ask me?
Has he many lessons for tomorrow?
Had you any mistakes in your last translation?
Does he speak English?
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Do you go there by tram?


Did they help you?
Intrebarile generale cer raspunsuri insotite de yes sau no:
Are you very tired? Yes, I am (tired). No, I am not (tired).
b) Intrebarile speciale,privitoare la orice parte a propozitiei, incep cu
un cuvant interogativ (who?, what?, when?, which?(care?), where?,
how many?(cati?, cate?), how much?(cat?, cata?), how long?(cat
timp?) etc.):
Who is he?
What are you reading?
When did you come?
Which English writer do you prefer?
Where does he live?
How many people did you invite?
How much did you pay for it?
How long did it take you to come here?
Raspunsurile la intrebarile speciale cer un raspuns precis, formulat
printr-o propozitie enuntiativa care poate fi uneori si eliptica:
What is your name? My name is Nick.
Where is Mary? She is at the library, sau At the library.
When is your birthday? It is on December 10th sau On December
10th.
Nota: Atat pronumele, cat si adjectivele interogative exclud folosirea
auxiliarului do atunci cand sunt subiecte ale propozitiei (sau fac parte
din grupul subiectului):
Who speaks English here?
Which trolley goes to the Institute?
What lesson comes now?
Who came to your house yesterday?
Raspunsul scurt
In limba engleza vorbita, la o intrebare generala se poate da un
raspuns scurt. Intr-un raspuns scurt, adverbul afirmativ sau negativ
(yes, no) nu se foloseste singur; el este urmat de un subiect (in
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44

general, un pronume personal sau o particula introductiva ca de pilda


there) la care se adauga verbul (la negativ, insotit si de negatia not).
Verbele to be, to have, to do si verbele modale sunt repetate
singure in raspuns (infinitivul sau participiul verbului principal
respectiv este omis):
Are the students here? Yes, they are. No, they are not (aren't).
Must there be a comma here? Yes, there must. No, there must not
(mustn't).
Is it eight o'clock? Yes, it is. No, it isn't.
Can you ring me up later? Yes, I can. No, I cannot (can't).
Do they understand English? Yes, they do. No, they do not (don't).
Did he write to you? Yes, he did. No, he did not (didn't).
Does she enjoy the book? Yes, she does. No, she does not (doesn't).
Had you many classes yesterday? Yes, I had. No, I had not (hadn't).
Did it upset you? Yes, it did. No, it did not (didn't).
Substantive cu sens de plural si forma de singular
Unele substantive au forma de singular dar sens de plural. Din
aceasta categorie fac parte:
advice - sfaturi
information - informatii
knowledge - cunostinte
furniture - mobila, mobilier
luggage - bagaje
He always gives me some good advice-El intotdeauna imi da sfaturi
bune.
We have very little information on this subject-Avem putine
informatii asupra acestui subiect.
His knowledge of English is perfect-Cunostintele lui de engleza
sunt excelente.
The furniture in this room is new-Mobila din aceasta camera este
noua.
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45

They are sending the luggage by bus-Ei trimit bagajele cu


autobuzul.
Singularul poate fi exprimat cu ajutorul expresiilor a piece of (o
bucata de), an item of:
a piece of advice - un sfat
an item of information - o informatie
a piece of furniture - o mobila
a piece of luggage - un bagaj, o valiza
Substantivul news (stiri) intra in aceeasi categorie. El are forma
de plural, sens de plural, care se acorda intotdeauna cu un verb la
singular:
What is the news? -Ce vesti sunt)
Here is the news!-(Iata stirile!
The news is good-Vestile/ stirile sunt bune.
I heard a very good piece of news-Am auzit o stire foarte buna.
Viitorul de promisiune, hotarare sau comanda
I will be there-Voi fi acolo.
I will finish the work tonight-Vreau /sunt hotarat/ promit/ sa termin
lucrarea asta seara.
Won't you have a cup of tea?-Nu vrei sa iei un ceai?
Auxiliarul will din exemplele de mai sus folosit in locul lui shall
reda ideea de promisiune, intentie ferma sau hotarare. In aceste
exemple, will este folosit cu valoarea sa modala, echivalenta cu a
vrea, a dori.
Tot cu valoare modala poate fi folosit verbul shall + infinitivul unui
verb principal, redand ideea de necesitate, obligatie, ordin:
You shall not go to the pictures-Nu te vei duce la cinema.

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46

He shall come with you-El trebuie sa vina cu voi.


Viitorul in care will si shall apar cu implicatiile lor modale si nu ca
simple auxiliare prezentand actiuni viitoare independente de vointa
persoanei respective, se numeste viitor de promisiune, hotarare sau
comanda.
El se prezinta deci sub urmatoarea forma:
I will come ; you shall come ; he, she, it shall come ; we will come ;
you shall come ; they shall come
Nota1: Shall folosit in propozitii interogative se traduce, de obicei,
printr-o forma a conjunctivului:
Shall I stop now? (Sa ma opresc acum?)
What shall I do? (Ce sa fac?)
Nota2: Will + infinitivul unui verb, folosit intr-o propozitie
interogativa, reprezinta o formula de politete:
Will you help me with my exercise, please?-Vreti sa ma ajuati la
acest exercitiu?
Will you close the door?-Vrei (vreti) sa inchizi (inchideti) usa?

Compusii pronominali ai adjectivelor nehotarate (some,


any, no, every)
Compusii pronominali ai adjectivelor nehotarate some, any, no si
every se formeaza cu ajutorul cuvintelor body, one, thing si se
folosesc astfel:
a) In propozitii afirmative:
somebody (cineva)

someone (cineva)

something (ceva)

anybody (oricine)

anyone (oricine)

anything (orice)

everybody (fiecare, toti) everyone (toata lumea) everything (tot, toate)

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b) In propozitii interogative sau negative (cu verbul la forma


negativa):
anybody (cineva,
nimeni)

anyone (cineva,
nimeni)

anything (ceva,
nimic)

c) In propozitii negative (cand verbul este la forma afirmativa):


nobody
(nimeni)

no one, none (nimeni, nici unul


(dintre))

nothing (nimic)

Somebody asked about you-Cineva a intrebat de tine.


I met someone you know-Am intalnit pe cineva pe care-l cunosti.
She told me something interesting-Mi-a spus ceva interesant.
Is anyone taking his advice? -Ii urmeaza cineva sfaturile?
Did he leave anything for me? -Mi-a lasat ceva?
They did not speak to anybody-N-au vorbit cu nimeni.
She did not meet anyone yesterday-N-a intalnit pe nimeni ieri.
I don't know anything about her-Nu stiu nimic despre ea.
Nobody comes this afternoon-Nu vine nimeni azi dupa amiaza.
Nothing was too difficult for him-Nimic nu era prea greu pentru el.
None of the students will be absent tomorrow-Nici unul dintre
studenti nu va fi absent maine.
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48

"Good morning, everybody (everyone)."-Buna dimineata tuturor.


In the evening I found everybody at home-Seara am gasit pe toti
acasa.
Everything in the house is clean and tidy-Totul in casa este curat si
ordonat.
Nota1: Desi everybody, everyone si everything sunt intotdeauna
folosite la singular, ele se pot adesea traduce cu forme de plural:
Everybody is working well-Fiecare, toata lumea, toti lucreaza bine.
Nota2: Formele anybody, anyone, sau anything folosite in
propozitiile afirmative au intelesul de oricine sau orice:
Anybody can do it-Oricine poate sa o faca.
You may ask anyone you like-Poti sa intrebi pe oricine doresti /vrei.
Take anything you find in the refrigerator-Ia orice gasesti in
frigider.
Nota3: Pronumele compuse nehotarate somebody, someone precum
si anybody, anyone sau nobody pot fi folosite si la cazul genitiv
Somebody's hat was there-Palaria cuiva era acolo.
I see someone's letter on the table-Vad scrisoarea cuiva pe masa.
Is she anybody's relative?-Este ea ruda cuiva?
I cannot see anyone's fault in that-Nu vad sa fie greseala cuiva in
asta.

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49

Comparatia adjectivelor
Comparativul
a) Comparativul de superioritate se formeaza prin adaugarea
terminatiei -er adjectivului la gradul pozitiv. Al doilea termen de
comparatie se introduce prin conjunctia than (= decat).
no bigger than ; no heavier than
Sufixul -er se adauga numai adjectivelor de o silaba. Celelalte
formeaza comparativul cu ajutorul adverbului more care se aseaza
inaintea unui adjectiv de mai multe silabe:
The book was more interesting than the picture-Cartea a fost mai
interesanta decat filmul.
She is younger and more beautiful than her sister-Ea este mai tanara
si mai frumoasa decat sora ei.
Nota: Adjectivele bisilabice terminate in -y, -ow, -le, -ble formeaza
comparativul tot prin adaugarea terminatiei -er la cazul pozitiv:
This lesson is easier than the other one-Lectia aceasta este mai
usoara decat cealalta.
My street is narrower than that one-Strada mea e mai ingusta decat
aceea.
In privinta ortografiei trebuie retinute urmatoarele reguli:
- daca adjectivul se termina in -e se dauga numai r:
large - larger
- daca adjectivul se termina in -y, acesta se inlocuieste cu i (daca y
este precedat de o consoana):
heavy - heavier

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- daca adjectivul se termina in -y, precedat de o vocala, terminatia


-er se adauga dupa y fara nici o alta schimbare:
gay (vesel) - gayer
- daca adjectivul se termina intr-o consoana precedata de o vocala
scurta, consoana se dubleaza adaugand terminatia -er:
hot - hotter
b) Comparativul de egalitate este exprimat cu ajutorul unui adjectiv
precedat si urmat de conjunctia as:
In spring the days are as long as the nights-Primavara zilele sunt
egale cu noptile.
This book is as interesting as the other one-Cartea aceasta este la
fel de interesanta ca cealalta.
c) Comparativul de inferioritate este exprimat printr-un adjectiv
precedat de not so si urmat de as:
Gasoline is not so heavy as oil.
A car is not so fast as a plane-Automobilul nu este la fel de rapid ca
avionul.
Se poate spune insa si: A car is not as fast as a plane.
Pozitiv

Comparativ de
superioritate

Comparativ de
egalitate

Comparativ de
inferioritate

hot

hotter (than)

as hot as

not so (as) hot as

strong

stronger (than)

as strong as

not so (as) strong as

happy

happier (than)

as happy as

not so (as) happy as

important

more important
(than)

as important as

not so (as)
important as

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Superlativul
Adjectivele scurte formeaza superlativul cu ajutorul terminatiei -est:
big - bigger - the biggest
large - larger - the largest
thick - thicker - the thickest
happy - happier - the happiest
Adjectivele mai lungi de doua silabe formeaza gradul superlativ cu
ajutorul cuvantului most, asezat inaintea adjectivului:
important - more important - the most important (of all)
beautiful - more beautiful - the most beautiful (of all)
Observati prezenta obligatorie a articolului inaintea adjectivului
la gradul superlativ si prepozitia of dupa acesta.
Superlativul absolut se formeaza folosind adverbul very sau
most (fara articol) inaintea adjectivului la gradul pozitiv:
It is very (most) important. (Este foarte / cat se poate de important.)
Si adverbele au grade de comparatie asemanatoare cu cele ale
adjectivelor; la superlativ insa acestea nu primesc articol:
Speak louder, nobody can hear you-Vorbeste mai tare, nimeni nu te
poate auzi.
This is the play I liked best-Aceasta este piesa care mi-a placut cel
mai mult.
Imperativul
La persoana I singular si persoana a III-a singular si plural,
imperativul se construieste cu ajutorul verbului to let, folosit ca
auxiliar, si a pronumelui personal in cazul acuzativ.
Conjugarea verbului to say la imperativ:
Let me say!
Say!
Let him, her say!

Let us (let's) say!


Say!
Let them say!
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Propozitii eliptice
Early september and the leaves are beginning to fall.
Elipsa apare in exemplul de mai sus din motive stilistice, fiind mai
potrivita stilului descrierii. Lipseste subiectul si predicatul: It is.
Contains one kilogram ; Gives heat - aici lipsa subiectului este un
procedeu des folosit in anunturi, titluri de gazete, atunci cand
subiectul se poate deduce din forma verbului la persoana a III-a.
Scopul este de a face anuntul mai scurt si deci mai izbitor.
What about electric cars? - este de asemenea o propozitie eliptica.
Intotdeauna in propozitiile interogative care incep cu what about...?
sau cu how about...? lipseste subiectul si predicatul:
What about your end-year exams? (Ce se aude cu examenele tale
de sfarsit de an?)
How about going to the pictures? (Ce-ai spune sa mergem la
cinema?)

Diateza pasiva
Pasivul se formeaza in limba engleza, ca si in limba romana, cu
ajutorul verbului to be si cu participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat:
The earth can be seen-Pamantul poate fi vazut.
The shadows can be observed- Umbrele pot fi observate.
The braking system was switched on-Sistemul de franare era
activat.
The earth is surrounded by a blue halo-Pamantul este inconjurat de
o aureola albastra.
Nota1: Spre deosebire de limba romana, participiul trecut nu se acorda
in gen si numar cu subiectul, ramanand invariabil.

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Nota2: Sa nu se confunde formele aspectului continuu cu cele ale


diatezei pasive.
Prima se formeaza cu participiul prezent (forma in -ing), iar cea
de-a doua, cu participiul trecut:
Mary is sending an e-mail-Mary trimite un e-mail. - aspectul
continuu
The e-mail is sent by Mary-E-mail-ul este trimis de Mary. - diateza
pasiva
Constructiile pasive sunt urmate, de regula, de prepozitia by + un
substantiv sau pronume, care arata sensul actiunii. Acest complement
precedat de prepozitia by poate lipsi:
I was asked by our teacher-Am fost intrebat /rugat/ de profesorul
nostru.
The book must be read by every student in the group-Cartea trebuie
citita de fiecare student din grupa.
The letter was posted (by him)-Scrisoarea a fost expediata /de el/.
Ca si in limba romana, trecerea unei propozitii din diateza activa
in cea pasiva comporta unele schimbari sintactice.
Complementul direct din propozitia cu verbul la diateza activa
devine subiect al propozitiei cu verbul la diateza pasiva:
Amundsen discovered the South Pole in 1911-Amundsen a
descoperit Polul Sud in anul 1911.
The South Pole was discovered by Amundsen in 1911-Polul Sud a
fost descoperit de Amundsen in anul 1911.
He will write an interesting novel-El va scrie un roman interesant.
An interesting novel will be written by him-Un roman interesant va
fi scris de el.

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Spre deosebire de limba romana, in engleza si complementul indirect


al verbului la diateza activa poate deveni subiect al constructiei
pasive:
I showed him his mistakes-I-am aratat greselile.
He was shown his mistakes-I s-au aratat greselile.
I asked her some questions-I-am pus cateva intrebari.
She was asked some questions-I s-au pus cateva intrebari.
Astfel de verbe tranzitive, ca: to offer, to give, to tell, to refuse, to
show etc., care pot avea doua complemente, unul direct si unul
indirect, pot fi transformate in doua constructii pasive:
They offered her a bunch of flowers-I-au oferit un buchet de flori.
a) A bunch of flowers was offered to her.
b) She was offered a bunch of flowers-I s-a oferit un buchet de flori.
Michael told me the good news yesterday-Mihai mi-a spus vestea
cea buna ieri.
a) The good news was told me by Michael yesterday.
b) I was told the good news by Michael yesterday.
(Vestea cea buna mi-a fost spusa de Mihai ieri.)
Nota3: Unele verbe din limba engleza, desi la pasiv, se traduc in limba
romana cu diateza reflexiva:
Many problems have been solved-S-au rezolvat multe probleme.
Nota4: Diateza pasiva a constructiilor in care subiectul este fostul
complement indirect al diatezei active se traduce in limba romana cu
reflexivul insotit de un dativ:
I am shown-Mi se arata.
They will be given-Li se va da.

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I was asked-Mi s-a cerut.


We were told-Ni s-a spus.

Echivalentii verbelor modale


Verbele modale can, may, must sunt si defective, ele neavand
decat timpul prezent si trecut (respectiv numai verbele can si may),
iar verbul must nu are decat prezent. Pentru a exprima celelalte
timpuri ale acestor verbe, in limba engleza se folosesc unele verbe
echivalente ca sens:
a) can - to be able (to) = a putea, a fi in stare
They won't be able to return so soon-Nu vor putea sa se intoarca
atat de curand.
In the 3rd year you will be able to speak English-In anul III veti fi
in stare /veti putea/ sa vorbiti engleza.
b) may - to be permitted (to), to be allowed to = a avea voie,
permisiunea sa
Mike was allowed to leave sooner-Lui Mike i s-a permis sa plece
mai devreme.
They were not permitted to speak Romanian at the English
lesson-Nu li se dadea voie sa vorbeasca romaneste la lectia de
engleza.
Nota: Verbul may poate exprima si ideea de probabilitate sau
presupunere. Aceeasi idee poate fi exprimata cu ajutorul
cuvintelor perhaps sau maybe, la care se adauga verbul respectiv
la timpul cerut:
I may spend my summer holidays at the sea-side.
Perhaps I shall spend my summer holidays at the sea-side.
Se poate /s-ar putea/ e posibil/ sa-mi petrec vacanta de vara la mare.
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Maybe he is right. Perhaps he is right.


Poate ca are dreptate /se poate sa aiba dreptate.
c) must - to have to (atunci cand verbul exprima ideea de
necesitate) sau to be obliged to (ideea de obligatie).
You will have to go and meet the delegation-Va trebui sa te duci
sa intampini delegatia.
Shall I have to stay till six o'clock? -I was obliged to get up very
early-Va trebui sa stau pana la ora 6? A trebuit/ am fost nevoita sa ma
scol foarte devreme.
Nota: In mod obisnuit, interogativul si negativul verbului to have to
(a trebui) se formeaza cu ajutorul auxiliarului do:
You don't have to get up so early.
Where do they have to go tomorrow?
Does he have to bring the book?

Punctele cardinale
Substantivele care denumesc punctele cardinale (the directions):
north, south, east, west pot fi folosite si ca adjective sau chiar
adverbe:
The expedition reached the North Pole-Expeditia a atins Polul
Nord. - adjectiv
They turned south-S-au indreptat spre sud. - adverb
Adjectivele derivate din numele punctelor cardinale sunt:
eastern = estic, de est ; western = vestic, de vest ; southern = sudic,
de sud ; northern = nordic, de nord
Adverbele corespunzatoare sunt:

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eastward(s) = spre est ; westward(s) = spre vest ; southward(s) =


spre sud ; northward(s) = spre nord
Cand se denumesc regiuni situate intr-o anumita parte a unei
tari, continent etc se folosesc litere mari: the Middle East, the Far
West.
Retineti:
(on the) east of = la est de ; (on the) south of = la sud de ; (on the)
west of = la vest de ; (on the) north of = la nord de
in the east of = in estul ; in the south of = in sudul ; in the west of =
in vestul ; in the north of = in nordul
to the east of = spre est de ; to the south of = spre sud de ; to the
west of = spre vest de ; to the north of = spre nord de

Folosirea articolului cu nume proprii


Spre deosebire de limba romana, in engleza se foloseste articolul
hotarat cu substantive proprii, nume de rauri, fluvii, mari, oceane (the
Danube, the Thames, the Black Sea).
De asemenea, se articuleaza numele
lanturilor de munti (the Carpathians), a grupurilor de insule (the
Hebrides), a deserturilor (the Sahara) si a unor tari (the United States
of America, the Argentine) precum si numele vapoarelor (the
Transylvania) si al ziarelor (the Economist), al hotelurilor (the Hilton,
the Lido).
Numele de persoane precedate de un substantiv care indica
profesiunea, titlul etc. nu primesc articol hotarat: Captain Brown,
Doctor Johnson, Miss Pinkerton, Sir John Robertson.
Numele de familie se pot articula numai cand sunt folosite la
plural, in vorbirea familiara, pentru a desemna, ca si in limba romana,
mai multi membri sau intraga familie:

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They saw the Smiths and the Jacksons at the seaside-Ei au vazut
familiile Smith si Jackson la mare.

Perfectul compus
Acest timp se formeaza din prezentul verbului auxiliar to have
si participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat.
Conjugarea verbului to work la Present Perfect:
Affirmative Form

(Contracted Form)

I have worked = (eu) am lucrat

I've worked

You have worked = (tu) ai lucrat

You've worked

He, she has worked = (el, ea) a lucrat He's (she's) worked
We have worked = (noi) am lucrat

We've worked

You have worked = (voi) ati lucrat

You've worked

They have worked = (ei, ele) au lucrat

They've worked

Interrogative Form: Have I worked? = am lucrat (eu)? etc.


Negative Form: I have not worked = (eu) nu am lucrat ; I haven't
worked etc.
Interrogative-Negative Form: Have I not worked? = nu am lucrat
(eu)? ; haven't I worked? etc.
Spre deosebire de perfectul compus din limba romana, Present
Perfect nu poate exprima actiuni terminate in trecut, fara legatura cu
prezentul. O propozitie ca: Shakespeare a trait intre anii 1564 si 1616
nu poate fi tradusa in limba engleza decat prin Past Tense:
Shakespeare lived from 1564 to 1616.
Prezent Perfect exprima:
1) O actiune petrecuta in trecut care are legatura cu prezentul. Aceasta
legatura poate fi:
a) cauzala (actiunea trecuta are consecinte in prezent):
He has come. - El a venit. (el este aici)

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I have brought the book. - Am adus cartea. (cartea este aici, iat-o)
b) temporala (actiunea inceputa in trecut se continua in prezent):
I have lived in Craiova for ten years-Locuiesc in Craiova de zece
ani.
I have known Michael since childhood-Il cunosc pe Mihai din
copilarie.
Nota1: For exprima durata actiunii, iar since exprima inceputul
actiunii.
2) O actiune care a avut loc intr-un moment neprecis in trecut. In acest
caz, Prezent Perfect se foloseste cu adverbe de timp nehotarat: always
(intotdeauna), ever (vreodata), just (chiar acum), never (niciodata),
often (adesea), seldom (rareori), sometimes (cateodata), already
(deja) etc.:
I have never seen him before-Nu l-am vazut niciodata.
He has just come-A sosit chiar acum.
Nota2: In schimb, locutiunea adverbiala just now (adineaori) cere
folosirea timpului Timpului trecut:
They arrived just now. I rang her up just now.
3) O actiune petrecuta intr-o perioada de timp nedeterminata indicata
prin adverbe sau locutiuni adverbiale de timp ca: this morning,
today, now, these days (zilele astea), lately, of late (in ultimul timp,
de curand), (not) yet (/nu/ inca) etc.:
He has not arrived yet. (El nu a sosit inca.)

Perfectul compus continuu


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Se formeaza din perfectul compus al verbului auxiliar to be si


participiul nedefinit al verbului de conjugat.
El exprima actiuni incepute in trecut, de obicei recente, care se
desfasoara inca in prezent sau se pot continua in viitor, in mod
neintrerupt.
He has been working too hard all these days-A muncit prea mult in
ultimele zile.
Prezent Perfect se traduce in limba romana cu perfectul compus si
uneori cu prezentul:
The Gothic cathedrals have been withdrawn within their wallsCatedralele gotice s-au retras intre zidurile lor.
The Electroputere-made power transformers have been exported for
years-Transformatoarele de putere fabricate la Electroputere sunt
exportate de ani de zile.
Uneori atat Prezent Perfect, cat si Prezent Perfect Continuu se pot
traduce cu prezentul din limba romana:
It has been raining for three hours-Ploua de trei ore.
They have been friends for years-Sunt prieteni de ani de zile.
Comparati:
Prezent Perfect

Timpul trecut

They have studied English for two years.


(Au invatat /invata/ engleza de 2 ani.)

She studied English last year.


(Ea a studiat engleza anul trecut.)

He has been to the Danube Delta three


times.
(El a fost in Delta Dunarii de trei ori.)

He went there last year too.


(El s-a dus acolo si anul trecut.)

Have you ever travelled by air?


(Ai calatorit vreodata cu avionul?)

Did you travel by air when you went to


Bucharest?
(Ai calatorit cu avionul cand ai fost la Bucuresti?)

He has just come, give him a chair.


(A sosit chiar acum, da-i un scaun.)

He came yesterday afternoon.


(El a sosit ieri dupa-amiaza.)

I have brought the dictionary, here it is!


(Am adus dictionarul, iata-l!)

Last week Kevin brought me his dictionary.


(Saptamana trecuta Kevin mi-a adus dictionarul

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lui.)

In exemplele din coloana din stanga, apar unele adverbe de timp


nedefinit care cer intrebuintarea timpului Present Perfect. Indicatiile
de timp din coloana din dreapta se refera la actiuni terminate in trecut.

Conditionalul prezent
Ca si viitorul, conditionalul prezent se formeaza cu ajutorul
verbelor modale shall, will folosite ca auxiliare, la forma timpului
trecut (should, would), urmate de invinitivul scurt (fara to) al
verbului principal.
Ca si la viitor, should se foloseste pentru persoanele I singular si
plural, iar would pentru persoanele a II-a si a III-a singular si plural.
Conjugarea verbului to say la conditional prezent:
Affirmative Form

(Contracted Form)

I should say (as spune)

I'd say

you would say (ai spune)

you'd say

he, she would say (ar spune) he'd say, she'd say
we should say (am spune)

we'd say

you would say (ati spune)

you'd say

they would say (ar spune)

they'd say

Negative Form: I should not say (nu as spune) etc. (I shouldn't say)
Interrogative Form: should I say? (as spune?) etc.
Interrogative-Negative Form: should I not say? (nu as spune?) etc.
(shouldn't I say?)
La forma interogativ-negativa, not se aseaza dupa subiect. La
forma contrasa, not se contopeste cu auxiliarele should si would si
preceda subiectul.
Nota1: Verbele auxiliare should si would isi pastreaza uneori sensul
lor modal, respectiv would la persoana I forma afirmativa exprima
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intentie, vointa (la forma negativa), rezistenta, opozitie iar should (la
persoanele a II-a si a III-a) - obligatie, necesitate, recomandare, sfat:
I called him but he would not come-L-am chemat, dar nu a vrut sa
vina.
You should not smoke in the library-Nu trebuie /nu ar trebui/ sa
fumati in biblioteca.
Foarte adesea, forma should + infinitivul are un sens apropiat de al
verbului must.
You should work more-Ar trebui sa muncesti mai mult.
He should not smoke-N-ar trebui sa fumeze.
Nota2: Timpul trecut al verbelor may si can, respectiv might si could
sunt folosite si ca forme ale conditionalului:
Might we not repeat?-Nu s-ar putea sa repetam?
They could do it alone-Ar putea sa o faca singuri.
Retineti ca verbul to want (a vrea, a dori) nu se foloseste la
conditional si ca este inlocuit de verbul to like (a dori, a-i placea).

Pronumele relativ
In limba engleza exista urmatoarele pronume relative: who =
care ; which = care ; that = care ; what = ce, ceea ce ; but = care nu,
care sa nu.
I know the man who wrote this article-Cunosc omul care a scris
articolul.

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He showed me the novel which he was reading-Mi-a aratat romanul


pe care-l citea.
The text that (which) I translated yesterday was very easy-Textul pe
care l-am tradus ieri era foarte usor.
That is not what I want-Asta nu e ceea ce vreau eu.
There is no student but learns a foreign language-Nu e student care
sa nu invete o limba straina.
Din punct de vedere sintactic, pronumele relative leaga
propozitii secundare de propozitii principale, fiind in acelasi timp
elemente ale propozitiilor secundare.
a) Pronumele relativ who:
Who se refera numai la persoane. El se declina la fel ca si pronumele
interogativ who:
N. who = care
G. whose = al carui, a carei, al caror, ale caror(a)
D. (to) whom = carui(a), carei(a), caror(a)
A. whom = pe care
That is the girl whose brother came to us the other day-Aceea e fata
al carei frate a venit la noi mai deunazi.
The boy to whom you were speaking is Peter-Baiatul caruia ii
vorbeai era Peter.
The first girl whom I saw in the hall was Alice-Prima fata pe care
am vazut-o in sala a fost Alice.
Uneori, whose poate fi folosit si cu referire la lucruri: A trade whose
fame spread beyond Europe.

b) Pronumele relativ which:


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Which se refera numai la obiecte, animale, abstractiuni si se declina


astfel:
N. which = care
G. (of) which = al carui, a carei, al caror, ale caror(a)
D. (to) which = carui(a), carei(a), caror(a)
A. which = pe care
The book which I a reading is by a young novelist-Cartea pe care o
citesc este /scrisa/ de un tanar romancier.
We saw a mountain whose top was covered with snow. (Am vazut
un munte al carui varf era acoperit de zapada.)
Which cu sensul de ceea ce se poate referi la o intreaga propozitie:
I said nothing which could make him angry. (Nu am spus numic
care l-ar putea supara.)
c) Pronumele relativ that:
That se refera atat la persoane, cat si la obiecte, dar numai in
propozitii relative restrictive:
His sister that lives in Bucharest has graduated from the University.
(Sora lui /aceea/ care locuieste in Bucuresti a absolvit universitatea.)
Bring me the story-book that you spoke about. (Adu-mi cartea de
povesti despre care ai vorbit.)
All the passengers and all the goods that were on board the ship
were saved. (Toti pasagerii si toate marfurile care se aflau pe bordul
vasului au fost salvate.)
That (nu insa whom sau which) este pronumele relativ folosit dupa
substantivele precedate de adjectivele la gradul superlativ, de
numerale ordinale, precum si de adjectivele all, any, si the only:
Mount Everest is the highest mountain that we know. (Everestul
este cel mai inalt munte pe care il stim.)
She was the only person that I liked. (Ea a fost singura persoana
care mi-a placut.)
That was the first composition that he wrote. (Aceea era prima
compunere pe care el a scris-o.)
Come any time that suits you. (Vino oricand iti convine.)

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Omisiunea pronumelor relative (whom, which si that):


Cand whom, which sau that au functia sintactica de complement, ele
se pot omite:
That is the man (whom) we met yesterday. (Acela este omul pe care
l-am intalnit ieri.)
Here is the dictionary (which) you wanted. (Iata dictionarul pe care
il doreai.)
The noise (that) I heard was the wind. (Zgomotul pe care l-am auzit
era provocat de vant.)
Insa:
The book which is on the table is a dictionary. (Cartea care este pe
masa este un dictionar.)
Nota: Daca pronumele relativ este insotit de o prepozitie, omisiunea
are loc cu mutarea prepozitiei dupa verb:
The man I spoke to was their teacher (to whom).
The boy I told you of is here (of whom).
Can you lend me the book you were talking about yesterday?
(about which)
Astfel, o propozitie atributiva poate avea urmatoarele forme:
a) The house in which we live is comfortable.
b) The house which we live in is comfortable.
c) The house that we live in is comfortable.
d) The house we live in is comfortable.
Pronumele reflexiv si pronumele de intarire
In limba engleza, caeste doua categorii de pronume au aceeasi forma:
Pronumele reflexiv

Pronumele de intarire

myself - ma, mie, imi etc.

eu insumi, insami

yourself - te, tie, iti etc.

tu insuti, insati

himself, herself, itself - se, lui (ei), isi, si etc.

el insusi, ea insasi

ourselves - ne, noua etc.

noi insine, insene

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yourselves - va, voua etc.

voi insiva, inseva

themselves - se, lor, isi etc.

ei insisi, ele insele

Pronumele reflexive sunt folosite pentru construirea formei reflexive a


verbelor, dar, spre deosebire de limba romana, in engleza sunt putine
verbe reflexive. Adesea un verb reflexiv romanesc se traduce in limba
engleza printr-un verb activ intranzitiv:
ma joc - I play ; ma spal - I wash (myself) ; ma gandesc - I think ;
ma imbrac - I dress (myself)
Nota: In engleza moderna, vechile verbe reflexive sunt folosite ca
verbe active (fara pronumele reflexiv), ca in cazul verbelor: to wash,
to sponge (a se freca cu buretele), to dry (a se usca), to comb (a se
pieptana), to shave (a se barbieri), to dress etc.
By the time you have washed and dressed breakfast will be ready.
(Pana cand te-ai spalat si imbracat micul dejun va fi gata.)
Pronumele reflexiv se deosebeste de pronumele intaritor (desi identice
ca forma) dupa sens si dupa locul pe care il ocupa in propozitie:
a) Pronumele reflexiv, avand functie de complement direct sau
prepozitional, este asezat dupa verb:
He cut himself when shaving. (S-a taiat cand s-a barbierit.)
The boy cried when finding himself alone. (Baiatul a plans cand
s-a vazut singur.)
The girl looked at herself in the mirror. (Fata s-a privit in
oglinda.)
b) Pronumele de intarire, neavand nici o functie sintactica, este pus
fie dupa substantivul sau pronumele pe care il subliniaza, fie la
sfarsitul propozitiei.
I myself spoke to the manager. (Eu insumi am vorbit cu
directorul.)
They themselves came here. (Ei insisi au venit aici.)
Peter answered the question himself. (Petre insusi a raspuns la
intrebare.)
Mai mult ca perfectul
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Mai mult ca perfectul (The Past Perfect Indefinite Tense) se formeaza


din Past Tense al verbului auxiliar to have si participiul trecut al
verbului de cojugat. Din punctul de vedere al formei, in limaba
engleza mai mult ca perfectul este un timp analitic, pe cand in limba
romana el este un timp sintetic.
Conjugarea verbului to take, took, taken la Past Perfect Indefinite
Tense:
Affirmative Form

(Contracted Form)

I had taken = (eu) luasem

I'd taken

you had taken = (tu) luasesi

you'd taken

he, she, it had taken = (el, ea) luase he'd, she'd, it'd taken
we had taken = (noi) luase(ra)m

we'd taken

you had taken = (voi) luase(ra)ti

you'd taken

they had taken = (ei, ele) luasera

they'd taken

Interrogative Form: had I taken? = luasem (eu)? etc.


Negative Form: I had not taken = (eu) nu luasem ; I'd not taken etc.
Interrogative-Negative Form: had I not taken? = nu luasem (eu)? ;
hadn't I taken etc.
The Past Perfect Indefinite Tense exprima:
1) ca si in limba romana, o actiune trecuta, anterioara altei actiuni
trecute sau unui moment dat din trecut si se traduce de obicei cu mai
mult ca perfectul (rar cu perfectul simplu sau cu perfectul compus):
I knew she had been ill. (Stiam ca fusese bolnava.)
They had walked only a few steps when they met him. (Facusera
numai cativa pasi cand il intalnira.)
We had not gone far when a terrible storm broke out. (Nu
ajunseseram prea departe cand se starni o furtuna grozava.)
Momentul trecut poate fi indicat:
a) printr-o expresie adverbiala de timp: by the end of the week, year,
month (pana la sfarsitul saptamanii, anului, lunii) ; by that time (pana
atunci) ; by the 10th of December (pana la 10 decembrie) etc:

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They hadn't finished their work by the end of the week. (Nu-si
terminasera lucrul pana la sfarsitul saptamanii.)
By the 10th of December I had seduced Otilia.
b) printr-o alta propozitie al carei verb este la Past Tense (pentru
concordanta):
I knew she had left for the seaside. (Stiam ca plecase la mare.)
They had learned some English before they went to England.
(Inainte de a pleca in Anglia invatasera putina engleza.)
2) o actiune inceputa inaintea unui moment dat in trecut si care
continua si in acel moment.
They had been in the mountains for a week when we joined them.
(Erau la munte de o saptamana cand ne-am dus si noi la ei.)
Nota: Ca si in cazul timpului Present Perfect, momentul cand a
inceput actiunea e indicat de since (adverb, prepozitie sau conjunctie),
iar durata actiunii e indicata de for (prepozitie).
He had not written a line since he arrived. (conj.) (Nu a scris
/scrisese/ un rand de cand a sosit.)
He had not written a line since June. (prep.) (Nu a scris un rand din
iunie.)
He had not written a line since. (adv.) (Nu a scris un rand de
atunci.)
The weather had been rainy for fortnight. (Vremea era ploioasa de
doua saptamani.)
Mai mult ca perfectul continuu
Mai mult ca perfectul continuu se formeaza din mai mult ca perfectul
verbului auxiliar to be si participiul nedefinit al verbului de conjugat.
I had been taking - eu luasem ; you had been taking - tu luasesi ; he,
she, it had been taking - el, ea luase
we had been taking - noi luaseram ; you had been taking - voi
luaserati ; they had been taking - ei, ele luasera

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Mai mult ca perfectul continuu se foloseste pentru a exprima actiuni


sau stari in desfasurare neintrerupta, anterioare unei alte actiuni
trecute:
I had been working for a long time when they returned. (Lucram de
mult cand /ei/ s-au intors.)
She left the reading-room where she had been reading for some
hourse. (Ea parasi sala de lectura unde citise cateva ore /in sir/.)
Nota: Mai mult ca perfectul continuu se poate traduce in limba
romana prin imperfect sau mai mult ca perfect.
SHOULD + infinitiv = Echivalent al conjunctivului
In frazele: "Robin Hood gathered his men and discussed whether they
should take part in the contest or not", sau "It was decided that
although the risk was great, they should all go", constructiile should
take part in si should go inlocuiesc modul conjunctiv (The
Subjunctive Mood) care, in engleza contemporana, e pe cale de
disparitie. Ele sunt forme ale conjunctivului analitic, construite cu
ajutorul verbelor modale folosite ca auxiliare si al infinitivului fara to
al verbului de conjugat. Dintre echivalentii conjunctivului
(Subjunctive Equivalents) fac parte should + infinitiv, may + infinitiv
si altele.
Conjunctivul analitic se foloseste intre altele:
a) in intrebarile indirecte care arata indoiala si care sunt introduse prin
conjunctiile if sau whether:
She considered whether (if) she should talk to somebody about it.
(S-a gandit daca sa vorbeasca /sau nu/ cu cineva despre aceasta.)
b) in propozitiile subiective (introduse prin expresii ca: it is strange, it
is impossible, it is advisable, it is important, it is necessary):
It was desirable that we should invite him. (Era de dorit ca sa-l
invitam.)
It is important that you should all be in time. (E important ca sa fiti
cu totii la timp.)
It is necessary that everything should be ready by 5 o'clock. (E
necesar ca totul sa fie gata pana la ora cinci.)

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Viitorul in trecut
In propozitia: "... and hoped he would take part in the contest..."
forma verbala would take part in (desi identica in forma cu
conditionalul) nu reprezinta decat o actiune infatisata ca viitoare fata
de un moment trecut, cunoscuta sub numele de viitor in trcut (Futurein-the-Past). Viitorul in trecut este un timp propriu limbii engleze. El
este folosit numai in propozitia subordonata completiva, care depinde
de o propozitie regenta al carei verb este la un timp trecut:
They said they would return. (Au zis ca se vor intoarce.)
We heard you would leave Craiova for some weeks. (Am auzit ca
veti pleca din Craiova pentru cateva saptamani.)
Nota: Viitorul in trecut se traduce in limba romana prin viitorul I.
Comparatia neregulata a unor adjective si adverbe
Cateva adjective si adverbe au forme neregulate pentru comparativ si
superlativ. Acestea sunt:
good (bun)
well (bine)

better (mai bun, mai bine)

(the) best (cel mai bun, cel


mai bine)

bad
badly (rau,
prost)
ill

worse (mai rau, mai prost)

(the) worst (cel mai rau, cel


mai prost)

less (mai putin)


litlle (putin) lesser (de mai mica
importanta, minor)

(the) least (cel mai putin)

near
(aproape)

(the) nearest (cel mai


apropiat)
(the) next (urmatorul)

nearer (mai aproape)

far (departe) farther (mai departe)


further (ulterior)

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(the) farthest (cel mai


indepartat - ca distanta)
(the) furthest (cel mai
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indepartat - ca timp)
old (batran,
vechi)

older (mai batran, mai


vechi)
elder (mai mare - referitor
la membrii unei familii)

(the) oldest (cel mai batran,


cel mai vechi)
(the) eldest (cel mai mare dintre membrii unei familii)

(the) latest (cel mai tarziu,


later (mai tarziu)
cel mai recent)
late (tarziu) latter (cel din urma, din doi
(the) last (cel din urma,
sau doua - ref. la ordine)
ultimul - referitor la ordine)
Nota: Latter precedat de articolul hotarat the se asociaza cu the
former (primul din doi, cel mentionat mai intai) si se traduce prin cel
din urma, al doilea. In acest caz, the former si the latter sunt
pronume:
John and Mary are my friends. The former is a student, the latter is
still a school girl.
Each other si one another sunt pronume reciproce. Ele se folosesc de
obicei in cazul dativ sau acuzativ si se traduc prin unul pe altul, unul
altuia sau unii pe altii:
They help each other. (de obicei folosit pentru doua persoane)
They help one another. (de obicei folosit pentru mai mult de doua
persoane)
Nota: In trecut exista o diferentiere stricta de folosire a acestor
pronume reciproce (in functie de numarul persoanelor); in prezent,
aceasta deosebire tinde sa dispara treptat:
They always tell each other (one another) what they think.
Adjectivele substantivate
Adjectivul poate fi intrebuintat ca substantiv, si in acest caz este, in
general, precedat de articolul hotarat. Adjectivele substantivate
desemneaza persoane si au sens colectiv. Desi forma ramane
neschimbata, au inteles de plural si se construiesc cu verbul la plural:

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the blind = orbii ; the dumb = mutii ; the deaf = surzii ; the sick =
bolnavii ; the wounded = ranitii ; the young = tinerii ; the unemployed
= somerii ; the needy = nevoiasii ; the rich = bogatii
In aceeasi categorie sunt incluse si unele nume de popoare (cele
terminate in consoane suieratoare) derivate din adjectivele
corespunzatoare:
the English = englezii ; the Japanese = japonezii ; the French =
francezii ; the Dutch = olandezii ; the Swiss = elvetienii ; the Irish =
irlandezii ; the Scotch = scotienii
Ideea de singular se obtine cu ajutorul cuvantului man:
the sick man = bolnavul ; the Englishman = englezul
Corespondenta timpurilor
In limba engleza, problema corespondentei timpurilor este mai
complicata decat in limba romana. Datorita raporturilor logice de timp
care se stabilesc intre diferitele predicate dintr-o fraza, un anumit timp
verbal nu poate fi urmat de orice alt timp verbal. Astfel, in limba
engleza, timpul verbului din subordonata este, in general, in stransa
legatura cu verbul din regenta. Aceasta dependenta, numita
corespondenta timpurilor (The Sequence of Tenses), este reglementata
prin norme riguroase in ceea ce priveste frazele formate prin
subordonare, in care predicatul regentei este la un timp trecut.
Corespondenta timpurilor in propozitiile completive directe
Regula1: Prezentul, perfectul compus si viitorul din regenta pot sa fie
urmate in secundara de orice tip cerut de logica frazei.
He knows that /I am busy now/ I was busy yesterday/ I shall be busy
tomorrow.
(El stie ca /sunt ocupat acum/ am fost ocupat ieri/ voi fi ocupat
maine.)
They have told me that /she comes/ she came/ she will come.
(Mi-au spus ca /ea vine/ ea a venit/ ea va veni.)
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They will tell me that /she has come/ she came/ she will come.
(Imi vor spune ca /ea a venit/ ea venise/ ea va veni.)
Regula 2: Un timp trecut (Past Tense sau Past Perfect) din propozitia
regenta nu poate fi urmat in propozitia subordonata decat tot de un
timp trecut (Past Tense, Past Perfect sau Future-in-the-Past).
He knew that /I was busy/ I had been busy/ I should be busy. (Stia
ca eram ocupat/ am fost ocupat/ voi fi ocupat.)
a) Pentru a se arata simultaneitatea actiunilor din regenta si
subordonata Past Tense e urmat tot de un Past Tense:
At first I thought it was good enough for me. (La inceput am
crezut ca era destul de buna pentru mine.)
b) Pentru a se arata anterioritatea actiunii din propozitia secundara,
Past Tense e urmat de mai mult ca perfectul (Past Perfect):
We told him that it had been a fine day yesterday. (I-am zis ca
fusese o zi misto ieri.)
We told him the various stories we had heard about his girlfriend.
(I-am spus diferite chestii pe care le auzisem despre gagica lui.)
c) Pentru a se arata posterioritatea actiunii din propozitia secundara,
Past Tense e urmat de Future-in-the-Past (viitorul in trecut). Actiunea
din subordonata este conceputa ca viitoare fata de cea trecuta din
regenta:
She was sure that her boyfriend would come. (Era sigura ca ii va
veni gagicu.)
He knew I should be busy the rest of the week. (Stia ca voi fi ocupat
in restul saptamanii.)
EXCEPTII DE LA REGULA CORESPONDENTEI TIMPURILOR,
CU VERBUL DIN REGENTA LA PAST TENSE
1) In propozitiile secundare prin care se exprima adevaruri generale,
fapte universal cunoscute sau uzuale, se foloseste prezentul:
The schoolmaster told the children that the earth moves round the
sun. (Invatatorul a spus copiilor ca Pamantul se invarteste in jurul
Soarelui.)

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The speaker said that the peoples want peace. (Vorbitorul a spus ca
popoarele vor pace.)
2) Dupa un timp trecut in regenta, in secundara se foloseste orice timp
(cerut de logica frazei):
a) in propozitiile secundare comparative:
He spoke english better than you /speak it now/ spoke it last year/
will speak it in two years.
(El vorbea engleza mai bine decat /o vorbesti tu acum/ o vorbeai
anul trecut/ o vei vorbi peste doi ani.)
b) in propozitiile secundare atributive:
Last week I read the book which you are reading now. (Saptamana
trecuta am citit cartea pe care o citesti tu acum.)
It was yesterday that I bought the magazine you are asking me
about. (Ieri am cumparat revista de care ma intrebi.)
Corespondenta timpurilor in propozitiile subordonate temporale
In general, viitorul din principala este urmat de prezent in secundara
temporala pentru a se arata concomitenta actiunilor (intotdeauna dupa
conjunctiile if, till, until, as soon as, before, after, when) si de
perfect compus pentru a se arata raportul de anterioritate:
They will call me up when they get home. (Ma vor chema la telefon
cand vor ajunge acasa.)
We shall go there as soon as we have some spare time. (Ne vom
duce acolo imediat ce vom avea putin timp liber.)
You will not see the town until you have crossed the bridge. (Nu vei
vedea orasul inainte de a fi traversat podul.)
I shall go for a walk when I have finished my work. (Ma voi duce la
plimbare cand voi fi terminat lucrul.)
PRINCIPALA RAPORT
FUTURE

SECUNDARA

SIMULTAN

PRESENT
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FUTURE

ANTERIOR PRESENT PERFECT

Corespondenta timpurilor in frazele


If I had taken her word for it, nothing would have hapened.
(Daca as fi crezut-o pe cuvant nu s-ar fi intamplat nimic.)
If I had not established a new school of thought and behaviour, it
would not have occured to me to write about it.
(Daca nu as fi infiintat o noua scoala de gandire si conduita, nu miar fi venit in minte sa scriu despre ea.)
Frazele de mai sus sunt formate dintr-o propozitie subordonata
conditionala, introdusa prin conjunctia if si o propozitie principala.
Propozitia conditionala exprima conditia de care depinde realizarea
actiunii din propozitia principala. Aceasta conditie poate fi probabila
(reala), ipotetica (ireala), prezenta sau trecuta.
In frazele conditionale, timpurile se folosesc in functie de conditia
exprimata in subordonata, dupa cum urmeaza:
1) CONDITIE REALA - PREZENTUL IN SUBORDONATA,
VIITORUL IN REGENTA:
If a storm breaks out, we shall postpone our trip. (Daca
izbucneste/va izbucni/ o furtuna vom amana excursia noastra.)
If you have no confidence in yourself, you will never succeed.
(Daca nu ai incredere in tine, nu vei reusi niciodata.)
2) CONDITIE IREALA PREZENTA - PAST TENSE IN
SUBORDONATA, CONDITIONALUL PREZENT IN REGENTA
If a storm broke out, we should postpone our trip. (Daca ar izbucni
o furtuna, am amana excursia noastra.)
If you had no confidence in yourself, you would never succeed.
(Daca nu ai avea incredere in tine, nu ai reusi niciodata.)
Nota1: In propozitiile subordonate conditionale care exprima o
conditie ipotetica verbul to be apare sub forma were la toate
persoanele, singular si plural:
If I were you, I should not worry. (Daca as fi in locul tau, nu m-as
framanta/necaji/.)
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If he were here, he would enjoy the scenery. (Daca ar fi aici, i-ar


placea peisajul.)
Nota2: Cand in subordonata conditionala este exprimata o conditie
foarte putin probabila, se foloseste should (la toate persoanele) si
infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat:
If he should come, I should gladly see him. (Daca ar fi/daca s-ar
intampla/ sa vina, l-as vedea bucuros.)
3) CONDITIE IREALA TRECUTA - MAI MULT CA PERFECTUL
IN SUBORDONATA, CONDITIONALUL TRECUT IN REGENTA
If a storm had broken out, we should have postponed our trip.
(Daca ar fi izbucnit o furtuna, am fi amanat excursia noastra.)
If you had had no confidence in yourself, you would never have
succeeded. (Daca nu ai fi avut incredere in tine, nu ai fi reusit
niciodata.)
INVERSIUNEA IN PROPOZITIILE SUBORDONATE
CONDITIONALE (INVERSION IN SUBORDONATE CLAUSES
OF CONDITION)
Conjunctia if poate lipsi din propozitia comditionala, in care caz se
inverseaza ordinea dintre subiect si predicat. Aceasta inversiune e
posibila numai cand predicatul contine un auxiliar sau un verb modal
(should, could) sau cand verbele to be si to have sunt folosite ca
predicate:
If I had time - Had I time
If he were here - Were he here
If he could work - Could he work
If he should ring me up - Should he ring me up
If I had seen her - Had I seen her
ALTE CONJUNCTII CONDITIONALE
Propozitiile subordonate conditionale pot fi introduse prin
conjunctiile: if, in case - in cazul ca, on condition that - cu conditia
ca, provided (that), suppose (supposing) that, unless (if not), etc:
Suppose he doesn't come, what shall we do? (Sa presupunem ca nu
vine, ce vom face?)
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He won't come to my party unless he gets my message in time. (El


nu va veni la petrecerea mea daca nu va primi instiintarea mea la
timp.)
NEITHER.....NOR ; EITHER.....OR
Neither.....nor sunt conjunctii coordonatoare disjunctive (coordinatig
disjunctive conjunctions). Ele unesc doua parti de vorbire sau doua
propozitii care exprima o alternativa, o alegere. Intrucat sensul lor este
negativ, verbele din propozitiile introduse de aceste conjunctii se
folosesc la forma afirmativa:
He could neither eat nor drink anything. (El n-a putut nici sa
manance nici sa bea ceva.)
Neither Miss Shenstone, nor Mr. Monsoon had any satisfactory
answer. (Nici D-ra Shenstone, nici Dl. Monsoon nu au avut vreun
raspuns satisfacator.)
Deoarece neither.....nor se folosesc intotdeauna impreuna se numesc
si conjunctii corelative (correlative conjunctions). Corespondentele
afirmative ale acestor conjunctii sunt either.....or:
He will be here either at six or at seven. (El va fi aici sau la sase,
sau la sapte.)

Auxiliarul de aspect frecventativ WILL - WOULD


he would say = spunea ; he would come down = cobora ; would
leave me = ma lasa ; would continue = continua ; I would hear =
auzeam ; he would reply = raspundea
Constructiile de mai sus exprima actiuni care se repeta sau care
constituiau un obicei (in trecut) si sunt cunoscute sub denumirea de
verbe folosite la forma frecventativa.
Forma frecventativa are numai doua timpuri: prezent si trecut. Ea se
construieste cu ajutorul auxiliarului will la prezent (toate persoanele)
si would la trecut (toate persoanele) la care se adauga infinitivul
verbului de conjugat.
In limba romana forma frecventativa se traduce:
a) la prezent - cu prezentul indicativului:
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He will sit for hours on a rock watching the boats. (El sta ore intregi
pe o stanca uitandu-se la barci.)
When the cat's away the mice will play. (Cand pisica nu-i acasa,
soarecii joaca pe masa.)
Children will be children. (Copiii raman copii.)
b) la trecut - cu imperfectul (sau cu constructia "obisnuia sa", urmata
de verbul de conjugat):
Fishing and swimming with his friends, he would look at the boats
going by. (Pescuind si inotand cu prietenii sai, el se uita la vasele care
treceau.)
They would come and talk to her every break. (Ei veneau si vorbeau
cu ea in fiecare recreatie.)
Forma frecventativa este folosita in mod obisnuit in limba scrisa, mai
putin in vorbirea de toate zilele, in care este inlocuita de verbul used
to.
Verbul modal SHOULD
a) It should not have creaked. (N-ar fi trebuit sa scartiie.)
In exemplul de mai sus, verbul modal should exprima o obligatie
(constrangere) sau o datorie, in general, de ordin moral.
Nota: Should exprima o obligatie mai putin imperioasa decat shall
(folosit la persoana a II-a si a III-a pentru formarea timpului Future of
Command):
You shall translate it at once. (O vei traduce imediat.) (Pentru ca
trebuie.)
He shall come here. (El va veni aici.) (Trebuie sa vina.)
Insa:
You should translate it at once. (Ar trebui sa o traduci imediat.)
He should come here. (El va veni aici.) (Trebuie sa vina.)
b) Should este folosit si pentru a exprima un sfat, o recomandare, o
sugestie:
You should pay him a visit. (Ar trebui sa-i faci o vizita.)
You should not speak so loud. (N-ar trebui sa vorbesti asa de tare.)
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c) Pentru a arata ca actiunea se refera la trecut se foloseste should +


infinitivul perfect al verbului de conjugat:
You should have asked her. (Ar fi trebuit s-o intrebi.)
He should have come in time. (El ar fi trebuit sa vina la timp.)
d) Pentru a exprima o dojana, o dezaprobare, se foloseste should +
negatie + infinitivul perfect al verbului de conjugat:
It shouldn't have creaked. (N-ar fi trebuit sa scartaie.)
You shouldn't have left so early. (N-ar fi trebuit sa pleci asa de
devreme.)
e) Should este folosit si pentru a exprima o presupunere sau o
probabilitate:
He should be at home by now. (Ar trebui sa fie acasa /pana/ acum.)
AS IF - AS THOUGH conjunctii comparative
As if, as though (de parca, ca si cand) sunt conjunctii comparative si
introduc propozitii comparative care contin al doilea termen al unei
comparatii stabilite de regenta:
You answer as if (as though) you did not know the rule. (Raspunzi
ca si cum nu ai sti regula.)
They looked at me as though they had never seen me. (S-au uitat la
mine ca si cum nu m-ar fi vazut niciodata.)
Dupa as if (as though) se foloseste Past Indefinite cand actiunea din
propozitia principala si cea din subordonata au loc in mod simultan:
He spoke as if he knew everything. (Vorbea ca si cum ar sti totul.)
Dupa as if (as though) se foloseste Past Perfect cand vrem sa aratam
ca actiunea din subordonata a avut loc inaintea actiunii din principala:
She cried bitterly, as if she had lost all hope. (Plangea amarnic ca si
cum ar fi pierdut orice speranta.)
Verbele din propozitia subordonata introdusa prin as if (as though) se
traduc in limba romana prin conditionalul prezent sau trecut.

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He speaks Romanian as if he had lived in our country. (Vorbeste


romaneste de parca ar fi trait in tara noastra.)
He talks as if he knew everything. (Vorbeste ca si cum ar sti totul.)
Nota: Forma de Past Tense a verbului to be folosit in propozitiile
comparative este were pentru toate persoanele, singular si plural:
She looked as if she were tired. (Ea arata ca si cum ar fi obosita.)
I feel as if I were ill. (Ma simt ca si cum as fi bolnav.)
Comparative duble
In limba engleza se gasesc uneori comparative duble, care se traduc in
limba romana prin:
a) din ce in ce:
In winter the weather gets colder and colder. (Iarna, vremea devine
din ce in ce mai rece / se raceste/.)
My English lessons are more and more interesting. (Lectiile mele
de engleza devin din ce in ce mai interesante.)
The patient is feeling better and better. (Pacientul se simte din ce in
ce mai bine.)
b) cu cat ... cu atat:
The more we looked at it, the more we wondered at it. (Cu cat ne
uitam la el mai mult, cu atat ne minunam mai mult.)
The colder the weather, the warmer I dress. (Cu cat e vremea mai
rece, cu atat ma imbrac mai gros.)
The more English stories you read, the easier it will be for you to
learn English. (Cu cat citesti mai multe povestiri englezesti, cu atat iti
va fi mai usor sa inveti englezeste.)
In primul caz a) avem doua comparative in aceeasi propozitie, iar in al
doilea caz b) avem in doua propozitii diferite doua comparative
precedate de adverbul the (identic ca forma cu articolul hotarat.)
Verbul defectiv USED TO
We used to be very good friends. (Eram prieteni foarte buni.)

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Verbul defectiv din exemplul de mai sus nu trebuie confundat cu


verbul principal to use, care se conjuga la fel ca celelalte verbe
regulate si se traduce prin a folosi, a intrebuinta. In exemplul nostru,
verbul defectiv used to se traduce prin obisnuia sa fie (era odata pe
vremuri). Acest verb are o singura forma - trecutul (pentru toate
persoanele) - uurmata de un verb la infinitivul lung.
Nota: Forma used to poate inlocui trecutul formei frecventative, care
este intrebuintat mai mult in limba scrisa:
They used to come and see us very often. (Obisnuiau sa vina sa ne
vada foarte des.)
Exprimarea dimensiunilor in limba engleza
Adjectiv

Substantiv

Verb

long = lung

length = lungime

to lengthen = a lungi

high = inalt

height = inaltime

to heighten = a inalta

deep = adanc

depth = adancime

to deepen = a adanci

broad = larg

breadth = largime

to broaden = a largi

wide = lat

width = latime

to widen = a lati

strong = puternic strength = putere

to strengthen = a intari, a
consolida

The Danube is 2,860 kilometres long ; its length is 2,860


kilometres.
Adjectivul care exprima o dimensiune (latime, inaltime, adancime,
lungime etc.) se aseaza dupa numeralul respectiv. Substantivele si
uneori verbele derivate din aceste adjective sunt formate prin
schimbarea vocalei din radacina si adaugarea unor terminatii
Intrebarea disjunctiva
Intrebarea disjunctiva insoteste propozitia enuntiativa pentru a intari si
confirma intelesul acesteia. In limba romana, intrebarile disjunctive se
traduc prin corespondentul: nu-i asa?
In limba engleza intrebarea disjunctiva este o intrebare scurta, care se

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formeaza repetand subiectul si verbul auxiliar sau modal


corespunzator predicatului propozitiei pe langa care sta:
You are ready, aren't you?
It's rather cold today, isn't it?
You have written all your exercises, haven't you?
We must answer his letter, mustn't we?
They had a good time on their holidays, hadn't they?
Cand in propozitia enuntiativa se afla un verb notional, atunci in
propozitia disjunctiva se foloseste verbul to do la timpul respectiv:
He gets home at three o'clock, doesn't he?
You saw their new flat, didn't you?
They write home every week, don't they?
He reads English novels, doesn't he?
Verbul din intrebarea disjunctiva se foloseste la timpul verbului din
propozitia enuntiativa si la forma opusa acesteia:
a) daca verbul din propozitia enuntiativa este la forma afirmativa, cel
din propozitia disjunctiva este la forma interogativ-negativa:
He can do it, can't he?
You began to study English, last year, didn't you?
b) daca verbul din propozitia enuntiativa este la forma negativa, atunci
verbul din propozitia disjunctiva este la forma interogativa:
They do not leave on Monday, do they?
She has no lectures in the afternoon, has she?
You did not ring him up today, did you?
In mod obisnuit, partea enuntiativa a propozitiei disjunctive este
rostita cu intonatia coboratoare, iar intrebarea propriu-zisa este rostita
cu intonatia urcatoare.
Intrebarea alternativa
Intrebarea alternativa este tot o intrebare generala, care presupune
doua alternative:
Will you stay here, or come with us?
Are they students or pupils?
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Din aceasta cauza, intr-o intrebare alternativa exista intotdeauna


conjunctia or (sau):
Have you already done your work, or will you do it tomorrow?
Shall I do it or will you do it yourself?
Are you going out or do you prefer to stay at home?
Intonatia generala a unei asemenea intrebari este urcatoare, tonul se
ridica imediat inainte de conjunctia or in prima parte si coboratoare in
a doua.
The Emphatic DO
Auxiliarul do este folosit pentru a sublinia cele spuse de vorbitor:
We really did enjoy ourselves. (Ne-am distrat, intr-adevar.)
They do like to meet us. (Le place /intr-adevar/ sa se intalneasca cu
noi, sa se vada cu noi.)
That is just what I do mean to say. (Este exact ce vreau sa spun.)
You say I wasn't there, but I did go! (Spui ca nu am fost acolo, dar
te asigur ca m-am dus.)
Do come here! (Te rog, vino aici!)
Do tell me what happend! (Te rog, spune-mi ce s-a intamplat!)
In propozitiile imperative afirmative, folosirea auxiliarului do face ca
ordinul sau rugamintea exprimata sa fie redate pe un ton mai putin
imperios:
Do stay a little longer. (Te rog, mai stai putin.)
Do write me a letter as soon as you arrive home. (Scrie-mi, te rog o
scrisoare imediat ce ajungi acasa.)
Pronumele nehotarat ONE
One cannot doubt ... (Nu te poti /nu ne putem/ indoi ...)
One was constantly aware ... (Iti dadeai /ne dadeam/ seama
permanent ...)
One poate fi:
a) numeral:

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There was only one man in the hall. (Era numai un singur om in
sala.)
b) inlocuitor al articolului nehotarat a, an in constructii de tipul:
One fine day ... (Intr-o buna zi ... )
One evening ... (Intr-o seara ... )
I haven't any stamp, will you give me one? (Nu am nici un timbru,
te rog, imi dai unul?)
Atunci cand este asezat inaintea unui nume propriu, one capata sensul
de un (o) oarecare:
David's mother married one Mr. Brown. (Mama lui David s-a
casatorit cu un oarecare domn Brown.)
c) pronume nehotarat cu functie generica (1) sau anaforica (2):
1) In exemplele de mai sus (one cannot doubt si one was constantly
aware), one este folosit generic in propozitii impersonale si se refera
la oameni in general. El se poate traduce in limba romana prin
persoana a II-a singular sau plural a pronumelui personal, persoana I
plural a pronumelui personal sau prin pronumele reflexiv generic se:
One cannot live without working. (Nu poti /putem/ se poate/ trai
fara a munci.) - the joke of the century :):):)
One must take into account the fact that... (Trebuie sa se tina /sa
tinem/ sa tii/ seama de faptul ca...)
Pronumele we, you si they pot indeplini si ele o functie generica:
You cannot eat your cake and have it. (Nu se poate si cu varza unsa
si cu slanina in pod :):):) )
We must always do our duty. (Trebuie sa ne facem intotdeauna
datoria.)
They drink much tea in England. (Se bea mult ceai in Anglia.)
dar pronumele one, we si you, folosite generic, il includ pe vorbitor:
One cannot be happy if one does not love. sau We cannot be happy
if we do not love. sau You cannot be happy if you do not love.
(Nu poti fi fericit daca nu iubesti.) --- really? :):):)
Pronumele they il exclude pe vorbitor:
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They say he is a successful musician.


(Se spune ca e un muzician de mare succes.)
2) Pronumele nehotarat one poate fi folosit si anaforic, inlocuind un
substantiv care a fost mentionat inainte pentru a evita repetarea
acestuia:
I haven't got an india-rubber. Lend me one, please.
(N-am guma. Te rog imprumuta-mi una.)
In aceasta calitate el poate primi semnul pluralului:
My new shoes are less comfortable than the old ones.
(Pantofii mei cei noi sunt mai putin comozi decat cei vechi.)
d) Pronumele nehotarat one se foloseste ca inlocuitor al unui
substantiv dupa adjective calificative (vezi exemplul de mai sus), dupa
this, that, which, another, these, those, the other si dupa the next,
the first, the last:
I don't like this hat. Please give me that one (another one, the other
one, these ones, those ones etc.)
(Nu-mi place palaria asta. Te rog da-mi-o pe aceea /alta, cealalta, pe
acestea, pe acelea etc/.)
John was the last one to leave.
(John a fost ultimul care a plecat.)
Nota1: One's este forma impersonala a adjectivului posesiv:
to do one's duty (a-si face datoria)
One should never forget one's friends. (Nu trebuie niciodata sa-ti
uiti prietenii.)
Nota2: Oneself este forma impersonala a pronumelui reflexiv:
to cut oneself = a se taia
to hide oneself = a se ascunde
Articolul hotarat si articolul nehotarat

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Intrucat articolul hotarat si articolul nehotarat au fost tratate sporadic


in lectiile anterioare voi sistematiza aici notiunile dobandite pana
acum despre articol, completandu-le cu unele noi.
1) Articolul hotarat (the) insoteste substantive folosite cu un inteles
determinat, spre a le deosebi de altele din aceeasi clasa sau categorie.
Substantivul poate fi deosebit de celelalte din clasa careia apartine, fie
prin folosirea unor atribute, propozitii atributive etc., fie prin context,
adica prin cuvintele sau propozitiile care-l inconjoara si care adesea
arata ca substantivul respectiv este cunoscut (de vorbitor, cititor,
ascultator) sau ca el e prezent in mintea acestora fiind amintit intr-o
propozitie anterioara:
the lofty silhouettes of sky-scrapers
the quiet crystal air of a mountain peak
Articolul hotarat se mai foloseste:
a) cu substantive la singular care arata o intreaga categorie sau
specie:
The cat is a graceful animal.
b) cu adjective substantivate:
the rich and the poor
The Chinese of New-York live in Chinatown.
The Negroes live mostly in Haarlem.
c) inaintea adjectivelor la gradul superlativ (relativ) si a
numeralelor ordinale:
the tallest man-made structure
on the 87th floor
d) inaintea substantivelor precedate de o prepozitie, chiar atunci
cand in limba romana substantivul e nearticulat:
in the street = pe strada
in the world = din lume
after the lesson = dupa lectie
Nota: Numele punctelor cardinale intra in aceeasi categorie, fiind
articulate atunci cand sunt precedate de o prepozitie (in the north ; to
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the east) sau cand desemneaza o regiune, grup de tari etc., situate in
aceeasi directie:
In the American Civil War the North fought against the South.
(In razboiul de secesiune, Nordul a luptat impotriva Sudului.)
e) articolul definit se mai foloseste cu o serie de nume proprii ca:
unor tari (the United States of America, the Argentine, the Lebanon,
etc.) ; nume de rauri, fluvii, mari, oceane (the Danube, the Black Sea,
the Atlantic) ; numele lanturilor de munti (the Carpathians) ; numele
deserturilor si a grupurilor de insule (the Sahara, the Hebrides) ;
inaintea numelor unor institutii binecunoscute (the Metropolitan
Museum, the Empire State Building) ; a numelor ziarelor (The NewYork Times, The Washington Post) ; a vapoarelor (the Transylvania,
the Carpati) si a numelor de familie folosite la plural, in vorbirea
familiara (the Johnsons).
Nota: Nu se articuleaza numele strazilor, pietelor, parcurilor etc.:
(Fifth Avenue, Picadilly Circus, Central Park).
Articolul hotarat the care provine dintr-o forma veche a pronumelui
demonstrativ isi pastreaza insa sensul demonstrativ in unele expresii
ca:
at the time- in acel timp
for the purpose - pentru acest (acel) scop
nothing of the kind - nicidecum, nimic de soiul acesta
the two - cei doi
2) Articolul nehotarat (a, an) este folosit, ca si in limba romana,
numai cu sunstantive la numarul singular si arata ca substantivul
respectiv reprezinta o fiinta sau un obiect oarecare dintr-o categorie
sau clasa:
Broadway is a very long street.
John is a good student.
Nota: Tot ca in limba romana, articolul nehotarat poate avea sens de
numeral:
I have an english dictionary and two French ones.

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a) Spre deosebire de limba romana, in engleza articolul nehotarat se


foloseste inaintea substantivelor nume predicative care arata profesia,
calitatea, gradul, sexul cuiva:
She is a teacher.
I speak to you as a friend.
Peter is a boy.
b) dupa anumite adverbe sau adjective ca: rather, quite, such,
many, what (in propozitii exclamative):
Such a funny fellow. (Un individ atat de nostim.)
Quitean old man. (Un om batran de-a binelea.)
many a writer (multi scriitori)
What a pleasant surprise ! (Ce surpriza placuta!)
c) pentru a exprima raportul de frecventa sau distributie in unele
unitati de masura, timp etc.:
We have English classes twice (once) a week. (Avem ore de
engleza de doua ori /o data/ pe saptamana.)
I didn't see her for a long time. (Nu am vazut-o de mult.)
Nota: Observati locul articolului in: half a mile, half an hour.
d) in unele constructii si expresii, ca:
to be in a hurry - a fi grabit
it is a pity - e pacat
as a friend - ca prieten
to have a tootache, headache, a sore throat, etc. - a te durea
maseaua, capul, in gat etc.
3) Cazuri in care nu se foloseste articolul:
a) Ca si in limba romana, articolul (hotarat sau nehotarat) nu se
foloseste cu nume proprii de persoane, continente, tari, regiuni,
localitati (exceptand unele tari amintite mai sus si orasul Haga (the
Hague)). De asemenea, cu unele substantive care desemneaza relatii
de rudenie si sunt asimilate de membrii familiei cu nume proprii:
Father, Mother, Grannie.
b) Spre deosebire de limba romana insa, nu se articuleaza numele
anotimpurilor, lunilor, zilelor, precum si al meselor din timpul zilei:
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December is my favourite month. (Decembrie e luna mea


preferata.)
I like autumn ; in autumn there is a lot of fruit. (Imi place
toamna; toamna sunt multe fructe.)
Breakfast will be ready in a quarter of an hour. (Micul dejun va fi
gata intr-un sfert de ora.)
c) Articolele nu se folosesc nici cu substantive luate in sensul lor cel
mai general, cum sunt:
- nume de materii, substante, alimente etc.:
Steel is a hard metal. (Otelul e un metal dur.)
- nume de abstractiuni:
We stand for peace and friendship. (Suntem pentru pace si
prietenie.)
- substantive la plural:
New-York is made up of small towns, villages and settlements.
- unele substantive individuale la singular (man, woman,
mankind, society, school, church, market, bed, board):
School plays a great role in society. (Scoala joaca un mare rol
in societate.)
d) Isi pierd articolul si substantivele care intra in unele expresii si
locutiuni, chiar in cazul cand sunt precedate de prepozitii:
side by side (unul langa altul) ;
for miles on end (pe distanta de mile intregi) ;
in height (ca inaltime) ;
in style (ca linie, ca stil) ;
to go by tram /bus/ (a merge cu tramvaiul /autobuzul/) ;
on foot (pe jos) ;
from day to day (din zi in zi) ;
at night (noaptea) ;
hand in hand (mana in mana) ;
shoulder to shoulder (umar la umar) ;
to shake hands (a da mana) ;
to change colour (a-si schimba culoarea) etc.
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4) Omisiunea articolului:
Unele substantive pot aparea nearticulate datorita omisiunii
articolului. Aceasta se face de obicei pentru motive stilistice si apare
adesea in stilul ziaristic, in indicatii scenice, in comunicari cu caracter
telegrafic etc. In asemenea cazuri insa, articolul poate fi oricand
introdus la locul cuvenit, in timp ce in cazurile de nefolosire a
articolului, adaugarea lui ar fi o greseala gramaticala:
Heath: End of Talks. (Heath anunta sfarsitul convorbirilor.)
Wind. Dusk. Autumn scenery. (Vant. Amurg. Peisaj de toamna.)
Functiile sintactice ale participiului nedefinit
Participiul nedefinit poate indeplini urmatoarele functii sintactice:
1) Atribut sau inlocuitor al unei propozitii atributive:
The falling leaves covered the roofs and the ground. (Frunzele
cazatoare /care cadeau/ acopereau acoperisurile si solul.)
How beautiful the blooming trees are! (Ce frumosi sunt pomii in
floare!)
Here is a letter announcing his arrival. (Iata o scrisoare care anunta
sosirea lui.)
2) Nume predicativ:
The noise of the crowd was deafening. (Zgomotul multimii era
asurzitor.)
The girl stood looking at the crowd. (Fata statea uitandu-se la
multime.)
3) Complement circumstantial:
a) de timp, introdus prin conjunctiile while sau when sau fara
conjunctie:
While approaching Stratford we saw beautiful woods and green
fields.
(Apropiindu-ne /cand ne-am apropiat/ de Stratford am vazut
paduri frumoase si campii inverzite.)

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Arriving at Stratford they went to see Shakespeare's birthplace.


(Sosind /cand au sosit/ la Stratford s-au dus sa vada locul unde sa nascut Shakespeare.)
b) de mod sau de imprejurari insotitoare:
She stood by the window, thinking. (Statea langa fereastra
gandindu-se.)
c) de cauza:
Having plenty of time, we did not hurry. (Avand timp suficient
nu ne-am grabit.)
Functiile sintactice ale gerunziului in propozitie
Gerunziul indeplineste urmatoarele functii:
1) Subiect:
Swimming is very popular in our country. (Inotul e foarte raspandit
in tara noastra.)
2) Nume predicativ, facand parte dintr-un predicat verbal compus,
dupa verbe ca: to begin, to start, to continue, to go on, to keep (on)
- a continua, to stop, to finish etc.:
Sharon started combing her hair. (Sharon a inceput sa-si pieptene
parul.)
Keep smiling! (Nu-ti pierde buna dispozitie! ; textual: Continua sa
zambesti!)
Stop talking! (Nu mai vorbiti! ; textual: Incetati vorbitul!)
Haven't you finished doing those translations yet? (N-ai terminat
inca de facut traducerile acelea?)
3) Complement prepozitional (a) dupa verbe si (b) adjective cu
prepozitie obligatorie:
a) Jim succeeded in buying the beautiful combs. (Jim a reusit sa
cumpere pieptenii cei frumosi.)
I thought of going to see my friend today. (Ma gandeam sa ma
duc sa-l vad azi pe prietenul meu.)
Thank you for coming. (Multumesc ca ai venit.)

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b) She was proud of having such a good husband. (Ea era mandra
ca are un sot atat de bun.)
Della was surprised at seeing the new t-shirt. (Della a fost uimita
vazand tricoul cel nou.)
4) Complement direct dupa verbe ca: to avoid, to prefer, to enjoy, to
want, to remember, to forget, to hate, to love, to like, to need, to
postpone, to mind (a supara, a deranja):
Avoid making so many mistakes. (Evitati sa faceti atatea greseli.)
He loves driving in a fast car. (Ii place sa mearga cu o masina cu
viteza mare.)
Do you mind shutting the door? (Nu vreti sa inchideti usa?)
Nota1: Cateva din aceste verbe ca: to love, to like, to hate, to prefer,
to forget, to remember, to want pot fi urmate si de infinitive.
Nota2: Gerunziul se foloseste si dupa expresiile: can't help (nu pot sa
nu, nu ma pot impiedica), to be worth (a merita), to be busy (a fi
ocupat cu), to be fond of (a-i placea foarte mult):
O. Henry's short stories are worth reading. (Nuvelele lui O. Henry
merita sa fie citite.)
I can't help buying these delicious chocolates. (Nu pot sa nu cumpar
aceste delicioase bomboane de ciocolata.)
5) Complement circumstantial de timp dupa prepozitiile: after,
before, upon (on):
After resting a little I had my tea. (Dupa ce m-am odihnit putin am
baut ceaiul.)
Before going to bed I read a few pages. (Inainte de a ma duce la
culcare am citit cateva pagini.)
6) Atribut folosit dupa substantive cu prepozitie obligatorie (in general
of):
She had no hope of getting such a beautiful present. (Nu spera sa
capete un cadou atat de frumos.)
There was no chance of going to the river that day. (Nu era nici o
posibilitate sa mergem la rau in ziua aceea.)
Locul complementelor circumstantiale in propozitie
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A. Complementul circumstantial de timp (The Adverbial Modifier of


Time):
1) In general, complementul circumstantial de timp definit se aseaza
la inceputul sau la sfarsitul propozitiei si nu poate desparti verbul de
complementul sau direct:
The teacher helps the students in time of need. (Profesorul ajuta
studentii la nevoie.)
In the afternoon we went to see the river. (Dupa amiaza mergeam sa
vedem raul.)
After eleven o'clock the reading room was empty. (Dupa ora 11 sala
de lectura era goala.)
2) Complementul circumstantial de timp nedefinit si frecventa
(Adverbs of Indefinite Time) (always, never, sometimes, often,
seldom, frequently, usually, ever, still etc.) ocupa urmatoarele
pozitii:
a) inaintea verbului, cand acesta este la un timp simplu:
I usually work in my room or take part in some sport. (De obicei
lucrez la mine in camera sau fac sport.)
b) dupa verbul to be si verbele modale:
The shopping centre is always crowded. (Centrul comercial este
mereu aglomerat.)
The students must never come late. (Studentii nu trebuie sa
intarzie niciodata.)
c) intre auxiliar si verbul principal, cand acesta este la un timp
compus; intre cele doua auxiliare cand verbul principal este la un timp
compus cu mai multe auxiliare:
I have often listened to the noise of the wind in the trees. (Am
ascultat adesea suierul vantului prin copaci.)
Have you ever loved a man?
The Proctor would never have chased the student if he had not
tried to escape. ("Proctorul" nu ar fi urmarit pe student daca acesta nar fi incercat sa scape.) ; proctor = membru al consiliului de disciplina
in universitatile engleze

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Nota: Adverbul sometimes poate fi asezat la inceputul sau la sfarsitul


propozitiei:
Sometimes he couldn't sleep for hours (sometimes).
B. Complementul circumstantial de loc (The Adverbial Modifier of
Place)
1) Complementul circumstantial de loc se aseaza , in general, la
inceputul sau la sfarsitul propozitiei si nu poate desparti verbul de
complementul sau direct:
I found the way to the river. (Am gasit calea spre rau.)
In the centre of the town is the market-place. (In centrul orasului
este piata.)
You sit here! (Sezi aici!)
2) Complementul circumstantial de loc (1) se aseaza inaintea celui de
timp (2):
I'm going to the theatre (1) on Saturday (2). Let's go together.
(Intentionez sa merg la teatru sambata. Sa mergem impreuna.)
I go to the discotheque (1) each week (2). (Merg la discoteca in
fiecare saptamana.)
C. Complementul circumstantial de mod (The Adverbial Modifier of
Manner)
Se aseaza dupa verb, daca acesta nu e urmat de un complement direct,
sau dupa complementul direct, daca acesta este scurt (a). El preceda
verbul cand complementul direct este lung (b):
a) The river flows slowly and calmy. (Raul curge incet si linistit.)
He speaks English and French fluently. (El vorbeste engleza si
franceza fluent.)
b) He quickly put down the few sentences the teacher dictated. (A
notat repede cele cateva propozitii pe care le-a dictat profesorul.)
The student carefully selected the data he nedeed for his essay.
(Studentul a selectionat cu grija datele de care avea nevoie pentru
eseul sau.)

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Nota: Adverbele really, probably, scarcely (abia), hardly, nearly


(aproximativ), almost, even, strongly etc. se aseaza in propozitie
conform regulilor adverbelor de timp nedefinit:
He could hardly eat anything. (Nu putea manca mai nimic.)
They have really gone there. (S-au dus intr-adevar acolo.)
He had almost fallen asleep. (Aproape adormise.)
Formarea cuvintelor in limba engleza
Principalele mijloace de formare a cuvintelor in limba engleza sunt:
1) Afixatia (Affixation) - formarea de cuvinte noi prin adaugarea unor
prefixe (a) sau sufixe (b):
a) undergraduate (student) ; underground (subteran) ; misprint
(greseala de tipar) ; to disregard (a dispretui) ; supersonic
b) teacher ; runner ; tourist ; stewardess ; Japanese ; Canadian ;
development ; liberation ; friendship ; childhood (copilarie) ;
freedom ; useful ; peaceful ; careless ; friendly ; daily ; monthly ;
answerable (corespunzator, responsabil) ; defensive ; to modernize ; to
shorten etc.
2) Conversia (Conversion) - schimbarea categoriei gramaticale,
procedeu extrem de frecvent in limba engleza:
graduate = absolvent ; to graduate = a absolvi
catalogue = catalog ; to catalogue = a cataloga
comb = peptene ; to comb = a pieptana
word = cuvant ; to word = a exprima in cuvinte
to drive = a conduce un vehicul ; a drive = o plimbare cu un vehicul
to sob = a plange cu suspine ; a sob = un suspin
to drink = a bea ; a drink = o bautura
3) Compunerea (Composition) - formarea de cuvinte compuse prin
unirea a doua sau mai multe cuvinte simple. Procedeul e foarte
productiv in engleza contemporana (numeroase parti de cuvant se pot
combina prin compunere pentru a forma cuvinte noi):
a) substantive compuse:
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market-place = piata
horse-shoe = potcoava
tea-shop = ceainarie
dining-hall = sala de mese
skating-rink = patinoar
common-sense = bun simt
faint-heart = fricos
high-brow = intelectual snob
b) adjective compuse:
man-made = facut de om
hand-knitted = tricotat de mana
tongue-tied = amutit, mut
c) verbe compuse:
to daydream = a visa cu ochii deschisi
to whitewash = a varui
4) Unele cuvinte (substantive si adjective) se formeaza prin
combinarea celor doua procedee: compozitie si afixatie:
substantive: left-hander = stangaci
sight-seer = vizitator, turist
adjective: deep-coloured = de culoare inchisa
well-dressed = bine imbracat
broad-shouldered = lat in umeri
long-legged = cu picioare lungi
two-roomed = cu doua camere
lion-hearted = curajos (cu inima de leu)
eagle-eyed = cu ochi ageri
Vorbirea directa si indirecta
Pentru a trece propozitiile principale din vorbirea directa in vorbire
indirecta se aplica urmatoarele reguli, tinandu-se seama de felul
propozitiilor (enuntiative, interogative si imperative):
1) Propozitia enuntiativa:

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a) Se introduce prin conjunctia that , sau direct, omitandu-se


conjunctia:
She says: "I am so happy."
She says (that) she is so happy.
b) Pronumele personale, posesive, reflexive si adjectivul posesiv isi
modifica persoana dupa sens:
She says: "I am so happy."
She says that she is so happy.
They say: "We are ready."
They say that they are ready.
c) Daca predicatul propozitiei introductive este la un timp trecut,
timpul verbelor in vorbirea indirecta se modifica potrivit regulilor de
corespondenta a timpurilor:
- prezentul se transforma in Past Tense:
"I'm all right " he said.
He said that he was all right.
- Present Perfect se transforma in Past Perfect:
They said: "The boy has refused to let anyone come into the
room."
They said that the boy had refused to let anyone come into the
room.
- Past Tense devine Past Perfect:
He said: "At school in France the boys told me....."
He said that at school in France the boys had told him.....
Nota: In unele cazuri, Past Tense se pastreaza:
She said: "Mother died in 1930."
She said her mother died in 1930.
- Past Perfect nu se schimba:
He said: "I had finished everything by five o'clock."
He said that he had finished everything by five o'clock.

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- Future Indefinitive se transforma in Future-in-the-Past:


He said: "I shall come and see you as soon as I can."
He said that he would come and see me as soon as he could.
d) Propozitiile enuntiative sunt introduse prin verbe declarative sau
echivalentele lor: to say, to say to si to tell (cand se arata si persoana
careia ne adresam), to think, to answer, to reply, to add etc.
2) Propozitia interogativa:
a) Se introduce prin conjunctia if sau whether (daca intrebarea are
un caracter general) sau se pastreaza acelasi cuvant interogativ din
vorbirea directa (daca intrebarea are un caracter special):
- intrebari generale:
"Are you sure?" the boy said.
The boy asked me if (whether) I was sure.
"Do you want me to read to you?" I asked him.
I asked him if (whether) he wanted me to read to him.
- intrebari speciale:
"How do you feel, John?" I asked.
I asked him how he felt.
"Why don't you try to go to sleep?" I asked.
I asked him why he did not try to go to sleep.
b) Nu se mai face inversiunea subiectului cu predicatul deoarece
propozitia devine enuntiativa. Se renunta la folosirea auxiliarului to
do:
The boy said: "Do you think I am going to die?"
The boy asked his father if he thought he was going to die.
I asked: "Are you all right?"
I asked him if he was all right.
c) Persoana se schimba dupa sens:
"Where have you been?" he asked.
He asked where I had been.
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I asked her: "Are you really ill?"


He asked her if she was really ill.
d) Se respecta regulile corespondentei timpurilor cand propozitia
introductiva e la un timp trecut:
He asked: "What are you afraid of?"
He asked me what I was afraid of.
He asked: "Did you return my bicycle?"
He asked me if I had returned his bicycle.
e) Propozitiile interogative sunt introduse prin verbele: to ask, to
inquire (a intreba), to wonder (a se intreba) etc.
3) Propozitia imperativa:
a) Modul imperativ se transforma in infinitiv:
"You go up to bed!" I said.
I told him to go up to bed.
"Don't come in!" he said.
He told me not to come in.
b) Propozitiile imperative sunt introduse prin verbe care exprima un
ordin, o rugamainte, o cerere: to order, to tell, to ask, to command,
to beg, to request, to advise, to suggest, to allow etc.
Constructia for ... to (The for - Phrase)
It would be natural for him to go to sleep.
(Ar fi normal /natural/ ca sa adoarma.)
Constructia for him to go este formata din prepozitia for, un pronume
sau un substantiv in cazul acuzativ, si un infinitiv lung. In limba
engleza, astfel de constructii sunt destul de frecvente, ele avand
diferite functii in propozitie. In exemplul de mai sus, constructia for
him to go to sleep are functia de subiect, introdus cu ajutorul
pronumelui it. Constructia for ... to apare frecvent in aceasta functie
dupa expresiile: it is natural,it is possible, it is necessary, it is hard,
it is easy, it is strange etc.:
It is hard for him to do it. (Ii este greu sa faca aceasta.)
It is possible for them to start earlier. (E posibil ca ei sa porneasca
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mai devreme.)
It isn't necessary for you to make arrangements beforehand. (Nu e
necesar ca sa aranjezi /totul/ dinainte.)
Nota: Aceeasi constructie apare si cu alte functii sintactice:
The only thing for him to do was to leave at once. (atribut)
(Singurul lucru pe care putea sa-l faca era sa plece imediat.)
This passage is for you to translate. (nume predicativ) (Acest
fragment iti revine tie de tradus.)
We made room for him to pass. (complement circumstantial de
scop) (I-am facut loc sa treaca.)
Acuzativul cu infinitive
What do you expect me to think of that speech? (Ce va asteptati sa
cred despre aceste cuvinte?)
I advice you not to beinsolent. (Va sfatuiesc sa nu fiti obraznic.)
The spectators watched the curtain rise slowly. (Spectatorii priveau
cortina ridicandu-se /cum se ridica/ incet.)
Did you see them get off the train? (I-ai vazut dandu-se /cum s-au
dat/ jos din tren?)
Acuzativul cu infinitivul este o constructie formata dintr-un substantiv
sau pronume in cazul acuzativ si un infinitiv scurt sau lung. Infinitivul
are functia predicativa pe langa substantivul sau pronumele in
acuzativ. Infinitivul este cerut de verbul tranzitiv dupa care se
foloseste aceasta constructie. Acuzativul cu infinitivul se traduce in
limba romana printr-un complement direct sau printr-o propozitie
completiva directa.
Infinitivul scurt se foloseste dupa verbele care exprima: o perceptie a
simturilor (to see, to feel, to hear, to notice, to observe, to watch) si
dupa verbele to make (a determina, a face sa) si to let (a lasa):
I shall make him speak. (Am sa-l fac sa vorbeasca.)
Don't let her keep the book too long. (N-o lasa sa tina cartea prea
mult.)
I saw the children play in the garden. (Am vazut copiii jucandu-se
in gradina.)
I shall hear him sing tonight. (Il voi auzi cantand diseara.)

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Infinitivul lung (cu particula to) se foloseste dupa verbele care


exprima o activitate a intelectului (to think, to consider, to know, to
believe, to expect, to understand etc.) ; un sentiment (to like, to
dislike, to hate, to prefer etc.) ; vointa sau intentia (to want, to wish,
to desire, to mean, to intend etc.) ; un ordin, o permisiune (to order,
to require, to permit, to allow, to force etc.):
She considers the text to be difficult. (Socoteste ca textul e greu.)
I thought him to be a good expert. (Am crezut ca e un expert bin.)
I like her to read to me. (Imi place sa-mi citeasca.)
We wants this song to be recorded. (Vrem ca acest cantec sa fie
inregistrat.)
Complex gerund
I object to Lord North's robbing me. (Ma opun ca lordul North sa
ma jefuiasca.)
If you excuse my saying so. (Iertati-ma ca ma exprim asa.)
In exemplele de mai sus, gerunziul este precedat de un substantiv in
cazul genitiv (Lord North's robbing) si de un adjectiv posesiv (my
saying). Substantivul in cazul genitiv si adjectivul posesiv indeplinesc
functia de subiect logic pe langa gerunziu.
O astfel de constructie poate avea urmatoarele functii:
a) Subiect:
Your asking so many questions annoyed him.
(Faptul ca i-ai pus atatea intrebari l-a suparat.)
b) Complement direct:
Do you mind my smoking here?
(Va deranjeaza daca /eu/ fumez aici?)
c) Atribut:
He does not like the idea of our leaving so soon.
(Nu-i convine /place/ ideea ca /noi/ sa plecam asa curand.)
d) Complement circumstantial: Passive Voice
a fi la timpul cerut + forma a III a a verbului de
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conjugat

Present Simple : The room is cleaned every day.


Present Continuous : It is being cleaned.
Past Tense Simple: It was cleaned.
Past Tense Continuous: It was being cleaned.
Present Perfect: It has been cleaned.
Past Perfect: It had been cleaned.
Future : It will be cleaned.
Present conditional: It would be cleaned.
Past Conditional: It would have been cleaned.
Infinitive: to be cleaned
Trecerea din diateza activa in diateza pasiva:
Mary

gives

mother

CI

a
flower

Mother

is

given

CD

CI

a
flower

by
Mary

CD

NOTA: CI sau CD din propozitia activa devine subiectul propozitiei


pasive.Complementul de agent (the doer) poate sa lipseasca atunci
cand e exprimat printr-un pronume personal (I,you), pronume
nehotarat (somebody, anybody) sau substantive ca: a boy, some
people
NOTA: verbele cu prepozitie isi pastreaza prepozitia alaturi din in
diateza pasiva.
Ex: You can rely on this man. This man can be relied on.
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NOTA:
People say that he is a good...
It is said that he is a...
He is said to be...
People think that he was a...
It is thought that he was a...
He is thought to have been a...
NOTA: infinitivul prezent arata ca o actiune este simultana; infinitivul
perfect arata ca atiunea este anterioara.
We must settle everything before his leaving the town.
(Trebuie sa aranjam totul inainte ca el sa plece din oras.)
Past Perfect
Afirmativ

S+had+V (forma a treia)

Negativ

S+had+not+V (forma a treia)

Interogativ-Negativ

Hadnt+S+V (forma a treia)

Question-Tag

They had already entered, hadnt they?

1)Este o actiune terminata in trecut inaintea altei actiuni tot din trecut
cu: since, for, how long, just, already, yet, after, before, as soon as,
etc.
2)Cu: hardly/scarcely/barely(numai doar),when
Ex:I had hardly got on the bus when it started.Hardly had I got on the
bus when it started.
Cu:no soonerthen
Past Perfect Continuous
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Afirmativ

S+had+been+V (-ing)

Interogativ

had+S+been+V (-ing)

Negativ

S+had+not+been+V (-ing)

InterogativNegativ

had+S+not+been

Este o actiune in desfasurare in trecut, inaintea altei actiuni, tot din


trecut.
Cu: since, for, how long
Past Tense Simple
Afirmativ

S+V(-ed)
S+V (forma a II a)

Interogativ

did+S+V (inf.scurt)

Negativ

S+did+not+V (inf. scurt)

InterogativNegativ

did+S+not+V (inf. scurt)

Question-tag

They left yesterday, didnt he?

1.Este o actiune terminata in trecut cu: as, when, then, yesterday,


last week, last month, last year, that day, the other day, once in
1983, on Sunday, ago, etc.
2.Este o actiune obisnuita, repetata in trecut.In acest caz se
foloseste used to pentru actiune incetata in prezent

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Nota: este timpul naratiunii la trecut si se traduce prin perfect simplu,


perfect compus, imperfect, conditional prezent, conjunctiv perfect.
Past Tense Continuous
Afirmativ

S+was/were+V (-ing)

Interogativ

was/were+S+V (-ing)

Negativ

S+was/were+not+V

InterogativNegativ

wasnt/werent+S+V (-ing)

Question-Tag

They were reading at this time yesterday,


werent they?

1)Este o actiune in desfasurare intr-un anumit moment in trecut cu: at


this time yesterday, yesterday at 5 oclock, when he came, etc.
2)E folosit pentru a exprima iritare, indignare
Present Perfect Simple
Afirmativ

S+have/has+V (forma a treia )

Interogativ

have/has+S+V (forma a treia)

Negativ

S+have/has+not+V (forma a treia)

InterogativNegativ

have/has+S+not+V (forma a treia)

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Question-tag

They havent arrived yet, have


they?

1)Este o actiune inceputa in trecut si continuata pana in momentul


vorbirii cu: since, for, how long
2)Este o actiune petrecuta intr-un moment neprecizat(se simte efectul)
Ex: I have washed my blouse (it is clean)
3)Este o actiune care tocmai a avut loc
# just, already dupa auxiliar
yet in intrebare=deja ma informez; in negatie=inca
yet apare la sfarsitul propozitiei
#till, now, up to now, so far, until now, up to the present moment la
sfarsit sau la inceput de propozitie
#lately(in ultima vreme),recently, of late, latterly numai la sfarsit
propozitiei
#during the last week, the last few days, theese twenty minutes
4) O actiune petrecuta intr-o perioada de timp care nu s-a terminat
inca: today, this week, this month, this year, this sommer, all day, all
night, etc.
5)cu adverbe de frecventa: ever, never, seldom, often, sometimes,
several times, etc.
6)In propozitiile circumstantiale de timp si propozitiile conditionale
de tip 1- viitorul este inlocuit cu Present Perfect Simple pentru actiune
prioritara anterioara

Present Perfect Continuous

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Afirmativ

S+have/have+been+V (-ing)

Interogativ

Have/has+S+been+V (-ing)

Negativ

S+have/has+not+been+V (-ing)

InterogativNegativ

Have/has+S+not+been

Este o actiune inceputa in trecut, este in desfasurare in momentul


vorbirii si actiunea pleaca spre viitor.Cu: since, for, how long
Present Simple Tense
Afirmativ

S+V (pers. a-III-a : -s,-es, -o, -ss, -ch,


-sh)

Interogativ

do/does+S+V (inf.scurt)

Negativ

S+do/does+not+V (inf.scurt)

InterogativNegativ (Dont
you?)

do/does+S+not+V (inf.scurt)

Question-Tag (Nui asa?)

She goes there every day, doesnt


she?

1.Este o actiune obisnuita, repetata, permanenta.


# very day, every week, etc. pozitia: la sfarsit sau la inceput de
propozitie
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108

# ussualy, often, seldom, always, sometimes, generaly, never,


okkasionaly, etc. pozitia: dupa subiect
# from time to time, once a week, twice a week, etc. pozitia: numai
la sfarsitul propozitiei
2.Exprima un adevar general valabil.
3.Apare in: comentarii, retete, demonstratii, indicatii scenice, titluri de
articole, etc.
4.Este o modalitate de exprimare a unui program oficial
Ex:We start a new term at school tomorrow
5.In propozitii circumstantiale de timp (when, while, after, before, as
soon as, till, until ) si conditional tip 1 viitorul este inlocuit cu
prezentul simplu pentru actiune simultana
Ex: I shall go to Bucharest if I have money.
Present Continuous Tense
Afirmativ

S+to be(present)+V-ing

Interogativ

to be+S+V-ing

Negativ

S+to be+not+V-ing

InterogativNegativ

to be+S+not+V-ing

Question-Tag

She is reading now, isnt she? I am


disturbing you, arent I?

1.Este o actiune in desfasurare in momentul vorbirii cu: now, at this


moment, just(now), etc.
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2.Arata ca o actiune este temporara


3.Este o modalitate de exprimare a viitorului ca urmare a unui
program personal
Ex: Im visiting my grandparents this week.
4.Arata ca o actiune este prea des repetata, si supara, irita vorbitorul
cu often, forever, generaly, constantly, never, etc.
Ex: This child is forever crying.
Nota: verbele to grow si to get arata trecerea de la o stare la alta
Ex: It is getting dark.My parents are growing older and older.
Verbe care nu se folosesc la aspectul continuu
1)Verbe de perceptie: to feel, to hear, to notice, to see, to smell, to
taste
2)Verbe care exprima o activitate mintala: to agree, to believe, to
distrust, to doubt, to find, to foresee, to forget, to guess, to imagine, to
know, to mean, to mind, to remember, to recognize, to recollect, to
regard, to suppose, to think (that) , to trust, to understand
3)Verbe care exprima o dorinta: to desire, to intend, to want, to wish,
etc.
4)Verbe care exprima o posesie: to belong, to have, to hold, to keep, to
owe, to own, to possess
5)Verbe care exprima atitudini, sentimente, stari emotionale: to abhor,
to adore, to detest, to dislike, to displease, to like, to love, to hate, to
please, to prefer, etc.
6)Verbe care exprima o stare, o conditie: to appear, to be, to
consist(of), to contain, to differ, to deserve, to equal, to exist, to
resemble, to seem, to suit
Semnificatia semnelor "+" si "-" este: "+" inseamna ca se foloseste la
aspectul continuu, "-" inseamna contrarul.

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to see

- to perceive
+ to meet, to visit, to interview

to expect

- to hope , to believe
+ to wait for

to think

- to believe, to give an opinion


+ to think of / about
- to possess
+ to take a bath, a shower, lunch, breakfast

to have

+ a face pe cineva sa faca ceva pentru tine(verb


cauzativ)
Ex: Im having my house painted

to be

- to exist
+ comportare temporara
Ex: You are being rude today

Ordinea cuvintelor in propozitie este:


S+P+CD/CI+CM+CL+CT
The Subjunctive
A.The synthetical subjunctive
1.The Present Subjunctive

Este identic cu infinitivul scurt al verbului, este socotit vechi,


pretentios si nu se foloseste in limba contemporana

Apare in urari(expresii fixe)


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111

Far be it from me! (departe de


mine)
Heaven
Be that as it may!
Suffice it to say that...
Good bye!(God be with you!)
God forgive/bless you!

Apare dupa impresii impersonale


It is natural that they should
come!

It is natural that they come.

Dupa advise, to recommend...should


They suggest that he should read.
They suggest him to read.
They suggest that he read.
2.The Past Present Subjunctive

Identic cu Past Tense ul verbului (to be/were)

Apare dupa constructii ipotetice

In conditional tip II

3.The Past Perfect Subjunctive

Identic cu Past Perfect-ul verbului

Apare dupa wish, if only, as if, as thought, even if, even thought

B.The Analythical Subjunctive


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Format dintr-un verb modal(shall, should, would, may, mught,


could)

Este mai des folosit si apare atat in propozitia secundara cat si in


propozitia principala.
Shall+infinitiv
Prozitia principala

Propozitia secundara

Shall I help you? (oferta)

Amenintare (informal
english)

Should+infinitiv
Propozitia principala

Propozitia secundara

Why should I go there?

In conditional tip I si II
Dupa constructii ipotetice
In completiva directa
In propozitia de scop

May/might+infinitiv
Propozitia principala

Propozitia secundara

exprima o urare:

Dupa constructii
impersonale: it is/was
possible, probable, likely

May all your dreams come

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113

true!

In propozitia concesiva

Oh, that they might win!


In propozitia de scop
Would+infinitiv
In propozitia secundara dupa wish si if only
Could+infinitiv
Exprima scopul ca o alternativa a lui may/might, could
avand un grad mai mare de siguranta
I studied so that I might pass the exam (but I didnt).
I studied so that I could pass the exam (I am a student).
Modal verbs
Conceptul de capacitate, posibilitate, necesitate sau obligatie este
redat de asa numitele "modal auxiliary verbs" : can, could, shall,
should, must, need, ought to, used to, dare.
Caracteristici:

Nu au infinitiv lung

Nu primesc "s" la persoana a III a singular prezent simplu

Nu primesc "-ing"

Verbele care urmeaza sunt la infinitiv scurt; excceptie: used to,


ought to

Nu au toate timpurile si modurile unui verb normal, de aceea


unele au echivalenti

Formeaza interogativul prin inversiune; negativul + not

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Can-could to be able to
May-might (numai in Indirect Speech) to be allowed to; to be
permited to
Must to have to
Verbe modale (click pe link-uri)

Will Shall Can Could May Might Must Need Should Ought to
Would Used to

Dare
Direct-Indirect Speech

A. Daca in propozitia principala verbul to say, to tell, etc.(reported


verbes) sunt la prezent, in propozitia secundara (completiva
directa) se pune orice timp cerut de inteles.
B. Daca reported verbs sunt la trecut in completiva directa au loc
schimbari la nivel de pronume, adverb si verb
Pronume
I

he/she

we

they

my

his/her

our

their

this

that

these

those

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115

Adverb
Here

there

Now

then

Today

that day

Tonight

that night

Tomorrow

the next day


the following day

Yesterday

the day before


the previous day

Ago

before

Next

the next

the day after tomorrow

in two day time

the day before yesterday

two days before

Verb
Present simple

Past simple

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116

Present continuous

Past continuous

Present perfect

Past perfect

Past tense

Past perfect

Futur

Futur in the past

Imperative

Infinitive

NOTA: prezentul simplu poate ramane neschimbat atunci cand


exprima un adevar general valabil sau o actiune valabila si in prezent.
NOTA: If poate fi inlocuit cu whether atunci cand exprima o indoiala
sau posibilitatea unei alegeri.
Ex: Shall I help you? he said. He said whether I should help him.
NOTA: Intrebarile...
a. Do you speak english? he asked. He asked me if I spoke
english.
b. How are you? she said. She said how I was.
NOTA: imperativul cu let :
I

Let me go!

II

Go!

III

Let him/her/it go!

Let us go! (Lets)

Singular

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117

Plural

II

Go!

III

Let them go!

Ex: "Lets go", he said. He sugested that they should go.


NOTA: exclamatiile
"What a ...! "
"How a ...!"
"My goodness!"
"Oh dear!"
"Heavens!"
"Ugh!"

She said it was ...

She exclaimed with


horror/disgust/surprise

"For goodness
sake!"
"Look out!!"
"Thank you!"

He thanked me

"Good morning!"

She greeted me

She wished me a...

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118

"Liar!"

She called me a liar.

"Damn!"

She swore...

NOTA: Conditional tip II si III raman neschimbate.


Infinitiv
-forma 1to abide
to arise
to awake

Participiu trecut
-forma 3abode
arisen
awoken
awaked
been
born
beaten
become
begun
beheld
bent
besought
bet

Traducere
verb
a astepta, a sta, a locui
a se ridica
a se trezi

to be
to bear
to beat
to become
to begin
to behold
to bend
to beseech
to bet

Trecut
-forma 2abode
arose
awoke
awaked
was, were
bore
beat
became
began
beheld
bent
besought
bet

to bid
to bind
to bite
to bleed
to bless
to blow
to break
to breed
to bring
to broadcast
to burn
to burst
to buy

bade
bound
bit
bled
blest
blew
broke
bred
brought
broadcast
burnt (burned)
burst
bought

bidden
bound
bitten
bled
blest
blown
broken
bred
brought
broadcast
burnt (burned)
burst
bought

a oferi, a licita
a lega
a musca
a sangera
a binecuvanta
a sufla
a sparge
a creste
a aduce
a transmite prin radio
a arde
a izbucni
a cumpara

119

a fi
a se naste
a bate
a deveni
a icepe
a zari, a vedea
a indoi, a curba
a implora
a paria

119

can
to cast
to catch
to choose
to cleave
to cling
to come
to cost
to creep
to cut
to deal
to dig
to do
to draw
to dream
to drink
to drive
to dwell
to eat
to fall
to feed
to feel
to fight
to find
to fly
to forbid
to forecast
to foresee
to foretell
to forget
to forgive
to forgo

could
cast
caught
chose
cleft
clung
came
cost
crept
cut
dealt
dug
did
drew
dreamt (dreamed)
drank
drove
dwelt
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
flew
forbade
forecast
foresaw
foretold
forgot
forgave
forwent

been able to
cast
caught
chosen
cleft
clung
come
cost
crept
cut
dealt
dug
done
drawn
dreamt (dreamed)
drunk
driven
dwelt
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
flown
forbidden
forecast
foreseen
foretold
forgotten
forgiven
forgone

forsake
to freeze
to get
to give

forsook
froze
got
gave

forsaken
frozen
got
given

120

a putea
a arunca
a prinde
a alege
a despica
a se lipi
a veni
a costa
a se tara
a taia
a se ocupa, a trata afaceri
a sapa
a face
a desena
a visa
a bea
a conduce masina
a locui, a ramane, a insista
a manca
a cadea
a hrani
a simti
a lupta
a gasi
a zbura
a interzice
a prevedea
a prevedea
a prezice
a uita
a ierta
a renunta la,
a da uitarii
a parasi
a igheta
a primi
a da

120

to go
to grind
to grow
to hang
to have
to hear
to hide
to hit
to hold
to hurt
to keep
to kneel
to knit
to know
to lay
to lead
to lean
to learn
to leave
to lend
to let
to lie
to light
to lose
to make
to mean
to meet
to misgive
to mislead
to mistake
to outdo
to overcome
to overdo
to pay
to put
to read
to rend

went
ground
grew
hung (hanged)
had
heard
hid
hit
held
hurt
kept
knelt
knit
knew
laid
led
leant
learnt (learned)
left
lent
let
lay
lit
lost
made
meant
met
misgave
misled
mistook
outdid
overcame
overdid
paid
put
read
rent

gone
ground
grown
hung (hanged)
had
heard
hidden
hit
held
hurt
kept
knelt
knit
known
laid
led
leant
learnt (learned)
left
lent
let
lain
lit
lost
made
meant
met
misgiven
misled
mistaken
outdone
overcome
overdone
paid
put
read
rent
121

a merge
a macina
a creste
a spanzura
a avea
a auzi
a ascunde
a lovi
a tine
a rani
a pastra
a igenunchia
a tricota
a sti, a cunoaste
a aseza
a conduce
a se sprijini de
a ivata
a parasi
a mprumuta (cuiva)
a permite
a fi culcat
a aprinde
a pierde
a face
a isemna
a intalni
a inspira neicredere
a induce in eroare
a intelege gresit
a intrece
a invinge
a face exces
a plati
a pune
a citi
a sfasia, a rupe
121

to ride
to ring
to rise
to run
to say
to see
to seek
to sell
to send
to set
to sew
to shake
to shave
to shed
to shine
to shoe
to shoot
to show
to shrink
to shut
to sing
to sink
to sit
to slay
to sleep
to slide
to sling
to slit
to smell
to smite
to sow
to speak
to speed
to spell
to spend
to spill
to spin

rode
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sought
sold
sent
set
sewed
shook
shaved
shed
shone
shod
shot
showed
shrank
shut
sang
sank
sat
slew
slept
slid
slung
slit
smelt (smelled)
smote
sowed
spoke
sped
spelt (spelled)
spent
spilt
spun

ridden
rung
risen
run
said
seen
sought
sold
sent
set
sewn (sewed)
shaken
shaven
shed
shone
shod
shot
shown
shrunk
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slain
slept
slid
slung
slit
smelt (smelled)
smitten
sown
spoken
sped
spelt (spelled)
spent
spilt
spun
122

a calari
a suna
a se ridica
a alerga
a spune
a vedea
a cauta
a vinde
a trimite
a regla, a fixa
a coase
a scutura, a clatina
a se barbieri
a varsa (lacrimi)
a straluci
a icalta, a potcovi
a mpusca
a arata
a se strange
a inchide
a canta
a se scufunda
a sta (pe ceva)
a ucide
a dormi
a aluneca
a azvarli
a despica
a mirosi
a lovi
a semana
a vorbi
a accelera
a pronunta litera cu litera
a cheltui
a varsa
a toarce,
122

to spit
to split
to spoil
to spread
to spring
to stand
to steal
to stick
to sting
to stink
to strike
to string

spat
split
spoilt
spread
sprang
stood
stole
stuck
stung
stank
struck
strung

spat
split
spoilt
spread
sprung
stood
stolen
stuck
stung
stunk
struck
strung

to strive
to swear
to sweep
to swim
to swing
to take
to teach
to tear
to tell
to think
to throw
to thrust
to tread
to underlie
to understand
to upset
to wake
to wear
to weave
to wet
to win
to wind
to wring

strove
swore
swept
swam
swung
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
thrust
trod
underlay
understood
upset
woke
wore
wove
wet
won
wound
wrung

striven
sworn
swept
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
thrust
trodden
underlain
understood
upset
woken
worn
woven
wet
won
wound
wrung

123

a se roti
a scuipa
a despica
a strica
a intinde
a sari, a tasni
a sta in picioare
a fura
a infige, a se lipi
a itepa
a mirosi urat
a lovi
a insira,
a incorda
a se stradui
a jura
a matura
a inota
a se legana
a lua
a invata, a preda
a rupe, a sfasia
a spune
a gandi, a crede
a arunca
a mbranci
a calca
a sustine
a intelge
a supara
a se trezi
a purta
a tese
a uda
a castiga
a se rasuci
a frange,

123

to write

wrote

a smulge
a scrie

written

Verbe neregulate n limba englez


Urmtorul tabel prezint verbele neregulate din limba englez.
Unele dintre acestea au dou variante de conjugare, regulat si
neregulat. n acest caz, varianta mai uzitat este trecut
prima.
Infinitiv

Past Tense

Participiu
trecut

Traducerea
infinitivului
(sensul
principal)

arise

arose

arisen

a se ridica

awake

awoke
awaked

awoken
awaked

a se trezi

backslide

backslid

backslidden
backslid

a decdea

be

was / were

been

a fi

bear

bore

borne
born

a purta

beat

beat

beaten
beat

a bate

become

became

become

a deveni

begin

began

begun

a ncepe

bend

bent

bent

a se ndoi

bet

bet
betted

bet
betted

a paria

124

124

bid

bid
bade

bid
bidden

a licita, a
porunci

bind

bound

bound

a lega

bite

bit

bitten

a musca

bleed

bled

bled

a sngera

blow

blew

blown

a sufla, a bate

break

broke

broken

a sparge

breed

bred

bred

a creste, a
educa

bring

brought

brought

a aduce

broadcast

broadcast
broadcasted

broadcast
broadcasted

a difuza

browbeat

browbeat

browbeaten
browbeat

a intimida

build

built

built

a construi

burn

burned
burnt

burned
burnt

a arde

burst

burst

burst

a izbucni, a
nvli, a crpa

bust

busted
bust

busted
bust

a rupe, a strica

buy

bought

bought

a cumpra

cast

cast

cast

a arunca

125

125

catch

caught

caught

a prinde

choose

chose

chosen

a alege

cling

clung

clung

a se agta

clothe

clothed
clad

clothed
clad

a (se) mbrca

come

came

come

a veni

cost

cost

cost

a costa

creep

crept

crept

a se tr, a se
furisa

cut

cut

cut

a tia

daydream

daydreamed
daydreamt

daydreamed
daydreamt

a visa cu ochii
deschisi

deal

dealt

dealt

a trata, a se
ocupa de

dig

dug

dug

a spa

disprove

disproved

disproved
disproven

a infirma

dive

dived
dove

dived

a plonja

do

did

done

a face

draw

drew

drawn

a trage, a
desena

dream

dreamed
dreamt

dreamed
dreamt

a visa

126

126

drink

drank

drunk

a bea

drive

drove

driven

a sofa, a mna

dwell

dwelt
dwelled

dwelt
dwelled

a locui

eat

ate

eaten

a mnca

fall

fell

fallen

a cdea

feed

fed

fed

a hrni

feel

felt

felt

a (se) simti

fight

fought

fought

a (se) lupta

find

found

found

a gsi

fit

fitted
fit

fitted
fit

a se potrivi

flee

fled

fled

a fugi, a se
refugia

fling

flung

flung

a arunca

fly

flew

flown

a zbura

forbid

forbade
forbad

forbidden

a interzice

forecast

forecast
forecasted

forecast
forecasted

a prevedea

forego

forewent

foregone

a preceda

foresee

foresaw

foreseen

a prevedea

foretell

foretold

foretold

a prezice

127

127

forget

forgot

forgotten

a uita

forgive

forgave

forgiven

a ierta

forsake

forsook

forsaken

a prsi

freeze

froze

frozen

a ngheta

frostbite

frostbit

frostbitten

a degera

get

got

gotten

a primi, a
obtine

give

gave

given

a da

go

went

gone

a merge

grind

ground

ground

a mcina

grow

grew

grown

a creste

hand-feed

hand-fed

hand-fed

a hrni cu
mna

handwrite

handwrote

handwritten

a scrie de mn

hang

hung

hung

a atrna

have

had

had

a avea

hear

heard

heard

a auzi

hew

hewed

hewn
hewed

a despica

hide

hid

hidden

a (se) ascunde

hit

hit

hit

a lovi

hold

held

held

a tine

128

128

hurt

hurt

hurt

a lovi, a rni, a
durea

inbreed

inbred

inbred

a procrea

inlay

inlaid

inlaid

a ncrusta

input

input
inputted

input
inputted

a introduce

interbreed

interbred

interbred

a ncrucisa

interweave

interwove
interweaved

interwoven
interweaved

a (se) ntreese

interwind

interwound

interwound

a se rsuci

jerry-build

jerry-built

jerry-built

a construi prost

keep

kept

kept

a tine, a pstra

kneel

knelt
kneeled

knelt
kneeled

a ngenunchia

knit

knitted
knit

knitted
knit

a tricota

know

knew

known

a sti, a
cunoate

lay

laid

laid

a pune, a aseza

lead

led

led

a conduce

lean

leaned
leant

leaned
leant

a se apleca, a
se sprijini

leap

leaped
leapt

leaped
leapt

a sri

learn

learned
learnt

learned
learnt

a nvta

129

129

leave

left

left

a pleca, a lsa

lend

lent

lent

a da cu
mprumut

let

let

let

a lsa, a
permite

lie

lay

lain

a zcea, a se
afla

light

lit
lighted

lit
lighted

a aprinde

lip-read

lip-read

lip-read

a citi pe buze

lose

lost

lost

a pierde

make

made

made

a face

mean

meant

meant

a nsemna

meet

met

met

a (se) ntlni

miscast

miscast

miscast

a distribui ntrun rol nepotrivit

misdeal

misdealt

misdealt

a mprti crtile
gresit

misdo

misdid

misdone

a face gresit

mishear

misheard

misheard

a auzi gresit

mislay

mislaid

mislaid

a pierde

mislead

misled

misled

a ndruma
gresit

mislearn

mislearned
mislearnt

mislearned
mislearnt

a nvta gresit

misread

misread

misread

a citi gresit

130

130

misset

misset

misset

a aseza gresit

misspeak

misspoke

misspoken

a se exprima
gresit

misspell

misspelled
misspelt

misspelled
misspelt

a ortografia
gresit

misspend

misspent

misspent

a risipi

mistake

mistook

mistaken

a gresi

misteach

mistaught

mistaught

a instrui gresit

misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood a ntelege gresit


miswrite

miswrote

miswritten

a scrie gresit

mow

mowed

mowed
mown

a cosi

offset

offset

offset

a compensa

outbid

outbid

outbid

a licita mai mult


ca

outbreed

outbred

outbred

a ncrucisa cu
alt varietate

outdo

outdid

outdone

a ntrece

outdraw

outdrew

outdrawn

a scoate mai
repede ca

outdrink

outdrank

outdrunk

a bea prea mult

outfight

outfought

outfought

a lupta mai
bine ca

outfly

outflew

outflown

a depsi n zbor

outgrow

outgrew

outgrown

a (se) face prea


mare

outleap

outleaped
outleapt

outleaped
outleapt

a depsi n
sritur

outride

outrode

outridden

a ntrece

131

131

outrun

outran

outrun

a ntrece

outsell

outsold

outsold

a (se) vinde
mai bine ca

outshine

outshone
outshined

outshone
outshined

a eclipsa

outshoot

outshot

outshot

a trage mai
bine ca

outsing

outsang

outsung

a cnta mai
bine ca

outsit

outsat

outsat

a sta mai mult


dect

outsleep

outslept

outslept

a dormi prea
mult

outspeak

outspoke

outspoken

a vorbi tare

outspend

outspent

outspent

a cheltui mai
mult dect

outthink

outthought

outthought

a fi mai destept
ca

outthrow

outthrew

outthrown

a arunca mai
bine ca

outwrite

outwrote

outwritten

a scrie mai bine


ca

overbid

overbid

overbid

a supralicita

overbreed

overbred

overbred

a (se)
supranmulti

overbuild

overbuilt

overbuilt

a (se) construi
n exces

overbuy

overbought

overbought

a cumpra n
exces

overcome

overcame

overcome

a covrsi

overdo

overdid

overdone

a exagera

132

132

overdraw

overdrew

overdrawn

a depsi

overdrink

overdrank

overdrunk

a bea n exces

overeat

overate

overeaten

a mnca n
exces

overfeed

overfed

overfed

a (se)
supraalimenta

overhang

overhung

overhung

a atrna peste

overhear

overheard

overheard

a auzi din
ntmplare

overlay

overlaid

overlaid

a pune peste

overpay

overpaid

overpaid

a plti prea
mult

override

overrode

overridden

a nclca

overrun

overran

overrun

a depsi

oversee

oversaw

overseen

a supraveghea

oversell

oversold

oversold

a supraevalua

oversew

oversewed

oversewn
oversewed

a coase
marginile
mpreun

overshoot

overshot

overshot

a trece peste

oversleep

overslept

overslept

a dormi prea
mult

overspeak

overspoke

overspoken

a vorbi prea
mult

overspend

overspent

overspent

a cheltui prea
mult

overtake

overtook

overtaken

a depsi

overthrow

overthrew

overthrown

a rsturna

overwind

overwound

overwound

a rsuci prea
mult

133

133

overwrite

overwrote

overwritten

a suprascrie

partake

partook

partaken

a mprtsi

pay

paid

paid

a plti

plead

pleaded
pled

pleaded
pled

a pleda

prepay

prepaid

prepaid

a plti n avans

presell

presold

presold

a vinde n
avans

preset

preset

preset

a preconfigura

proofread

proofread

proofread

a corecta

prove

proved

proven
proved

a (se) dovedi

put

put

put

a pune

quick-freeze

quick-froze

quick-frozen

a nghea rapid

quit

quit
quitted

quit
quitted

a abandona

read

read

read

a citi

reawake

reawoke

reawaken

a se retrezi

rebroadcast

rebroadcast
rebroadcast
rebroadcasted rebroadcasted

a redifuza

rebuild

rebuilt

rebuilt

a reconstrui

recast

recast

recast

a remodela

recut

recut

recut

a tia din nou

redo

redid

redone

a reface

redraw

redraw

redrawn

a retrasa

refit

refitted
refit

refitted
refit

a reutila

134

134

regrow

regrow

regrown

a recreste

rehear

reheard

reheard

a reaudia

relearn

relearned
relearnt

relearned
relearnt

a renvta

relight

relit
relighted

relit
relighted

a (se) reaprinde

remake

remade

remade

a reface

repay

repaid

repaid

a recompensa

reread

reread

reread

a reciti

rerun

reran

rerun

a relua

resell

resold

resold

a revinde

resend

resent

resent

a retrimite

reset

reset

reset

a reaeza

resew

resewed

resewn
resewed

a recoase

retake

retook

retaken

a relua

reteach

retaught

retaught

a reinstrui

retell

retold

retold

a repovesti

rethink

rethought

rethought

a regndi

retread

retread

retread

a parcurge din
nou

rewake

rewoke
rewaked

rewaken
rewaked

a (se) retrezi

rewed

rewed
rewedded

rewed
rewedded

a se recstori

rewin

rewon

rewon

a recstiga

rewind

rewound

rewound

a derula napoi

rewrite

rewrote

rewritten

a rescrie

135

135

rid

rid

rid

a scpa de, a
se descotorosi

ride

rode

ridden

a clri

ring

rang

rung

a suna

rise

rose

risen

a rsri, a se
ridica

run

ran

run

a fugi

saw

sawed

sawn
sawed

a tia cu
fierstrul

say

said

said

a spune

see

saw

seen

a vedea

seek

sought

sought

a cuta

sell

sold

sold

a vinde

send

sent

sent

a trimite

set

set

set

a pune

sew

sewed

sewn
sewed

a coase

shake

shook

shaken

a scutura, a
tremura

shave

shaved

shaved
shaven

a (se) rade

shear

sheared

sheared
shorn

a tunde oi

136

136

shed

shed

shed

a vrsa
(lacrimi, snge)

shine

shone
shined

shone
shined

a strluci

shoe

shod

shod

a potcovi

shoot

shot

shot

a mpusca

show

showed

shown

a arta

shrink

shrank

shrunk

a se strnge, a
se scoroji

shut

shut

shut

a nchide

sight-read

sight-read

sight-read

a citi la prima
vedere

sing

sang

sung

a cnta

sink

sank
sunk

sunk

a (se) scufunda

sit

sat

sat

a sedea

slay

slew
slayed

slain
slayed

a ucide

sleep

slept

slept

a dormi

slide

slid

slid

a aluneca

sling

slung

slung

a arunca

slink

slunk

slunk

a se furisa

slit

slit

slit

a (se) crpa

137

137

smell

smelled
smelt

smelled
smelt

a mirosi

sneak

sneaked
snuck

sneaked
snuck

a se furisa

sow

sowed

sown
sowed

a semna

speak

spoke

spoken

a vorbi

speed

sped
speeded

sped
speeded

a grbi, a
accelera

spell

spelled
spelt

spelled
spelt

a ortografia

spellbind

spellbound

spellbound

a fermeca

spend

spent

spent

a cheltui, a
petrece

spill

spilled
spilt

spilled
spilt

a vrsa

spin

spun

spun

a toarce

spit

spat
spit

spat
spit

a scuipa

split

split

split

a despica

spoil

spoiled
spolit

spoiled
spoilt

a rsfta

spoon-feed

spoon-fed

spoon-fed

a hrni cu
lingurita

spread

spread

spread

a (se) ntinde

138

138

spring

sprang
sprung

sprung

a izvor, a sri

stand

stood

stood

a sta (n
picioare)

steal

stole

stolen

a fura, a se
furisa

stick

stuck

stuck

a lipi

sting

stung

stung

a nepa

stink

stunk
stank

stunk

a mirosi urt

strew

strewed

strewn
strewed

a presra

stride

strode

stridden

a merge cu pasi
mari

strike

struck

struck
stricken

a lovi

string

strung

strung

a nira (pe o
at)

strive

strove
strived

striven
strived

a nzui

sublet

sublet

sublet

a subnchiria

sunburn

sunburned
sunburnt

sunburned
sunburnt

a se arde de
soare

swear

swore

sworn

a jura, a njura

sweat

sweat

sweat

a transpira

139

139

sweated

sweated

sweep

swept

swept

a mtura

swell

swelled

swollen
swelled

a se umfla

swim

swam

swum

a nota

swing

swung

swung

a legna

take

took

taken

a lua

teach

taught

taught

a nvta, a
preda

tear

tore

torn

a rupe, a sfsia

telecast

telecast

telecast

a teledifuza

tell

told

told

a spune, a
povesti

test-drive

test-drove

test-driven

a testa o
masin

test-fly

test-flew

test-flown

a testa un avion

think

thought

thought

a (se) gndi

thrive

throve

thriven

a prospera

throw

threw

thrown

a arunca

thrust

thrust

thrust

a nfige

tread

trod

trodden
trod

a clca

typecast

typecast

typecast

a distribui ntr-

140

140

un rol tipic
typeset

typeset

typeset

a culege pentru
tipar

typewrite

typewrote

typewritten

a dactilografia

unbend

unbent

unbent

a (se) dezdoi

unbind

unbound

unbound

a dezlega

unclothe

unclothed
clad

unclothed
clad

a (se) dezbrca

underbid

underbid

underbid

a oferi un pret
prea mic

undercut

undercut

undercut

a submina

underfeed

underfed

underfed

a subalimenta

undergo

underwent

undergone

a trece prin

underlie

underlay

underlain

a sta la baza

undersell

undersold

undersold

a vinde mai
ieftin dect
(concurenta)

underspend

underspent

underspent

a cheltui prea
putin

understand

understood

understood

a ntelege

undertake

undertook

undertaken

a lua asupra sa

underwrite

underwrote

underwritten

a subscrie

undo

undid

undone

a anula

unfreeze

unfroze

unfrozen

a dezgheta

unhide

unhid

unhidden

a iesi din
ascunztoare

unlearn

unlearned
unlearnt

unlearned
unlearnt

a dezvta

141

141

unsew

unsewed

unsewn
unsewed

a descoase

unwind

unwound

unwound

a desfsura

uphold

upheld

upheld

a sustine

upset

upset

upset

a tulbura

wake

woke
waked

woken
waked

a se trezi

waylay

waylaid

waylaid

a acosta

wear

wore

worn

a purta

weave

wove
weaved

woven
weaved

a tese

wed

wed
wedded

wed
wedded

a (se) cununa

weep

wept

wept

a plnge

wet

wet
wetted

wet
wetted

a uda

win

won

won

a cstiga

wind

wound

wound

a rsuci

withdraw

withdrew

withdrawn

a (se) retrage

withhold

withheld

withheld

a retine

withstand

withstood

withstood

a rezista la

wring

wrung

wrung

a stoarce

write

wrote

written

a scrie

Infinitive

Past Simple

Past
142

Sensul n limba
142

[Forma I-a] [Forma a II-a]

Perfect'''[Forma
a lll-a]

romn

arise

arose

arisen

(a) rezulta, (a se)


produce

awake

awoke

awoken

(a se) trezi

be

was/were

been

(a) fi

bear

bore

borne/born

(a) purta, (a) duce

beat

beat

beaten

(a) lovi, nvinge

become

became

become

(a) deveni (ceva)

begin

began

begun

(a) ncepe

bend

bent

bent

(a se) ndoi

bet

bet

bet

(a) paria

bid (offer)

bid

bid

(a) face o ofert, (a)


promite

bind

bound

bound

(a) lega

bite

bit

bitten

(a) muca

bleed

bled

bled

(a) sngera

blow

blew

blown

(a) sufla

break

broke

broken

(a) rupe, (a) sparge

breed

bred

bred

(a) crete, (a) nate

bring

brought

brought

(a) aduce

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

(a) difuza, (a)


transmite (radio, TV)

build

built

built

(a) construi

burn

burnt/burned

burnt/burned

(a)arde

burst

burst

burst

(a) exploda

buy

bought

bought

(a) cumpra

can

could

couth (form
arhaic)

(a) fi n stare, (a)


putea (verb
auxiliarmodal)

cast

cast

cast

(a) arunca

catch

caught

caught

(a) prinde

choose

chose

chosen

(a) alege

143

143

cling (to)

clung

clung

(a se) aga

clothe

clothed/clad

clothed/clad

(a) (se) mbrca,


nvemnta

come

came

come

(a) veni

cost

cost

cost

(a) costa

creep

crept

crept

(a se) tr

cut

cut

cut

(a) tia

deal (with)

dealt

dealt

(a se) ocupa (cu)

dig

dug

dug

(a) spa

do

did

done

(a) face

draw

drew

drawn

(a) desena, (a) trage

dream

dreamt/dreamed

dreamt/dreamed (a) visa

drink

drank/drunk
(Sudul SUA)

drunk

(a) bea

drive

drove

driven

(a) conduce

eat

ate

eaten

(a) mnca

fall

fell

fallen

(a) cdea

feed

fed

fed

(a) hrni

feel

felt

felt

(a) simi

fight

fought

fought

(a) lupta

find

found

found

(a) gsi

flee

fled

fled

(a) fugi din

fly

flew

flown

(a) zbura

forbid

forbade

forbidden

(a) interzice

forget

forgot

forgotten

(a) uita

forgive

forgave

forgiven

(a) ierta

freeze

froze

frozen

(a) nghea

get

got

got (UK)/gotten
(US)

(a) primi, (a) procura

give

gave

given

(a) da

go

went

gone

(a) merge

grind

ground

ground

(a) mcina

144

144

grow

grew

grown

(a) crete

hang

hung/hanged

hung/hanged

(a) atrna

have

had

had

(a) avea, (a) poseda

hear

heard

heard

(a) auzi

hide

hid

hidden

(a) ascunde, (a se)


ascunde

hit

hit

hit

(a) lovi

hold

held

held

(a) ine

hurt

hurt

hurt

(a) rni

keep

kept

kept

(a) pstra

kneel

knelt/kneeled

knelt/kneeled

(a) ngenunchea

know

knew

known

(a) ti

lay

laid

laid

(a) aeza, (a) ntinde

lead

led

led

(a) conduce

lean
(against)

leant/leaned

leant/leaned

(a se) rezema

leap

leapt/leaped

leapt/leaped

(a) sri

learn

learnt/learned

learnt/learned

(a) nva, (a) afla

leave

left

left

(a) prsi, (a) pleca

lend

lent

lent

(a) mprumuta

let

let

let

(a) permite

lie

lay

lain

(a se) afla

light

lit/lighted

lit/lighted

(a) aprinde

lose

lost

lost

(a) pierde

make

made

made

(a) face

mean

meant

meant

(a) nsemna, (a-i)


pune n gnd

meet

met

met

(a) ntlni

pay

paid

paid

(a) plti

put

put

put

(a) pune

quit

quit

quit

(a) prsi, (a) pleca

read

read* [red]

read* [red]

(a) citi

145

145

ride

rode

ridden

(a) clri

ring

rang

rung

(a) suna

rise

rose

risen

(a) rsri (soarele)

run

ran

run

(a) alerga

saw

sawed

sawn

(a) tia cu ferstrul

say

said

said

(a) spune

see

saw

seen

(a) vedea

seek

sought

sought

(a) cuta

sell

sold

sold

(a) vinde

send

sent

sent

(a) trimite

set

set

set

(a) regla, (a) seta

sew

sewed

sewn

(a) coase

shake

shook

shaken

(a) scutura

shed

shed

shed

(a) nprli

shine

shone

shone

(a) sclipi

shoot

shot

shot

(a) trage (cu arma)

show

showed

shown

(a) arta, (a)


prezenta

shrink

shrank/shrunk

shrunk/shrunken (a se) comprima

shut

shut

shut

(a) nchide

sing

sang

sung

(a) cnta

sink

sank

sunk

(a se) scufunda

sit

sat

sat

(a se) aeza

sleep

slept

slept

(a) adormi

slide

slid

slid

(a) aluneca

smell

smelt/smelled

smelt/smelled

(a) mirosi

speak (to)

spoke

spoken

(a) vorbi

spell

spelt/spelled

spelt/spelled

(a) ortografia

spill

spilt/spilled

spilt/spilled

(a) turna, (a) risipi

spend

spent

spent

(a) cheltui (bani), (a)


petrece (timp)

spit

spat

spat

(a) scuipa

146

146

spin

span

spun

(a) nvrti, (a) roti, (a)


toarce

split

split

split

(a) mpri

spread

spread

spread

(a) distribui, (a)


extinde

spring

sprang

sprung

(a) sri

spoil

spoilt/spoiled

spoilt/spoiled

(a) strica

stand

stood

stood

(a) sta (n picioare)

steal

stole

stolen

(a) fura

stick

stuck

stuck

(a) lipi

sting

stung

stung

(a) mpunge

stink

stank

stunk

(a) pute, (a) mirosi


(urt)

stride

strode

stridden

(a) pi

strike

struck

struck

(a) ataca, (a) lovi

strive

strove

striven

(a) se strdui

swear

swore (sware[1])

sworn

(a) jura

sweep

swept

swept

(a) mtura

swell

swelled

swollen

(a) se umfla

swim

swam

swum

(a) nota

take

took

taken

(a) duce, (a) prinde

teach

taught

taught

(a) nva

tear

tore

torn

(a) rupe

tell

told

told

(a) spune, (a) povesti

think

thought

thought

(a) se gndi

throw

threw

thrown

(a) arunca

tread

trod

trod/trodden

(a) clca

understand

understood

understood

(a) nelege

undertake

undertook

undertaken

(a) iniia, (a se
angaja)

wake

woke

woken

(a) trezi

wear

wore

worn

(a) purta

147

147

weave

wove/weaved

woven/weaved

(a) ese

weep

wept

wept

(a) plnge

wet

wet

wet

(a) uda

win

won

won

(a) ctiga

wind

wound

wound

(a) roti

wring

wrung

wrung

(a) rsuci

write

wrote

written

(a) scrie

BUN VENIT LA CURSUL DE GRAMATICA LIMBII ENGLEZE !

Lecia 1: Substantivul
9
1.1 Felul substantivelor
Substantivele n limba engleza se pot mparti n patru categorii:

substantive comune: cat, girl, lamp

substantive proprii: England, London, Mr Smith, Mary

substantive abstracte: beauty, love, courage, fear, joy

substantive colective: crowd, group, team

1.2.

Genul

Substantive de genul masculin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex masculin:


Ex.: man, boy, lion, dog
Substantivele de genul feminin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex feminin:
Ex.: woman, girl, cat, giraffe
Substantive de genul neutru sunt lucrurile, plantele, animale sau fiinte al caror sex nu este
cunoscut (pronume: it/they):
Ex.: world, peace, house, mouse, baby
Exceptii: tarile, navele, n majoritatea cazurilor si autovehiculele sau alte vehicule sunt de genul
feminin.
Substantivele de genul comun sunt o particularitate a limbii engleze. Substantivele care intra n
aceasta categorie au aceeasi forma pentru ambele sexe:
Ex.: child (copil, copila), cook (bucatar, bucatareasa), teacher (profesor, profesoara).
Unele substantive au forme diferite pentru genul masculin si cel feminin:
Ex.: boy - girl, husband - wife, brother - sister, father - mother, son - daughter, uncle - aunt, dog bitch, bull - cow, king - queen

148

148

1.3.

Numarul

Numarul este forma pe care o ia un substantiv pentru a arata ca ne referim la unul sau mai multe
obiecte sau fiinte.

Singularul coincide cu forma de baza a unui substantiv: dog, girl, wife, world, storm

Pluralul substantivelor se formeaza prin adaugarea unui s la forma de singular:


Ex.: cat+s=cats, day+s=days, world+s=worlds

Pluralul substantivelor teminate n ch, o, sh, s, x se formeaza adaugnd es la singular. Ex.:


church+es=churches, bush+es=bushes, class+es=classes, potato+es=potatoes,
bush+es=bushes, box+es=boxes

1.3.1.

Pluralul neregulat

Substantive terminate n consoana+y fac pluralul n ies:


Ex.: company - companies, factory - factories, baby - babies

Unele substantive terminate n o fac plural prin adaugarea unui s.


Ex.: soprano - sopranos, piano - pianos, photo - photos

Unele substantive terminate n f sau fe vor suferi la plural schimbarea n ves.


Ex.: leaf - leaves, half - halves, wife - wives, life - lives, self - selves, wolf - wolves
Exceptii: roof - roofs, handkerchief - handkerchiefs, gulf - gulfs, wharf - wharfs/ wharves

Cteva substantive formeaza pluralul prin schimbarea unei vocale interne Ex.: foot feet, man - men, tooth - teeth

Pluralul substantivului child este children.

Unele substantive ramn identice la plural Ex.: aircraft, deer, series, sheep, species, fish
1.3.2 Pluralul substantivelor compuse

n cazul substantivelor compuse numai ultimul cuvnt va trece la plural.


Ex.: boy-friends, break-ins, travel agents
Exceptii: substantivele compuse al caror prim element este man sau woman vor primi
semnul pluralului pentru ambele substantive componente.
Ex.: men drivers, women teachers, men servants

n cazul substantivelor compuse formate din constructii de genul substantiv + prepozitie /


adverb + substantiv, substantivul de baza va primi semnul pluralului.
Ex.: sisters-in-law, passers-by, men-of-war, hangers-on, lookers-on, runners-up

Abrevierile sau initialele vor forma pluralul prin adaugarea unui s Ex.: MPs (Members of
Parliament), VIPs (very important persons)

1.4.

Substantivele unice (uncountable nouns)

Sunt substantive care nu se pot numara (uncountable) deoarece reprezinta fie unicate, obiecte
puternic individualizate, notiuni abstracte.

Nume de substante: bread, coffee, gold, paper, cloth, glass, oil, stone, wood

Abstractiuni: earth, paradise, nature, the present, advice, death, help, information, news,
beauty, experience, horror, knowledge, friendship, theory, literature

Alte substantive: baggage, damage, shopping, reading, luggage, parking, weather

Substantivele unice sunt ntotdeana la singular si vor lua un verb la singular:


Ex.: This coffee is cold. The weather was dreadful.
Nu sunt precedate de a/an; pentru a exprima o unitate din aceste substantive se foloseste: some,
any, no, a little, bit, piece of, slice of, etc.
Ex.: I do not want any help. I need some information. This slice of bread is hard. The piece of
advice you gave me helped.

149

149

Nota: Multe dintre substantivele unice pot avea si sensuri care se pot numara, astfel devenind
substantive comune si comportndu-se ca atare (primes a/an la singular, pot avea plural).
Sens Unic / Sens Comun
Her hair is black. (Parul ei este negru.)
She found a hair in the milk. (A gasit un fir de par n lapte.)
Their house was made of wood. (Casa lor este din lemn.)
We picnicked in the woods. (Am mers la picnic n padure.)

1.5.

Forma posesiva

Se adauga 's la forma de singular a substantivelor care nu se termina n s: Ex.: a child's


voice, the people's choice, a horse's mouth, women's clothes
Vom folosi doar apostroful (') cu formele de plural ale substantivelor care se termina n s.
Ex.: a boys' school, the Johnsons' residence

Numele proprii terminate n s vor primi fie doar apostrof ('), fie 's Ex.: Mr Jones's /Mr
Jones' car, Yeats's / Yeats' poems

n cazul substantivelor compuse si a titlurilor ultimul cuvnt va primi 's Ex.: My father-inlaw's guitar, Henry the Eighth's wives

's se foloseste si dupa initiale sau abrevieri.


Ex.: The CEO's assistant, the PM's speech

Forma posesiva se foloseste n general cnd vorbim de oameni, animale, tari. Se


foloseste de asemenea n urmatoarele cazuri:
o

n expresii temporale
Ex.: yesterday's newspaper, in five years' time, ten minutes' break

n expresii construite dupa modelul bani + worth


Ex.: ten dollars' worth of bananas, a shilling's worth of stamps

n alte expresii uzuale:


Ex.: for heaven's sake, a winter's day, the water's edge, the plane's wings, the
train's departure

n cazul anumitor substantive folosite la posesiv, este uzuala omisiunea substantivului


urmator atunci cnd sensul comunicarii este clar (magazine, birouri, oficii, casa, locuinta).
Ex.: You can buy this at the baker's (shop). Mary bought her tickets at the travel agent's
(office). The kids went to Bobby's (house).

Ideea de posesie se poate exprima si cu ajutorul constructiei of+substantiv. Aceasta


constructie se foloseste mai ales pentru lucruri sau fiinte umane sau animale atunci cand
acestea sunt urmate de o propozitie subordonata.
Ex.: the walls of the town, the roof of the church, the keys of the house
I took the advice of the girl I met on the bus and went to buy the book.

EXERCIII

1. Scrie femininul urmatoarelor substantive:


actor, driver, elephant, guide, son, bull, nephew, cousin, dog, waiter, camel, manager, uncle, lion,
bachelor (burlac, absolvent), widower, assistant, host, snake, player, bridegroom, doctor, teacher.
2. Scrie pluralul urmatoarelor substantive:
knife, baby, child, country, aircraft, foot, key, kilo, woman, leaf, loaf, man, photo, piano, sheep,
shelf, storey (palier, cat), story, thief, tooth, wife.
3. Rescrie urmatoarele constructii conform modelului:

150

150

The luggage belonging to the travelers - The traveler's luggage


The room belonging to the child The clothes belonging to the children The car belonging to Mr. Smith The luggage belonging to the VIP The flat belonging to her son-in-law The canteen used by the workers Lecia 2: Articolul
9
Pentru ca un substantiv sa capete nteles ntr-o propozitie oarecare, acesta trebuie sa fie nsotit de
un determinant substantival. Cel mai des folosit determinant substantival este articolul. Articolele se
pot clasifica dupa cum urmeaza:

Articolul hotart - the

Articolul nehotart - a / an

Articolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata)


Articolele sunt forme invariabile, adica nu se schimba n functie de numarul sau genul
substantivului si se aseaza n fata substantivului determinat.

2.1.

Articolul hotart (the)

Articolul hotart se foloseste:

naintea unui substantiv care a mai fost mentionat n contextul respectiv


Ex.: An elephant and a mouse fell in love. The mouse loved the elephant's long trunk, and
the elephant loved the mouse's tiny nose.

Atunci cnd att vorbitorul ct si ascultatorul cunosc notiunea exprimata de substantiv,


desi nu a mai fost mentionat n context.
Ex.: - Where's the bathroom? - It's on the first floor.

n propozitii sau fraze n care definim sau identificam anumite persoane sau obiecte:
Ex.: The man we met yesterday at the bus station. The girl in red is her neighbor.

Referitor la obiecte pe care le consideram unice:


Ex.: the earth, the sun, the moon, the stars Ann is in the garden (the garden of this house).

naintea superlativului sau numeralelor ordinale first, second, thirds, etc si only:
Ex.: the best day, the first week, the last chapter, the only way

naintea unor adjective pentru a te referi n general la un grup de oameni care au n comun
o anumita nsusire (sunt frumosi, tineri, batrni, japonezi, etc):
Ex.: the young, the beautiful, the old, the best, the Japanese, the British

Nume de locuri geografice, oceane, ruri, mari, deserturi, munti, regiuni:


Ex.: the Caribbean, the Sahara, the Atlantic

Se foloseste naintea unor nume proprii (muzee, institutii celebre, hoteluri, ziare, orchestre,
grupuri muzicale, vapoare, nume de famili la plural,etc):
Ex.: the National Gallery, the Royal Shakespeare, the Savoy, the Beatles, the Spice Girls,
the Guardian, the Telegraph, the Daily, the Titanic, the Tower of London, the House of
Parliament, the Smiths

Decade, secole, grupe de ani:


Ex.: My parents went to University in the seventies.

2.2.

Articolul nehotart (a / an)

Se foloseste a naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o consoana si an naintea substantivelor care


ncep cu o vocala (a, e, i, o, u)
Ex.: a boy, an apple, a car, an orange, a house, an
opera Exceptii:

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151

An nainte de un h mut - an hour, an honor.


A nainte de u sau eu atunci cnd se pronunta ca you: a European, a university, a unit
Articolul nehotart se foloseste:

Pentru a te referi la ceva pentru prima data:


Ex.: Would you like a drink? I've finally got a good job.

Pentru a te referi la un anume membru al unui grup sau clase:


Exemple:

cu nume de profesii: John is an engineer. Mary is training to be a nurse.

o
o

cu nationalitati si religii: John is an Englishman. Kate is a Catholic.


cu instrumente muzicale: Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor
arrived.

cu numele zilelor: I was born on a Thursday.

pentru a desemna un fel de, sau un exemplu de: The mouse had a tiny nose. It
was a very strange car

cu substantive la singular, dupa cuvinte cum ar fi what si such: What a bluff! He is


such a prodigious young man.

atunci cnd te referi la un singur obiect sau persoana, echivaleaza cu one: I'd like
an orange and two lemons please. The burglar took a diamond necklace and a
valuable painting.

Retineti ca se spune a hundred, a thousand, a million.

2.3.

a / an si one

Atunci cnd numeri sau masori timpul, distanta, greutatea, etc. se poate folosi fie a/an fie
one pentru singular:
Ex.: a /one pound, a /one million pounds You can take
an/one hour for lunch.

Dar a/an si one nu nseamna ntotdeauna acelasi lucru:


Ex.: A box is no good. (We need a crate not a box).
One box is no good, we need two boxes.

2.4.

Articolul zero

Nu se foloseste articol n urmatoarele cazuri:


Cu nume de tari (la singular)
Ex.: Germany is an important economic power.
He's just returned from Argentina.
(nsa: I'm visiting the United States next week.)

Cu numele limbilor:
Ex.: French is spoken in Tahiti.
English uses many words of Latin origin.

Cu numele meselor:
Ex.: Lunch is at midday.
Dinner is in the evening.
Breakfast is the first meal of the day.

Cu numele persoanelor (la singular):


Ex.: John's coming to the party.
George King is my uncle.
(nsa: We're having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.)

Cu titluri si nume:
Ex.: Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son.

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President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.


Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend.
(nsa: the Queen of England, the Pope.)

Dupa cazul posesiv format cu 's:


Ex.: His sister's car.
Laura's basket.

Cu numele profesiilor:
Ex.: Engineering is a useful career.
He'll probably go into medicine.

Cu nume de magazine:
Ex.: I'll get the card at Smith's.
Can you go to Boots for me?

Cu ani:
Ex.: 1948 was a wonderful year.
Do you remember 1995?

Cu substantive unice (uncountable nouns):


Ex.: Milk is often added to tea in England.
War is destructive.

Cu numele unor munti, lacuri si insule:


Ex.: Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
She lives near Lake Windermere.
Have you visited Long Island?

Cu majoritatea numelor de strazi , orase, statii pentru mijloacele de transport si


aeroporturi: Ex.: Victoria Station is in the centre of London.
Can you direct me to Bond Street?
She lives in Florence.
They're flying from Heathrow.

n unele expresii invariabile:


Ex.: by car, at school, at work, at University, in church, in prison, in bed, by train, by air,
on foot, on holiday, on air (in broadcasting)

1. Completeaza cu a sau an acolo unde este cazul:


Bill is_____author. He writes_____travel books. He makes_____lot of money. We had______lunch
with him yesterday. It was_____excellent lunch. The meal cost him______hundred and_____fifty
pounds. What_____expensive restaurant! He gave the waiter_____twenty pounds. That was______
good tip.
2. Alege a sau the:
One day we set out to climb (...) a/the highest hill in the area. The campers in (...) a/the next tent
lent us their map. They told us to follow one of (...) a/the routes marked on (...) a/the map. But
Tom said that he was sure that there was (...) a/the better way. (...) A/the way that we chose was
so steep that we had to stop for (...) a/the long rest on the way up. But we got to (...) a/the top in
(...) a/the end.
3. Completeaza cu the acolo unde este cazul:
We have_____soup for_____supper. After_____meal Tom and I play______chess. Bill prefers_____
cards._____game he likes best is bridge. He says that_____chess requires_____patience and he
is not patient. He also says that_____life is too short to waste in this way.

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Lecia 3: Adjectivul

3.1.

Forma adjectivului

Adjectivele sunt invariabile. Ele nu si schimba forma n functie de gen sau numar.
Ex.: A hot potato, some hot potatoes.
Pentru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui adjectiv se pot folosi very, really:
Ex.: A very hot potato, some really hot potatoes.

3.2.

Pozitia adjectivului

De obicei adjectivul se aseaza n fata substantivului determinat:


Ex.: A good movie.

Dupa verbe auxiliare ca to be, to become, to seem, to look, to taste, to appear, to feel, to
keep, to make, to smell, to sound, to turn, etc:
Ex.: The movie is good.
You seem upset.
This cheese tastes different.

Dupa substantiv n expresii fixe:


Ex.: the Princess Royal, the President elect, the court martial

Cteva adjective, ca de exemplu chief, main, poor (=unfortunate) stau numai n fata
substantivului determinat:
Ex.: This is the main purpose of the meeting.
That poor woman was living in a garage.

Altele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep, upset, awake, afraid, alike, alive, alone,
annoyed, ill, well, sorry
Ex.: He's asleep.
I'm alone.

Unele adjective si schimba sensul n functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa. Adjectivele


involved, present, concerned au sens diferit daca sunt plasate n fata substantivului sau
dupa acesta.
Ex.: These are the people involved / concerned. (the people who have something to do
with the matter)
They had an involved discussion on the matter. (detailed, complex)
I am a concerned mother. (worried, anxious)
The list of the students present is outside, on the door. (students who were there)
The present status of the matter requires urgent attention. (current)

3.3.

Functiile adjectivului

Adjectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivul determinat. Adjectivele pot exprima:

Sentimente sau calitati:


Ex.: They make an original couple.
She is a single mother.

Nationalitatea sau originea:


Ex.: Ricardo is Spanish. His mother is Argentinean and his father is Canadian.
I bought him a Swiss watch for Christmas.
Diferite caracteristici ale unui obiect:
Ex.: The table is long.
The steel tray was a gift.

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154

Vrsta:
Ex.: My hat is too old. I will buy another one.
He is still very young, almost a boy.

Dimensiuni, marime si masuri:


Ex.: "Gone with the Wind" is a very long film.
That boy is too tall.

Culoarea:
Ex.: I have a red jacket to go with my new white skirt.

Materie / material:
Ex.: He wore a cotton shirt.
It was a silver tray, not a steel tray.

Forma:
Ex.: A rectangular envelope.
A round table.

Judecati, pareri sau opinii:


Ex.: Grammar is fascinating.
The show was entertaining.

3.4.

Ordinea adjectivelor

Atunci cnd se folosesc doua sau mai multe adjective pentru a descrie acelasi substantiv, ordinea
lor depinde de functiile acestora. Exista mai multe variante, dar cea mai obisnuita ordine este:
Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material
Value/opinion

delicious, lovely, charming

Size

small, huge, tiny

Age/Temperature
Shape
Colour
Origin

old, hot, young, little


round, square, rectangular
red, blonde, black
Swedish, Victorian, Chinese

Material

plastic, wooden, silver

Exemple: a green round plastic bucket an elegant little French clock a small round wooden table

3.5.

Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor


3.5.1.

Formarea comparativului si superlativului

Exista trei grade de comparatie ale adjectivelor: pozitiv (nalt), comparativ (mai nalt), superlativ
(cel mai nalt). n limba engleza, comparativul si superlativul se formeaza astfel:

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155

Numar de silabe (Pozitiv) Comparativ

Superlativ

o silaba

+ -er

+ -est

Tall

taller

tallest

Adjectivele formate dintr-o silaba [consoana + o vocala + consoana] vor dubla


consoana finala:
Fat
fatter
fattest
Big
bigger
biggest
Sad
doua silabe

sadder
+ -er SAU more + adj

saddest
+ -est SAU most + adj

+ Adjectivele terminate n: -y, -ly, -ow + Adjectivele terminate n: -le, -er sau
-ure
+ Urmatoarele adjective: handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet
Happy
happier/ more happy
happiest/ most happy
Yellow
Simple

yellower/ more yellow


simpler/ more simple

yellowest/ most yellow


simplest/ most simple

Tender

tenderer/ more tender

tenderest/ most tender

Daca nu esti sigur, foloseste more + adj SAU most


Nota: Adjectivele terminate n -y ca de exemplu hap
lucky etc. vor nlocui -y cu -ier sau -iest la forma com
Busy
busier
trei sau mai multe silabe more + adj

+ adj.
py, pretty, busy, sunny,
parativa si superlativa:
busiest
most + adj

Important
Expensive

most important
most expensive

more important
more expensive

Exemple:
a. A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastest.
b. A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviest.
c. A park bench is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofa is the most
comfortable.
3.5.2.
Forme neregulate
Urmatoarele adjective au forme de comparativ si superlativ total neregulate:
Pozitiv

Comparativ

Superlativ

Good
Bad

better
worse

best
worst

Little

less

least

old
much / many
far

older / elder
more
further / farther

oldest / eldest
most
furthest / farthest

3.5.3.

Comparatia adjectivelor

the + superlative
Ex.: This is the oldest theater in London.

comparative + than - pentru a compara diferentele dintre doua obiecte, evenimente sau
fiinte:
Ex.: He makes fewer mistakes than you do.
Thailand is sunnier than Norway.
Albert is more intelligent than Arthur.

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156

as + adjective + as - constructie folosita pentru a compara oameni, locuri, fiinte, evenimete


sau obiecte, ntre care nu exista diferente:
Ex.: Peter is 24 years old. John is 24 years old. Peter is as old as John.
Ramona is as happy as Raphael.
A tiger is as dangerous as a lion.

not as + adjective + as - putem arata diferentele dintre doua substantive folosind contructia
not so/as ...as:
Ex.: Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest.
Norway is not as sunny as Thailand

LUfi
EXERCIII
Scrie comparativul si superlativul urmatoarelor adjective: happy, brave, busy, clever, dry,
bad, fat, many, beautiful, difficult, exciting, far, good.
2. Completeaza cu as, the sau than, dupa caz:
What about this one?
It's better
the one we saw in Harrods.
It's bigger
the one in our local shop.
But it's more expensive the others.
Do we want one______big
that?
Yes,__________bigger,_________________better. Let's buy it. It's
best we've seen so
far.
3. Completeaza spatiile libere cu forma de comparativ sau superlativ a adjectivelor din
paranteza (adauga si than acolo unde este cazul):
The 8 o'clock train is much (fast)_____the 7.30 one. Of course it is (crowded)______the 7.30 train
and the tickets are (expensive)______. You get (cheap)______fares before 8 o'clock. Still, it's the
(quick)______way of getting to Bath, unless you want to fly, and getting to the airport is much
(difficult)_____getting to the station.
1.

Lecia 4: Adverbul
9
Adverbele sunt cuvinte care ne spun mai multe despre cum , unde, cnd, ct de frecvent sau n
ce msura are loc o actiune.

4.1.

Functia adverbelor

Astfel, adverbele determina n general verbe:


Ex.: The bus moved slowly. (cum?)
I am going home tomorrow. (cnd?)
Adverbele pot determina si adjective: You look absolutely fabulous!
Sau alte adverbe: She played the violin extremely well. You're speaking too quietly. Sau chiar
propozitii intregi: Perhaps we'll see you again next year.

4.2.

Forma adverbelor

4.2.1. Adverbele se formeaza de cele mai multe ori prin adaugarea unui -ly la forma de singular a

adjectivului:

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157

Adjectiv

Adverb

Exemple

Careful

(Adjectiv + ly)
Carefully

He carefully picked up a tie.

Quick
Slow

Quickly
Slowly

Time goes quickly.


He walked slowly to the door.

Modificari ortografice:

Daca adjectivul se termina in -y, acesta se va inlocui cu -i + -ly.


Ex.: easy - easily, angry - angrily, lucky - luckily

Cnd avem un -le terminal (-able, -ible, -le), dispare -e si este inlocuit cu -y.
Ex.: probable - probably, terrible - terribly, gentle - gently

Adjectivele terminate in -ic adauga -ally.


Ex.: basic - basically, economic - economically, tragic tragically Exceptie: public - publicly

Forme neregulate
Ex.: true - truly, due - duly, whole - wholly

4.2.2. Unele adverbe au aceeasi forma ca si adjectivele:

Ex.: early, fast, hard, high, late, near, straight, wrong


Compara:
This is a hard exercise. (adjectiv)
He works hard. (adverb)
We saw many high buildings. (adjectiv)
The bird flew high in the sky. (adverb)
4.2.3. Unor adjective le corespund doua forme adverbiale, care au sensuri diferite:
Adjectiv

Forme

deep

adverbiale
1. deep
2. deeply

direct

1. direct

first

2. directly
1. first
2. firstly

Exemple
He looked deep into her eyes. (adanc)
She is deeply in love. (profund, pna peste cap)
You can dial New York direct. (n mod direct)
He went there directly. (direct, fara ntrziere)
My mother came in first, then my brothers and
sisters. (nti)
Firstly, I would like to welcome you here. (n
primul rnd)

Alte exemple: hard, light, just, last, late, most, near, prett, right, round, short, wrong.

DE REJINUT Well / Good


Well este adverbul care corespunde formei adjectivale good.
They are good swimmers.
They swim well.
She is a good pianist.
She plays the piano well.__________________________________

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4.3.

Gradele de comparatie ale adverbelor

Adverbele formeaza comparativul si superlativul la fel ca si adjectivele (vezi: 3.5. Gradele


de comparatie ale adjectivelor):

Adauga -er pentru comparativ si -est pentru superlativ la adverbele dintr-o singura silaba:
hard - harder - hardest

Adauga more pentru comparativ si most pentru superlativ la adverbele formate din doua
sau mai multe silabe si la cele terminate in -ly: seriously - more seriously - most seriously

Unele adverbe au forme neregulate la comparativ si superlativ: badly - worse - worst,


little - less - least, well - better - best, much - more - most

De retinut! Uneori most poate avea sensul de very:


We were most grateful for your help.
I am most impressed by this application.

4.4.

Clasificarea adverbelor

1. Adverbe de mod
2.

Adverbe de loc si directie

3.

Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventa

4.

Adverbe de probabilitate

5. Adverbe de grad
Adverbele de mod ne arata cum, in ce mod are loc o actiune. Ele se aseaza in propozitie
dupa verb sau dupa complementul acestuia.

Exemple:
He swims well. (dupa verb)
He ran... rapidly, slowly, quickly.
She spoke... softly, loudly, aggressively.
James coughed loudly to attract her attention.
He plays the flute beautifully. (dupa complement)
He ate the chocolate cake greedily.

DE REJ1NUT
1. Adverbul de mod nu se aseaza ntre verb si complement:
Incorect: He ate greedily the chocolate cake.
Corect: He ate the chocolate cake greedily.
2. Pozitia adverbului n propozitie este foarte importanta mai ales atunci cnd exista mai
multe verbe n propozitie. Daca adverbul este asezat dupa o propozitie, atunci acesta
modifica ntregul sens exprimat n propozitie.
Observa diferentele de sens n functie de locul adverbului n propozitie:
He quietly asked me to leave the house. (= cererea lui a fost facuta n liniste)
He asked me to leave the house quietly. (= plecarea a fost facuta n liniste)
4.4.2. Adverbe de loc si directie

Ne arata unde are loc actiunea verbului. Se aseaza in general dupa verbul principal
sau complementul sau.
Exemple:
Dupa verb:
I looked everywhere.

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159

John looked ...away, up, down, around...


I'm going ...home, out, back...
Dupa complement:
They built a house nearby.
She took the child outside.
A. Here / there. Cu verbe de miscare, here exprima ideea de nspre/ cu / mpreuna cu vorbitorul,
iar there contrariul, departe, fara participarea vorbitorului:
Ex.: Come here (= spre mine)
It's in here (= vino impreuna cu mine sa vezi)
Put it there (= departe de mine)
It's in there (= du-te singur sa vezi)
Expresii cu here/ there: down here, down there, over here, over there, under here, under there,
up here, up there.
B. Adverbele de loc terminate n -wards - exprima ideea de miscare ntr-o anumita directie:
Ex.: backwards, forwards, downwards, upwards, inwards, outwards, northwards, southwards,
eastwards, westwards, homewards, onwards.
Cats don't usually walk backwards.
The ship sailed westwards.
De retinut! Towards este prepozitie, nu adverb, astfel nct va fi ntotdeauna urmat de
un substantiv sau pronume:
Ex.: He walked towards the car. She ran towards me.
C. Adverbe care exprima att locul ct si directia: ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill,
downhill, sideways, indoors, outdoors.
Arata cand a avut loc o actiune dar si durata sau frecventa actiunii.
Ex.:
Cnd: today, yesterday, later, now, last year
Durata, pentru ct timp: all day, not long, for a while, since last year
Ct de frecvent: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly
De obicei, adverbele de timp se aseaza la sfrsitul propozitiei sau emfatic, la nceputul ei:
Ex.: One of my children wrote to me yesterday.
Later the boy understood the story.
Adverbele care indica durata se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei:
Ex.: She stayed in the house all day.
My mother lived in France for a year.
De retinut! For este intotdeauna urmat de o expresie de durata: for three days, for a week, for
several years, for two centuries.
Since este intotdeauna urmat expresia unui moment punctual n timp: since Monday, since 1997,
since the last war.
Adverbele de frecventa exprima frecventa unei actiuni si se aseaza de obicei in fata verbului
principal, dar dupa verbele auxiliare (cum ar fi be, have, may, must):
I often eat vegetarian food. (in fata verbului principal)
You must always fasten your seat belt. (dupa verbul auxiliar must)
I have never forgotten my first kiss. (dupa verbul auxiliar have si in fata verbului principal
forgotten)
Unele adverbe de frecventa exprima regularitatea incidentei unei actiuni si se plaseaza la sfarsitul
prepozitiei:
This magazine is published monthly.
He visits his mother once a week.
Adverbe de fecventa: frequently, generally, normally, occasionally, often, regularly, sometimes,
usually.
De retinut! Yet se foloseste in propozitii interogative sau negative:
Have you finished your work yet? No, not yet.
They haven't met him yet.
Still exprima ideea de continuitate. Se foloseste in propozitii pozitive sau interogative.
I am still hungry.
Do you still work for the BBC?
Ordinea adverbelor de timp
Daca este nevoie de mai multe adverbe de timp in aceeasi propozitie ordinea lor va fi:

160

160

Ordinea

Exemple

1: adverbe de durata 2:
adverbe de frecventa 3:
adverbe de timp

1 + 2 : I work (1) for five hours (2) every day.


2 + 3 : The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year.

1 + 3 : I was abroad (1) for two months (3) last year.


1 + 2 + 3 : She worked in a hospital (1) for two days (2) every
week (3) last year.

4.4.4. Adverbe de siguranta si probabilitate

Acestea exprima cat de sigur este vorbitorul de actiunea sau evenimentul pe care il relateaza:
certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surely, maybe, obviously, perhaps, possibly, really. Se
aseaza in propozitie intre verbul auxiliar si verbul principal.
Ex.: He has certainly forgotten the meeting.
Pentru o formulare emfatica sau o reliefare a afirmatiilor, se aseaza n debutul frazei:
Ex.: Undoubtedly, Winston Churchill was a great politician.
De retinut! Surely asezat la inceputul propozitiei inseamna ca vorbitorul este convins de adevarul
unei afirmatii, dar incearca sa obtina o confirmare: Surely you've got a bicycle?

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4.4.5. Adverbe de grad

Aceastea exprima intensitatea sau gradul de indeplinire a actiunii unui verb, adjectiv sau adverb:
almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely, very, extremely.
Locul lor in propozitie este fie in fata adjectivului sau adverbului pe care il determina, fie in fata
verbului principal:
Ex.: The water was extremely cold.
He was just leaving.
She has almost finished.
Enough, very, too
Enough inseamna "pana la punctul necesar pentru a..." si se plaseaza dupa adjectiv sau adverb:
Is your coffee hot enough? (adjectiv)
He didn't work hard enough. (adverb)
Too = "mai mult decat este necesar pentru..." si se aseaza in fata adjectivului sau adverbului:
This coffee is too hot. (adjective)
He works too hard. (adverb)
Very intareste sensul unui adjectiv sau adverb si se aseaza in fata acestora:
The girl was very beautiful. (adjectiv)
He worked very quickly. (adverb)
De retinut! Exista o diferenta importanta intre too si very:
Very exprima un fapt: He speaks very quickly.
Too sugereaza existenta unei probleme: He speaks too quickly (for me to understand).
Alte adverbe asemanatoare lui very: extremely, especially, particularly, pretty, rather, quite, fairly,
rather, not especially, not particularly.

EXERCIII

1. Alege adjectivul sau adverbul din paranteza pentru a completa corect fiecare pereche de

propozitii:
a. It's an____question. You should be able to answer it quite_____. (easy/ easily)
b. I can type a bit but I'm very____. I'm afraid I can only type very_____. (slow/ slowly)
c. Mr Robbins shouted____at the children. The children made Mr Robbins very_____. (angry/
angrily)
d. Mary sang____at the concert last night. She sang a______song at the concert last night.
(beautiful/ beautifully)
e. What was wrong with Bill? He looked very____. Bill shook his head____. (sad/ sadly)
2. Completeaza urmatoarele propozitii cu ago, since, sau for.
a. Columbus discovered America about six hundred years_____.
b. Ghana has been an independent country____ 1957.
c. Russia has been a republic____over seventy years.
d. Oxford has been a center of learning____more than a thousand years.
e. Most British universities were founded less than fifty years___.
3. Completeaza urmatoarele propozitii cu: still, yet, already, any longer, any more.
a. John doesn't live in London____. He's moved to Bristol.
b. The children haven't gone to bed____. They're____watching television.
c. - Is Anne____here? - No, she has_____left.
d. Becky hasn't gone to university____. She's_____at school.
e. Have you started your new job____or are you____working in London?
f. Thanks for your help. I won't trouble you__.
Lecia 5: Pronumele
9

5.1. Functia pronumelui


Pronumele sunt cuvinte lipsite de inteles de sine statator. Ele nu denumesc si nu caracterizeaza
nimic, functia lor fiind aceea de a inlocui un substantiv, facand astfel referire la o idee, obiect sau
actiune mentionate anterior sau cunoscuta de catre interlocutor.

162

Ex.: John did all the work.


He did all the work.
Who did all the work?

5.2. Forma pronumelui


Pronumele au forme specifice in functie de:
Numar: singular - this; plural - these
Caz: Nominativ - she; Genitiv - hers; Dativ - to her; Acuzativ - her
Gen: masculin - he; Feminin - she; neutru - it
Pronumele pot fi simple (you, which, many) sau compuse (everybody, whatever, no one).

5.3. Clasificarea pronumelor


Dupa continut si functie pronumele pot fi:
1. Personale
2. Reflexive
3. Nehotarate
4. Demonstrative
5. Relative
6. De ntarire
7. Interogative
B. Reciproce

5.3.1. Pronumele personale

Singular

Plural

Nominativ

Genitiv

Dativ

Acuzativ

mine

(to) me

me

you
he
she

yours
his
hers

(to) you
(to) him
(to) her

you
him
her

it

its

(to) it

it

we
you
they

ours
yours
theirs

(to) us
(to) you
(to) them

us
you
them

163

DE REJINUT

I se scrie intotdeauna cu majuscula.

EXEMPLU
Its (pronume) nu are apostrof.
It's vine de la it is sau it has!

Forme arhaice si poetice: pers. II sg. - thou, thine, (to) thee

I gave him the book.


He ran the London Marathon. It's a pleasure to him.
I only played against her once. These books are ours.
Is this pen yours or mine?
You / They impersonal - putem folosi aceste doua pronume pentru a vorbi despre oameni in
general.
Ex.: You have to drive on the other side of the road in Great Britain.
They say she's very clever.
It - poate indeplini o serie de functii de mare importanta:
It impersonal (in expresii impersonale temporale, exprimand starea vremii, distante sau in contructii
pasive)
Ex.: It's 7 o'clock.
It was spring.
Is it Monday?
How hot it is!
How far is it to the station?
It demostrativ
Ex.: Who is it? It's the postman.
It's the children.
5.3.2. Pronumele reflexive

Acestea insotesc un verb si se refera la subiect. Se folosesc atunci cand subiectul si complementul
direct se refera la aceeasi persoana.
Forme:
Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Ex.: I wanted to do it myself but he insisted on helping me.
She fell off the ladder and injured herself.
You can do these tasks by yourself or with a partner.
After five minutes, it will automatically turn itself down.
Let's buy ourselves a chair for the garden.
They built the house themselves.

164

5.3.3. Pronumele nehotarate

Some, any, every se pot combina cu -one, -body, -thing pentru a obtine pronumele nehotarate:
anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something, everyone, everybody, everything.
No poate forma impreuna cu -body sau -one pronumele: nobody, no-one.

DE REJ3NUT
Atat in engleza britanica cat si in cea americana, pronumele nehotarate anyone,
anybody, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, no-one sunt din punct de vedere
gramatical la singular si trebuie folosite cu un verb la singular.

Alte pronume nehotarate:


enough, few, fewer, less, little, many, much, several, more, most, all, both, every, each, any, either,
neither, none, some.
De retinut!
Daca acestea forme preceda un substantiv nu mai sunt pronume, ci determinanti substantivali.
Ex.: Few will be chosen; fewer will finish.
Little is expected.
5.3.4. Pronumele demonstrativ

Pronumele demostrative: this, these, that, those, such pot functiona atat ca pronume, cat si ca
determinanti substantivali.
Ex.: That is incredible! (referring to something you just saw)
I will never forget this. (referring to a recent experience)
Such is my belief, (referring to an explanation just made)
This si these sugereaza ideea de apropiere temporala sau spatiala, pe cand that si those
sugereaza ideea de departare.
Ex.: These (pancakes sitting here now on my plate) are delicious.
Those (pancakes that I had yesterday morning) were even better.
This (book in my hand) is well written; that (book that I'm pointing to, over there, on the table) is
trash.
Aceasta idee de departare se poate transforma chiar in dispret sau instrainare afectiva:
Ex.: Are you going to wear these? (They are awful. I do not like them at all.)
Can you belive I would have bought that?

5.3.5. Pronumele relative

Pronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau inlocuitor substantival mentionat in contextul
aterior (antecedent) si leaga propozitia sau grupul de cuvinte care explica sau da mai multe detalii
despre substantivul antecedent de propozitia continand substantivul determinat.
Pronumele relative sunt : who, whoever, which, that.
Ex.: The student who studies hardest usually does the best.
Alegerea corecta dintre which si that se inscrie printre cele mai frecvente nelamuriri ale studentilor
la limba engleza. In general, which se foloseste pentru a introduce propozitii care au natura de
paranteze, explicatii suplimentare dar care pot fi inlaturate sau omise fara a schimba intelesul
frazei. Din acest motiv propozitiile introduse prin which sunt in general intre virgule. Din contra
propozitiile introduse de that sunt considerate indispensabile sensului frazei si nu se vor pune
intre
virgule.
Who si formele sale se refera la persoane, which se refera la lucruri, iar that poate face referire
la ambele.

165

Ex.: The man who hijacked the plane wanted to get to Cuba.
The couple who live next door have the radio on all night.
The team that won the championship received a great reception.
This is the program which won the prize.
We'll plant new trees to replace those which fell.
5.3.6. Pronumele de intarire

Insoteste substantive sau pronume personale pentru a le sublinia. Ca forma sunt identice cu
pronumele reflexive:
Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Ex.: I myself don't know the answer.
Mary did all this herself.
Mary herself did all this.
Expresii: by myself = singur, de unul singur
Ex.: I worked by myself.
Little Jane read the story by herself.
5.3.7. Pronumele interogativ

Pronumele interogative introduc intrebari, propozitii interogative directe sau indirecte. Forme:
who? what? which? whose? (to) whom?
Ex.: Who said that?
Whose are those books?
I do not remember to whom I gave my sweater. What happened?
What's the weather like?
5.3.8. Pronumele reciproce

Forme: each other si one another. Se folosesc pentru a exprima relatii de reciprocitate intre
fiinte, idei, lucruri.
Ex.: If Bob gave Alicia a book for Christmas and Alicia gave Bob a book for Christmas, we can
say that they gave each other books.
My mother and I give each other a hard time.
They borrowed each other's ideas.
De retinut! Each other se refera la doua obiecte, pe cand one another face referire la mai mult
de doua obiecte sau fiinte.
Ex.: The scientists in this lab often use one another's equipment.
Hockey players hit one another quite frequently.

1. Completeaza pronumele personale care lipsesc:

The other day when I was shopping a woman stopped _me_ and asked____the way to the post
office.____gave her directions and____thanked____politely, then ran off quickly in the opposite
direction.____put my hand in my pocket and found that my wallet was missing._____must have
taken it while____were talking.____shouted and ran after____but____was no good.____had
disapeared in the crowd.
2. Completeaza urmatoarele propozitii cu pronume:

I did it____

She gave____to____

We made the dinner____

They bought____in Singapore.

My pen is blue;____is green. This pen is blue so it is____

I can't do this. Can____help me?

166

Don't give your cats a bath. They wash____

He saved his money so that he could buy ... a bicycle.

knows some words in English like okay, hi and bye.

the students passed the exam.

Can you tell____the time?

It rained so____went for a walk.


3. Puzzle:
There are some books on a shelf. There a three big ones and two small ones. One of the big ones
is red. There is a small green book. There are two green ones altogether and two blue ones. Only
one of the small books is green.
Acum raspunde la urmatoarele intrebari:
3.1. - How many books are there altogether?
3.2. - What colour are the big books?
3.3. - What colour are the small ones?

Lecia 6: Verbul. Notiuni introductive


9
Verbul exprima ideea existentei sau a actiunii intr-o propozitie.
Ex.: I am a student.
The students passed all their courses.

6.1. Cele 4 forme verbale


Terminatiile formelor din limba engleza sunt foarte usor de tinut minte. Exista 4 forme verbale de
baza. Limba engleza formeaza timpurile verbale cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare, spre deosebire
de limba romana, unde timpurile verbale se formeaza cu ajutorul desinentelor. De remarcat ca
in limba engleza nu exista o forma verbala speciala pentru viitor.
Cele 4 forme verbale de baza sunt importante deoarece cu aceste forme si cu ajutorul verbelor
auxiliare se formeaza timpurile in limba engleza:
Numele
verbului
To work

Forma de
baza
I can work. I
work.

To write

I can write. I
write.
Cele mai frecvent folosite verbe neregulate

Participiul

Participiul

Forma de
trecut
I worked.

prezent
trecut
I am working. I have worked.

I wroted.

I am writing.

I have written.

Urmatorul tabel reproducele cele mai frecvente verbe neregulate in patru forme verbale
reprezentative:

Forma de baza, adica infinitivul: to fly

Persoana III singular a timpului prezent: he flies

Persoana III singular a trecutului: he flew

167

Participiul trecut: he has flown


Base Form
Present Third
Person
arise
be
bear
begin
bite
blow
break
bring
buy
catch
choose
come
creep
dive
do
drag
draw
dream
drink

arises
is
bears
begins
bites
blows
breaks
brings
buys
catches
chooses
comes
creeps
dives
does
drags
draws
dreams
drinks

Past Third Person


arose
was/were
bore
began
bit
blew
broke
brought
bought
caught
chose
came
crept
dived/dove
did
dragged
drew
dreamed/dreamt
drank

168

Past Participle
arisen
been
borne
begun
bitten/bit
blown
broken
brought
bought
caught
chosen
come
crept
dived
done
dragged
drawn
dreamt
drunk

drive
drown
eat
fall
fight
fly
forget
forgive
freeze
get
give
go
grow
hang
hide
know
lay
lead
lie
light
lose
prove
ride
ring
rise
run
see
seek
set
shake
sing
sink
sit
speak
spring
steal
sting
strike
swear
swim
swing
take
tear
throw
uses
wake
wear
write

drives
drowns
eats
falls
fights
flies
forgets
forgives
freezes
gets
gives
goes
grows
hangs
hides
knows
lays
leads
lies
lights
loses
proves
rides
rings
rises
runs
sees
seeks
sets
shakes
sings
sinks
sits
speaks
springs
steals
stings
strikes
swears
swims
swings
takes
tears
throws
used
wakes
wears
writes

drove
drowned
ate
fell
fought
flew
forgot
forgave
froze
got
gave
went
grew
hung
hid
knew
laid
led
lay
lit
lost
proved
rode
rang
rose
ran
saw
sought
set
shook
sang
sank
sat
spoke
sprang
stole
stung
struck
swore
swam
swung
took
tore
threw
used
woke/waked
wore
wrote

driven
drowned
eaten
fallen
fought
flown
forgotten
forgiven
frozen
got/gotten
given
gone
grown
hung
hidden
known
laid
led
lain
lit
lost
proved/proven
ridden
rung
risen
run
seen
sought
set
shaken
sung
sunk
sat
spoken
sprung
stolen
stung
struck
sworn
swum
swung
taken
torn
thrown
used
woken/waked/woke
worn
written

6.2. Verbele auxiliare - be, have, do


Verbele auxiliare be, have, do se utilizeaza in formarea timpurilor verbale, a formelor negative si
interogative.
Ex.: He is planning to get married soon.
I haven't seen Peter since last night.
Be, ca auxiliar, este folosit pentru a forma aspectul continuu, in combinatie cu participiul prezent.
Ex.: He is living in Germany.
Be, mpreuna cu participiul trecut formeaza diateza pasiva

169

Ex.: These cars are made in Japan.


Have in combinatie cu participiul trecut formeaza timpurile perfecte.
Ex.: I have changed my mind.
I wish you had met Guy.
Prezentul perfect continuu, trecutul perfect continuu sunt formate cu ambele auxiliare be si have:
Ex.: He has been working very hard recently.
She did not know how long she had been lying there.
Be si have se folosesc de asemenea ca auxiliare pentru a forma propozitii negative si
interogative cu timpurile continue si perfecte.
Ex.: He isn't going.
Hasn't she seen it yet?
Auxiliarul do se foloseste pentru a forma negativul si interogativul prezentului sau trecutului
simplu. Ex.: He doesn't think he can come to the party.
Do you like her new haircut?
Auxiliarul do se poate folosi cu verbe principale: do, have.
Ex.: He didn't do his homework.
He doesn't have any money.
In propozitii afirmative, do se foloseste doar pentru evidentiere sau contrast.
Ex.: I do feel sorry for Roger.

vm
DE REJINUT
Nu se foloseste niciodata auxiliarul do cu verbul to be.
Singura exceptie este imperativul:
Don't be stupid!
Do be a god boy and sit still!

6.3. Modul
Modul verbal se refera la una dintre cele trei atitudini pe care le poate avea un vorbitor fata de
continutul mesajului exprimat.
Modul indicativ, prezent in majoritatea frazelor de pe aceasta pagina, se foloseste pentru a face
o afirmatie sau a pune o intrebare.
Modul imperativ se foloseste pentru a da instructiuni, ordine, directive, sugestii cu caracter
pronuntat.
Ex.: Get your homework done before you watch television tonight.
Please include cash payment with your order form. Get out of town!
Se observa ca nu exista nici un subiect in aceste propozitii. Pronumele you (singular sau plural)
este subiectul implicit al propozitiilor imperative. Majoritatea propozitiilor imperative vor avea deci
subiectul la persoana II.
Exceptie: constructie imperativa care include un subiect la
persoana I Ex.: Let's (or Let us) work on these things together.
Modul subjonctiv se foloseste in propozitiile subordonate in urmatoarele scopuri:
1.

expresia unei dorinte;

2.

fraze conditionale care incep cu if si exprima o conditie ireala

3.

fraze introduse prin as if sau as though si descriu speculatii sau conditii ireale

fraze introduse prin that si care exprima cereri, sugestii, solicitari.


Ex.: She wishes her boyfriend were here.
If Juan were more aggressive, he'd be a better hockey player.
We would have passed if we had studied harder.
He acted as if he were guilty.
I requested that he be present at the hearing.
4.

170

Subjonctivul nu este un mod important in limba engleza cum este in alte limbi, de exemplu in
franceza sau spaniola. In multe situatii care in alte limbi cer subjonctivul, in limba engleza
sunt folosite formele numeroaselor verbe auxiliarele.

6.4. Verbele frazale


O alta particularitate a limbii engleze o reprezinta verbele frazale. Verbele frazale sunt
formate dintr-un verb si un alt cuvant, de obicei o prepozitie. Ele au luat nastere in vorbirea
de zi cu zi.
Verbele frazale au sensuri mai greu de ghicit la prima vedere si pot avea mai multe astfel de
intelesuri, de multe ori diferite. Te exemplu, to come out are 18 intelesuri diferite!
Verbele pot fi combinate cu propozitii sau alte cuvinte pentru a obtine noi entitati.
Ex.: stand out, stand up, stand in, stand off, stand by, stand fast, stand pat, stand down, stand
against, stand for.
Mai mult, verbul si prepozitia sa par a nu avea nici o legatura in contextul
respectiv Ex.: Fill this out! Fill out this form. (a completa un formular)
Three masked gunmen held up the Security Bank this afternoon. (a jefui)
You left out the part about the police chase down Asylum Avenue. (a omite)
The lawyers looked over the papers carefully before questioning the witness. (a examina)
O lista sumara a celor mai folosite verbe frazale, insotite de o scurta explicatie si un exemplu,
poate fi gasita la: http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/phrasals.htm.

EXERC3JII

1. Completeaza cu be sau have la formele verbale potrivite:

Swans____large birds - almost 4 feet tall. They_____log necks. Some swans____very tame. They
often come near people for food. Females usually_____about six babies which are called cygnets.
Cygnets____grey in colour and____very small wings but when they are fully grown they____large
and strong wings and____white in colour. Swans can live to be 40.
2. Completeaza verbele frazale in propozitiile de mai jos:
hung up, came to, catch on, eat out, put on, talk over, get by, turned down, find out, show up
He tried to_____his jacket before his tie was tied.
My family was able to_____on very little money when I was young.
The detective vowed to_____who the murderer was before the case went to trial.
Whenever we get tired of cooking, we____at our favorite Italian restaurant.
Carlos_____on his sister because he was so tired of listening to her whining on the phone.
Tashonda was astonished that she was____for the counselor's position.
The committee promised that the celebrity would_______at the big event.
When he____, his wallet and bike were nowhere to be found.
Professor Farbman promised to____the exam after she returned the results.
Terri was able to____to the most complex problems in calculus before anyone else.
Lecia 7: Timpurile verbale: prezentul simplu si continuu
Este foarte important sa intelegem utilizarea si sensul timpurilor in limba engleza. Multe dintre
aceste forme verbale nu au corespondent in limba romana. Mai mult, sensul exprimat de formele
verbale in limba engleza nu corespunde intotdeauna cu cel utilizat in limba romana.

171

7.1. Clasificarea timpurilor verbale

7.1.1. in functie de timp:


Prezentul:
1. Prezentul simplu
2. Prezentul continuu
3. Prezent perfect
4. Prezent perfect continuu
Trecutul:
5. Trecut simplu
6. Trecut continuu
7. Trecut perfect
8. Trecut perfect continuu
Viitorul:
9. Viitorul simplu
10. Viitorul continuu
11. Viitorul perfect
12. Viitorul perfect continuu
1. PREZENTUL SIMPLU
1.1. Forma

Prezentul simplu are forma de baza a verbului (write, work).


La persoana a III-a sg., forma de baza + -s (he writes, she works).
Ex.: I play, you play, we play, they play He plays, she plays, it plays
Forma negativa se formeaza cu auxiliarul do:
Ex.: I do not drink tea.
She/he does not play football.
Forma interogativa:
Ex.: Do you work here?
Does she/he sing beautifully?

DE REINUT
Forma prezentului simplu pentru you, persoana a II-a singular si plural, este identica.
Persoana a III-a singular a prezentului simplu adauga -s la sfarsit!

1.2. Functii:
Actiuni obisnuite, care se intampla in prezent sau in mod regulat, dar nu neaparat in
momentul exact al vorbirii:
Ex.: Mina plays tennis every weekend.
The Post office opens at 9:45.
Adevaruri sau realitati general acceptate:
Ex.: Some vegetarians eat fish but they do not eat meat.
Winds carry weather balloons around the earth at the height of 24 kilometers.
Expresia opiniilor:
Ex.: I think Spain is beautiful.
They believe everything they read.
Expresie a preferintelor:
Ex.: Lisette likes cats and dogs, but she prefers cats.
Jim prefers maths to languages.
Se foloseste pentru a exprima asa numitul prezent istoric, facand astfel referire la actiuni care
s-au intamplat de fapt in trecut.

172

Ex.: We were watching the back door when, all of a sudden, in walks Dierdre.
Dierdre tells me that she took her brother to the dentist.
Prezentul simplu poate avea valenta de viitor mai ales cu verbe ca: arrive, come, leave care
sugereaza evenimente planuite sau programate:
Ex.: The train from Boston arrives this afternoon at two o'clock.
High tide is at 3:15 p.m. The Super Bowl starts at 6:15 p.m.
Expresii care semnaleaza frecvent actiunile obisnuite exprimate prin prezentul simplu: all the
time, always, every classe, every day, every holiday, every hour, every month, every
semester, every week, every year, most of the time, never, often, rarely, sometimes, usually
1.3. Conjugare

singular

I walk

you walk

he/she/it

plural
singular

we walk
I sleep

you walk
you sleep

walks
they walk
he/she/it

plural
singular

we sleep
I am

you sleep
you are

sleeps
they sleep
he/she/it is

plural

we are

you are

they are

Exemple:
I walk to work every day.
The Chicago Bulls sometimes practice in this gymnasium. Dr. Espinoza operates according to
her own schedule. Coach Calhoun recruits from countries outside the U.S.A.
2. PREZENTUL CONTINUU
2.1. Forma

Acest timp se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to be la prezent + forma de baza a


verbului + -ing (participiu prezent).
Ex.: I am buying all my family's Christmas gifts early this year.
She is working through the holiday break.
Forma negativa - se adauga not dupa forma de prezent simplu a auxiliarului to be. Ex.: It is
not raining.
Forma interogativa se obtine prin inversiunea auxiliarului to be cu subiectul:
Ex.: Are they playing?
Is he eating?
Prezentul continuu indica: o actiune care se afla in plina desfasurare in momentul vorbirii.
Ex.: The phone is ringing. I can't answer it. I'm washing my hair.
It's raining so they have to stop the game.
O actiune care se afla in desfasurare in perioada prezenta, dar care poate nu se intampla
concomitent cu momentul vorbirii.
Ex.: They are writing a new book.
She's studying English at the Language Center.
Descrie o tendinta sau actiune care a debutat recent:
Ex.: More and more people are starting to play golf in Malaysia.
Pentru a desemna o actiune care este planificata pentru viitor:
Ex.: To meet the demand for English language courses, they are planning to expand.
Mohan is leaving for London next week.
2.3. Verbele dinamice si statice

In general, numai anumite verbe pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu si acestea se numesc
verbe dinamice.

173

Aspectul continuu al unui verb arata ca o actiune este, era sau va fi in desfasurare. Formele
verbale progresive (aspectul continuu) se folosesc numai in cazul verbelor dinamice, de
miscare, care exprima calitati capabile de schimbare.
Nu se spune "He is being tall" sau "He is resembling his mother1' sau "I am wanting
spaghetti for dinner',
ci vom spune: "He is tall', "He resembles his mother', "I want spaghetti".
Tabelul urmator descrie in detaliu diferentele dintre verbele statice si cele dinamice:
VERBE DINAMICE
Verbe care exprima o activitate:
abandon, ask, beg, call, drink, eat, help, learn, listen, look at, play, rain, read, say, slice,
throw, whisper, work, write
Ex.: I am begging you. I was learning French. They will be playing upstairs.
Sensul este identic cu cel al formelor simple:
Ex.: I beg you. I learned French. They will play upstairs.
Verbe care exprima procese:
change, deteriorate, growmature, slow down, widen
Ex.: The corn is growing rapidly. Traffic is slowing down.
Sensul este identic cu cel al formelor simple:
Ex.: The corn grows rapidly. Traffic slows down.
Verbe de percepii senzoriale:
ache, feel, hurt, itch
Ex.: "I feel bad" si "I am feeling bad' au acelasi sens in acest caz.
Verbe care exprima aciuni tranzitive:
arrive, die, fall, land, leave, lose
Formele continue indica inceputul actiunii pe cand formele temporale simple, din contra.
Ex.: She was falling out of bed (when I caught her).
She falls out of bed every night.
Verbe exprimand actiuni momentane:
hit, jump, kick, knock, nod, tap
Formele continue indica durata scurta si sugereaza repetitia.
Ex.: She is hitting her brother.
He is jumping around the house.
VERBE STATICE
Verbe de perceptie, senzatie, activitate mentala:
abhor, adore, astonish, believe, desire, detest, dislike, doubt, feel, forgive, guess, hate, hear,
imagine, impress, intend, know, like, love, mean, mind, perceive, please, prefer, presuppose,
realize, recall, recognize, regard, remember, satisfy, see, smell, suppose, taste, think,
understand, want, wish
Ex.: I detest rudabaga, si nu I am detesting rudabaga.
I prefer cinnamon toast, si nu I am preferring cinnamon toast.
Verbe de relatie si posesie:
be, belong to, concern, consist of, contain, cost, depend on, deserve, equal, fit, have,
include, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, own, possess, require, resemble, seem, sound
Ex.: I am sick, si nu I am being sick.
I own ten acres of land, si nu I am owning ten acres.
My brother owes me ten dollars si nu My brother is owing me ten dollars.

174

DE REINUT

maginati-va diferenta de inteles dintre verbele statice si cele dinamice prin prisma
ntentiei, cele statice exprimand calitati neintentionate, pe cand cele dinamice calitati
ntentionate:
Two plus two equals four.
Jane is leaving for Bucharest.
Equals este un verb static si nu poate lua o forma continua; nu exista optiune sau
ntentie in acest caz. Doi plus doi a fost si va fi intotdeauna egal cu patru.
Is leaving exprima optiunea si intentia subiectului de a efectua actiunea respectiva.

DE REINUT

Verbul to have nu se foloseste niciodata in aspectul continuu atunci cand are sensul de
"a suferi de":
I have flu. He has a fever.
Se foloseste la aspectul continuu atunci cand are intelesul de "a angaja pe cineva
pentru o actiune":
I'm having my hair done on Wednesday.
They're having the house painted.
Have se foloseste la aspectul continuu atunci cand are sensul de "experienta":
I'm having a lot of problems with this task.
They're having trouble selling their house.

2.4. Conjugare

singular

I am walking

you are
walking

he/she/it is
walking

plural
singular

we are
walking
I am sleeping

plural

we are

you are
walking
you are
sleeping
you are

they are
walking
he/she/it is
sleeping
they are

175

singular
plural

sleeping

sleeping

sleeping

I am being

you are
being

he/she/it is
being

you are
being

they are
being

we are being

Exemple:
The summer is passing too quickly.
Raoul is acting like his father.
Some football players are not being good role models for youngsters. Is he
being good to you?

Lecia 8: Timpurile trecutului si viitorului

8.1. Trecutul simplu


8.1.1. Forma

Verbele regulate formeaza trecutul simplu prin adaugarea la forma de baza a verbului +-ed. Ex.:
scream > screamed, work > worked
Verbele neregulate au forme proprii de trecut.
Ex.: sleep > slept, drink > drank
Forma negativa se compune cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do, conjugat la trecut (did) + not in fata
verbului principal. Did + not se folosesc des in forma contrasa didn't.
Ex.: I did not jump over.
She didn't finish the work.
Forma interogativa se formeaza prin inversiunea dintre auxiliarul did si subiect:
Ex.: Did you want it?
Did it rain there?
8.1.2. Functii

Trecutul simplu se foloseste pentru a exprima fapte si realitati din trecut: Ex.: In the past people
believed that the earth was flat.
Descrie un eveniment sau actiune incheiata petrecuta in trecut:
Ex.: John Loud invented the ballpoint pen in 1888.
Pentru a descrie starea, conditia sau obiceiuri din trecut:
Ex.: I went to school by bus when I was a child.

176

8.2. Trecutul continuu


8.1.3. Conjugare

singular

I walked

you walked

he/she/it walked

plural
singular
plural

we walked
I slept
we slept

you walked
you slept
you slept

they walked
he/she/it slept
they slept

singular
plural

I was
we were

you were
you were

he/she/it was
they were

Exemple: When I was a girl, I walked five miles to school every day.
Carmelita slept through the entire class.
We worked really hard to make this a success, but then Chuck ruined it with his carelessness.
Every time I finished a sandcastle, the waves came in and washed it away.
Tarzan dove into the swamp and swam toward the alligator.
8.2.1. Forma
Trecutul continuu se formeaza cu ajutorul formei de trecut simplu a auxiliarului to be, was/were +
forma participiului prezent (-ing) a verbului principal.
Ex.: I was singing.
You were talking.
Negativul:
Ex.: You were not/ weren't singing. She was not / wasn't reading.
Interogativul:
Ex.: Was I speaking clearly?
Were they playing the flute?
8.2.2. Functii

Trecutul continuu ca si prezentul continuu sunt forme verbale apartinand registrului oral, limbii
vorbite cu precadere si sunt rar folosite in registrul scris.
Trecutul continuu este folosit pentru a exprima actiuni in desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut.
Deoarece indica o limita a duratei actiunii este foarte folosit pentru a indica actiuni care au avut
loc (trecut simplu) in timp ce o alta actiune era in desfasurare, sau pentru a indica o actiune in
desfasurare care este intrerupta de o alta.
Ex.: Carlos lost his watch while he was running.
I was watching Oprah when John came in screaming.
Exprima activitati din trecut:
Ex.: Once I was driving through Kenya with a friend.
Pentru a vorbi despre obiceiuri din trecut. Trecutul continuu este insotit in acest caz de always.
Ex.: Grace was always handing in late papers.
My father was always lecturing my brother.
In general, numai anumite verbe pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu si acestea se numesc verbe
dinamice. (vezi: 2.3. Verbe dinamice si verbe statice.)

8.2.3. Conjugare

177

8.2. Trecutul continuu


singular

I was walking

you were walking

plural
singular

we were walking
I was sleeping

plural
singular

we were sleeping
I was being

you were walking


you were sleeping he/she/it was
sleeping
you were sleeping they were sleeping
you were being
he/she/it was being

we were being

you were being

plural

he/she/it was
walking
they were walking

they were being

Exemple: Dad was working in his garden all morning.


During the mid-50s, real estate speculators were buying all the swampland in Central Florida,
and innocent people were investing all their money in bogus development projects.
Was he being good to you?
8.3. Viitorul
In mod paradoxal, limba engleza nu are o forma ca atare a viitorului, dar idee de viitor se poate exprima
in nenumarate moduri.

Will/ shall + infinitiv : He will be here at 5 o'clock.

Be going to + infinitiv : She's going to buy a new computer.

Prezentul continuu : The British Council is moving to a new building next year.

Prezentul simplu : The train leaves at 7:15.

8.3.1. Forma

Cea mai frecvent folosita modalitate de a exprima o actiune viitoare este cu ajutorul lui will/ shall sau a
formei contractate a acestora 'll.
Ex.: She will leave soon.
We shall overcome.

DE REJINUT

In engleza moderna forma shall este foarte putin utilizata.


Cea mai des folosita in Engleza vorbita si scrisa in registrul informal este forma 'l.
Negativul:
Ex.: I will not/ won't finish.
Interogativul:
Ex.: Will you catch the ball?

8.3.2. Functii

Viitorul exprima preziceri ale actiunilo viitoare sau interogatii despre viitor.
Ex.: Computer technology will influence our future.
Decizii care tocmai s-au luat si care nu au fost planuite.
Ex.: I'll finish this report tomorrow.
Face promisiuni
Ex.: I'll phone you tomorrow.
Invita pe cineva la un eveniment, actiune Ex.: Will you come to my house on Sunday?

178

8.2. Trecutul continuu

Expresii:
To be about to = a fi pe punctul sa Ex.: He is about to die.
To be + infinitiv = exprima ideea unor planuri pentru viitor, ordine sau conditii. Ex.: There is to be an
investigation into the mayor's business affairs.
You are to be back on the base by midnight.
8.3.3. Conjugare
singular

I will walk

you will walk

he/she/it will walk

plural

we will walk

you will walk

they will walk

singular
plural

I will sleep
we will sleep

you will sleep


you will sleep

he/she/it will sleep


they will sleep

singular
plural

I will be
we will be

you will be
you will be

he/she/it will be
they will be

Exemple: We will be victorious!


We shall overcome.
We are going to win this race.
The bus arrives at three this afternoon.
The boss is announcing his retirement at today's meeting.

8.4. Viitorul continuu


Will + be + participiul prezent (-mg) al verbului
Viitorul continuu indica o actiune continua, care va avea loc si se va desfasura la un moment dat din
viitor.
Ex.: I will be running in next year's Boston Marathon.
Our campaign plans suggest that the President will be winning the southern vote by November. By this
time tomorrow night, I will be sleeping in my own bed.
Next fall, we will be enjoying all the vegetables we planted last spring.
Will we be spending too much money if we buy that big-screen TV?

EXERC3JII

1. Completeaza cu forma corecta de trecut a verbelor din paranteze:

In 1929 the American astronomer Edwin Hubble______(make) a surprising discovery. He_______


(find) that all the galaxies were moving away from us and from each other very fast. This______
(mean) that the whole universe was expanding like a balloon being blown up. He________
(demonstrate) this with a balloon. He______(paint) spots on the balloon to represent the galaxies
and then______(blow) it up. The spots______(grow) farther and farther apart.
2. Completeaza cu forma corecta a verbului din paranteze:
A fourteen-year-old boy______(leave) his home in Africa last month and______(go) to Britain. He
______(leave) his family behind. His mother______(put) him on the plane. When he______(arrive)
in London, he______(go) to a church hall in hackney, north London. After ten days he_______(find)
a relative and he______(move). He______(enter) a school and_______(start) English lessons.

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8.2. Trecutul continuu


Lecia 9: Timpurile cu aspect perfect

9.1. Prezentul perfect


9.1.1. Forma

Prezentul auxiliarului have (have/has) + participiul trecut al verbului (regulat sau neregulat). Ex.: You
have worked hard.
She has taken her medicine.
Negativul:
Ex.: I haven't been to Spain.
I've (have) not seen this movie.
Interogativul:
Ex.: Have I met you before?
Have they built the house?

9.1.2. Functii

Prezentul perfect este una dintre particularitatile limbii engleze, acest timp neavand corespondent in
limba romana.

DE REINUT
Prezentul perfect este un timp apartinand prezentului. A fost asemanat cu un pod care face legatura
dintre trecut si prezent. Dar accentul se pune pe momentul vorbirii, pe acum.

Prezentul perfect exprima o actiune incheiata sau "perfectata" in trecut si care se extinde pana in
momentul prezent:
Ex.: I have walked two miles already (dar continui sa merg).
I have run the Boston Marathon (dar acest lucru s-a intamplat demult).
The critics have praised the film Saving Private Ryan since it came out (si continua sa il laude).
Actiuni sau evenimente din trecut care conduc pana in momentul prezent. In acest caz, folosirea
timpului prezent perfect arata ca rezultatul evenimetului sau actiunii care apartine momentului prezent
este cel care conteaza si nu momentul in care a avut loc actiunea.
Ex.: He has bought a new car (si acum au o masina noua).
They have been to Mexico but they have not been to South Africa (in consecinta, au cunostinte despre
Mexic dar nu stiu prea multe despre Africa de Sud).
Obiceiuri sau evenimente si actiuni frecvente in decursul unei perioade de timp care conduc la
momentul prezentului.
Ex.: She has studied English for four years (si inca mai studiaza engleza.)
Brazil has won the World Cup four times.
9.1.3. Adverbe

Alegerea intre prezentul perfect si trecutul simplu este de multe ori influentata si de adverbele care
insotesc verbul. Daca adverbele respective se refera la o perioada trecuta, vom folosi trecutul simplu.
Ex.: I studied all night/yesterday/on Wednesday.
Cu adverbe care marcheaza un inceput in trecut si conduct pana la momentul prezentului, vom folosi
prezentul perfect.
Ex.: I have studied up to now/lately/already.
Expresii adverbiale cum ar fi: today, this month, for an hour se pot folosi atat cu prezentul perfect cat si

180

8.2. Trecutul continuu

cu trecutul simplu.
Ex.: I worked/have worked hard today.
Exista tendinta de a folosi prezentul perfect pentru a anunta un eveniment din trecutul recent.
Ex.: The company's current CEO has lied repeatedly to her employees.
Dar vom folosi trecutul simplu pentru a relata sau anunta evenimente care au luat sfarsit si apartin
trecutului indepartat.
Ex.: Washington encouraged his troops.
9.1.4. Conjugare

singular

I have walked

you have walked

we have walked

you have walked

he/she/it has
walked
they have walked

singular

I have slept

you have slept

he/she/it have slept

plural
singular

we have slept
I have been

you have slept


you have been

they have slept


he/she/it has been

plural

we have been

you have been

they have been

plural

Exemple:
For five generations, members of my family have been doctors. Vaughan has batted clean-up since he
came to the Redsox. She has swum the English Channel every summer.
How long has it been since the last time we met?

9.2. Prezent perfect continuu


9.2.1. Forma Have/has + been + participiul prezent (-ing)

Ex.: I have been waiting for an hour.


Negativul:
Ex.: You haven't been talking too much. Interogativul:
Ex.: Have they been feeling unwell?

9.2.2. Functii

Si aceasta forma verbala apartine timpului prezent si se raporteaza la momentul prezent.


Se foloseste pentru a descrie stari sau sentimente care au debutat in trecut si au continuat de-a lungul
unei perioade de timp si sunt inca prezente pana in momentul vorbirii.
Ex.: It has been raining for two days (and it's still raining).
X-'O.
DE REINUT
Diferenta dintre forma prezentului perfect si cea a prezentului perfect continuu este ca forma
continua accentueaza durata actiunii sau a starii.

9.2.3. Conjugare

181

8.2. Trecutul continuu


singular

I have been walking

you have been walking

he/she/it has been walking

plural
singular

we have been walking


I have been sleeping

you have been walking


you have been sleeping

they have been walking


he/she/it has been sleeping

plural
singular
plural

we have been sleeping

you have been sleeping

they have been sleeping

There is no present perfect progressive for the "to be" verb. "Have been being" is
expressed simply as "have been": "We have been being successful in the past."

Exemple:
Maria has been writing her dissertation for the last six years[, but she finished yesterday]. The
Redsox have been losing games since the All-Star break [and they continue to do so]. Have we
been telling the truth to consumers about tobacco?
Haven't we been lying to teenagers about smoking?
9.2.4. Folosirea adverbelor cu prezentul perfect

Exista cateva expresii adverbiale care se folosesc in mod frecvent cu formele prezentului perfect.
Aceastea sunt: since, so far, ever, never, for, since, etc.
Ex.: There have been 92 accidents since the beginning of the year.
Have you ever been to Romania?
I have never seen a purple cow.
John has been working on his thesis for two years.
They haven't seen him since 1989.

vm
DE REINUT For
poate fi folosit atat cu trecutul simplu cat si cu formele perfecte (prezent, trecut, viitor perfect).
- are sensul de: in timpul, pe durata, pentru o perioada de timp.
Since
- se foloseste doar cu formele perfecte.
- are sensul de incepand de la un moment dat.

9.3. Trecutul perfect


9.3.1. Forma

Had + participiu trecut al verbului


Trecutul perfect indica faptul ca o actiune s-a incheiat, "perfectat" la un moment din trecut inainte
ca un alt eveniment sa se produca.
Ex.: I had walked two miles by lunchtime.
I had run three other marathons before entering the Boston Marathon.

9.3.2. Conjugare

182

8.2. Trecutul continuu


singular

I had walked

you had walked

he/she/it had walked

plural
singular

we had walked
I had slept

you had walked


you had slept

they had walked


he/she/it had slept

plural
singular

we had slept
I had been

you had slept


you had been

they had slept


he/she/it had been

plural

we had been

you had been

they had been

Exemple:
Prior to the Revolutionary War, Washington had been a surveyor and land speculator.
Aunt Glad had invested heavily in the air-conditioning industry before the Great Crash of 1988. She had
swum the English Channel every summer until 1997.
How long had it been since you saw each other?

9.4. Trecutul perfect continuu


Forma: Had + been + participiu prezent (-ing)
Acest timp indica o actiune continua care s-a incheiat la un moment dat din trecut.
Exemple:
Hemingway had been losing his self-confidence for years before the publication of Old Man and the
Sea.
Had they been cheating on the exams before the school put monitors in the classroom?

9.5. Viitorul perfect


Forma: Will + have + participiul trecut al verbului
Viitorul perfect indica o actiune care va fi fost incheiata la un moment dat din viitor.
Ex.: I will have spent all my money by this time next year.
I will have run successfully in three marathons if I can finish this one.
By this time next week, I will have worked on this project for twenty days.
Before he sees his publisher, Charles will have finished four chapters in his new novel.
A Democratic president will have been in the White House for nearly half of the twentieth century. How
long will it have been since we were together?

9.6. Viitorul perfect continuu


Forma: Will + have + been + participiul prezent (-ing) al verbului
Acest timp indica a actiune continua care va fi incheiata la un moment dat din viitor.
Ex.: By the time he finishes this semester, Gesualdo will have been studying nothing but parasites for
four years.
Will they have been testing these materials in the lab before we even get there?

OBLIGATORIE

Nessie surfaces again


The Nessie-spotting season has started again.
An American team yesterday claimed to have made two sightings of the Loch Ness monster and got
them on video film.
Wildlife photographer Erik Beckjord, of the National Crypto Zoological Society of the US, said:"We
got film of an object 15 to 20ft. long and about 250ft. out from the shore. The second sighting was

183

8.2. Trecutul continuu

two days later on Saturday at 1 pm when something stuck out of the water and went down again,"
Mr. Beckjord said.
Film-makers claim Nessie sightings
A team from the United States, which has been monitoring the surface of the Loch Ness with a video
camera for the past week, believes it may have seen the monster on two occasions.
The first claimed sighting was towards the eastern end of the loch. The team says it saw an object obout
15ft. to 20ft. long crossing the waves and raising its "head" out of the water. The second, from a point
over Urquhart Bay, much farther along the loch, was of an object about 30ft. long moving about three feet
below the surface.
The team of two, from the National Crypto Zoological Society and led by Erik Beckjord, a wildlife
photographer, has been scanning the surface from points along the shore with a camera capable of
filming for 240 hours without a break.
Alege unul dintre urmtoarele trei roluri:
fotograful Erik Beckjord, care ncearc s i apere punctul de vedere invocnd dovezile adunate
n sprijinul existenei Monstrului din Lock Ness,
un localnic, stul de toat tevatura pe marginea acestui monstru i care consider c discuia
este o pierdere de vreme,
un ziarist independent, care este deschis ambelor puncte de vedere i le ncurajeaz prin
ntrebri iscoditoare n vederea elaborrii unui reportaj.
Construiete individual sau mpreun cu echipa din care faci parte, o scurt argumentaie de aproximativ
150 de cuvinte pornind de la personajul i punctul de vedere ales.Trimite tema obligatorie tutorului cel
mai trziu pana la data limita a testrii online, afiata n contul fiecruia. Nu uita s incluzi n mesajul tu
numele i prenumele complet i numrul echipei din care faci parte. Calificativul primit la tema obligatorie
mpreun cu punctajul obinut la testul online vor constitui absolvirea cursului de Gramatica limbii
engleze.

184

Lecia 10: Prepozitia


Introducere
Prepozitia descrie legatura dintre doua cuvinte din aceeasi propozitie. Prepozitiile nu au un inteles de
sine statator, ele capata diferie sensuri puse in legatura cu alte cuvinte.
Sa observam catedra profesorului si multitudinea de prepozitii pe care le putem folosi pentru a o
descrie:
You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). The professor can sit on the desk (when he's being
informal) or behind the desk, and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the desk. He can stand
beside the desk (meaning next to the desk), before the desk, between the desk and you, or even on the
desk (if he's really strange). If he's clumsy, he can bump into the desk or try to walk through the desk
(and stuff would fall off the desk). Passing his hands over the desk or resting his elbows upon the desk,
he often looks across the desk and speaks of the desk or concerning the desk as if there were nothing
else like the desk. Because he thinks of nothing except the desk, sometimes you wonder about the
desk, what's in the desk, what he paid for the desk, and if he could live without the desk. You can walk
toward the desk, to the desk, around the desk, by the desk, and even past the desk while he sits at the
desk or leans against the desk.
Cuvintele evidentiate sunt toate prepozitii.

vm
DE REJINUT
In limba engleza nu se va termina niciodata o propozitie cu o prepozitie.

10.1. Prepozitii de timp: at, on, in


At se foloseste pentru a desemna ora exacta Ex.:
The train is due at 12:15 p.m.
On indica zilele si datele calendaristice Ex.:
My brother is coming on Monday.
We're having a party on the Fourth of July.
In se foloseste pentru a desemna ore imprecise din timpul zilei, cat si luna, anotimpul, anul. Ex.:
She likes to jog in the morning.
It's too cold in winter to run outside.
He started the job in 1971.
He's going to quit in August.

10.2. Prepozitii de loc: at, on, in


At se foloseste cu adrese exacte.
Ex.: Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham.
On desemneaza numele de strazi, sosele, bulevarde, alei, etc.
Ex.: Her house is on Boretz Road.
In se foloseste cu numele regiunilor (orase, judete, tari, state, continente). Ex.:
She lives in Durham.
Durham is in Windham County.
Windham County is in Connecticut.

185

Prepozitii de loc: in, at, on si lipsa prepozitiei


IN

AT

(the) bed* the bed class* home the


room the car (the) library* the office
class* the library* school* work
school*

ON
the bed* the
ceiling the floor
the horse the
plane the train

lipsa prepozitiei
downstairs
downtown
inside
outside
upstairs
uptown

* In diverse circumstante se pot folosi prepozitii diferite pentru aceste locuri.

10.3. Prepozitii de miscare: to si lipsa prepozitiei


To se foloseste pentru a exprima deplasarea, miscarea catre un loc.
Ex.: They were driving to work together.
She's going to the dentist's office this morning.
Toward si towards exprima de asemenea miscarea.
Acestea doua sunt doar variantele ortografice ale aceluiasi cuvant si se pot folosi indiferent. Ex.:
We're moving toward the light.
This is a big step towards the project's completion.
Cu urmatoarele cuvinte: home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs, nu se
folosesc prepozitii.
Ex.: Grandma went upstairs Grandpa went home.
They both went outside.

10.4. Prepozitii de timp: for si since


For se foloseste atunci cand se masoara timpul (secunde, minute, ore, zile, luni, ani). Ex.: He held his
breath for seven minutes.
She's lived there for seven years.
The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries.
Since se foloseste cu data sau ora exacta.
Ex.: He's worked here since 1970.
She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.

10.5. Prepozitii cu substantive, adjective si verbe


Numeroase substantive, adjective si mai ales verbe se folosesc corect numai insotite de prepozitiile
care le intregesc sensul.

186

SUBSTANTIVELE si PREPOZIIILE
approval of
awareness of
belief in
concern for
confusion about
desire for

fondness for
need for
grasp of
participation in
hatred of
reason for
hope for
respect for
interest in
success in
love of
understanding of
ADJECTIVELE si PREPOZIIILE

afraid of
angry at
aware of

fond of
happy about
interested in

capable of careless about jealous of made of


familiar with
married to

proud of
similar to
sorry for
sure of tired of worried about

VERBELE si PREPOZITIILE
apologize for ask aboutgive up grow up look for prepare for study for talk
ask for belong to bring uplook forward to look up about think about trust in
care for find out
make up pay for
work for worry about

Combinatia dintre verbe si prepozitii se numeste verb frazal (vezi 6.4.Verbe frazale).

10.6. Expresii idiomatice cu prepozitii

agree to a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principle

argue about a matter, with a person, for or against a proposition


compare to to show likenesses, with to show differences (sometimes similarities)

correspond to a thing, with a person

differ from an unlike thing, with a person

live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, with other people

10.7. Prepozitii inutile


In vorbirea de zi cu zi se folosesc incorect prepozitii acolo unde ele nu isi au rostul. Observa
urmatoarele exemple:
Ex.: She met up with the new coach in the hallway.

187

The book fell off of the desk.


He threw the book out of the window.
She wouldn't let the cat inside of the house. (sau folositi "in")
Where did they go to?
Put the lamp in back of the couch. (se va folosi "behind")
Where is your college at?

EXERCIII

1. Completeaza urmatoarele propozitii cu at, in sau on:

They live____in Coronation Street____number 32.


Jack works____Oxford____the University.
I've left my briefcase____the office. I think I left it_____the chair____the corner.
Meet me____the bus-stop____the end of Bristol Road.
They live____Seal, a small village____the road to Folkestone.
2. Completeaza urmatorul text cu prepozitiile care lipsesc:
It was____the evening_____Friday 29th March_____Tribeca, New York. Police patrolman Swaine
and assistant patrolman Bradley were driving____3rd Avenue. Swaine stopped the patrol car,
which was new and shinning,____an electrical store. He needed some batteries. He got____and
went____the store; but he left the keys_____the car because Bradley stayed____the car. Swaine
looked____the street. It was crowded____early evening shoppers. It was brightly lit and lively.
3. Tradu pasajul de mai sus in limba romana.

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