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Music

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Contents
1

Music

1.1

Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2

As a form of art or entertainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.1

Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.2

Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.3

Improvisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.4

Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Elements of music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3.1

Rudimentary elements of music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3.2

Perceptual elements of music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3.3

Analysis of musical styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3.4

Description of elements of music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.4.1

Prehistoric eras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.4.2

Ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.4.3

Asian cultures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.4.4

References in the Bible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.4.5

Antiquity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.4.6

Ancient Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.4.7

Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.4.8

Renaissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.4.9

Baroque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.4.10 Classicism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.4.11 Romanticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.4.12 20th- and 21st-century music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

1.5.1

Oral and aural tradition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

1.5.2

Ornamentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

1.6

Philosophy and aesthetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

1.7

Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

1.7.1

Cognitive neuroscience of music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

1.7.2

Cognitive musicology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

1.3

1.4

1.5

ii

CONTENTS
1.7.3

Psychoacoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

1.7.4

Evolutionary musicology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

1.7.5

Culture in music cognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

Sociological aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

1.8.1

Role of women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

Media and technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

1.9.1

Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

1.10 Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

1.10.1 Intellectual property laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

1.11 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

1.11.1 Non-professional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

1.11.2 Professional training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

1.12 Music therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

1.13 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

1.14 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

1.15 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

1.16 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

Musical instrument

30

2.1

Denition and basic operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

2.2

Archaeology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

2.3

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

2.3.1

Primitive and prehistoric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

2.3.2

Antiquity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

2.3.3

Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

2.3.4

Modern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

Classication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

2.4.1

Ancient systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

2.4.2

Hornbostel-Sachs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

2.4.3

Schaener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

2.4.4

Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

2.5

Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

2.6

User interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

2.7

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

2.8

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

2.9

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

2.10 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

2.11 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

Orchestra

43

3.1

Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

3.1.1

44

1.8
1.9

2.4

Beethovens inuence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS
3.1.2

Expanded instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

3.2.1

Selection and appointment of members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

3.3

Amateur ensembles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

3.4

Repertoire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

3.5

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

3.5.1

Instrumental craftsmanship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

3.5.2

Wagners inuence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

3.5.3

20th century orchestra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

3.5.4

Counter-revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

3.5.5

Recent trends in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

Role of conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

3.6.1

Conductorless orchestras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

3.6.2

Multiple conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

3.7

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

3.8

Notes and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

3.9

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

3.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

String instrument

53

4.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

4.2

Types of instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

4.2.1

Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

4.2.2

Types of playing techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

Changing the pitch of a vibrating string . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

4.3.1

Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

4.3.2

Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

4.3.3

Linear density

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

4.4

String length or scale length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

4.5

Contact points along the string . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

4.6

Production of multiple notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

4.7

Sympathetic strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

4.8

Sound production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

4.8.1

Acoustic instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

4.8.2

Electronic amplication

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

Symphonic strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

4.10 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

4.11 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

4.12 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

Woodwind instrument

59

5.1

59

3.2

3.6

4.3

4.9

iii

Flutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iv

CONTENTS
5.2

Reed instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

5.3

Modern orchestra and concert band woodwinds

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

5.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

5.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

5.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

Brass instrument

62

6.1

Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

6.1.1

Bore taper and diameter

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

6.1.2

Other brass instruments

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

6.2.1

Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

6.2.2

Tuning compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

6.2.3

Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

6.3

Sound production in brass instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

6.4

Manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

6.5

Ensembles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

6.6

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

6.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

6.8

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

6.2

Percussion instrument

69

7.1

Function

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

7.2

Percussion notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

7.3

Classication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

7.3.1

By methods of sound production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

7.3.2

By musical function or orchestration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

7.3.3

By prevalence in common knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

7.3.4

By cultural signicance or tradition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

7.3.5

By capability of melodic production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

7.3.6

By percussive beater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

7.4

Names for percussionists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

7.5

Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

7.6

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

7.7

Notes and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

7.8

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

7.9

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

Piano

78

8.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

8.1.1

Invention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

8.1.2

Early fortepiano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

CONTENTS

8.1.3

Modern piano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

8.1.4

Variations in shape and design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

8.2.1

Grand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

8.2.2

Upright (vertical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

8.2.3

Specialized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

8.2.4

Electric, electronic, and digital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

Construction and components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

8.3.1

Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

8.3.2

Pedals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

8.4

Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

8.5

Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

8.5.1

Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

Playing and technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

8.6.1

Performance styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

8.7

Role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

8.8

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

8.9

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

8.9.1

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

8.10 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

8.11 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

8.12 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

8.12.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

8.2

8.3

8.6

8.12.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102


8.12.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

Chapter 1

Music
For other uses, see Music (disambiguation).

Lydia Canaan is a Lebanese singer-songwriter noted for fusing


Middle-Eastern quarter notes and microtones with anglophone
rock, innovating a unique style of World Music. In 2015, she was
listed in the catalog of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum's Library and Archives as the rst rock star of the Middle
East.
American jazz singer and songwriter Billie Holiday in New York
City in 1947.

Bonnie Raitt is an American singer, guitar player and piano


player. A winner of ten Grammy awards, she is also noted for
her slide guitar playing.

Asha Bhosle is an Indian singer best known as a playback singer


in Hindi cinema. In 2011, she was ocially acknowledged by
the Guinness Book of World Records as the most recorded artist
in music history.

Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium


is sound and silence. The common elements of music are
pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation),
1

CHAPTER 1. MUSIC
tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as
harmonies. Common sayings such as the harmony of
the spheres" and it is music to my ears point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to.
However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that
any sound can be music, saying, for example, There is
no noise, only sound.[2]

Beethoven was an inuential composer from the Classical era.


This portrait is from 1820.

The Beatles were a four-piece rock band. They are pictured here
in 1965, celebrating their Grammy win.

dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed
the color of a musical sound). Dierent styles or
types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit
some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast
range of instruments and with vocal techniques ranging
from singing to rapping, and there are solely instrumental
pieces, solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine singing
and instruments. The word derives from Greek
(mousike; art of the Muses").[1] In its most general form,
the activities describing music as an art form include the
production of works of music (songs, tunes, symphonies,
and so on), the criticism of music, the study of the history of music, and the aesthetic examination of music.
Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers dened music as

The creation, performance, signicance, and even the


denition of music vary according to culture and social
context. Indeed, throughout history, some new forms or
styles of music have been criticized as not being music, including Beethoven's Grosse Fuge string quartet in
1825,[3] early jazz in the beginning of the 1900s[4] and
hardcore punk in the 1980s.[5] There are many types of
music, including popular music, traditional music, art
music, music written for religious ceremonies and work
songs such as chanteys. Music ranges from strictly organized compositionssuch as Classical music symphonies
from the 1700s and 1800s, through to spontaneously
played improvisational music such as jazz, and avantgarde styles of chance-based contemporary music from
the 20th and 21st centuries.
Music can be divided into genres (e.g., country music)
and genres can be further divided into subgenres (e.g.,
country blues and pop country are two of the many country subgenres), although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes
open to personal interpretation, and occasionally controversial. For example, it can be hard to draw the line
between some early 1980s hard rock and heavy metal.
Within the arts, music may be classied as a performing
art, a ne art or as an auditory art. Music may be played
or sung and heard live at a rock concert or orchestra performance, heard live as part of a dramatic work (a music
theater show or opera), or it may be recorded and listened
to on a radio, MP3 player, CD player, Smartphone or as
lm score or TV show.
In many cultures, music is an important part of peoples
way of life, as it plays a key role in religious rituals, rite of
passage ceremonies (e.g., graduation and marriage), social activities (e.g., dancing) and cultural activities ranging from amateur karaoke singing to playing in an amateur funk band or singing in a community choir. People
may make music as a hobby, for example, a teen who
plays cello in a youth orchestra, or by working as a professional musician or singer. The music industry includes
the individuals who create new songs and musical pieces,
such as songwriters and composers; individuals who perform music, which include orchestra, jazz band and rock
band musicians, singers and conductors; individuals who
record music (music producers and sound engineers) and
organize concert tours; and those who sell recordings and
sheet music to customers.

1.2. AS A FORM OF ART OR ENTERTAINMENT

sic scores, such as during the Classical and Romantic eras,


music lovers would buy the sheet music of their favourite
pieces and songs so that they could perform them at
home on the piano. With the advent of sound recording,
records of popular songs, rather than sheet music became
the dominant way that music lovers would enjoy their
favourite songs. With the advent of home tape recorders
in the 1980s and digital music in the 1990s, music lovers
could make tapes or playlists of their favourite songs and
In Greek mythology, the nine muses were the inspiration for many
take them with them on a portable cassette player or MP3
creative endeavors, including the arts.
player. Some music lovers create mix tapes of their favorite songs, which serve as a self-portrait, a gesture
1.1 Etymology
of friendship, prescription for an ideal party... [and] an
environment consisting solely of what is most ardently
[7]
The word derives from Greek (mousike; art of loved.
the Muses").[1] In Greek mythology, the nine muses were Amateur musicians compose and/or perform music for
the goddesses who inspired literature, science, and the their own pleasure, and derive their income elsewhere.
arts and who were the source of the knowledge embodied Professional musicians are employed by a range of
in the poetry, song-lyrics, and myths in the Greek cul- institutions and organisations, including armed forces
ture. According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, (in marching bands, concert bands and popular music
the term music is derived from mid-13c., musike, groups), churches and synagogues, symphony orchestras,
from Old French musique (12c.) and directly from Latin broadcasting or lm production companies, and music
musica the art of music, also including poetry (also schools. Professional musicians sometimes work as
[the] source of Spanish musica, Italian musica, Old High freelancers or session musicians, seeking contracts and
German mosica, German Musik, Dutch muziek, Dan- engagements in a variety of settings. There are often
ish musik). This is derived from the "...Greek mousike many links between amateur and professional musicians.
(techne) "(art) of the Muses, from fem. of mousikos Beginning amateur musicians take lessons with profespertaining to the Muses, from Mousa Muse (see muse sional musicians. In community settings, advanced ama(n.)). Modern spelling [dates] from [the] 1630s. In classi- teur musicians perform with professional musicians in a
cal Greece, [the term music refers to] any art in which variety of ensembles such as community concert bands
the Muses presided, but especially music and lyric po- and community orchestras.
etry.[6]
A distinction is often made between music performed for
a live audience and music that is performed in a studio so
that it can be recorded and distributed through the music
1.2 As a form of art or entertain- retail system or the broadcasting system. However, there
are also many cases where a live performance in front of
ment
an audience is also recorded and distributed. Live concert recordings are popular in both classical music and in
popular music forms such as rock, where illegally taped
live concerts are prized by music lovers. In the jam band
scene, live, improvised jam sessions are preferred to studio recordings.

1.2.1 Composition

Jean-Gabriel Ferlan performing at a 2008 concert at the collgelyce Saint-Franois Xavier

Music is composed and performed for many purposes,


ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial
purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. When music was only available through sheet mu-

Main article: Musical composition


Composition is the act or practice of creating a song
or other piece of music. In many cultures, including
Western classical music, the act of composing also includes the creation of music notation, such as a sheet music score, which is then performed by the composer or
other singers or musicians. In popular music and traditional music, the act of composing, which is typically
called songwriting, may involve the creation of a basic
outline of the song, called the lead sheet, which sets out
the melody, lyrics and chord progression. In classical music, the composer typically orchestrates her own compo-

CHAPTER 1. MUSIC
the elements of music precisely. The process of deciding how to perform music that has been previously composed and notated is termed interpretation. Dierent
performers interpretations of the same work of music
can vary widely, in terms of the tempos that are chosen and the playing or singing style or phrasing of the
melodies. Composers and songwriters who present their
own music are interpreting their songs, just as much as
those who perform the music of others. The standard
body of choices and techniques present at a given time
and a given place is referred to as performance practice,
whereas interpretation is generally used to mean the individual choices of a performer.

Although a musical composition often uses musical notation and has a single author, this is not always the case. A
work of music can have multiple composers, which often
occurs in popular music when a band collaborates to write
a song, or in musical theatre, when one person writes the
People composing music in 2013 using electronic keyboards and melodies, a second person writes the lyrics, and a third
computers.
person orchestrates the songs. A piece of music can also
be composed with words, images, or computer programs
that explain or notate how the singer or musician should
create musical sounds. Examples range from avant-garde
music that uses graphic notation, to text compositions
such as Aus den sieben Tagen, to computer programs that
select sounds for musical pieces. Music that makes heavy
use of randomness and chance is called aleatoric music,
and is associated with contemporary composers active in
the 20th century, such as John Cage, Morton Feldman,
and Witold Lutosawski. A more commonly known example of chance-based music is the sound of wind chimes
jingling in a breeze.
The study of composition has traditionally been dominated by examination of methods and practice of Western
classical music, but the denition of composition is broad
enough the creation of popular music and traditional music songs and instrumental pieces and to include spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and African percussionists such as Ewe drummers.

1.2.2 Notation
French Baroque music composer Michel Richard Delalande
(16571726), pen in hand.

Main article: Musical notation


In the 2000s, music notation typically means the written

sitions, but in musical theatre and in pop music, songwriters may hire an arranger to do the orchestration. In
some cases, a songwriter may not use notation at all, and
instead compose the song in her mind and then play or
record it from memory. In jazz and popular music, notable recordings by inuential performers are given the Sheet music is written representation of music. This is a
homorhythmic (i.e., hymn-style) arrangement of a traditional
weight that written scores play in classical music.
piece entitled "Adeste Fideles", in standard two-sta format for

Even when music is notated relatively precisely, as in clas- mixed voices. Play
sical music, there are many decisions that a performer
has to make, because notation does not specify all of expression of music notes and rhythms on paper using

1.3. ELEMENTS OF MUSIC


symbols. When music is written down, the pitches and
rhythm of the music, such as the notes of a melody, are
notated. Music notation also often provides instructions
on how to perform the music. For example, the sheet music for a song may state that the song is a slow blues or a
fast swing, which indicates the tempo and the genre. To
read music notation, a person must have an understanding
of music theory, harmony and the performance practice
associated with a particular song or pieces genre.
Written notation varies with style and period of music. In
the 2000s, notated music is produced as sheet music or,
for individuals with computer scorewriter programs, as
an image on a computer screen. In ancient times, music
notation was put onto stone or clay tablets. To perform
music from notation, a singer or instrumentalist requires
an understanding of the rhythmic and pitch elements embodied in the symbols and the performance practice that
is associated with a piece of music or a genre. In genres requiring musical improvisation, the performer often
plays from music where only the chord changes and form
of the song are written, requiring the performer to have
a great understanding of the musics structure, harmony
and the styles of a particular genre (e.g., jazz or country
music).
In Western art music, the most common types of written
notation are scores, which include all the music parts of
an ensemble piece, and parts, which are the music notation for the individual performers or singers. In popular music, jazz, and blues, the standard musical notation is the lead sheet, which notates the melody, chords,
lyrics (if it is a vocal piece), and structure of the music. Fake books are also used in jazz; they may consist of
lead sheets or simply chord charts, which permit rhythm
section members to improvise an accompaniment part to
jazz songs. Scores and parts are also used in popular music and jazz, particularly in large ensembles such as jazz
"big bands. In popular music, guitarists and electric bass
players often read music notated in tablature (often abbreviated as tab), which indicates the location of the
notes to be played on the instrument using a diagram of
the guitar or bass ngerboard. Tabulature was also used
in the Baroque era to notate music for the lute, a stringed,
fretted instrument.

5
and accompaniment parts. In the Western art music tradition, improvisation was an important skill during the
Baroque era and during the Classical era. In the Baroque
era, performers improvised ornaments and basso continuo keyboard players improvised chord voicings based
on gured bass notation. In the Classical era, solo performers and singers improvised virtuoso cadenzas during
concerts. However, in the 20th and early 21st century,
as common practice Western art music performance
became institutionalized in symphony orchestras, opera
houses and ballets, improvisation has played a smaller
role. At the same time, some modern composers have increasingly included improvisation in their creative work.
In Indian classical music, improvisation is a core component and an essential criterion of performances.

1.2.4 Theory
Main article: Music theory
Music theory encompasses the nature and mechanics of
music. It often involves identifying patterns that govern
composers techniques and examining the language and
notation of music. In a grand sense, music theory distills and analyzes the parameters or elements of music
rhythm, harmony (harmonic function), melody, structure,
form, and texture. Broadly, music theory may include
any statement, belief, or conception of or about music.[8]
People who study these properties are known as music
theorists. Some have applied acoustics, human physiology, and psychology to the explanation of how and why
music is perceived.

1.3 Elements of music


Main article: Aspect of music

Music has many dierent fundamentals or elements. Depending on the denition of element being used, these
can include: pitch, beat or pulse, tempo, rhythm, melody,
harmony, texture, style, allocation of voices, timbre or
color, dynamics, expression, articulation, form and structure. The elements of music feature prominently in the
1.2.3 Improvisation
music curriculums of Australia, UK and USA. All three
curriculums identify pitch, dynamics, timbre and texture
Main article: Musical improvisation
as elements, but the other identied elements of music are
far from universally agreed. Below is a list of the three
Musical improvisation is the creation of spontaneous muocial versions of the elements of music":
sic, often within (or based on) a pre-existing harmonic
framework or chord progression. Improvisation is the
Australia: pitch, timbre, texture, dynamics and exact of instantaneous composition by performers, where
pression, rhythm, form and structure.[9]
compositional techniques are employed with or without
preparation. Improvisation is a major part of some types
UK: pitch, timbre, texture, dynamics, duration,
of music, such as blues, jazz, and jazz fusion, in which
instrumental performers improvise solos, melody lines
tempo, structure.[10]

CHAPTER 1. MUSIC
USA: pitch, timbre, texture, dynamics, rhythm, intended musical eect. It seems at this stage that there
form, harmony, style/articulation.[11]
is still research to be done in this area.

In relation to the UK curriculum, in 2013 the term: appropriate musical notations" was added to their list of el- 1.3.3
ements and the title of the list was changed from the elements of music to the inter-related dimensions of music. The inter-related dimensions of music are listed as:
pitch, duration, dynamics, tempo, timbre, texture, structure and appropriate musical notations.[12]

Analysis of musical styles

The phrase the elements of music is used in a number of


dierent contexts. The two most common contexts can
be dierentiated by describing them as the rudimentary
elements of music and the perceptual elements of music.

1.3.1

Rudimentary elements of music

In the 1800s, the phrase the elements of music


and the phrase the rudiments of music were used
interchangeably.[13][14] The elements described in these
documents refer to aspects of music that are needed in
order to become a musician, Recent writers such as Estrella [15] seem to be using the phrase elements of music
in a similar manner. A denition which most accurately
reects this usage is: the rudimentary principles of an
art, science, etc.: the elements of grammar.[16] The UKs
curriculum switch to the inter-related dimensions of music seems to be a move back to using the rudimentary
elements of music.

1.3.2

Perceptual elements of music

Since the emergence of the study of psychoacoustics in


the 1930s, most lists of elements of music have related
more to how we hear music than how we learn to play it
or study it. C.E. Seashore, in his book Psychology of Music,[17] identied four psychological attributes of sound.
These were: pitch, loudness, time, and timbre (p. 3).
He did not call them the elements of music but referred
to them as elemental components (p. 2). Nonetheless
these elemental components link precisely with four of
the most common musical elements: Pitch and timbre match exactly, loudness links with dynamics and
time links with the time-based elements of rhythm, duration and tempo. This usage of the phrase the elements
of music links more closely with Websters New 20th
Century Dictionary denition of an element as: a substance which cannot be divided into a simpler form by
known methods[18] and educational institutions lists of
elements align with this list as well.
Writers of lists of rudimentary elements of music vary
their lists depending on their personal priorities. However, in relation to the perceptual elements of music, it
should be possible to identify a list of discrete elements
which can be independently manipulated to achieve an

Funk places most of its emphasis on rhythm and groove, with


entire songs based around a vamp on a single chord. Pictured
are the inuential funk musicians George Clinton and Parliament
Funkadelic in 2006.

Some styles of music place an emphasis on certain of


these fundamentals, while others place less emphasis on
certain elements. To give one example, while Bebopera jazz makes use of very complex chords, including
altered dominants and challenging chord progressions,
with chords changing two or more times per bar and keys
changing several times in a tune, funk places most of
its emphasis on rhythm and groove, with entire songs
based around a vamp on a single chord. While Romantic era classical music from the mid- to late-1800s makes
great use of dramatic changes of dynamics, from whispering pianissimo sections to thunderous fortissimo sections, some entire Baroque dance suites for harpsichord
from the early 1700s may use a single dynamic. To give
another example, while some art music pieces, such as
symphonies are very long, some pop songs are just a few
minutes long.

1.3.4 Description of elements of music


Pitch and melody
Pitch is an aspect of a sound that we can hear, reecting
whether one musical sound, note or tone is higher or
lower than another musical sound, note or tone. We
can talk about the highness or lowness of pitch in the
more general sense, such as the way a listener hears a
piercingly high piccolo note or whistling tone as higher
in pitch than a deep thump of a bass drum. We also talk
about pitch in the precise sense associated with musical
melodies, basslines and chords. Precise pitch can only be
determined in sounds that have a frequency that is clear
and stable enough to distinguish from noise. For example, it is much easier for listeners to discern the pitch of

1.3. ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

a single note played on a piano than to try to discern the Harmony refers to the vertical sounds of pitches in mupitch of a crash cymbal that is struck.
sic, which means pitches that are played or sung together
at the same time to create a chord. Usually this means
the notes are played at the same time, although harmony
may also be implied by a melody that outlines a harmonic
structure (i.e., by using melody notes that are played one
The melody to the traditional song "Pop Goes the Weasel" Play
after the other, outlining the notes of a chord). In music
written using the system of major-minor tonality (keys),
A melody (also called a tune) is a series of pitches which includes most classical music written from 1600 to
(notes) sounding in succession (one after the other), of- 1900 and most Western pop, rock and traditional music,
ten in a rising and falling pattern. The notes of a melody the key of a piece determines the scale used, which cenare typically created using pitch systems such as scales or tres around the home note or tonic of the key. Simmodes. Melodies also often contain notes from the chords ple classical pieces and many pop and traditional music
used in the song. The melodies in simple folk songs and songs are written so that all the music is in a single key.
traditional songs may use only the notes of a single scale, More complex Classical, pop and traditional music songs
the scale associated with the tonic note or key of a given and pieces may have two keys (and in some cases three
song. For example, a folk song in the key of C (also re- or more keys). Classical music from the Romantic era
ferred to as C major) may have a melody that uses only the (written from about 18201900) often contains multiple
notes of the C major scale (the individual notes C, D, E, keys, as does jazz, especially Bebop jazz from the 1940s,
F, G, A, B and C; these are the "white notes" on a piano in which the key or home note of a song may change
keyboard. On the other hand, Bebop-era jazz from the every four bars or even every two bars.
1940s and contemporary music from the 20th and 21st
centuries may use melodies with many chromatic notes
(i.e., notes in addition to the notes of the major scale; Rhythm
on a piano, a chromatic scale would include all the notes
on the keyboard, including the white notes and black Rhythm is the arrangement of sounds and silences in
notes and unusual scales, such as the whole tone scale (a time. Meter animates time in regular pulse groupings,
whole tone scale in the key of C would contain the notes called measures or bars, which in Western classical, popC, D, E, F, G and A). A low, deep musical line played ular and traditional music often group notes in sets of two
by bass instruments such as double bass, electric bass or (e.g., 2/4 time), three (e.g., 3/4 time, also known as Waltz
time, or 3/8 time), or four (e.g., 4/4 time). Meters are
tuba is called a bassline.
made easier to hear because songs and pieces often (but
not always) place an emphasis on the rst beat of each
grouping. Notable exceptions exist, such as the backbeat
Harmony and chords
used in much Western pop and rock, in which a song that
uses a measure that consists of four beats (called 4/4 time
or common time) will have accents on beats two and four,
which are typically performed by the drummer on the
snare drum, a loud and distinctive-sounding percussion
instrument. In pop and rock, the rhythm parts of a song
are played by the rhythm section, which includes chordplaying instruments (e.g., electric guitar, acoustic guitar,
piano, or other keyboard instruments), a bass instrument
(typically electric bass or for some styles such as jazz and
bluegrass, double bass) and a drum kit player.
Texture
Musical texture is the overall sound of a piece of music
or song. The texture of a piece or sing is determined by
When musicians play three or more dierent notes at the same
how the melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic materials are
time, this creates a chord. In Western music, including classical
music, pop music, rock music and many related styles, the most combined in a composition, thus determining the overcommon chords are triads three notes usually played at the same all nature of the sound in a piece. Texture is often detime. The most commonly used chords are the major chord and scribed in regard to the density, or thickness, and range,
the minor chord. An example of a major chord is the three pitches or width, between lowest and highest pitches, in relative
C, E and G. An example of a minor chord is the three pitches A, terms as well as more specically distinguished according
C and E. (Pictured is a guitar player performing a chord on a to the number of voices, or parts, and the relationship beguitar).
tween these voices (see common types below). For exam-

CHAPTER 1. MUSIC

ple, a thick texture contains many 'layers of instruments.


One of these layers could be a string section, or another
brass. The thickness also is aected by the amount and
the richness of the instruments. Texture is commonly described according to the number of and relationship between parts or lines of music:

of playing the instrument (e.g., two string players might


hold the bow dierently).

The physical characteristics of sound that determine the


perception of timbre include the spectrum, envelope and
overtones of a note or musical sound. For electric instruments developed in the 20th century, such as electric
guitar, electric bass and electric piano, the performer can
monophony: a single melody (or tune) with neither also change the tone by adjusting equalizer controls, tone
instrumental accompaniment nor a harmony part. A controls on the instrument, and by using electronic eects
mother singing a lullaby to her baby would be an units such as distortion pedals. The tone of the electric
example.
Hammond organ is controlled by adjusting drawbars.
heterophony: two or more instruments or singers
playing/singing the same melody, but with each per- Expression
former slightly varying the rhythm or speed of the
melody or adding dierent ornaments to the melody.
Two bluegrass ddlers playing the same traditional
ddle tune together will typically each vary the
melody a bit and each add dierent ornaments.
polyphony: multiple independent melody lines that
interweave together, which are sung or played at the
same time. Choral music written in the Renaissance
music era was typically written in this style. A
round, which is a song such as "Row, Row, Row
Your Boat", which dierent groups of singers all
start to sing at a dierent time, is a simple example of polyphony.
homophony: a clear melody supported by chordal
accompaniment. Most Western popular music
songs from the 19th century onward are written in
this texture.

Music that contains a large number of independent parts


(e.g., a double concerto accompanied by 100 orchestral instruments with many interweaving melodic lines)
is generally said to have a thicker or denser texture
than a work with few parts (e.g., a solo ute melody accompanied by a single cello).
Timbre or tone color
Timbre, sometimes called color or tone color is the
quality or sound of a voice or instrument.[19] Timbre is
what makes a particular musical sound dierent from another, even when they have the same pitch and loudness.
For example, a 440 Hz A note sounds dierent when it
is played on oboe, piano, violin or electric guitar. Even
if dierent players of the same instrument play the same
note, their notes might sound dierent due to dierences
in instrumental technique (e.g., dierent embouchures),
dierent types of accessories (e.g., mouthpieces for brass
players, reeds for oboe and bassoon players) or strings
made out of dierent materials for string players (e.g.,
gut strings versus steel strings). Even two instrumentalists playing the same note on the same instrument (one
after the other) may sound dierent due to dierent ways

Singers add expression to the melodies they sing using many methods, including changing the tone of their singing, adding vibrato
to certain notes, or emphasizing important words in the lyrics.

Expressive qualities are those elements in music that create change in music without changing the main pitches
or substantially changing the rhythms of the melody and
its accompaniment. Performers, including singers and
instrumentalists, can add musical expression to a song
or piece by adding phrasing, by adding eects such as
vibrato (with voice and some instruments, such as guitar,
violin, brass instruments and woodwinds), dynamics (the
loudness or softness of piece or a section of it), tempo
uctuations (e.g., ritardando or accelerando, which are,
respectively slowing down and speeding up the tempo), by
adding pauses or fermatas on a cadence, and by changing
the articulation of the notes (e.g., making notes more pro-

1.3. ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

nounced or accented, by making notes more legato, which or variational.[24]


means smoothly connected, or by making notes shorter).
Sectional form
Form

This form is built from a sequence of clear-cut units[25]


that may be referred to by letters but also often have
generic names such as introduction and coda, exposition,
development and recapitulation, verse, chorus or refrain,
and bridge. Introductions and codas, when they are no
more than that, are frequently excluded from formal analysis. All such units may typically be eight measures long.
Sectional forms include:
Strophic form
Main article: Strophic form
This form is dened by its unrelieved repetition
(AAAA...).

Sheet music notation for the chorus (refrain) of the Christmas


song "Jingle Bells" Play

In music, form describes how the overall structure or plan


of a song or piece of music,[20] and it describes the layout
of a composition as divided into sections.[21] In the early
20th century, Tin Pan Alley songs and Broadway musical songs were often in AABA 32 bar form, in which
the A sections repeated the same eight bar melody and
the B section provided a contrasting melody and/or harmony for 8 bars. From the 1960s onward, Western pop
and rock songs are often in verse-chorus form, which is
based around a sequence of verse and chorus (refrain)
sections, with new lyrics for most verses and repeating
lyrics for the choruses. Popular music often makes use of
strophic form, sometimes in conjunction with the twelve
bar blues.
In the tenth edition of The Oxford Companion to Music,
Percy Scholes denes musical form as a series of strategies designed to nd a successful mean between the opposite extremes of unrelieved repetition and unrelieved
alteration.[22] Examples of common forms of Western
music include the fugue, the invention, sonata-allegro,
canon, strophic, theme and variations, and rondo. Scholes
states that European classical music had only six standalone forms: simple binary, simple ternary, compound
binary, rondo, air with variations, and fugue (although
musicologist Alfred Mann emphasized that the fugue is
primarily a method of composition that has sometimes
taken on certain structural conventions.[23] )
Where a piece cannot readily be broken down into sectional units (though it might borrow some form from a
poem, story or programme), it is said to be throughcomposed. Such is often the case with a fantasia,
prelude, rhapsody, etude (or study), symphonic poem,
Bagatelle, impromptu, etc. Professor Charles Keil classied forms and formal detail as sectional, developmental,

Medley
Medley, potpourri is the extreme opposite, that of unrelieved variation": it is simply an indenite sequence
of self-contained sections (ABCD...), sometimes with
repeats (AABBCCDD...). Examples include orchestral
overtures, which are sometimes no more than a string of
the best tunes of the musical theatre show or opera to
come.
Binary form
Main article: Binary form
This form uses two sections (AB...), each often repeated

Binary form in major and minor keys. Each section must be at


least three phrases long.[26]

(AABB...). In 18th-century Western classical music,


simple binary form was often used for dances and carried with it the convention that the two sections should be
in dierent musical keys but same rhythm, duration and
tone. The alternation of two tunes gives enough variety
to permit a dance to be extended for as long as desired.
Ternary form
Main article: Ternary form
This form has three parts. In Western classical music a
simple ternary form has a third section that is a recapitulation of the rst (ABA). Often, the rst section is repeated

10
(AABA). This approach was popular in the 18th-century
operatic aria, and was called da capo (i.e. repeat from
the top) form. Later, it gave rise to the 32-bar song, with
the B section then often referred to as the middle eight.
A song has more need than a dance of a self-contained
form with a beginning and an end of course.
Rondo form
Main article: Rondo form
This form has a recurring theme alternating with dierent (usually contrasting) sections called episodes. It
may be asymmetrical (ABACADAEA) or symmetrical
(ABACABA). A recurring section, especially the main
theme, is sometimes more thoroughly varied, or else one
episode may be a development of it. A similar arrangement is the ritornello form of the Baroque concerto
grosso. Arch form (ABCBA) resembles a symmetrical rondo without intermediate repetitions of the main
theme. It is normally used in a round.
Variational form

CHAPTER 1. MUSIC
far the most important developmental form in Western
classical music is Sonata form. This form, also known
as sonata form, rst movement form, compound binary,
ternary and a variety of other names, developed from
the binary-formed dance movement described above but
is almost always cast in a greater ternary form having
the nominal subdivisions of Exposition, Development and
Recapitulation. Usually, but not always, the A parts
(Exposition and Recapitulation, respectively) may be subdivided into two or three themes or theme groups which
are taken asunder and recombined to form the B part
(the development) - thus e. g. (AabB[dev. of a and/or
b]A1 ab1 +coda). This developmental form is generally
conned to certain sections of the piece, as to the middle section of the rst movement of a sonata, though
19th-century composers such as Berlioz, Liszt and Wagner made valiant eorts to derive large-scale works purely
or mainly from the motif.

1.4 History
Further information: History of music

Main article: Variation (music)

1.4.1 Prehistoric eras

Variational forms are those in which variation is an important formative element.


Main article: Prehistoric music
Theme and Variations: a theme, which in itself can be Prehistoric music can only be theorized based on ndings
of any shorter form (binary, ternary, etc.), forms the only from paleolithic archaeology sites. Flutes are often dissection and is repeated indenitely (as in strophic form) covered, carved from bones in which lateral holes have
but is varied each time (A,B,A,F,Z,A), so as to make been pierced; these are thought to have been blown at
a sort of sectional chain form. An important variant of one end like the Japanese shakuhachi. The Divje Babe
this, much used in 17th-century British music and in the ute, carved from a cave bear femur, is thought to be at
Passacaglia and Chaconne, was that of the ground bass - least 40,000 years old. Instruments such as the sevena repeating bass theme or basso ostinato over and around holed ute and various types of stringed instruments, such
which the rest of the structure unfolds, often, but not al- as the Ravanahatha, have been recovered from the Indus
[27]
ways, spinning polyphonic or contrapuntal threads, or im- Valley Civilization archaeological sites. India has one
provising divisions and descants. This is said by Scholes of the oldest musical traditions in the worldreferences
(1977) to be the form par excellence of unaccompanied to Indian classical music (marga) are found in the Vedas,
[28]
or accompanied solo instrumental music. The Rondo is ancient scriptures of the Hindu tradition. The earliest
often found with sections varied (AA1 BA2 CA3 BA4 ) or and largest collection of prehistoric musical instruments
was found in China and dates back to between 7000 and
(ABA1 CA2 B1 A).
6600 BC.[29] The Hurrian song, found on clay tablets that
date back to approximately 1400 BC, is the oldest survivDevelopmental form
ing notated work of music.
Main article: Musical development

1.4.2 Ancient Egypt


Developmental forms are built directly from smaller
units, such as motifs. A well-known Classical piece with
a motif is Beethovens fth symphony, which starts with
three short repeated notes and then a long note. In Classical pieces that are based on motifs, the motif is usually
combined, varied and worked out in dierent ways, perhaps having a symmetrical or arch-like underpinning and
a progressive development from beginning to end. By

Main article: Music of Egypt


The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods, Thoth,
with the invention of music, with Osiris in turn used as
part of his eort to civilize the world. The earliest material and representational evidence of Egyptian musical instruments dates to the Predynastic period, but the
evidence is more securely attested in the Old Kingdom

1.4. HISTORY

11
music genre to ancient Egyptian music, having preserved
many of its features, rhythms and instruments.[32][33]

1.4.3 Asian cultures

Indian women dressed in regional attire playing a variety of musical instruments popular in dierent parts of India

See also: Music of Iran, Music of Afghanistan, Music of


Tajikistan, Music of Sri Lanka, and Music of Uzbekistan
A bone ute which is over 41,000 years old.

Indian classical music is one of the oldest musical traditions in the world.[34] The Indus Valley civilization
has sculptures that show dance[35] and old musical instruments, like the seven holed ute. Various types
of stringed instruments and drums have been recovered
from Harappa and Mohenjo Daro by excavations carried
out by Sir Mortimer Wheeler.[36] The Rigveda has elements of present Indian music, with a musical notation
to denote the metre and the mode of chanting.[37] Indian
classical music (marga) is monophonic, and based on a
single melody line or raga rhythmically organized through
talas. Silappadhikaram by Ilango Adigal provides information about how new scales can be formed by modal
shifting of the tonic from an existing scale.[38] Hindustani
music was inuenced by the Persian performance practices of the Afghan Mughals. Carnatic music, popular in
the southern states, is largely devotional; the majority of
the songs are addressed to the Hindu deities. There are
also many songs emphasising love and other social issues.

Musicians of Amun, Tomb of Nakht, 18th Dynasty, Western


Thebes

when harps, utes and double clarinets were played.[30]


Percussion instruments, lyres and lutes were added to orchestras by the Middle Kingdom. Cymbals[31] frequently
accompanied music and dance, much as they still do in
Egypt today. Egyptian folk music, including the traditional Su dhikr rituals, are the closest contemporary

Asian music covers the music cultures of Arabia, Central


Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Chinese
classical music, the traditional art or court music of
China, has a history stretching over around three thousand years. It has its own unique systems of musical notation, as well as musical tuning and pitch, musical instruments and styles or musical genres. Chinese music
is pentatonic-diatonic, having a scale of twelve notes to
an octave (5 + 7 = 12) as does European-inuenced music. Persian music is the music of Persia and Persian language countries: musiqi, the science and art of music,

12

CHAPTER 1. MUSIC

and muzik, the sound and performance of music (Sakata


1983).

1.4.4

References in the Bible

prophets and holy men, but also sacred-rite musicians. This public music school, perhaps the
earliest in recorded history, was not restricted
to a priestly classwhich is how the shepherd
boy David appears on the scene as a minstrel
to King Saul.[39]

Main article: History of music in the biblical period


Music and theatre scholars studying the history and an-

1.4.5 Antiquity
Major ancient Western cultures have had a major inuence on the development of music. The history of music
in Western cultures can be traced back to Ancient Greek
times. Ancient Greek society produced the rst Western
philosophers, some of whom wrote theories about music.
Music was an important part of Ancient Greek culture,
and in turn, inuenced the Ancient Roman culture.

1.4.6 Ancient Greece

David with his harp Paris Psalter,


c. 960, Constantinople

Music was an important part of social and cultural


life in Ancient Greece. Musicians and singers played
a prominent role in Greek theater.[40] Mixed-gender
choruses performed for entertainment, celebration, and
spiritual ceremonies.[41] Instruments included the doublereed aulos and a plucked string instrument, the lyre, principally the special kind called a kithara. Music was an
important part of education, and boys were taught music starting at age six. Greek musical literacy created a
owering of music development. Greek music theory
included the Greek musical modes, that eventually became the basis for Western religious and classical music.
Later, inuences from the Roman Empire, Eastern Europe, and the Byzantine Empire changed Greek music.
The Seikilos epitaph is the oldest surviving example of
a complete musical composition, including musical notation, from anywhere in the world.

thropology of Semitic and early Judeo-Christian culture


have discovered common links in theatrical and musical activity between the classical cultures of the Hebrews
and those of later Greeks and Romans. The common
area of performance is found in a social phenomenon
called litany, a form of prayer consisting of a series The rst work written on the subject of music theory is
of invocations or supplications. The Journal of Reli- Harmonika Stoicheia.[42]
gion and Theatre notes that among the earliest forms of
litany, Hebrew litany was accompanied by a rich musical
tradition:"[39]
1.4.7 Middle Ages
While Genesis 4.21 identies Jubal as the father of all such as handle the harp and pipe,
the Pentateuch is nearly silent about the practice and instruction of music in the early life of
Israel. Then, in I Samuel 10 and the texts that
follow, a curious thing happens. One nds
in the biblical text, writes Alfred Sendrey, a
sudden and unexplained upsurge of large choirs
and orchestras, consisting of thoroughly organized and trained musical groups, which would
be virtually inconceivable without lengthy, methodical preparation. This has led some scholars to believe that the prophet Samuel was the
patriarch of a school, which taught not only

The medieval era (476 to 1400), which took place during the Middle Ages, started with the introduction of
monophonic (single melodic line) chanting into Roman
Catholic Church services. Musical notation was used
since Ancient times in Greek culture, but in the Middle
Ages, notation was rst introduced by the Catholic church
so that the chant melodies could be written down, to facilitate the use of the same melodies for religious music
across the entire Catholic empire. The only European
Medieval repertory that has been found in written form
from before 800 is the monophonic liturgical plainsong
chant of the Roman Catholic Church, the central tradition
of which was called Gregorian chant. Alongside these traditions of sacred and church music there existed a vibrant

1.4. HISTORY

Musical notation from a Catholic Missal, c. 13101320

13
Renaissance music (c. 1400 to 1600) was more focused
on secular (non-religious) themes, such as courtly love.
Around 1450, the printing press was invented, which
made printed sheet music much less expensive and easier to mass-produce (prior to the invention of the printing press, all notated music was hand-copied). The increased availability of sheet music helped to spread musical styles more quickly and across a larger area. Musicians and singers often worked for the church, courts and
towns. Church choirs grew in size, and the church remained an important patron of music. By the middle of
the 15th century, composers wrote richly polyphonic sacred music, in which dierent melody lines were interwoven simultaneously. Prominent composers from this era
include Guillaume Dufay, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Thomas Morley, and Orlande de Lassus. As musical
activity shifted from the church to the aristocratic courts,
kings, queens and princes competed for the nest composers. Many leading important composers came from
the Netherlands, Belgium, and northern France. They
are called the Franco-Flemish composers. They held important positions throughout Europe, especially in Italy.
Other countries with vibrant musical activity included
Germany, England, and Spain.

tradition of secular song (non-religious songs). Examples 1.4.9 Baroque


of composers from this period are Lonin, Protin and
The Baroque era of music took place from 1600 to 1750,
Guillaume de Machaut.
as the Baroque artistic style ourished across Europe;
and during this time, music expanded in its range and
complexity. Baroque music began when the rst operas
(dramatic solo vocal music accompanied by orchestra)
1.4.8 Renaissance
were written. During the Baroque era, polyphonic
contrapuntal music, in which multiple, simultaneous independent melody lines were used, remained important
(counterpoint was important in the vocal music of the
Medieval era). German Baroque composers wrote for
small ensembles including strings, brass, and woodwinds,
as well as for choirs and keyboard instruments such as
pipe organ, harpsichord, and clavichord. During this period several major music forms were dened that lasted
into later periods when they were expanded and evolved
further, including the fugue, the invention, the sonata, and
the concerto.[43] The late Baroque style was polyphonically complex and richly ornamented. Important composers from the Baroque era include Johann Sebastian
Bach, George Frideric Handel, Georg Philipp Telemann
and Vivaldi.

1.4.10 Classicism

Allegory of Music, by Filippino Lippi

The music of the Classical period (1730 to 1820) aimed


to imitate what were seen as the key elements of the
art and philosophy of Ancient Greece and Rome: the
ideals of balance, proportion and disciplined expression.
(Note: the music from the Classical period should not be
confused with Classical music in general, a term which

14

CHAPTER 1. MUSIC
of the continuo keyboardist or lute player was gradually
phased out between 1750 and 1800.
One of the most important changes made in the Classical
period was the development of public concerts. The aristocracy still played a signicant role in the sponsorship
of concerts and compositions, but it was now possible for
composers to survive without being permanent employees of queens or princes. The increasing popularity of
classical music led to a growth in the number and types of
orchestras. The expansion of orchestral concerts necessitated the building of large public performance spaces.
Symphonic music including symphonies, musical accompaniment to ballet and mixed vocal/instrumental genres
such as opera and oratorio became more popular.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (seated at the keyboard) was a child


prodigy virtuoso performer on the piano and violin. Even before
he became a celebrated composer, he was widely known as a
gifted performer and improviser.

The best known composers of Classicism are Carl Philipp


Emanuel Bach, Christoph Willibald Gluck, Johann
Christian Bach, Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert.
Beethoven and Schubert are also considered to be composers in the later part of the Classical era, as it began to
move towards Romanticism.

1.4.11 Romanticism

refers to Western art music from the 5th century to the


2000s, which includes the Classical period as one of a
number of periods). Music from the Classical period has
a lighter, clearer and considerably simpler texture than
the Baroque music which preceded it. The main style
was homophony,[44] where a prominent melody and a
subordinate chordal accompaniment part are clearly distinct. Classical instrumental melodies tended to be almost
voicelike and singable. New genres were developed, and
the fortepiano, the forerunner to the modern piano, replaced the Baroque era harpsichord and pipe organ as the
The piano was the centrepiece of social activity for middle-class
main keyboard instrument.
urbanites in the 19th century (Moritz von Schwind, 1868). The
Importance was given to instrumental music. It was dominated by further development of musical forms initially
dened in the Baroque period: the sonata, the concerto,
and the symphony. Others main kinds were the trio,
string quartet, serenade and divertimento. The sonata
was the most important and developed form. Although
Baroque composers also wrote sonatas, the Classical style
of sonata is completely distinct. All of the main instrumental forms of the Classical era, from string quartets
to symphonies and concertos, were based on the structure of the sonata. The instruments used chamber music and orchestra became more standardized. In place of
the basso continuo group of the Baroque era, which consisted of harpsichord, organ or lute along with a number
of bass instruments selected at the discretion of the group
leader (e.g., viol, cello, theorbo, serpent), Classical chamber groups used specied, standardized instruments (e.g.,
a string quartet would be performed by two violins, a viola
and a cello). The Baroque era improvised chord-playing

man at the piano is composer Franz Schubert.

Romantic music (c. 1810 to 1900) from the 19th century had many elements in common with the Romantic
styles in literature and painting of the era. Romanticism
was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement was
characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorication of all the past and nature.
Romantic music expanded beyond the rigid styles and
forms of the Classical era into more passionate, dramatic
expressive pieces and songs. Romantic composers such
as Wagner and Brahms attempted to increase emotional
expression and power in their music to describe deeper
truths or human feelings. With symphonic tone poems,
composers tried to tell stories and evoke images or landscapes using instrumental music. Some composers promoted nationalistic pride with patriotic orchestral music
inspired by folk music. The emotional and expressive
qualities of music came to take precedence over tradition.

1.4. HISTORY
Romantic composers grew in idiosyncrasy, and went further in the syncretism of exploring dierent art-forms in
a musical context, (such as literature), history (historical
gures and legends), or nature itself. Romantic love or
longing was a prevalent theme in many works composed
during this period. In some cases the formal structures
from the classical period continued to be used (e.g., the
sonata form used in string quartets and symphonies), but
these forms were expanded and altered. In many cases,
new approaches were explored for existing genres, forms,
and functions. Also, new forms were created that were
deemed better suited to the new subject matter. Composers continued to develop opera and ballet music, exploring new styles and themes.[40]
In the years after 1800, the music developed by Ludwig
van Beethoven and Franz Schubert introduced a more
dramatic, expressive style. In Beethovens case, short
motifs, developed organically, came to replace melody
as the most signicant compositional unit (an example is the distinctive four note gure used in his Fifth
Symphony). Later Romantic composers such as Pyotr
Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Antonn Dvok, and Gustav Mahler
used more unusual chords and more dissonance to create dramatic tension. They generated complex and often much longer musical works. During the late Romantic period, composers explored dramatic chromatic alterations of tonality, such as extended chords and altered
chords, which created new sound colours. The late
19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the
orchestra, and the industrial revolution helped to create
better instruments, creating a more powerful sound. Public concerts became an important part of well-to-do urban
society. It also saw a new diversity in theatre music, including operetta, and musical comedy and other forms of
musical theatre.[40]

1.4.12

20th- and 21st-century music

Main article: 20th-century music


In the 19th century, one of the key ways that new
compositions became known to the public was by the
sales of sheet music, which middle class amateur music lovers would perform at home on their piano or other
common instruments, such as violin. With 20th-century
music, the invention of new electric technologies such
as radio broadcasting and the mass market availability
of gramophone records meant that sound recordings of
songs and pieces heard by listeners (either on the radio or on their record player) became the main way to
learn about new songs and pieces. There was a vast increase in music listening as the radio gained popularity
and phonographs were used to replay and distribute music, because whereas in the 19th century, the focus on
sheet music restricted access to new music to the middle
class and upper class people who could read music and
who owned pianos and instruments. In the 20th century,
anyone with a radio or record player could hear operas,

15

A jazz group consisting of double bassist Reggie Workman, tenor


saxophone player Pharoah Sanders, and drummer Idris Muhammad, performing in 1978

symphonies and big bands right in their own living room.


This allowed lower-income people, who would never be
able to aord an opera or symphony concert ticket to hear
this music. It also meant that people could hear music
from dierent parts of the country, or even dierent parts
of the world, even if they could not aord to travel to
these locations. This helped to spread musical styles.
The focus of art music in the 20th century was characterized by exploration of new rhythms, styles, and sounds.
The horrors of World War I inuenced many of the arts,
including music, and some composers began exploring
darker, harsher sounds. Traditional music styles such as
jazz and folk music were used by composers as a source
of ideas for classical music. Igor Stravinsky, Arnold
Schoenberg, and John Cage were all inuential composers in 20th-century art music. The invention of sound
recording and the ability to edit music gave rise to new
subgenre of classical music, including the acousmatic[45]
and Musique concrte schools of electronic composition.
Sound recording was also a major inuence on the development of popular music genres, because it enabled
recordings of songs and bands to be widely distributed.
The introduction of the multitrack recording system had a
major inuence on rock music, because it could do much
more than record a bands performance. Using a multitrack system, a band and their music producer could overdub many layers of instrument tracks and vocals, creating
new sounds that would not be possible in a live performance.
Jazz evolved and became an important genre of music
over the course of the 20th century, and during the second half of that century, rock music did the same. Jazz
is an American musical artform that originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States from a conuence
of African and European music traditions. The styles
West African pedigree is evident in its use of blue notes,
improvisation, polyrhythms, syncopation, and the swung
note.[46] From its early development until the present,

16

CHAPTER 1. MUSIC

jazz has also incorporated music from 19th- and 20thcentury American popular music.[47] Jazz has, from its
early-20th-century inception, spawned a variety of subgenres, ranging from New Orleans Dixieland (1910s) to
1970s and 1980s-era jazz-rock fusion.
Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed
in the 1960s from 1950s rock and roll, rockabilly, blues,
and country music.[48] The sound of rock often revolves
around the electric guitar or acoustic guitar, and it uses a
strong back beat laid down by a rhythm section of electric bass guitar, drums, and keyboard instruments such
as organ, piano, or, since the 1970s, analog synthesizers
and digital ones and computers since the 1990s. Along
with the guitar or keyboards, saxophone and blues-style
harmonica are used as soloing instruments. In its purest
form, it has three chords, a strong, insistent back beat,
and a catchy melody.[49] In the late 1960s and early
1970s, it branched out into dierent subgenres, ranging
from blues rock and jazz-rock fusion to heavy metal and
punk rock, as well as the more classical inuenced genre
of progressive rock and several types of experimental
rock genres.

Assyrians playing zurna and Davul, the instruments that go back


thousands of years.

a cover song, they can make changes to it such as adding


a guitar solo to or inserting an introduction.

A performance can either be planned out and rehearsed (practiced)which is the norm in classical music, with jazz big bands and many popular music styles
or improvised over a chord progression (a sequence of
chords), which is the norm in small jazz and blues groups.
Rehearsals of orchestras, concert bands and choirs are led
1.5 Performance
by a conductor. Rock, blues and jazz bands are usually
led by the bandleader. A rehearsal is a structured repetiMain article: Performance
tion of a song or piece by the performers until it can be
Performance is the physical expression of music, which
sung and/or played correctly and, if it is a song or piece
for more than one musician, until the parts are together
from a rhythmic and tuning perspective. Improvisation
is the creation of a musical ideaa melody or other musical linecreated on the spot, often based on scales or
pre-existing melodic ris.
Many cultures have strong traditions of solo performance
(in which one singer or instrumentalist performs), such
as in Indian classical music, and in the Western art-music
tradition. Other cultures, such as in Bali, include strong
traditions of group performance. All cultures include a
mixture of both, and performance may range from improvised solo playing to highly planned and organised performances such as the modern classical concert, religious
processions, classical music festivals or music competitions. Chamber music, which is music for a small ensemChinese Naxi musicians
ble with only a few of each type of instrument, is often
occurs when a song is sung or when a piano piece, elec- seen as more intimate than large symphonic works.
tric guitar melody, symphony, drum beat or other musical
part is played by musicians. In classical music, a musical work is written in music notation by a composer and 1.5.1 Oral and aural tradition
then it is performed once the composer is satised with
its structure and instrumentation. However, as it gets per- Many types of music, such as traditional blues and folk
formed, the interpretation of a song or piece can evolve music were not written down in sheet music; instead, they
and change. In classical music, instrumental performers, were originally preserved in the memory of performers,
singers or conductors may gradually make changes to the and the songs were handed down orally, from one musiphrasing or tempo of a piece. In popular and traditional cian or singer to another, or aurally, in which a performer
music, the performers have a lot more freedom to make learns a song "by ear". When the composer of a song or
changes to the form of a song or piece. As such, in pop- piece is no longer known, this music is often classied as
ular and traditional music styles, even when a band plays traditional or as a folk song. Dierent musical tradi-

1.6. PHILOSOPHY AND AESTHETICS

17

tions have dierent attitudes towards how and where to this basic structure by adding ornaments, improvised mumake changes to the original source material, from quite sic, and chordal accompaniment.
strict, to those that demand improvisation or modication
to the music. A cultures history and stories may also be
passed on by ear through song.
1.6 Philosophy and aesthetics

1.5.2

Ornamentation

Main article: Ornament (music)


In music, an ornament is a decoration to a melody,

Main articles: Philosophy of music and Aesthetics of music


Philosophy of music is a subeld of philosophy. The

In a score or on a performers music part, this sign indicates that


the musician should perform a trilla rapid alternation between
two notes. Play

bassline or other musical part. The detail included explicitly in the music notation varies between genres and
historical periods. In general, art music notation from
the 17th through the 19th centuries required performers
to have a great deal of contextual knowledge about performing styles. For example, in the 17th and 18th centuries, music notated for solo performers typically indicated a simple, unadorned melody. However, performers
were expected to know how to add stylistically appropriate ornaments to add interest to the music, such as trills
and turns.
In the 19th century, art music for solo performers may
give a general instruction such as to perform the music expressively, without describing in detail how the performer
should do this. The performer was expected to know how
to use tempo changes, accentuation, and pauses (among
other devices) to obtain this expressive performance
style. In the 20th century, art music notation often became more explicit and used a range of markings and annotations to indicate to performers how they should play
or sing the piece.
In popular music and jazz, music notation almost always
indicates only the basic framework of the melody, harmony, or performance approach; musicians and singers
are expected to know the performance conventions and
styles associated with specic genres and pieces. For example, the "lead sheet" for a jazz tune may only indicate
the melody and the chord changes. The performers in the
jazz ensemble are expected to know how to esh out

A painting by Boldini of a woman playing the piano.

philosophy of music is the study of fundamental questions regarding music. The philosophical study of music has many connections with philosophical questions in
metaphysics and aesthetics. Some basic questions in the
philosophy of music are:
What is the denition of music? (What are the
necessary and sucient conditions for classifying
something as music?)
What is the relationship between music and mind?
What does musical history reveal to us about the
world?
What is the connection between music and emotions?
What is meaning in relation to music?

18
In ancient times, such as with the Ancient Greeks, the
aesthetics of music explored the mathematical and cosmological dimensions of rhythmic and harmonic organization. In the 18th century, focus shifted to the experience of hearing music, and thus to questions about its
beauty and human enjoyment (plaisir and jouissance) of
music. The origin of this philosophic shift is sometimes
attributed to Baumgarten in the 18th century, followed
by Kant. Through their writing, the ancient term 'aesthetics, meaning sensory perception, received its present-day
connotation. In the 2000s, philosophers have tended to
emphasize issues besides beauty and enjoyment. For example, musics capacity to express emotion has been a
central issue.
In the 20th century, important contributions were made
by Peter Kivy, Jerrold Levinson, Roger Scruton, and
Stephen Davies. However, many musicians, music critics, and other non-philosophers have contributed to the
aesthetics of music. In the 19th century, a signicant debate arose between Eduard Hanslick, a music critic and
musicologist, and composer Richard Wagner regarding
whether music can express meaning. Harry Partch and
some other musicologists, such as Kyle Gann, have studied and tried to popularize microtonal music and the usage of alternate musical scales. Also many modern composers like La Monte Young, Rhys Chatham and Glenn
Branca paid much attention to a scale called just intonation.
It is often thought that music has the ability to aect our
emotions, intellect, and psychology; it can assuage our
loneliness or incite our passions. The philosopher Plato
suggests in the Republic that music has a direct eect on
the soul. Therefore, he proposes that in the ideal regime
music would be closely regulated by the state. (Book VII)

CHAPTER 1. MUSIC
as investigations of human aptitude, skill, intelligence,
creativity, and social behavior.

1.7.1 Cognitive neuroscience of music


Main article: Cognitive neuroscience of music
Cognitive neuroscience of music is the scientic study

The primary auditory cortex is one of the main areas associated


with superior pitch resolution.

of brain-based mechanisms involved in the cognitive


processes underlying music. These behaviours include music listening, performing, composing, reading, writing, and ancillary activities. It also is increasingly concerned with the brain basis for musical aesthetics and musical emotion. The eld is distinguished by its reliance on direct observations of
the brain, using such techniques as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), transcranial magnetic
stimulation (TMS), magnetoencephalography (MEG),
electroencephalography (EEG), and positron emission tomography (PET).

There has been a strong tendency in the aesthetics of music to emphasize the paramount importance of compositional structure; however, other issues concerning the aes1.7.2 Cognitive musicology
thetics of music include lyricism, harmony, hypnotism,
emotiveness, temporal dynamics, resonance, playfulness,
Main article: Cognitive musicology
and color (see also musical development).

Cognitive musicology is a branch of cognitive science concerned with computationally modeling musical
1.7 Psychology
knowledge with the goal of understanding both music and
cognition.[51] The use of computer models provides an
Main article: Music psychology
exacting, interactive medium in which to formulate and
test theories and has roots in articial intelligence and
[52]
Modern music psychology aims to explain and under- cognitive science.
stand musical behavior and experience.[50] Research in This interdisciplinary eld investigates topics such as the
this eld and its subelds are primarily empirical; their parallels between language and music in the brain. Biknowledge tends to advance on the basis of interpreta- ologically inspired models of computation are often intions of data collected by systematic observation of and cluded in research, such as neural networks and evolutioninteraction with human participants. In addition to its fo- ary programs.[53] This eld seeks to model how musical
cus on fundamental perceptions and cognitive processes, knowledge is represented, stored, perceived, performed,
music psychology is a eld of research with practical and generated. By using a well-structured computer envirelevance for many areas, including music performance, ronment, the systematic structures of these cognitive phecomposition, education, criticism, and therapy, as well nomena can be investigated.[54]

1.8. SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

1.7.3

19

Psychoacoustics

Main article: Psychoacoustics


Further information: Hearing (sense)
Psychoacoustics is the scientic study of sound perception. More specically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound (including speech and music). It can be
further categorized as a branch of psychophysics.

1.7.4

Evolutionary musicology

Main article: Evolutionary musicology


Evolutionary musicology concerns the origins of music,
the question of animal song, selection pressures underlying music evolution, and music evolution and human
evolution.[55] It seeks to understand music perception
and activity in the context of evolutionary theory. Charles
Darwin speculated that music may have held an adaptive advantage and functioned as a protolanguage,[56] a
view which has spawned several competing theories of
music evolution.[57][58][59] An alternate view sees music
as a by-product of linguistic evolution; a type of auditory cheesecake that pleases the senses without providing any adaptive function.[60] This view has been directly
countered by numerous music researchers.[61][62][63]

1.7.5

Culture in music cognition

Main article: Culture in music cognition


See also: Ethnomusicology
An individuals culture or ethnicity plays a role in their
music cognition, including their preferences, emotional
reaction, and musical memory. Musical preferences are
biased toward culturally familiar musical traditions beginning in infancy, and adults classication of the emotion of a musical piece depends on both culturally specic and universal structural features.[64][65] Additionally, individuals musical memory abilities are greater for
culturally familiar music than for culturally unfamiliar
music.[66][67]

1.8 Sociological aspects


Main article: Sociomusicology
Many ethnographic studies demonstrate that music is a
participatory, community-based activity.[68][69] Music is
experienced by individuals in a range of social settings
ranging from being alone to attending a large concert,
forming a music community, which cannot be understood
as a function of individual will or accident; it includes

This Song Dynasty (9601279) painting, entitled the Night


Revels of Han Xizai, shows Chinese musicians entertaining
guests at a party in a 10th-century household.

both commercial and non-commercial participants with a


shared set of common values. Musical performances take
dierent forms in dierent cultures and socioeconomic
milieus. In Europe and North America, there is often a
divide between what types of music are viewed as a "high
culture" and "low culture. High culture types of music typically include Western art music such as Baroque,
Classical, Romantic, and modern-era symphonies, concertos, and solo works, and are typically heard in formal
concerts in concert halls and churches, with the audience
sitting quietly in seats.
Other types of musicincluding, but not limited to, jazz,
blues, soul, and countryare often performed in bars,
nightclubs, and theatres, where the audience may be able
to drink, dance, and express themselves by cheering. Until the later 20th century, the division between high and
low musical forms was widely accepted as a valid distinction that separated out better quality, more advanced
art music from the popular styles of music heard in bars
and dance halls.
However, in the 1980s and 1990s, musicologists studying this perceived divide between high and low musical genres argued that this distinction is not based on the
musical value or quality of the dierent types of music.
Rather, they argued that this distinction was based largely
on the socioeconomics standing or social class of the performers or audience of the dierent types of music. For
example, whereas the audience for Classical symphony
concerts typically have above-average incomes, the audience for a rap concert in an inner-city area may have
below-average incomes. Even though the performers, audience, or venue where non-"art music is performed may
have a lower socioeconomic status, the music that is performed, such as blues, rap, punk, funk, or ska may be
very complex and sophisticated.
When composers introduce styles of music that break
with convention, there can be a strong resistance from
academic music experts and popular culture. Late-period
Beethoven string quartets, Stravinsky ballet scores,
serialism, bebop-era jazz, hip hop, punk rock, and
electronica have all been considered non-music by some
critics when they were rst introduced. Such themes
are examined in the sociology of music. The sociological study of music, sometimes called sociomusicology,
is often pursued in departments of sociology, media
studies, or music, and is closely related to the eld of
ethnomusicology.

20

1.8.1

CHAPTER 1. MUSIC

Role of women

pop music scene, "[l]ike most aspects of the...music business, [in the 1960s,] songwriting was a male-dominated
Main article: Women in music
eld. Though there were plenty of female singers on
Women have played a major role in music through- the radio, women ...were primarily seen as consumers:...
Singing was sometimes an acceptable pastime for a girl,
but playing an instrument, writing songs, or producing
records simply wasn't done.[71] Young women "...were
not socialized to see themselves as people who create
[music].[71]
Women are also underrepresented in orchestral conducting, music criticism/music journalism, music producing,
and sound engineering. While women were discouraged
from composing in the 19th century, and there are few
women musicologists, women became involved in music
education "...to such a degree that women dominated [this
eld] during the later half of the 19th century and well
into the 20th century.[72]

Nineteenth-century composer and pianist Clara Schumann.

According to Jessica Duchen, a music writer for Londons


The Independent, women musicians in classical music are
"...too often judged for their appearances, rather than
their talent and they face pressure "...to look sexy onstage
and in photos.[73] Duchen states that while "[t]here are
women musicians who refuse to play on their looks,...the
ones who do tend to be more materially successful.[73]
According to the UKs Radio 3 editor, Edwina Wolstencroft, the music industry has long been open to having women in performance or entertainment roles, but
women are much less likely to have positions of authority, such as being the leader of an orchestra.[74] In popular music, while there are many women singers recording songs, there are very few women behind the audio
console acting as music producers, the individuals who
direct and manage the recording process.[75] One of the
most recorded artists is Asha Bhosle, an Indian singer best
known as a playback singer in Hindi cinema.

out history, as composers, songwriters, instrumental performers, singers, conductors, music scholars, music educators, music critics/music journalists and other musical professions. As well, it describes music movements,
events and genres related to women, womens issues and
feminism. In the 2010s, while women comprise a signicant proportion of popular music and classical music
singers, and a signicant proportion of songwriters (many
of them being singer-songwriters), there are few women
record producers, rock critics and rock instrumentalists.
Although there have been a huge number of women composers in classical music, from the Medieval period to the
present day, women composers are signicantly under- 1.9 Media and technology
represented in the commonly performed classical music
repertoire, music history textbooks and music encyclope- Further information: Computer music and Music techdias; for example, in the Concise Oxford History of Music, nology
Clara Schumann is one of the only female composers who The music that composers make can be heard through
is mentioned.
several media; the most traditional way is to hear it live,
Women comprise a signicant proportion of instrumental in the presence of the musicians (or as one of the musisoloists in classical music and the percentage of women cians), in an outdoor or indoor space such as an amphithein orchestras is increasing. A 2015 article on concerto atre, concert hall, cabaret room or theatre. Since the 20th
soloists in major Canadian orchestras, however, indicated century, live music can also be broadcast over the radio,
that 84% of the soloists with the Orchestre Symphonique television or the Internet, or recorded and listened to on
de Montreal were men. In 2012, women still made up just a CD player or Mp3 player. Some musical styles focus
6% of the top-ranked Vienna Philharmonic orchestra. on producing a sound for a performance, while others foWomen are less common as instrumental players in pop- cus on producing a recording that mixes together sounds
ular music genres such as rock and heavy metal, although that were never played live. Recording, even of essenthere have been a number of notable female instrumen- tially live styles such as rock, often uses the ability to edit
talists and all-female bands. Women are particularly un- and splice to produce recordings that may be considered
derrepresented in extreme metal genres.[70] In the 1960s better than the actual performance.

1.9. MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY

21
music video, became more common than experiencing
live performance, roughly in the middle of the 20th century.

Music production in the 2000s using a digital audio workstation


(DAW) with an electronic keyboard and a multi-monitor set-up.

Sometimes, live performances incorporate prerecorded


sounds. For example, a disc jockey uses disc records
for scratching, and some 20th-century works have a solo
for an instrument or voice that is performed along with
music that is prerecorded onto a tape. Computers and
many keyboards can be programmed to produce and play
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) music. Audiences can also become performers by participating in
karaoke, an activity of Japanese origin centered on a device that plays voice-eliminated versions of well-known
songs. Most karaoke machines also have video screens
that show lyrics to songs being performed; performers can
follow the lyrics as they sing over the instrumental tracks.

Technology has had an inuence on music since prehistoric times, when cave people used simple tools to bore 1.9.1
holes into bone utes 41,000 years ago. Technology continued to inuence music throughout the history of music,
as it enabled new instruments and music notation reproduction systems to be used, with one of the watershed
moments in music notation being the invention of the
printing press in the 1400s, which meant music scores
no longer had to be hand copied. In the 19th century,
music technology led to the development of a more powerful, louder piano and led to the development of new
valves brass instruments. In the early 20th century (in
the late 1920s), as talking pictures emerged in the early
20th century, with their prerecorded musical tracks, an
increasing number of moviehouse orchestra musicians
found themselves out of work.[76] During the 1920s live
musical performances by orchestras, pianists, and theater
organists were common at rst-run theaters.[77] With the
coming of the talking motion pictures, those featured performances were largely eliminated. The American Federation of Musicians (AFM) took out newspaper advertisements protesting the replacement of live musicians
with mechanical playing devices. One 1929 ad that appeared in the Pittsburgh Press features an image of a
can labeled Canned Music / Big Noise Brand / Guaranteed to Produce No Intellectual or Emotional Reaction
Whatever[78]
Since legislation introduced to help protect performers, composers, publishers and producers, including the
Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 in the United States,
and the 1979 revised Berne Convention for the Protection
of Literary and Artistic Works in the United Kingdom,
recordings and live performances have also become more
accessible through computers, devices and Internet in a
form that is commonly known as Music-On-Demand.
In many cultures, there is less distinction between performing and listening to music, since virtually everyone
is involved in some sort of musical activity, often communal. In industrialized countries, listening to music through
a recorded form, such as sound recording or watching a

Internet

YouTube presents pop singer Taylor Swift.

The advent of the Internet and widespread high-speed


broadband access has transformed the experience of music, partly through the increased ease of access to recordings of music via streaming video and vastly increased
choice of music for consumers. Chris Anderson, in his
book The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling
Less of More, suggests that while the traditional economic
model of supply and demand describes scarcity, the Inter-

22
net retail model is based on abundance. Digital storage
costs are low, so a company can aord to make its whole
recording inventory available online, giving customers as
much choice as possible. It has thus become economically viable to oer music recordings that very few people are interested in. Consumers growing awareness of
their increased choice results in a closer association between listening tastes and social identity, and the creation
of thousands of niche markets.[79]

CHAPTER 1. MUSIC
mining which music is in the public domain is complicated by the variety of national copyright laws that may be
applicable. US copyright law formerly protected printed
music published after 1923 for 28 years and with renewal
for another 28 years, but the Copyright Act of 1976 made
renewal automatic, and the Digital Millennium Copyright
Act changed the calculation of the copyright term to 70
years after the death of the creator. Recorded sound falls
under mechanical licensing, often covered by a confusing
patchwork of state laws; most cover versions are licensed
through the Harry Fox Agency. Performance rights may
be obtained by either performers or the performance
venue; the two major organizations for licensing are BMI
and ASCAP. Two online sources for public domain music
are IMSLP (International Music Score Library Project)
and Choral Public Domain Library (CPDL).

Another eect of the Internet arose with online communities and social media websites like YouTube and
Facebook, a social networking service. These sites make
it easier for aspiring singers and amateur bands to distribute videos of their songs, connect with other musicians, and gain audience interest. Professional musicians
also use YouTube as a free publisher of promotional material. YouTube users, for example, no longer only download and listen to MP3s, but also actively create their own.
According to Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, 1.11 Education
in their book Wikinomics, there has been a shift from a
traditional consumer role to what they call a "prosumer"
1.11.1 Non-professional
role, a consumer who both creates content and consumes.
Manifestations of this in music include the production of
Main article: Music education
mashes, remixes, and music videos by fans.[80]
The incorporation of some music or singing training into

1.10 Business
Main article: Music industry
The music industry refers to the businesses connected
with the creation and sale of music. It consists of
songwriters and composers who create new songs and
musical pieces, music producers and sound engineers
who record songs and pieces, record labels and publishers
that distribute recorded music products and sheet music
internationally and that often control the rights to those
products. Some music labels are "independent, while
others are subsidiaries of larger corporate entities or international media groups. In the 2000s, the increasing
popularity of listening to music as digital music les on
MP3 players, iPods, or computers, and of trading music
on le sharing websites or buying it online in the form of
digital les had a major impact on the traditional music
business. Many smaller independent CD stores went out
of business as music buyers decreased their purchases of
CDs, and many labels had lower CD sales. Some companies did well with the change to a digital format, though,
such as Apples iTunes, an online music store that sells
digital les of songs over the Internet.

A Suzuki violin recital with students of varying ages.

general education from preschool to post secondary education is common in North America and Europe. Involvement in playing and singing music is thought to
teach basic skills such as concentration, counting, listening, and cooperation while also promoting understanding
of language, improving the ability to recall information,
and creating an environment more conducive to learning
in other areas.[81] In elementary schools, children often
learn to play instruments such as the recorder, sing in
small choirs, and learn about the history of Western art
music and traditional music. Some elementary school
children also learn about popular music styles. In religious schools, children sing hymns and other religious
1.10.1 Intellectual property laws
music. In secondary schools (and less commonly in elementary schools), students may have the opportunity
Main article: Royalty_payment Music_royalties
to perform in some types of musical ensembles, such
as choirs (a group of singers), marching bands, concert
In spite of some international copyright treaties, deter- bands, jazz bands, or orchestras. In some school systems,

1.11. EDUCATION

23

music lessons on how to play instruments may be provided. Some students also take private music lessons after
school with a singing teacher or instrument teacher. Amateur musicians typically learn basic musical rudiments
(e.g., learning about musical notation for musical scales
and rhythms) and beginner- to intermediate-level singing
or instrument-playing techniques.

stitutions that train individuals for careers in music oer


training in a wide range of professions, as is the case with
many of the top U.S. universities, which oer degrees
in music performance (including singing and playing instruments), music history, music theory, music composition, music education (for individuals aiming to become
elementary or high school music teachers) and, in some
At the university level, students in most arts and cases, conducting. On the other hand, some small colleges may only oer training in a single profession (e.g.,
humanities programs can receive credit for taking a
few music courses, which typically take the form of an sound recording).
overview course on the history of music, or a music ap- While most university and conservatory music programs
preciation course that focuses on listening to music and focus on training students in classical music, there are
learning about dierent musical styles. In addition, most a number of universities and colleges that train musiNorth American and European universities have some cians for careers as jazz or popular music musicians
types of musical ensembles that students in arts and hu- and composers, with notable U.S. examples including
manities are able to participate in, such as choirs, march- the Manhattan School of Music and the Berklee College
ing bands, concert bands, or orchestras. The study of of Music. Two important schools in Canada which ofWestern art music is increasingly common outside of fer professional jazz training are McGill University and
North America and Europe, such as the Indonesian In- Humber College. Individuals aiming at careers in some
stitute of the Arts in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, or the classi- types of music, such as heavy metal music, country music
cal music programs that are available in Asian countries or blues are less likely to become professionals by comsuch as South Korea, Japan, and China. At the same time, pleting degrees or diplomas in colleges or universities. InWestern universities and colleges are widening their cur- stead, they typically learn about their style of music by
riculum to include music of non-Western cultures, such singing and/or playing in many bands (often beginning in
as the music of Africa or Bali (e.g. Gamelan music).
amateur bands, cover bands and tribute bands), studying
recordings available on CD, DVD and the Internet and
working with already-established professionals in their
1.11.2 Professional training
style of music, either through informal mentoring or regular music lessons. Since the 2000s, the increasing popularity and availability of Internet forums and YouTube
how-to videos have enabled many singers and musicians from metal, blues and similar genres to improve
their skills. Many pop, rock and country singers train informally with vocal coaches and singing teachers.
Undergraduate

Manhattan School of Music professor and professional double


bass player Timothy Cobb teaching a bass lesson in the late
2000s. His bass has a low C extension with a metal machine
with buttons for playing the pitches on the extension.

Individuals aiming to become professional musicians,


singers, composers, songwriters, music teachers and
practitioners of other music-related professions such as
music history professors, sound engineers, and so on
study in specialized post-secondary programs oered by
colleges, universities and music conservatories. Some in-

Undergraduate university degrees in music, including the


Bachelor of Music, the Bachelor of Music Education, and
the Bachelor of Arts (with a major in music) typically
take about four years to complete. These degrees provide
students with a grounding in music theory and music history, and many students also study an instrument or learn
singing technique as part of their program. Graduates of
undergraduate music programs can seek employment or
go on to further study in music graduate programs. Bachelors degree graduates are also eligible to apply to some
graduate programs and professional schools outside of
music (e.g., public administration, business administration, library science, and, in some jurisdictions, teachers
college, law school or medical school).
Graduate
Graduate music degrees include the Master of Music, the
Master of Arts, the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) (e.g.,
in musicology or music theory), and more recently, the

24
Doctor of Musical Arts, or DMA. The Master of Music degree, which takes one to two years to complete, is
typically awarded to students studying the performance
of an instrument, education, voice (singing) or composition. The Master of Arts degree, which takes one to two
years to complete and often requires a thesis, is typically
awarded to students studying musicology, music history,
music theory or ethnomusicology.
The PhD, which is required for students who want to
work as university professors in musicology, music history, or music theory, takes three to ve years of study
after the masters degree, during which time the student
will complete advanced courses and undertake research
for a dissertation. The DMA is a relatively new degree
that was created to provide a credential for professional
performers or composers that want to work as university
professors in musical performance or composition. The
DMA takes three to ve years after a masters degree, and
includes advanced courses, projects, and performances.
In Medieval times, the study of music was one of the
Quadrivium of the seven Liberal Arts and considered vital to higher learning. Within the quantitative Quadrivium, music, or more accurately harmonics, was the study
of rational proportions.

Musicology

CHAPTER 1. MUSIC
theory to music, rst applied to atonal music. Speculative music theory, contrasted with analytic music theory,
is devoted to the analysis and synthesis of music materials, for example tuning systems, generally as preparation
for composition.
Zoomusicology
Zoomusicology is the study of the music of nonhuman animals, or the musical aspects of sounds produced by non-human animals. As George Herzog
(1941) asked, do animals have music?" FranoisBernard Mche's Musique, mythe, nature, ou les Dauphins
d'Arion (1983), a study of ornitho-musicology using a technique of Nicolas Ruwet's Langage, musique,
posie (1972) paradigmatic segmentation analysis, shows
that bird songs are organised according to a repetitiontransformation principle. Jean-Jacques Nattiez (1990),
argues that in the last analysis, it is a human being who
decides what is and is not musical, even when the sound is
not of human origin. If we acknowledge that sound is not
organised and conceptualised (that is, made to form music) merely by its producer, but by the mind that perceives
it, then music is uniquely human.
Ethnomusicology

Musicology, the academic study of the subject of mu- Main article: Ethnomusicology
sic, is studied in universities and music conservatories. In the West, much of the history of music that is taught
The earliest denitions from the 19th century dened
three sub-disciplines of musicology: systematic musicology, historical musicology, and comparative musicology
or ethnomusicology. In 2010-era scholarship, one is more
likely to encounter a division of the discipline into music
theory, music history, and ethnomusicology. Research in
musicology has often been enriched by cross-disciplinary
work, for example in the eld of psychoacoustics. The
study of music of non-Western cultures, and the cultural
study of music, is called ethnomusicology. Students can
pursue the undergraduate study of musicology, ethnomusicology, music history, and music theory through several
dierent types of degrees, including bachelors degrees,
masters degrees and PhD degrees.

Music theory
Music theory is the study of music, generally in a highly
technical manner outside of other disciplines. More
broadly it refers to any study of music, usually related
in some form with compositional concerns, and may include mathematics, physics, and anthropology. What is
most commonly taught in beginning music theory classes
are guidelines to write in the style of the common prac- Ethnomusicologist Frances Densmore recording Blackfoot chief
tice period, or tonal music. Theory, even of music of Mountain Chief for the Bureau of American Ethnology (1916)
the common practice period, may take many other forms.
Musical set theory is the application of mathematical set deals with the Western civilizations art music, which is

1.12. MUSIC THERAPY

25

known as classical music. The history of music in non- 1.12 Music therapy
Western cultures ("world music" or the eld of ethnomusicology), which typically covers music from Africa Main article: Music therapy
and Asia is also taught in Western universities. This in- Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which the
cludes the documented classical traditions of Asian countries outside the inuence of Western Europe, as well as
the folk or indigenous music of various other cultures.
Popular or folk styles of music in non-Western countries varied widely from culture to culture, and from period to period. Dierent cultures emphasised dierent
instruments, techniques, singing styles and uses for music. Music has been used for entertainment, ceremonies,
rituals, religious purposes and for practical and artistic
communication. Non-Western music has also been used
for propaganda purposes, as was the case with Chinese
opera during the Cultural Revolution.
There is a host of music classications for non-Western
music, many of which are caught up in the argument over
the denition of music. Among the largest of these is
the division between classical music (or art music), and
popular music (or commercial music including nonWestern styles of rock, country, and pop music-related
styles). Some genres do not t neatly into one of these
big two classications, (such as folk music, world music, or jazz-related music).
As world cultures have come into greater global contact,
their indigenous musical styles have often merged with
other styles, which produces new styles. For example,
the United States bluegrass style contains elements from
Anglo-Irish, Scottish, Irish, German and African instrumental and vocal traditions, which were able to fuse in the
United States multi-ethnic "melting pot" society. Some
types of world music contain a mixture of non-Western
indigenous styles with Western pop music elements. Genres of music are determined as much by tradition and
presentation as by the actual music. Some works, like
George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue, are claimed by both
jazz and classical music, while Gershwins Porgy and Bess
and Leonard Bernstein's West Side Story are claimed by
both opera and the Broadway musical tradition. Many
current music festivals for non-Western music include
bands and singers from a particular musical genre, such
as world music.
Indian music, for example, is one of the oldest and
longest living types of music, and is still widely heard
and performed in South Asia, as well as internationally
(especially since the 1960s). Indian music has mainly
three forms of classical music, Hindustani, Carnatic, and
Dhrupad styles. It has also a large repertoire of styles,
which involve only percussion music such as the talavadya
performances famous in South India.

A music therapist from a Blues in the Schools program plays


harmonica with a US Navy sailor at a Naval Therapy Center.

therapist uses music and all of its facetsphysical, emotional, mental, social, aesthetic, and spiritualto help
clients to improve or maintain their health. In some instances, the clients needs are addressed directly through
music; in others they are addressed through the relationships that develop between the client and therapist. Music
therapy is used with individuals of all ages and with a variety of conditions, including: psychiatric disorders, medical problems, physical handicaps, sensory impairments,
developmental disabilities, substance abuse, communication disorders, interpersonal problems, and aging. It is
also used to: improve learning, build self-esteem, reduce
stress, support physical exercise, and facilitate a host of
other health-related activities.
One of the earliest mentions of music therapy was in
Al-Farabi's (c. 872 950) treatise Meanings of the Intellect, which described the therapeutic eects of music
on the soul.[82] Music has long been used to help people deal with their emotions. In the 17th century, the
scholar Robert Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy argued that music and dance were critical in treating mental
illness, especially melancholia.[83] He noted that music
has an excellent power ...to expel many other diseases
and he called it a sovereign remedy against despair and
melancholy. He pointed out that in Antiquity, Canus,
a Rhodian ddler, used music to make a melancholy
man merry, ...a lover more enamoured, a religious man
more devout.[84][85][86] In November 2006, Dr. Michael
J. Crawford[87] and his colleagues also found that music
therapy helped schizophrenic patients.[88] In the Ottoman
Empire, mental illnesses were treated with music.[89]

1.13 See also


Main articles: Outline of music and Index of music
articles

26

Music-specic disorders
Lists of musicians
List of musicology topics
List of music software
Music and emotion
Music history
Women in music
Internet Archive
History of music
Music archaeology

CHAPTER 1. MUSIC

[12] Gov.uk.
(2013).
National curriculum in England:
music programmes of study - Publications - GOV.UK. Retrieved 6 January 2016,
from
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/
national-curriculum-in-england-music-programmes-of-study
[13] Clementi, M. (1974). Introduction to the art of playing
on the piano forte: Da Capo Pr. Cohen, D., & Dubnov, S.
(1997). Gestalt phenomena in musical texture: Springer
[14] Niecks, F. (1884). A concise dictionary of musical terms.
The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular, 25(498),
473. doi: 10.2307/3357513
[15] Estrella, E. (2015). The Elements of music. Retrieved
15 Jan. 2015, 2015, from http://musiced.about.com/od/
beginnerstheory/a/musicelements.htm
[16] Element. (n.d.). In Dictionary.com unabridged. Retrieved 10 Jun 2015, from http://dictionary.reference.
com/browse/element
[17] Seashore, C. E. (1938). Psychology of music: New York:
Dover Publications.

1.14 References
[1] Mousike, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A GreekEnglish Lexicon, at Perseus. perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved
27 October 2015.
[2] Kozinn, Allen (13 August 1992). John Cage, 79, a Minimalist Enchanted With Sound, Dies. New York Times.
Retrieved 11 September 2012.
[3] Watson 2009, 10910.
[4] Reiland Rabaka. Hip Hops Amnesia: From Blues and the
Black Womens Club Movement to Rap and the Hip Hop
Movement. Lexington Books, 2012. p. 103
[5] Manabe, Noriko. The Revolution Will Not Be Televised:
Protest Music After Fukushima. Oxford University Press,
2015. p. 163.

[18] Webster, N. (Ed.) (1947) Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. Clevelend Ohio: The World Publishing
Company.
[19] Harnsberger, Lindsey. Articulation. Essential Dictionary of Music. Alfred Publishing Co., Inc. Los Angeles,
CA.
[20] Schmidt-Jones, Catherine (11 March 2011). Form in
Music. Connexions. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
[21] Brandt, Anthony (11 January 2007). Musical Form.
Connexions. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
[22] Scholes, Percy A. (1977). Form. The Oxford Companion to Music (10 ed.). Oxford University Press.
[23] Mann, Alfred (1958). The Study of Fugue. W.W.Norton
and Co. Inc.
[24] Keil, Charles (1966). Urban blues. ISBN 0-226-42960-1.

[6] Online Etymology Dictionary. etymonline.com. Retrieved 27 October 2015.


[7] Kirszner, Laurie G. (January 2012). Patterns for College
Writing. Bedford/St. Martins. p. 520. ISBN 978-0-31267684-1
[8] Boretz, Benjamin (1995). Meta-Variations: studies in the
foundations of musical thought. Open Space.
[9] ACARA. (2015). Music glossary. v7.5. Retrieved 28
May 2015, 2015, from http://www.australiancurriculum.
edu.au/the-arts/music/glossary
[10] Education.gov.uk. (2011). Music - Schools. Retrieved 12
July 2013, from http://www.education.gov.uk/schools/
teachingandlearning/curriculum/primary/b00199150/
music
[11] NAfME. (2015).
Core music standards glossary.
http://www.nafme.org/my-classroom/standards/
core-music-standards /

[25] Wennerstrom, Mary (1975). Form in Twentieth Century Music. In Wittlich, Gary. Aspects of TwentiethCentury Music. Englewood Clis, New Jersey: PrenticeHall. ISBN 0-13-049346-5.
[26] White, John D. (1976). The Analysis of Music, p.50.
ISBN 0-13-033233-X.
[27] The Music of India By Reginald MASSEY, Jamila
MASSEY. Google Books
[28] Brown, RE (1971). Indias Music. Readings in Ethnomusicology.
[29] Wilkinson, Endymion (2000). Chinese history. Harvard
University Asia Center.
[30] Music of Ancient Egypt. Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
[31] UC 33268. digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk. Retrieved 27 October 2015.

1.14. REFERENCES

27

[32] Hickmann, Hans (1957). Un Zikr Dans le Mastaba


de Debhen, Guzah (IVme Dynastie)". Journal of
the International Folk Music Council.
9: 5962.
doi:10.2307/834982.

[52] Laske, O. (1999). AI and music: A cornerstone of cognitive musicology. In M. Balaban, K. Ebcioglu, & O. Laske
(Eds.), Understanding music with ai: Perspectives on music
cognition. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

[33] ______. Rythme, mtre et mesure de la musique instrumentale et vocale des anciens Egyptiens. Acta Musicologica, Vol. 32, Fasc. 1. (Jan.Mar., 1960), pp. 11-22.

[53] Graci, C. (20092010) A brief tour of the learning sciences featuring a cognitive tool for investigating melodic
phenomena. Journal of Educational Technology Systems,
38(2), 181-211.

[34] Richard O. Nidel, World Music: The Basics, p. 219.


[35] Charles Kahn, World History: Societies of the Past, p. 98.
[36] World History: Societies of the Past By Charles Kahn
(page 11)
[37] World Music: The Basics By Nidel Nidel, Richard O.
Nidel (page 10)
[38] Rajagopal, Geetha (2009). Music rituals in the temples of
South India, Volume 1. D. K. Printworld. pp. 111112.
ISBN 978-81-246-0538-7.
[39] A Theatre Before the World: Performance History at
the Intersection of Hebrew, Greek, and Roman Religious
Processional The Journal of Religion and Theatre, Vol.
5, No. 1, Summer 2006.
[40] Savage, Roger. Incidental music, Grove Music Online.
Oxford Music Online, accessed 13 August 2012 (subscription required)
[41] West, Martin Litcheld (1994). Ancient Greek music. Oxford University Press.
[42] Aristoxenus, Henry Stewart Macran. Harmonika Stoicheia (The Harmonics of Aristoxenus). Georg Olms Verlag 1902 ISBN 3487405105. Retrieved 4 May 2015.(and
World Cat)
[43] "Baroque Music by Elaine Thornburgh and Jack Logan,
Ph.D.. trumpet.sdsu.edu. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
[44] Blume, Friedrich. Classic and Romantic Music: A Comprehensive Survey. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1970. Print.
[45] Schaeer, P. (1966), Trait des objets musicaux, Le Seuil,
Paris.
[46] Alyn Shipton, A New History of Jazz, 2nd. ed., Continuum, 2007, pp. 45
[47] Bill Kirchner, The Oxford Companion to Jazz, Oxford
University Press, 2005, chapter two.
[48] Gilliland, John (1969). Show 55 - Crammer: A lively
cram course on the history of rock and some other things
(audio). Pop Chronicles. Digital.library.unt.edu.
[49] allmusic Rock and Roll
[50] Tan, Siu-Lan; Pfordresher, Peter; Harr, Rom (2010).
Psychology of Music: From Sound to Signicance. New
York: Psychology Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-84169-8687.
[51] Laske, Otto (1999). Navigating New Musical Horizons
(Contributions to the Study of Music and Dance). Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-30632-7.

[54] Hamman, M., 1999. Structure as Performance: Cognitive Musicology and the Objectication of Procedure, in
Otto Laske: Navigating New Musical Horizons, ed. J. Tabor. New York: Greenwood Press.
[55] Wallin, Nils L./Bjrn Merker/Steven Brown (1999): An
Introduction to Evolutionary Musicology. In: Wallin,
Nils L./Bjrn Merker/Steven Brown (Eds., 1999): The
Origins of Music, pp. 56. ISBN 0-262-23206-5.
[56] The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex.
1871. Chapter III; Language
[57] Nils L. Wallin, Bjrn Merker, and Steven Brown (Editors) (2000). The Origins of Music. Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press. ISBN 0-262-23206-5.
[58] Steven Mithen, The Singing Neanderthals: the Origins of
Music, Language, Mind and Body, Harvard University
Press, 2006.
[59] Hagen, Edward H; Hammerstein P (2009). Did Neanderthals and other early humans sing? Seeking the biological roots of music in the loud calls of primates, lions,
hyenas, and wolves (PDF). Musicae Scientiae.
[60] Pinker, Steven (1997). How the Mind Works. New York:
W. W. Norton. p. 534. ISBN 978-0-393-04535-2.
[61] Perlovsky L. Music. Cognitive Function, Origin, And
Evolution Of Musical Emotions. WebmedCentral PSYCHOLOGY 2011;2(2):WMC001494
[62] Alison Abbott. 2002. Neurobiology: Music, maestro,
please! Nature 416, 1214 (7 March 2002) | doi:10.1038/
416012a
[63] Carroll, Joseph (1998). Steven Pinkers Cheesecake For
The Mind. Cogweb.ucla.edu. Retrieved 29 December
2012.
[64] Soley, G.; Hannon, E. E. (2010). Infants prefer the musical meter of their own culture: A cross-cultural comparison. Developmental Psychology. 46: 286292.
doi:10.1037/a0017555.
[65] Balkwill, L.; Thompson, W. F.; Matsunaga, R. (2004).
Recognition of emotion in Japanese, Western, and Hindustani music by Japanese listeners. Japanese Psychological Research. 46: 337349. doi:10.1111/j.14685584.2004.00265.x.
[66] Demorest, S. M.; Morrison, S. J.; Beken, M. N.; Jungbluth, D. (2008). Lost in translation: An enculturation
eect in music memory performance. Music Perception.
25 (3): 213223. doi:10.1525/mp.2008.25.3.213.

28

[67] Groussard, M.; Rauchs, G.; Landeau, B.; Viader, F.;


Desgranges, B.; Eustache, F.; Platel, H. (2010). The
neural substrates of musical memory revealed by fMRI
and two semantic tasks. NeuroImage. 53: 13011309.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.07.013.
[68] Grazian, David. The Symbolic Economy of Authenticity in the Chicago Blues Scene. in Music Scenes: Local, Translocal, and Virtual. ed. Bennett, Andy and
Richard A. Peterson. Nashville: Vanderbilt University
Press, 2004. Pages 31-47
[69] Rebecca Elizabeth Ball, 2010 Portlands Independent Music Scene: Formation of Community Identities and Alternative Urban Cultural Landscapes, Page 27
[70] Julian Schaap and Pauwke Berkers. Grunting Alone?
Online Gender Inequality in Extreme Metal Music in
Journal of the International Association for the Study of
Popular Music. Vol.4, no.1 (2014) p. 103
[71] Erika White (2015-01-28). Music History Primer: 3 Pioneering Female Songwriters of the '60s | REBEAT Magazine. Rebeatmag.com. Retrieved 2016-01-20.
[72] Women Composers In American Popular Song, Page 1.
Parlorsongs.com. 1911-03-25. Retrieved 2016-01-20.
[73] http://music.cbc.ca/#!/blogs/2014/3/
Classical-musics-shocking-gender-gap
[74] Jessica Duchen. Why the male domination of classical
music might be coming to an end | Music. The Guardian.
Retrieved 2016-01-20.
[75] Ncube, Rosina (September 2013). Sounding O: Why
So Few Women In Audio?". Sound on Sound.
[76] American Federation of Musicians/History. Archived
from the original on 2007-04-05.
[77] Hubbard (1985), p. 429.
[78] Canned Music on Trial part of Duke University's
Ad*Access project.
[79] Anderson, Chris (2006). The Long Tail: Why the Future
of Business is Selling Less of More. Hyperion. ISBN 14013-0237-8.
[80] Tapscott, Don; Williams, Anthony D. (2006-12-28).
Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything. Portfolio Hardcover. ISBN 978-1-59184-138-8.
[81] Woodall and Ziembroski, 2002
[82] Amber Haque (2004), Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists, Journal
of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357377 [363]
[83] cf. The Anatomy of Melancholy, Robert Burton, subsection 3, on and after line 3,480, Music a Remedy
[84] Ismenias the Theban, Chiron the centaur, is said to have
cured this and many other diseases by music alone: as now
thy do those, saith Bodine, that are troubled with St. Vituss Bedlam dance. Project Gutenbergs The Anatomy of
Melancholy, by Democritus Junior

CHAPTER 1. MUSIC

[85] Humanities are the Hormones: A Tarantella Comes to


Newfoundland. What should we do about it?" by Dr.
John Crellin, MUNMED, newsletter of the Faculty of
Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1996.
[86] Aung, Steven K.H., Lee, Mathew H.M., Music, Sounds,
Medicine, and Meditation: An Integrative Approach to
the Healing Arts, Alternative & Complementary Therapies, Oct 2004, Vol. 10, No. 5: 266270.
[87] Dr. Michael J. Crawford page at Imperial College London, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychological
Medicine.
[88] Crawford, Mike J.; Talwar, Nakul; et al. (November
2006). Music therapy for in-patients with schizophrenia: Exploratory randomised controlled trial. The
British Journal of Psychiatry (2006). 189 (5): 405409.
doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.105.015073. PMID 17077429. Music therapy may provide a means of improving mental
health among people with schizophrenia, but its eects
in acute psychoses have not been explored
[89] Treatment of Mental Illnesses With Music Therapy A
dierent approach from history Archived December 1,
2013, at the Wayback Machine.

1.15 Further reading


Colles, Henry Cope (1978). The Growth of Music:
A Study in Musical History, 4th ed., London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-316116-8 (1913
edition online at Google Books)
Harwood, Dane (1976). Universals in Music: A
Perspective from Cognitive Psychology. Ethnomusicology. 20 (3): 52133. doi:10.2307/851047.
Small, Christopher (1977). Music, Society, Education. John Calder Publishers, London. ISBN 07145-3614-8

1.16 External links


Music at Encyclopdia Britannica
BBC Blast Music For 13- to 19-year-olds interested
in learning about, making, performing and talking
about music.
The Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary,
with denitions, pronunciations, examples, quizzes
and simulations
The Music-Web Music Encyclopedia, for musicians,
composers and music lovers
Dolmetsch free online music dictionary, complete,
with references to a list of specialised music dictionaries (by continent, by instrument, by genre, etc.)

1.16. EXTERNAL LINKS


Musical Terms Glossary of music terms from
Naxos
On Hermeneutical Ethics and Education: Bach als
Erzieher, a paper by Prof. Miguel ngel Quintana
Paz in which he explains the history of the dierent
views hold about music in Western societies, since
the Ancient Greece to our days.
Monthly Online Features From Bloomingdale
School of Music, addressing a variety of musical
topics for a wide audience
Arts and Music Uplifting Society towards Transformation and Tolerance Articles meant to stimulate peoples awareness about the peace enhancing,
transforming, communicative, educational and healing powers of music.
Scientic American, Musical Chills Related to Brain
Dopamine Release

29

Chapter 2

Musical instrument
instruments in places far from their origin. By the Middle
Ages, instruments from Mesopotamia were in maritime
Southeast Asia, and Europeans played instruments from
North Africa. Development in the Americas occurred at
a slower pace, but cultures of North, Central, and South
America shared musical instruments. By 1400, musical
instrument development slowed in many areas and was
dominated by the Occident.
Musical instrument classication is a discipline in its
own right, and many systems of classication have been
used over the years. Instruments can be classied by
their eective range, their material composition, their
size, etc. However, the most common academic method,
Hornbostel-Sachs, uses the means by which they produce
Anne Vallayer-Coster, Attributes of Music, 1770. This still life sound. The academic study of musical instruments is
painting depicts a variety of French Baroque musical instru- called organology.
ments, such as a natural horn, transverse ute, musette, violin,
and lute.

A musical instrument is an instrument created or


adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be a musical instrument
it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical
instrument. The history of musical instruments dates to
the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have been used for ritual, such as a trumpet to
signal success on the hunt, or a drum in a religious ceremony. Cultures eventually developed composition and
performance of melodies for entertainment. Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications.
The date and origin of the rst device considered a musical instrument is disputed. The oldest object that some
scholars refer to as a musical instrument, a simple ute,
dates back as far as 67,000 years. Some consensus dates
early utes to about 37,000 years ago. However, most
historians believe that determining a specic time of musical instrument invention is impossible due to the subjectivity of the denition and the relative instability of
materials used to make them. Many early musical instruments were made from animal skins, bone, wood, and
other non-durable materials.

2.1 Denition and basic operation


A musical instrument makes sounds. Once humans
moved from making sounds with their bodiesfor example, by clappingto using objects to create music
from sounds, musical instruments were born.[1] Primitive instruments were probably designed to emulate natural sounds, and their purpose was ritual rather than
entertainment.[2] The concept of melody and the artistic
pursuit of musical composition were unknown to early
players of musical instruments. A player sounding a ute
to signal the start of a hunt does so without thought of the
modern notion of making music.[2]

Musical instruments are constructed in a broad array of


styles and shapes, using many dierent materials. Early
musical instruments were made from found objects
such a shells and plant parts.[2] As instruments evolved,
so did the selection and quality of materials. Virtually
every material in nature has been used by at least one culMusical instruments developed independently in many ture to make musical instruments.[2] One plays a musical
populated regions of the world. However, contact among instrument by interacting with it in some wayfor examcivilizations caused rapid spread and adaptation of most ple, by plucking the strings on a string instrument.[2]
30

2.3. HISTORY

2.2 Archaeology
Researchers have discovered archaeological evidence of
musical instruments in many parts of the world. Some
nds are 67,000 years old, however their status as musical instruments is often in dispute. Consensus solidies
about artifacts dated back to around 37,000 years old and
later. Only artifacts made from durable materials or using
durable methods tend to survive. As such, the specimens
found cannot be irrefutably placed as the earliest musical
instruments.[3]

31
Archaeological evidence of musical instruments was discovered in excavations at the Royal Cemetery in the
Sumerian city of Ur. These instruments, one of the
rst ensembles of instruments yet discovered, include
nine lyres ( the Lyres of Ur), two harps, a silver double ute, sistra and cymbals. A set of reed-sounded silver
pipes discovered in Ur was the likely predecessor of modern bagpipes.[7] The cylindrical pipes feature three sideholes that allowed players to produce whole tone scales.[8]
These excavations, carried out by Leonard Woolley in
the 1920s, uncovered non-degradable fragments of instruments and the voids left by the degraded segments
that, together, have been used to reconstruct them.[9]
The graves these instruments were buried in have been
carbon dated to between 2600 and 2500 BC, providing
evidence that these instruments were used in Sumeria by
this time.[10]
Archaeologists in the Jiahu site of central Henan province
of China have found utes made of bones that date back
7,000 to 9,000 years,[11] representing some of the earliest complete, playable, tightly-dated, multinote musical
instruments ever found.[11][12]

2.3 History
Scholars agree that there are no completely reliable methods of determining the exact chronology of musical instruments across cultures. Comparing and organizing instruments based on their complexity is misleading, since
advancements in musical instruments have sometimes reduced complexity. For example, construction of early slit
drums involved felling and hollowing out large trees; later
slit drums were made by opening bamboo stalks, a much
simpler task.[13]

Found in Slovenia, the Divje Babe Flute is considered the worlds


oldest known musical instrument

In July 1995, Slovenian archaeologist Ivan Turk discovered a bone carving in the northwest region of Slovenia.
The carving, named the Divje Babe Flute, features four
holes that Canadian musicologist Bob Fink determined
could have been used to play four notes of a diatonic scale.
Researchers estimate the utes age at between 43,400
and 67,000 years, making it the oldest known musical
instrument and the only musical instrument associated
with the Neanderthal culture.[4] However, some archaeologists and ethnomusicologists dispute the utes status
as a musical instrument.[5] German archaeologists have
found mammoth bone and swan bone utes dating back
to 30,000 to 37,000 years old in the Swabian Alps. The
utes were made in the Upper Paleolithic age, and are
more commonly accepted as being the oldest known musical instruments.[6]

German musicologist Curt Sachs, one of the most prominent musicologists[14] and musical ethnologists[15] in
modern times, argues that it is misleading to arrange
the development of musical instruments by workmanship, since cultures advance at dierent rates and have
access to dierent raw materials. He maintains, for
example, that contemporary anthropologists comparing
musical instruments from two cultures that existed at
the same time but diered in organization, culture, and
handicraft cannot determine which instruments are more
primitive.[16] Ordering instruments by geography is
also not totally reliable, as it cannot always be determined
when and how cultures contacted one another and shared
knowledge.
Sachs proposed that a geographical chronology until
approximately 1400 is preferable, however, due to its
limited subjectivity.[17] Beyond 1400, one can follow
the overall development of musical instruments by time
period.[17]
The science of marking the order of musical instrument
development relies on archaeological artifacts, artistic de-

32

CHAPTER 2. MUSICAL INSTRUMENT

pictions, and literary references. Since data in one re- Melanesia, and many cultures of Africa. In fact, drums
search path can be inconclusive, all three paths provide a were pervasive throughout every African culture.[23] One
better historical picture.[3]
East African tribe, the Wahinda, believed it was so holy
that seeing a drum would be fatal to any person other than
the sultan.[24]

2.3.1

Primitive and prehistoric

Humans eventually developed the concept of using musical instruments for producing a melody. Until this
time in the evolutions of musical instruments, melody
was common only in singing. Similar to the process of
reduplication in language, instrument players rst developed repetition and then arrangement. An early form of
melody was produced by pounding two stamping tubes
of slightly dierent sizesone tube would produce a
clear sound and the other would answer with a darker
sound. Such instrument pairs also included bullroarers,
slit drums, shell trumpets, and skin drums. Cultures who
used these instrument pairs associated genders with them;
the father was the bigger or more energetic instrument,
while the mother was the smaller or duller instrument.
Musical instruments existed in this form for thousands of
years before patterns of three or more tones would evolve
in the form of the earliest xylophone.[25] Xylophones
originated in the mainland and archipelago of Southeast
Asia, eventually spreading to Africa, the Americas, and
Two Aztec slit drums (teponaztli). The characteristic "H" slits Europe.[26] Along with xylophones, which ranged from
can be seen on the top of the drum in the foreground.
simple sets of three leg bars to carefully tuned sets of
parallel bars, various cultures developed instruments such
Until the 19th century AD, European-written music his- as the ground harp, ground zither, musical bow, and jaw
tories began with mythological accounts of how musi- harp.[27]
cal instruments were invented. Such accounts included
Jubal, descendant of Cain and father of all such as handle
the harp and the organ, Pan, inventor of the pan pipes, 2.3.2 Antiquity
and Mercury, who is said to have made a dried tortoise
shell into the rst lyre. Modern histories have replaced Images of musical instruments begin to appear in
such mythology with anthropological speculation, occa- Mesopotamian artifacts in 2800 BC or earlier. Beginsionally informed by archeological evidence. Scholars ning around 2000 BC, Sumerian and Babylonian cultures
agree that there was no denitive invention of the mu- began delineating two distinct classes of musical instrusical instrument since the denition of the term musical ments due to division of labor and the evolving class sysinstrument is completely subjective to both the scholar tem. Popular instruments, simple and playable by anyand the would-be inventor. For example, a Homo habilis one, evolved dierently from professional instruments
slapping his body could be the makings of a musical in- whose development focused on eectiveness and skill.[28]
strument regardless of the beings intent.[18]
Despite this development, very few musical instruments
Among the rst devices external to the human body that have been recovered in Mesopotamia. Scholars must rely
are considered instruments are rattles, stampers, and var- on artifacts and cuneiform texts written in Sumerian or
ious drums.[19] These earliest instruments evolved due Akkadian to reconstruct the early history of musical into the human motor impulse to add sound to emotional struments in Mesopotamia. Even the process of assignmovements such as dancing.[20] Eventually, some cul- ing names to these instruments is challenging since there
instruments and the
tures assigned ritual functions to their musical instru- is no clear distinction among various
[29]
words
used
to
describe
them.
[21]
ments, using them for hunting and various ceremonies.
Those cultures developed more complex percussion instruments and other instruments such as ribbon reeds,
utes, and trumpets. Some of these labels carry far different connotations from those used in modern day; early
utes and trumpets are so-labeled for their basic operation and function rather than any resemblance to modern
instruments.[22] Among early cultures for whom drums
developed ritual, even sacred importance are the Chukchi
people of the Russian Far East, the indigenous people of

Although Sumerian and Babylonian artists mainly depicted ceremonial instruments, historians have been able
to distinguish six idiophones used in early Mesopotamia:
concussion clubs, clappers, sistra, bells, cymbals, and
rattles.[30] Sistra are depicted prominently in a great relief of Amenhotep III,[31] and are of particular interest
because similar designs have been found in far-reaching
places such as Tbilisi, Georgia and among the Native
American Yaqui tribe.[32] The people of Mesopotamia

2.3. HISTORY
preferred stringed instruments to any other, as evidenced
by their proliferation in Mesopotamian gurines, plaques,
and seals. Innumerable varieties of harps are depicted, as
well as lyres and lutes, the forerunner of modern stringed
instruments such as the violin.[33]

Ancient Egyptian tomb painting depicting lute players, 18th Dynasty (c. 1350 BC)

Musical instruments used by the Egyptian culture before 2700 BC bore striking similarity to those of
Mesopotamia, leading historians to conclude that the civilizations must have been in contact with one another.
Sachs notes that Egypt did not possess any instruments
that the Sumerian culture did not also possess.[34] However, by 2700 BC the cultural contacts seem to have dissipated; the lyre, a prominent ceremonial instrument in
Sumer, did not appear in Egypt for another 800 years.[34]
Clappers and concussion sticks appear on Egyptian vases
as early as 3000 BC. The civilization also made use of
sistra, vertical utes, double clarinets, arched and angular harps, and various drums.[35]
Little history is available in the period between 2700 BC
and 1500 BC, as Egypt (and indeed, Babylon) entered
a long violent period of war and destruction. This period saw the Kassites destroy the Babylonian empire in
Mesopotamia and the Hyksos destroy the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. When the Pharaohs of Egypt conquered
Southwest Asia in around 1500 BC, the cultural ties
to Mesopotamia were renewed and Egypts musical instruments also reected heavy inuence from Asiatic
cultures.[34] Under their new cultural inuences, the people of the New Kingdom began using oboes, trumpets,
lyres, lutes, castanets, and cymbals.[36]

33
the period included the tof (frame drum), pa'amon (small
bells or jingles), shofar, and the trumpet-like hasosra.[39]
The introduction of a monarchy in Israel during the 11th
century BC produced the rst professional musicians and
with them a drastic increase in the number and variety of
musical instruments.[40] However, identifying and classifying the instruments remains a challenge due to the lack
of artistic interpretations. For example, stringed instruments of uncertain design called nevals and asors existed,
but neither archaeology nor etymology can clearly dene
them.[41] In her book A Survey of Musical Instruments,
American musicologist Sibyl Marcuse proposes that the
nevel must be similar to vertical harp due to its relation
to nabla, the Phoenician term for harp.[42]
In Greece, Rome, and Etruria, the use and development
of musical instruments stood in stark contrast to those
cultures achievements in architecture and sculpture. The
instruments of the time were simple and virtually all of
them were imported from other cultures.[43] Lyres were
the principal instrument, as musicians used them to honor
the gods.[44] Greeks played a variety of wind instruments
they classied as aulos (reeds) or syrinx (utes); Greek
writing from that time reects a serious study of reed
production and playing technique.[8] Romans played reed
instruments named tibia, featuring side-holes that could
be opened or closed, allowing for greater exibility in
playing modes.[45] Other instruments in common use in
the region included vertical harps derived from those of
the Orient, lutes of Egyptian design, various pipes and
organs, and clappers, which were played primarily by
women.[46]
Evidence of musical instruments in use by early civilizations of India is almost completely lacking, making it impossible to reliably attribute instruments to the Munda
and Dravidian language-speaking cultures that rst settled the area. Rather, the history of musical instruments
in the area begins with the Indus Valley Civilization that
emerged around 3000 BC. Various rattles and whistles
found among excavated artifacts are the only physical evidence of musical instruments.[47] A clay statuette indicates the use of drums, and examination of the Indus
script has also revealed representations of vertical arched
harps identical in design to those depicted in Sumerian
artifacts. This discovery is among many indications that
the Indus Valley and Sumerian cultures maintained cultural contact. Subsequent developments in musical instruments in India occurred with the Rigveda, or hymns.
These songs used various drums, shell trumpets, harps,
and utes.[48] Other prominent instruments in use during
the early centuries AD were the snake charmers double
clarinet, bagpipes, barrel drums, cross utes, and short
lutes. In all, India had no unique musical instruments until the Middle Ages.[49]

In contrast with Mesopotamia and Egypt, professional


musicians did not exist in Israel between 2000 and
1000 BC. While the history of musical instruments in
Mesopotamia and Egypt relies on artistic representations,
the culture in Israel produced few such representations.
Scholars must therefore rely on information gleaned from Musical instruments such as zithers appeared in Chinese
the Bible and the Talmud.[37] The Hebrew texts men- writings around 12th century BC and earlier.[50] Early
tion two prominent instruments associated with Jubal: the Chinese philosophers such as Confucius (551479 BC),
ugab (pipes) and kinnor (lyre).[38] Other instruments of

34

CHAPTER 2. MUSICAL INSTRUMENT

2.3.3 Middle Ages

A Chinese wooden sh, used in Buddhist recitations

Mencius (372289 BC), and Laozi shaped the development of musical instruments in China, adopting an attitude toward music similar to that of the Greeks. The
Chinese believed that music was an essential part of character and community, and developed a unique system of
classifying their musical instruments according to their
material makeup.[51]

A young Persian lady playing a ney, painted on Hasht Behesht


walls in Esfahan, Safavid dynasty.

During the period of time loosely referred to as the


Middle Ages, China developed a tradition of integrating
musical inuence from other regions. The rst record of
this type of inuence is in 384 AD, when China established an orchestra in its imperial court after a conquest
in Turkestan. Inuences from Middle East, Persia, India, Mongolia, and other countries followed. In fact, Chinese tradition attributes many musical instruments from
this period to those regions and countries.[57] Cymbals
gained popularity, along with more advanced trumpets,
clarinets, oboes, utes, drums, and lutes.[58] Some of the
rst bowed zithers appeared in China in the 9th or 10th
century, inuenced by Mongolian culture.[59]

Idiophones were extremely important in Chinese music, hence the majority of early instruments were idiophones. Poetry of the Shang dynasty mentions bells,
chimes, drums, and globular utes carved from bone,
the latter of which has been excavated and preserved by
archaeologists.[52] The Zhou dynasty saw percussion instruments such as clappers, troughs, wooden sh, and y
(wooden tiger). Wind instruments such as ute, panpipes, pitch-pipes, and mouth organs also appeared in
this time period.[53] The xiao (an end-blown ute) and
various other instruments that spread through many cultures, came into use in China during and after the Han India experienced similar development to China in the
dynasty.[54]
Middle Ages; however, stringed instruments developed
Although civilizations in Central America attained a rela- dierently as they accommodated dierent styles of mutively high level of sophistication by the eleventh century sic. While stringed instruments of China were designed
AD, they lagged behind other civilizations in the devel- to produce precise tones capable of matching the tones
opment of musical instruments. For example, they had of chimes, stringed instruments of India were considerno stringed instruments; all of their instruments were id- ably more exible. This exibility suited the slides and
iophones, drums, and wind instruments such as utes and tremolos of Hindu music. Rhythm was of paramount imtrumpets. Of these, only the ute was capable of pro- portance in Indian music of the time, as evidenced by the
ducing a melody.[55] In contrast, pre-Columbian South frequent depiction of drums in reliefs dating to the Middle
on rhythm is an aspect native to InAmerican civilizations in areas such as modern-day Peru, Ages. The emphasis
[60]
Historians
divide the development of mudian
music.
Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile were less adsical
instruments
in
medieval
India between pre-Islamic
vanced culturally but more advanced musically. South
and
Islamic
periods
due
to
the
dierent inuence each
American cultures of the time used pan-pipes as well as
[61]
period
provided.
varieties of utes, idiophones, drums, and shell or wood
trumpets.[56]

In pre-Islamic times, idiophones such hand bells, cym-

2.3. HISTORY
bals, and peculiar instruments resembling gongs came
into wide use in Hindu music. The gong-like instrument
was a bronze disk that was struck with a hammer instead of a mallet. Tubular drums, stick zithers (veena),
short ddles, double and triple utes, coiled trumpets,
and curved India horns emerged in this time period.[62]
Islamic inuences brought new types of drums, perfectly
circular or octagonal as opposed to the irregular preIslamic drums.[63] Persian inuence brought oboes and
sitars, although Persian sitars had three strings and Indian
version had from four to seven.[64]

35
became a national symbol.[73] Lyres propagated through
the same areas, as far east as Estonia.[74]
European music between 800 and 1100 became more sophisticated, more frequently requiring instruments capable of polyphony. The 9th-century Persian geographer
Ibn Khordadbeh mentioned in his lexicographical discussion of music instruments that, in the Byzantine Empire,
typical instruments included the urghun (organ), shilyani
(probably a type of harp or lyre), salandj (probably a
bagpipe) and the lyra.[75] The Byzantine lyra, a bowed
string instrument, is an ancestor of most European bowed
instruments, including the violin.[76]
The monochord served as a precise measure of the
notes of a musical scale, allowing more accurate musical arrangements.[77] Mechanical hurdy-gurdies allowed
single musicians to play more complicated arrangements
than a ddle would; both were prominent folk instruments
in the Middle Ages.[78][79] Southern Europeans played
short and long lutes whose pegs extended to the sides, unlike the rear-facing pegs of Central and Northern European instruments.[80] Idiophones such as bells and clappers served various practical purposes, such as warning
of the approach of a leper.[81]

An Indonesian metallophone

Southeast Asian musical innovations include those during a period of Indian inuence that ended around
920 AD.[65] Balinese and Javanese music made use of
xylophones and metallophones, bronze versions of the
former.[66] The most prominent and important musical
instrument of Southeast Asia was the gong. While the
gong likely originated in the geographical area between
Tibet and Burma, it was part of every category of human
activity in maritime Southeast Asia including Java.[67]
The areas of Mesopotamia and the Arabian Peninsula
experiences rapid growth and sharing of musical instruments once they were united by Islamic culture in the seventh century.[68] Frame drums and cylindrical drums of
various depths were immensely important in all genres
of music.[69] Conical oboes were involved in the music
that accompanied wedding and circumcision ceremonies.
Persian miniatures provide information on the development of kettle drums in Mesopotamia that spread as far
as Java.[70] Various lutes, zithers, dulcimers, and harps
spread as far as Madagascar to the south and modern-day
Sulawesi to the east.[71]
Despite the inuences of Greece and Rome, most musical instruments in Europe during the Middles Ages came
from Asia. The lyre is the only musical instrument that
may have been invented in Europe until this period.[72]
Stringed instruments were prominent in Middle Age Europe. The central and northern regions used mainly lutes,
stringed instruments with necks, while the southern region used lyres, which featured a two-armed body and a
crossbar.[72] Various harps served Central and Northern
Europe as far north as Ireland, where the harp eventually

The ninth century revealed the rst bagpipes, which


spread throughout Europe and had many uses from folk
instruments to military instruments.[82] The construction
of pneumatic organs evolved in Europe starting in fthcentury Spain, spreading to England in about 700.[83]
The resulting instruments varied in size and use from
portable organs worn around the neck to large pipe
organs.[84] Literary accounts of organs being played in
English Benedictine abbeys toward the end of the tenth
century are the rst references to organs being connected
to churches.[85] Reed players of the Middle Ages were
limited to oboes; no evidence of clarinets exists during
this period.[86]

2.3.4 Modern
Renaissance
Musical instrument development was dominated by the
Occident from 1400 on, indeed, the most profound
changes occurred during the Renaissance period.[18] Instruments took on other purposes than accompanying
singing or dance, and performers used them as solo instruments. Keyboards and lutes developed as polyphonic
instruments, and composers arranged increasingly complex pieces using more advanced tablature. Composers also began designing pieces of music for specic
instruments.[18] In the latter half of the sixteenth century,
orchestration came into common practice as a method of
writing music for a variety of instruments. Composers
now specied orchestration where individual performers once applied their own discretion.[87] The polyphonic
style dominated popular music, and the instrument mak-

36
ers responded accordingly.[88]

CHAPTER 2. MUSICAL INSTRUMENT


Baroque

The Duet, by Dutch painter Cornelis Saftleven, c. 1635

Beginning in about 1400, the rate of development of musical instruments increased in earnest as compositions demanded more dynamic sounds. People also began writing
books about creating, playing, and cataloging musical instruments; the rst such book was Sebastian Virdungs
1511 treatise Musica getuscht und ausgezogen ('Music
Germanized and Abstracted').[87] Virdungs work is noted
as being particularly thorough for including descriptions
of irregular instruments such as hunters horns and cow
bells, though Virdung is critical of the same. Other books
followed, including Arnolt Schlicks Spiegel der Orgelmacher und Organisten ('Mirror of Organ Makers and Organ Players) the following year, a treatise on organ building and organ playing.[89] Of the instructional books and
references published in the Renaissance era, one is noted
for its detailed description and depiction of all wind and
stringed instruments, including their relative sizes. This
book, the Syntagma musicum by Michael Praetorius, is
now considered an authoritative reference of sixteenthcentury musical instruments.[90]
In the sixteenth century, musical instrument builders gave
most instruments such as the violin the classical
shapes they retain today. An emphasis on aesthetic
beauty also developed; listeners were as pleased with the
physical appearance of an instrument as they were with
its sound. Therefore, builders paid special attention to
materials and workmanship, and instruments became collectibles in homes and museums.[91] It was during this period that makers began constructing instruments of the
same type in various sizes to meet the demand of consorts, or ensembles playing works written for these groups
of instruments.[92]
Instrument builders developed other features that endure
today. For example, while organs with multiple keyboards and pedals already existed, the rst organs with
solo stops emerged in the early fteenth century. These
stops were meant to produce a mixture of timbres, a development needed for the complexity of music of the
time.[93] Trumpets evolved into their modern form to
improve portability, and players used mutes to properly
blend into chamber music.[94]

Baroque mounted Jacob Stainer violin from 1658

Beginning in the seventeenth century, composers began


creating works of a more emotional style. They felt that a
monophonic style better suited the emotional music and
wrote musical parts for instruments that would complement the singing human voice.[88] As a result, many instruments that were incapable of larger ranges and dynamics, and therefore were seen as unemotional, fell out
of favor. One such instrument was the shawm.[95] Bowed
instruments such as the violin, viola, baryton, and various
lutes dominated popular music.[96] Beginning in around
1750, however, the lute disappeared from musical compositions in favor of the rising popularity of the guitar.[97]
As the prevalence of string orchestras rose, wind instruments such as the ute, oboe, and bassoon were readmitted to counteract the monotony of hearing only strings.[98]
In the mid-seventeenth century, what was known as a
hunters horn underwent transformation into an art instrument consisting of a lengthened tube, a narrower
bore, a wider bell, and much wider range. The details of
this transformation are unclear, but the modern horn or,
more colloquially, French horn, had emerged by 1725.[99]
The slide trumpet appeared, a variation that includes a
long-throated mouthpiece that slid in and out, allowing
the player innite adjustments in pitch. This variation on
the trumpet was unpopular due to the diculty involved
in playing it.[100] Organs underwent tonal changes in the
Baroque period, as manufacturers such as Abraham Jordan of London made the stops more expressive and added
devices such as expressive pedals. Sachs viewed this trend
as a degeneration of the general organ sound.[101]
Classical and Romantic
During the Classical and Romantic periods of music, lasting from roughly 1750 to 1900, a great deal of musical instruments capable of producing new timbres and higher
volume were developed and introduced into popular mu-

2.4. CLASSIFICATION

37

sic. The design changes that broadened the quality of


timbres allowed instruments to produce a wider variety
of expression. Large orchestras rose in popularity and, in
parallel, the composers determined to produce entire orchestral scores that made use of the expressive abilities of
modern instruments. Since instruments were involved in
collaborations of a much larger scale, their designs had to
evolve to accommodate the demands of the orchestra.[102]

the same as those manufactured throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Gradual iterations do
emerge; for example, the New Violin Family began in
1964 to provide dierently sized violins to expand the
range of available sounds.[107] The slowdown in development was practical response to the concurrent slowdown
in orchestra and venue size.[108] Despite this trend in traditional instruments, the development of new musical instruments exploded in the twentieth century. The sheer
Some instruments also had to become louder to ll larger
of instruments developed overshadows any prior
halls and be heard over sizable orchestras. Flutes and variety [106]
period.
bowed instruments underwent many modications and
design changesmost of them unsuccessfulin eorts The proliferation of electricity in the twentieth cento increase volume. Other instruments were changed just tury lead to the creation of an entirely new cateso they could play their parts in the scores. Trumpets tra- gory of musical instruments: electronic instruments, or
ditionally had a defective rangethey were incapable electrophones.[109] The vast majority of electrophones
of producing certain notes with precision.[103] New in- produced in the rst half of the twentieth century were
struments such as the clarinet, saxophone, and tuba be- what Sachs called electromechanical instruments. In
came xtures in orchestras. Instruments such as the clar- other words, they have mechanical parts that produce
inet also grew into entire families of instruments capa- sound vibrations, and those vibrations are picked up and
ble of dierent ranges: small clarinets, normal clarinets, amplied by electrical components. Examples of elecbass clarinets, and so on.[102]
tromechanical instruments include Hammond organs and
[109]
Sachs also dened a subcategory of
Accompanying the changes to timbre and volume was a electric guitars.
radioelectric
instruments
such as the theremin, which
shift in the typical pitch used to tune instruments. Instruproduces
music
through
the
players hand movements
ments meant to play together, as in an orchestra, must be
[110]
around
two
antennas.
tuned to the same standard lest they produce audibly different sounds while playing the same notes. Beginning in
1762, the average concert pitch began rising from a low
of 377 vibrations to a high of 457 in 1880 Vienna.[104]
Dierent regions, countries, and even instrument manufacturers preferred dierent standards, making orchestral
collaboration a challenge. Despite even the eorts of two
organized international summits attended by noted composers like Hector Berlioz, no standard could be agreed
upon.[105]
Twentieth century to present

The latter half of the twentieth century saw the gradual


evolution of synthesizersinstruments that articially
produce sound using analog or digital circuits and microchips. In the late 1960s, Bob Moog and other inventors began an era of development of commercial synthesizers. One of the rst of these instruments was the Moog
synthesizer.[111] The modern proliferation of computers
and microchips has spawned an entire industry around
electronic musical instruments.[112]

2.4 Classication
Main article: Musical instrument classication

There are many dierent methods of classifying musical instruments. Various methods examine aspects such
as the physical properties of the instrument (material,
color, shape, etc.), the use for the instrument, the means
by which music is produced with the instrument, the
range of the instrument, and the instruments place in an
orchestra or other ensemble. Most methods are specic
to a geographic area or cultural group and were developed to serve the unique classication requirements of
the group.[113] The problem with these specialized classication schemes is that they tend to break down once they
Early Fender electric guitars
are applied outside of their original area. For example, a
system based on instrument use would fail if a culture inThe evolution of traditional musical instruments slowed vented a new use for the same instrument. Scholars recbeginning in the twentieth century.[106] Instruments like ognize Hornbostel-Sachs as the only system that applies
the violin, ute, french horn, harp, and so on are largely to any culture and, more important, provides only possi-

38

CHAPTER 2. MUSICAL INSTRUMENT

ble classication for each instrument.[114][115] The most


common types of instrument classications are strings,
brass, woodwind, and percussion.

2.4.1

Ancient systems

An ancient system named the Natya Shastra, written by


the sage Bharata Muni and dating from between 200 BC
and 200 AD, divides instruments into four main classication groups: instruments where the sound is produced by vibrating strings; percussion instruments with
skin heads; instruments where the sound is produced by
vibrating columns of air; and solid, or non-skin, percussion instruments.[114] This system was adapted to some
degree in 12th-century Europe by Johannes de Muris,
who used the terms tensibilia (stringed instruments), inatibilia (wind instruments), and percussibilia (all percussion instruments).[116] In 1880, Victor-Charles Mahillon
adapted the Natya Shastra and assigned Greek labels to
the four classications: chordophones (stringed instruments), membranophones (skin-head percussion instruments), aerophones (wind instruments), and autophones
(non-skin percussion instruments).[114]

2.4.2

Hornbostel-Sachs

Erich von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs adopted Mahillons


scheme and published an extensive new scheme for classication in Zeitschrift fr Ethnologie in 1914. Hornbostel
and Sachs used most of Mahillons system, but replaced
the term autophone with idiophone.[114]
The original Hornbostel-Sachs system classied instruments into four main groups:

to the sounding board or chamber and the strings


extend past the board with a neck, then the instrument is a lute, whether the sound chamber is constructed of wood like a guitar or uses a membrane
like a banjo.[119]
Aerophones, which produce a sound with a vibrating column of air; they are sorted into free aerophones such as a bullroarer or whip, which move
freely through the air; utes, which cause the air to
pass over a sharp edge; reed instruments, which use
a vibrating reed; and lip-vibrated aerophones such
as trumpets, for which the lips themselves function
as vibrating reeds.[120]
Sachs later added a fth category, electrophones, such as
theremins, which produce sound by electronic means.[109]
Within each category are many subgroups. The system has been criticised and revised over the years,
but remains widely used by ethnomusicologists and
organologists.[116][121]

2.4.3 Schaener
Andre Schaener, a curator at the Muse de l'Homme,
disagreed with the Hornbostel-Sachs system and developed his own system in 1932. Schaener believed that
the pure physics of a musical instrument, rather than its
specic construction or playing method, should always
determine its classication. (Hornbostel-Sachs, for example, divide aerophones on the basis of sound production, but membranophones on the basis of the shape of
the instrument). His system divided instruments into two
categories: instruments with solid, vibrating bodies and
instruments containing vibrating air.[122]

Idiophones, which produce sound by vibrating the


primary body of the instrument itself; they are 2.4.4 Range
sorted into concussion, percussion, shaken, scraped,
split, and plucked idiophones, such as claves, Main article: Range (music)
xylophone, guiro, slit drum, mbira, and rattle.[117]
Membranophones, which produce sound by a vibrating a stretched membrane; they may be drums
(further sorted by the shape of the shell), which are
struck by hand, with a stick, or rubbed, but kazoos
and other instruments that use a stretched membrane for the primary sound (not simply to modify
sound produced in another way) are also considered
membranophones.[118]
Chordophones, which produce sound by vibrating
one or more strings; they are sorted into according to
the relationship between the string(s) and the sounding board or chamber. For example, if the strings
are laid out parallel to the sounding board and there
is no neck, the instrument is a zither whether it is
plucked like an autoharp or struck with hammers
like a piano. If the instrument has strings parallel

Musical instruments are also often classied by their musical range in comparison with other instruments in the
same family. This exercise is useful when placing instruments in context of an orchestra or other ensemble.
These terms are named after singing voice classications:
Soprano instruments: ute, violin, soprano saxophone, trumpet, clarinet, oboe, piccolo
Alto instruments: alto saxophone, french horn,
english horn, viola, alto horn
Tenor instruments: trombone, tenor saxophone,
guitar, tenor drum
Baritone instruments: bassoon, baritone saxophone,
bass clarinet, cello, baritone horn, euphonium

2.7. SEE ALSO


Bass instruments: double bass, bass guitar, bass saxophone, tuba, bass drum
Some instruments fall into more than one category: for
example, the cello may be considered tenor, baritone or
bass, depending on how its music ts into the ensemble,
and the trombone may be alto, tenor, baritone, or bass
and the French horn, bass, baritone, tenor, or alto, depending on the range it is played in. Many instruments
have their range as part of their name: soprano saxophone, tenor saxophone, baritone horn, alto ute, bass
guitar, etc. Additional adjectives describe instruments
above the soprano range or below the bass, for example:
sopranino saxophone, contrabass clarinet. When used in
the name of an instrument, these terms are relative, describing the instruments range in comparison to other instruments of its family and not in comparison to the human voice range or instruments of other families. For
example, a bass utes range is from C3 to F6 , while a
bass clarinet plays about one octave lower.

39
the user-interface. Keyboard instruments are any instruments that are played with a musical keyboard. Every
key generates one or more sounds; most keyboard instruments have extra means (pedals for a piano, stops and a
pedal keyboard for an organ) to manipulate these sounds.
They may produce sound by wind being fanned (organ)
or pumped (accordion),[126][127] vibrating strings either
hammered (piano) or plucked (harpsichord),[128][129] by
electronic means (synthesizer),[130] or in some other way.
Sometimes, instruments that do not usually have a keyboard, such as the glockenspiel, are tted with one.[131]
Though they have no moving parts and are struck by mallets held in the players hands, they have the same physical
arrangement of keys and produce soundwaves in a similar
manner.

2.7 See also


List of musical instruments
Folk instrument

2.5 Construction
The materials used in making musical instruments vary
greatly by culture and application. Many of the materials have special signicance owing to their source or rarity. Some cultures worked substances from the human
body into their instruments. In ancient Mexico, for example, the material drums were made from might contain
actual human body parts obtained from sacricial oerings. In New Guinea, drum makers would mix human
blood into the adhesive used to attach the membrane.[123]
Mulberry trees are held in high regard in China owing to their mythological signicanceinstrument makers would hence use them to make zithers. The Yakuts
believe that making drums from trees struck by lightning
gives them a special connection to nature.[124]

Experimental musical instrument


Music instrument technology
Orchestra

2.8 Notes
[1] Montagu 2007, p. 1
[2] Rault 2000, p. 9
[3] Blades 1992, p. 34
[4] Slovenian Academy of Sciences 1997, pp. 203205
[5] Chase & Nowell 1998, p. 549

Musical instrument construction is a specialized trade [6] Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 2004
that requires years of training, practice, and sometimes
an apprenticeship. Most makers of musical instruments [7] Collinson 1975, p. 10
specialize in one genre of instruments; for example, a [8] Campbell, Greated & Myers 2004, p. 82
luthier makes only stringed instruments. Some make only
one type of instrument such as a piano. Whatever the [9] de Schauensee 2002, pp. 116
instrument constructed, the instrument maker must con- [10] Moorey 1977, pp. 2440
sider materials, construction technique, and decoration,
creating a balanced instrument that is both functional and [11] Brookhaven Lab Expert Helps Date Flute Thought to be
Oldest Playable Musical Instrument. Brookhaven Naaesthetically pleasing.[125] Some builders are focused on
tional Laboratory. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
a more artistic approach and develop experimental musical instruments, often meant for individual playing styles [12] Jiahu (ca. 70005700 B.C.)". The Metropolitan Mudeveloped by the builder himself.
seum of Art. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
[13] Sachs 1940, p. 60

2.6 User interfaces

[14] Brown 2008


[15] Baines 1993, p. 37

Regardless of how the sound in an instrument is produced, many musical instruments have a keyboard as [16] Sachs 1940, p. 61

40

CHAPTER 2. MUSICAL INSTRUMENT

[17] Sachs 1940, p. 63

[55] Sachs 1940, p. 192

[18] Sachs 1940, p. 297

[56] Sachs 1940, pp. 196201

[19] Blades 1992, p. 36

[57] Sachs 1940, p. 207

[20] Sachs 1940, p. 26

[58] Sachs 1940, p. 218

[21] Rault 2000, p. 34

[59] Sachs 1940, p. 216

[22] Sachs 1940, pp. 3452

[60] Sachs 1940, p. 221

[23] Blades 1992, p. 51

[61] Sachs 1940, p. 222

[24] Sachs 1940, p. 35

[62] Sachs 1940, pp. 222228

[25] Sachs 1940, pp. 5253

[63] Sachs 1940, p. 229

[26] Marcuse 1975, pp. 2428

[64] Sachs 1940, p. 231

[27] Sachs 1940, pp. 5359

[65] Sachs 1940, p. 236

[28] Sachs 1940, p. 67

[66] Sachs 1940, pp. 238239

[29] Sachs 1940, pp. 6869

[67] Sachs 1940, p. 240

[30] Sachs 1940, p. 69

[68] Sachs 1940, p. 246

[31] Remnant 1989, p. 168

[69] Sachs 1940, p. 249

[32] Sachs 1940, p. 70

[70] Sachs 1940, p. 250

[33] Sachs 1940, p. 82

[71] Sachs 1940, pp. 251254

[34] Sachs 1940, p. 86

[72] Sachs 1940, p. 260

[35] Rault 2000, p. 71

[73] Sachs 1940, p. 263

[36] Sachs 1940, pp. 98104

[74] Sachs 1940, p. 265

[37] Sachs 1940, p. 105

[75] Kartomi 1990, p. 124

[38] Sachs 1940, p. 106

[76] Grillet 1901, p. 29

[39] Sachs 1940, pp. 108113

[77] Sachs 1940, p. 269

[40] Sachs 1940, p. 114

[78] Sachs 1940, p. 271

[41] Sachs 1940, p. 116

[79] Sachs 1940, p. 274

[42] Marcuse 1975, p. 385

[80] Sachs 1940, p. 273

[43] Sachs 1940, p. 128

[81] Sachs 1940, p. 278

[44] Sachs 1940, p. 129

[82] Sachs 1940, p. 281

[45] Campbell, Greated & Myers 2004, p. 83

[83] Sachs 1940, p. 284

[46] Sachs 1940, p. 149

[84] Sachs 1940, p. 286

[47] Sachs 1940, p. 151

[85] Bicknell 1999, p. 13

[48] Sachs 1940, p. 152

[86] Sachs 1940, p. 288

[49] Sachs 1940, p. 161

[87] Sachs 1940, p. 298

[50] Sachs 1940, p. 185

[88] Sachs 1940, p. 351

[51] Sachs 1940, pp. 162164

[89] Sachs 1940, p. 299

[52] Sachs 1940, p. 166

[90] Sachs 1940, p. 301

[53] Sachs 1940, p. 178

[91] Sachs 1940, p. 302

[54] Sachs 1940, p. 189

[92] Sachs 1940, p. 303

2.9. REFERENCES

[93] Sachs 1940, p. 307


[94] Sachs 1940, p. 328
[95] Sachs 1940, p. 352
[96] Sachs 1940, pp. 353357
[97] Sachs 1940, p. 374
[98] Sachs 1940, p. 380
[99] Sachs 1940, p. 384

41

[128] Fine, Larry. The Piano Book, 4th ed. Massachusetts:


Brookside Press, 2001. ISBN 1-929145-01-2
[129] Ripin (Ed) et al. Early Keyboard Instruments. New Grove
Musical Instruments Series, 1989, PAPERMAC
[130] Paradiso, JA. Electronic music: new ways to play.
Spectrum IEEE, 34(2):1833, Dec 1997.
[131] Glockenspiel: Construction. Vienna Symphonic Library. Retrieved 17 August 2009.

[100] Sachs 1940, p. 385


[101] Sachs 1940, p. 386
[102] Sachs 1940, p. 388
[103] Sachs 1940, p. 389
[104] Sachs 1940, p. 390
[105] Sachs 1940, p. 391
[106] Remnant 1989, p. 183
[107] Remnant 1989, p. 70
[108] Sachs 1940, p. 445

2.9 References
Baines, Anthony (1993), Brass Instruments: Their
History and Development, Dover Publications, ISBN
0-486-27574-4
Bicknell, Stephen (1999), The History of the English
Organ, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-52165409-2
Blades, James (1992), Percussion Instruments and
Their History, Bold Strummer Ltd, ISBN 0-93322461-3

[109] Sachs 1940, p. 447


[110] Sachs 1940, p. 448
[111] Pinch & Trocco 2004, p. 7
[112] Manning 2004, pp. 268270
[113] Montagu 2007, p. 210
[114] Montagu 2007, p. 211
[115] Kartomi 1990, p. 176
[116] Rault 2000, p. 190
[117] Marcuse 1975, p. 3
[118] Marcuse 1975, p. 117
[119] Marcuse 1975, p. 177
[120] Marcuse 1975, p. 549
[121] Campbell, Greated & Myers 2004, p. 39

Brown, Howard Mayer (2008), Sachs, Curt, Grove


Dictionary of Music and Musicians, retrieved 5 June
2008
Campbell, Murray; Greated, Clive A.; Myers,
Arnold (2004), Musical Instruments: History, Technology, and Performance of Instruments of Western Music, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19816504-8
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (30 December
2004), Archeologists discover ice age dwellers ute,
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, archived from
the original on 13 August 2010, retrieved 7 February
2009
Chase, Philip G.; Nowell, April (AugustOctober
1998), Taphonomy of a Suggested Middle Paleolithic Bone Flute from Slovenia, Current Anthropology, 39 (4): 549, doi:10.1086/204771

[122] Kartomi 1990, pp. 174175


[123] Rault 2000, p. 184
[124] Rault 2000, p. 185
[125] Rault 2000, p. 195
[126] Bicknell, Stephen (1999). The organ case. In Thistlethwaite, Nicholas & Webber, Georey (Eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Organ, pp. 5581. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57584-2
[127] Howard, Rob (2003) An A to Z of the Accordion and
related instruments Stockport: Robaccord Publications
ISBN 0-9546711-0-4

Collinson, Francis M. (1975), The Bagpipe, Routledge, ISBN 0-7100-7913-3


de Schauensee, Maude (2002), Two Lyres from Ur,
University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology
and Anthropology, ISBN 0-924171-88-X
Grillet, Laurent (1901), Les ancetres du violon v.1,
Paris
Kartomi, Margaret J. (1990), On Concepts and
Classications of Musical Instruments, University of
Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-42548-7

42
Manning, Peter (2004), Electronic and Computer Music, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19517085-7
Marcuse, Sibyl (1975), A Survey of Musical Instruments, Harper & Row, ISBN 0-06-012776-7
Montagu, Jeremy (2007), Origins and Development
of Musical Instruments, The Scarecrow Press, ISBN
0-8108-5657-3
Moorey, P.R.S. (1977), What Do We Know About
the People Buried in the Royal Cemetery?", Expedition, 20 (1): 2440
Pinch, Revor; Trocco, Frank (2004), Analog Days:
The Invention and Impact of the Moog Synthesizer,
Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-016170
Rault, Lucie (2000), Musical Instruments: A Worldwide Survey of Traditional Music-making, Thames
& Hudson Ltd, ISBN 978-0-500-51035-3
Remnant, Mary (1989), Musical Instruments: An Illustrated History from Antiquity to the Present, Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-5169-6
Sachs, Curt (1940), The History of Musical Instruments, Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-45265-4
Slovenian Academy of Sciences (11 April 1997),
Early Music, Science, 276 (5310): 203205,
doi:10.1126/science.276.5310.203g

2.10 Further reading


Wade-Matthews, Max (2003). Musical Instruments:
Illustrated Encyclopedia. Lorenz. ISBN 0-75481182-4.
Music Library Association (1974). Committee on
Musical Instrument Collections. A Survey of Musical Instrument Collections in the United States and
Canada, conducted by a committee of the Music
Library Association, William Lichtenwanger, chairman & compiler, ed. and produced by James W.
Pruitt. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Music Library Association. xi, p. 137, ISBN 0-914954-00-8
West, M.L. (May 1994).
The Babylonian
Musical Notation and the Hurrian Melodic
Texts. Music & Letters. 75. pp. 161179.
doi:10.1093/ml/75.2.161.

2.11 External links


Musical Instruments. Furniture. Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 1 July 2008.

CHAPTER 2. MUSICAL INSTRUMENT

Chapter 3

Orchestra
For other uses, see Orchestra (disambiguation).
A full-size orchestra may sometimes be called a symAn orchestra (/rkstr/ or US /rkstr/; Italian: phony orchestra or philharmonic orchestra. The actual
number of musicians employed in a given performance
may vary from seventy to over one hundred musicians,
depending on the work being played and the size of the
venue. The term chamber orchestra (and sometimes concert orchestra) usually refers to smaller-sized ensembles
of about fty musicians or fewer. Orchestras that specialize in the Baroque music of, for example, Johann Sebastian Bach, or Classical repertoire, such as that of Haydn
and Mozart, tend to be smaller than orchestras performing a Romantic music repertoire, such as the symphonies
of Johannes Brahms. The typical orchestra grew in size
throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, reaching a peak
with the large orchestras (of as many as 120 players)
called for in the works of Richard Wagner, and later,
The Jalisco Philharmonic Orchestra.
Gustav Mahler.
Orchestras are usually led by a conductor who directs the
performance with movements of the hands and arms, often amplied by use of a conductors baton. The conductor unies the orchestra, sets the tempo and shapes the
sound of the ensemble.[2] The conductor also prepares the
orchestra by leading rehearsals before the public concert,
in which the conductor provides instructions to the musicians on her interpretation of the music being performed.
The rst violin, commonly called the concertmaster, also
plays an important role in leading the musicians. In the
Baroque music era (1600-1750), orchestras were often
led by the concertmaster or by a chord-playing musician
performing the basso continuo parts on a harpsichord or
A modern orchestra concert hall: Philharmony in Szczecin, pipe organ, a tradition that some 20th century and 21st
Poland
century early music ensembles continue. Orchestras play
[orkstra]) is a large instrumental ensemble typical of a wide range of repertoire, including symphonies, opera
classical music, which features string instruments such and ballet overtures, concertos for solo instruments, and
as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, as pit ensembles for operas, ballets and some types of
woodwinds, and percussion instruments, grouped in sec- musical theater (e.g., Gilbert and Sullivan operettas).
tions. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta Amateur orchestras include those made up of students
may sometimes appear in a fth keyboard section or may from an elementary school or a high school, youth orstand alone, as may the concert harp and, for perfor- chestras, and community orchestras; the latter two typimances of some modern compositions, electronic instru- cally being typically made up of amateur musicians from
ments.
a particular city or region.
The term orchestra derives from the Greek
(orchestra), the name for the area in front of a stage in
ancient Greek theatre reserved for the Greek chorus.[1]
43

44

3.1 Instrumentation

CHAPTER 3. ORCHESTRA

3.1.1 Beethovens inuence

The so-called standard complement of doubled winds


and brass in the orchestra from the rst half of the 19th
century is generally attributed to the forces called for by
Beethoven. The composer's instrumentation almost always included paired utes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons,
horns and trumpets. The exceptions to this are his
Symphony No. 4, Violin Concerto, and Piano Concerto
No. 4, which each specify a single ute. Beethoven carefully calculated the expansion of this particular timbral
palette in Symphonies 3, 5, 6, and 9 for an innovative eect. The third horn in the Eroica Symphony arrives to provide not only some harmonic exibility, but
also the eect of choral brass in the Trio movement.
Piccolo, contrabassoon, and trombones add to the triumphal nale of his Symphony No. 5. A piccolo and
a pair of trombones help deliver the eect of storm and
sunshine in the Sixth, also known as the Pastoral Symphony. The Ninth asks for a second pair of horns, for
Viotti Chamber Orchestra performing the 3rd movement of reasons similar to the Eroica (four horns has since beMozart's Divertimento in D Major (K136)
come standard); Beethovens use of piccolo, contrabassoon, trombones, and untuned percussionplus chorus
and vocal soloistsin his nale, are his earliest suggestion that the timbral boundaries of symphony might be
The typical symphony orchestra consists of four groups of expanded. For several decades after his death, symrelated musical instruments called the woodwinds, brass, phonic instrumentation was faithful to Beethovens wellpercussion, and strings (violin, viola, cello and double established model, with few exceptions.
bass). Other instruments such as the piano and celesta
may sometimes be grouped into a fth section such as a
keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert 3.1.2 Expanded instrumentation
harp and electric and electronic instruments. The orchestra, depending on the size, contains almost all of the stan- Apart from the core orchestral complement, various
dard instruments in each group.
other instruments are called for occasionally.[5] These inIn the history of the orchestra, its instrumentation has clude the classical guitar, heckelphone, ugelhorn, cornet,
been expanded over time, often agreed to have been harpsichord, and organ. Saxophones, for example, apstandardized by the classical period[3] and Ludwig van pear in some 19th- through 21st-century scores. While
Beethoven's inuence on the classical model.[4] In the appearing only as featured solo instruments in some
20th century, new repertory demands expanded the in- works, for example Maurice Ravel's orchestration of
strumentation of the orchestra, resulting in a exible use Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition and Sergei
of the classical-model instruments and newly-developed Rachmanino's Symphonic Dances, the saxophone is inelectric and electronic instruments in various combina- cluded in other works, such as Ravels Bolro, Sergei
Prokoev's Romeo and Juliet Suites 1 and 2, Vaughan
tions.
Williams' Symphonies No.6 and 9 and William Walton's
The terms symphony orchestra and philharmonic orches- Belshazzars Feast, and many other works as a member of
tra may be used to distinguish dierent ensembles from the orchestral ensemble. The euphonium is featured in a
the same locality, such as the London Symphony Orches- few late Romantic and 20th-century works, usually playtra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra. A symphony ing parts marked tenor tuba, including Gustav Holst's
orchestra will usually have over eighty musicians on its The Planets, and Richard Strauss's Ein Heldenleben. The
roster, in some cases over a hundred, but the actual num- Wagner tuba, a modied member of the horn family, apber of musicians employed in a particular performance pears in Richard Wagner's cycle Der Ring des Nibelunmay vary according to the work being played and the size gen and several other works by Strauss, Bla Bartk,
of the venue.
and others; it has a prominent role in Anton Bruckner's
Chamber orchestra usually refers to smaller-sized ensem- Symphony No. 7 in E Major.[6] Cornets appear in Pyotr
bles; a major chamber orchestra might employ as many Ilyich Tchaikovsky's ballet Swan Lake, Claude Debussy's
as fty musicians; some are much smaller than that. The La Mer, and several orchestral works by Hector Berlioz.
term concert orchestra may also be used, as in the BBC Unless these instruments are played by members douConcert Orchestra and the RT Concert Orchestra.
bling on another instrument (for example, a trombone

3.2. ORGANIZATION

45

player changing to euphonium or a bassoon player switching to contrabassoon for a certain passage), orchestras
typically hire freelance musicians to augment their regular ensemble.
The 20th-century orchestra was far more exible than its
predecessors.[7] In Beethovens and Felix Mendelssohn's
time, the orchestra was composed of a fairly standard
core of instruments, which was very rarely modied by
composers. As time progressed, and as the Romantic
period saw changes in accepted modication with composers such as Berlioz and Mahler; some composers used
multiple harps and sound eect such as the wind machine. During the 20th century, the modern orchestra
was generally standardized with the modern instrumentation listed below. Nevertheless, by the mid- to late 20th
century, with the development of contemporary classical music, instrumentation could practically be handpicked by the composer (e.g., to add electric instruments
such as electric guitar, electronic instruments such as
synthesizers, non-Western instruments, or other instruments not traditionally used in orchestra).
With this history in mind, the orchestra can be analyzed
in ve periods: the Baroque era, the Classical music period, early/mid-Romantic music era, late-Romantic/early
20th century music and 21st century era. The rst is
a Baroque orchestra (i.e., J.S. Bach, Handel, Vivaldi),
which generally had a smaller number of performers,
and in which one or more chord-playing instruments, the
basso continuo group (e.g., harpsichord or pipe organ and
assorted bass instruments to perform the bassline), played
an important role; the second is a typical classical period orchestra (e.g., early Beethoven along with Mozart
and Haydn), which used a smaller group of performers
than a Romantic music orchestra and a fairly standardized instrumentation; the third is typical of an early/midRomantic era (e.g., Schubert, Berlioz, Schumann); the
fourth is a late-Romantic/early 20th century orchestra
(e.g., Wagner, Brahms, Mahler, Stravinsky), to the common complement of a 2010-era modern orchestra (e.g.,
Adams, Barber, Aaron Copland, Glass, Penderecki).
Baroque orchestra
Classical orchestra

Conducting an orchestra

is generally responsible for leading the group and playing orchestral solos. The violins are divided into two
groups, rst violin and second violin, with the second violins playing in lower registers than the rst violins, playing an accompaniment part, or harmonizing the melody
played by the rst violins. The principal rst violin is
called the concertmaster (or leader in the UK) and is not
only considered the leader of the string section, but the
second-in-command of the entire orchestra, behind only
the conductor. The concertmaster leads the pre-concert
tuning and handles musical aspects of orchestra management, such as determining the bowings for the violins or
for all of the string section. The concertmaster usually
sits to the conductors left, closest to the audience. There
is also a principal second violin, a principal viola, a principal cello and a principal bass.

The principal trombone is considered the leader of the


low brass section, while the principal trumpet is generally
considered the leader of the entire brass section. While
Late Romantic orchestra
the oboe often provides the tuning note for the orchestra (due to 300-year-old convention), no principal is the
Modern orchestra
leader of the woodwind section though in woodwind ensembles, often the ute is leader.[8] Instead, each princi3.2 Organization
pal confers with the others as equals in the case of musical
dierences of opinion. Most sections also have an assisAmong the instrument groups and within each group of tant principal (or co-principal or associate principal), or
instruments, there is a generally accepted hierarchy. Ev- in the case of the rst violins, an assistant concertmaster,
ery instrumental group (or section) has a principal who who often plays a tutti part in addition to replacing the
Early Romantic orchestra

46

CHAPTER 3. ORCHESTRA

principal in his or her absence.


A section string player plays in unison with the rest of the
section, except in the case of divided (divisi) parts, where
upper and lower parts in the music are often assigned to
outside (nearer the audience) and inside seated players. Where a solo part is called for in a string section,
the section leader invariably plays that part. The section
leader (or principal) of a string section is also responsible
for determining the bowings, often based on the bowings
set out by the concertmaster. In some cases, the principal
of a string section may use a slightly dierent bowing than
the concertmaster, to accommodate the requirements of
playing their instrument (e.g., the double-bass section).
Principals of a string section will also lead entrances for
their section, typically by lifting the bow before the entrance, to ensure the section plays together. Tutti wind
and brass players generally play a unique but non-solo
part. Section percussionists play parts assigned to them
by the principal percussionist.
In modern times, the musicians are usually directed
by a conductor, although early orchestras did not have
one, giving this role instead to the concertmaster or the
harpsichordist playing the continuo. Some modern orchestras also do without conductors, particularly smaller
orchestras and those specializing in historically accurate
(so-called period) performances of baroque and earlier
music.
The most frequently performed repertoire for a symphony
orchestra is Western classical music or opera. However,
orchestras are used sometimes in popular music (e.g., to
accompany a rock or pop band in a concert), extensively
in lm music, and increasingly often in video game music.
Orchestras are also used in the symphonic metal genre.
The term orchestra can also be applied to a jazz ensemble, for example in the performance of big-band music.

3.2.1

Selection and appointment of members

All members of a professional orchestra must audition for


positions in the ensemble. Performers typically play one
or more solo pieces of the auditionees choice, such as
a movement of a concerto, a solo Bach movement, and
a variety of excerpts from the orchestral literature that
are advertised in the audition poster (so the auditionees
can prepare). The excerpts are typically the most technically challenging parts and solos from the orchestral literature. Orchestral auditions are typically held in front of a
panel that includes the conductor, the concertmaster, the
principal player of the section for which the auditionee is
applying and possibly other principal players and regular
orchestra members.

to sight read orchestral music. The nal stage of the audition process in some orchestras is a test week, in which
the performer plays with the orchestra for a week or two,
which allows the conductor and principal players to see
if the individual can function well in an actual rehearsal
and performance setting.
There are a range of dierent employment arrangements.
The most sought-after positions are permanent, tenured
positions in the orchestra. Orchestras also hire musicians
on contracts, ranging in length from a single concert to a
full season or more. Contract performers may be hired
for individual concerts when the orchestra is doing an exceptionally large late-Romantic era orchestral work, or to
substitute for a permanent member who is sick. A professional musician who is hired to perform for a single
concert is sometimes called a sub. Some contract musicians may be hired to replace permanent members for
the period that the permanent member is on parental leave
or disability leave.

Gender of ensembles
Historically, major professional orchestras have been
mostly or entirely composed of male musicians. The
rst women members hired in professional orchestras
have been harpists. The Vienna Philharmonic, for example, did not accept women to permanent membership until 1997, far later than comparable orchestras (the
other orchestras ranked among the worlds top ve by
Gramophone in 2008).[9] The last major orchestra to appoint a woman to a permanent position was the Berlin
Philharmonic.[10] In February 1996, the Vienna Philharmonics principal ute, Dieter Flury, told Westdeutscher
Rundfunk that accepting women would be gambling
with the emotional unity (emotionelle Geschlossenheit)
that this organism currently has.[11] In April 1996, the
orchestras press secretary wrote that compensating for
the expected leaves of absence of maternity leave would
be a problem.[12]

In 1997, the Vienna Philharmonic was facing protests


during a [US] tour by the National Organization for
Women and the International Alliance for Women in Music. Finally, after being held up to increasing ridicule
even in socially conservative Austria, members of the orchestra gathered [on 28 February 1997] in an extraordinary meeting on the eve of their departure and agreed
to admit a woman, Anna Lelkes, as harpist.[13] As of
2013, the orchestra has six female members; one of them,
violinist Albena Danailova became one of the orchestras concertmasters in 2008, the rst woman to hold that
position.[14] In 2012, women still made up just 6% of the
orchestras membership. VPO president Clemens Hellsthe VPO now uses completely screened blind
The most promising candidates from the rst round of berg said [15]
auditions.
auditions are invited to return for a second or third round
of auditions, which allows the conductor and the panel to In 2013, an article in Mother Jones stated that while
compare the best candidates. Performers may be asked "[m]any prestigious orchestras have signicant female

3.4. REPERTOIRE
membershipwomen outnumber men in the New York
Philharmonic's violin sectionand several renowned ensembles, including the National Symphony Orchestra, the
Detroit Symphony, and the Minnesota Symphony, are led
by women violinists, the double bass, brass, and percussion sections of major orchestras "...are still predominantly male.[16] A 2014 BBC article stated that the "...introduction of blind auditions, where a prospective instrumentalist performs behind a screen so that the judging
panel can exercise no gender or racial prejudice, has seen
the gender balance of traditionally male-dominated symphony orchestras gradually shift.[17]

3.3 Amateur ensembles


There are also a variety of amateur orchestras:
School orchestras: These orchestras consist of students from an elementary or secondary school.
They may be students from a music class or program or they may be drawn from the entire school
body. School orchestras are typically led by a music
teacher.
University or conservatory orchestras: These orchestras consist of students from a university or music conservatory. In some cases, university orchestras are open to all students from a university, from
all programs. Larger universities may have two or
more university orchestras: one or more orchestras made up of music majors (or, for major music
programs, several tiers of music major orchestras,
ranked by skill level) and a second orchestra open
to university students from all academic programs
(e.g., science, business, etc.) who have previous
classical music experience on an orchestral instrument. University and conservatory orchestras are
led by a conductor who is typically a professor or
instructor at the university or conservatory.
Youth orchestras: These orchestras consist of teens
and young adults drawn from an entire city or region. The age range in youth orchestras varies between dierent ensembles. In some cases, youth orchestras may consist of teens or young adults from
an entire country (e.g., Canadas National Youth Orchestra).
Community orchestras: These orchestras consist
of amateur performers drawn from an entire city
or region. Community orchestras typically consist
mainly of adult amateur musicians. Community orchestras range in level from beginner-level orchestras which rehearse music without doing formal performances in front of an audience to intermediatelevel ensembles to advanced amateur groups, such as
the Ottawa Symphony Orchestra, which play standard professional orchestra repertoire. In some

47
cases, university or conservatory music students may
also be members of community orchestras. While
community orchestra members are mostly unpaid
amateurs, in some orchestras, a small number of
professionals may be hired to act as principal players
and section leaders.

3.4 Repertoire
Orchestras play a wide range of repertoire ranging from
17th-century dance suites, 18th century divertimentos to
20th century lm scores and 21st-century symphonies.
Orchestras have become synonymous with the symphony,
an extended musical composition in Western classical
music that typically contains multiple movements which
provide contrasting keys and tempos. Symphonies are
notated in a musical score, which contains all the instrument parts. The conductor uses the score to study the
symphony before rehearsals and decide on their interpretation (e.g., tempos, articulation, phrasing, etc.), and to
follow the music during rehearsals and concerts, so she
can lead the ensemble. Orchestral musicians play from
parts which contain just the notated music for their instrument. A small number of symphonies also contain
vocal parts (e.g., Beethoven's Ninth Symphony).
Orchestras also perform overtures, a term originally applied to the instrumental introduction to an opera.[18]
During the early Romantic era, composers such as
Beethoven and Mendelssohn began to use the term to refer to independent, self-existing instrumental, programmatic works that presaged genres such as the symphonic
poem, a form devised by Franz Liszt in several works
that began as dramatic overtures. These were at rst
undoubtedly intended to be played at the head of a
programme.[18] In the 1850s the concert overture began
to be supplanted by the symphonic poem.
Orchestras also play with instrumental soloists in
concertos. During concertos, the orchestra plays an
accompaniment role to the soloist (e.g., a solo violinist or
pianist) and, at times, introduces musical themes or interludes while the soloist is not playing. Orchestras also play
during operas, ballets, some musical theatre works and
some choral works (both sacred works such as Masses
and secular works). In operas and ballets, the orchestra accompanies the singers and dancers, respectively,
and plays overtures and interludes where the melodies
played by the orchestra take centre stage. The orchestral repertoire also includes a range of other pieces, such
as Baroque dance suites, symphonic dances and suites of
lm or ballet music.

3.5 History

48

3.5.1

CHAPTER 3. ORCHESTRA

Instrumental craftsmanship

Stokowski and the Philadelphia Orchestra at the March 2, 1916


American premiere of Mahler's 8th Symphony.

The invention of the piston and rotary valve by Heinrich


Stlzel and Friedrich Blhmel, both Silesians, in 1815,
was the rst in a series of innovations, including the development of modern keywork for the ute by Theobald
Boehm and the innovations of Adolphe Sax in the woodwinds. These advances would lead Hector Berlioz to write
a landmark book on instrumentation, which was the rst
systematic treatise on the use of instrumental sound as an
expressive element of music.[19]

3.5.2

With the recording era beginning, the standards of performance were pushed to a new level, because a recorded
symphony could be listened to closely and even minor errors in intonation or ensemble, which might not be noticeable in a live performance, could be heard by critics. As recording technologies improved over the 20th
and 21st centuries, eventually small errors in a recording
could be xed by audio editing or overdubbing. Some
older conductors and composers could remember a time
when simply getting through the music as best as possible was the standard. Combined with the wider audience
made possible by recording, this led to a renewed focus
on particular star conductors and on a high standard of
orchestral execution.[21]

3.5.4 Counter-revolution
With the advent of the early music movement, smaller orchestras where players worked on execution of works in
styles derived from the study of older treatises on playing
became common. These include the Orchestra of the Age
of Enlightenment, the London Classical Players under the
direction of Sir Roger Norrington and the Academy of
Ancient Music under Christopher Hogwood, among others.

Wagners inuence

The next major expansion of symphonic practice came


from Richard Wagner's Bayreuth orchestra, founded to
accompany his musical dramas. Wagners works for
the stage were scored with unprecedented scope and
complexity: indeed, his score to Das Rheingold calls
for six harps. Thus, Wagner envisioned an ever-moredemanding role for the conductor of the theatre orchestra, as he elaborated in his inuential work On Conducting.[20] This brought about a revolution in orchestral
composition, and set the style for orchestral performance
for the next eighty years. Wagners theories re-examined
the importance of tempo, dynamics, bowing of string instruments and the role of principals in the orchestra. Conductors who studied his methods would go on to be inuential themselves.

3.5.5 Recent trends in the United States

In the United States, the late 20th century saw a crisis


of funding and support for orchestras. The size and cost
of a symphony orchestra, compared to the size of the
base of supporters, became an issue that struck at the
core of the institution. Few orchestras could ll auditoriums, and the time-honored season-subscription system became increasingly anachronistic, as more and more
listeners would buy tickets on an ad hoc basis for individual events. Orchestral endowments andmore centrally to the daily operation of American orchestras
orchestral donors have seen investment portfolios shrink
or produce lower yields, reducing the ability of donors to
contribute; further, there has been a trend toward donors
nding other social causes more compelling. Also, while
government funding is less central to American than European orchestras, cuts in such funding are still signicant
3.5.3 20th century orchestra
for American ensembles. Finally, the drastic falling-o
As the early 20th century dawned, symphony orchestras of revenues from recording, tied to no small extent to
were larger, better funded, and better trained than ever changes in the recording industry itself, began a period
before; consequently, composers could compose larger of change that has yet to reach its conclusion.
and more ambitious works. The inuence of Gustav U.S. orchestras that have gone into Chapter 11
Mahler was particularly innovational; in his later sym- bankruptcy include the Philadelphia Orchestra (in April
phonies, such as the mammoth Symphony No. 8, Mahler 2011), and the Louisville Orchestra, in December 2010;
pushes the furthest boundaries of orchestral size, employ- orchestras that have gone into Chapter 7 bankruptcy
ing huge forces. By the late Romantic era, orchestras and have ceased operations include the Northwest
could support the most enormous forms of symphonic Chamber Orchestra in 2006, the Honolulu Orchestra in
expression, with huge string sections, massive brass sec- March 2011, the New Mexico Symphony Orchestra in
tions and an expanded range of percussion instruments. April 2011, and the Syracuse Symphony in June 2011.

3.6. ROLE OF CONDUCTOR

49

The Festival of Orchestras in Orlando, Florida ceased Since the mid-19th century, most conductors have not
operations at the end of March, 2011.
played an instrument when conducting, although in earOne source of nancial diculties that received notice lier periods of classical music history, leading an enand criticism was high salaries for music directors of US semble while playing an instrument was common. In
orchestras,[22] which led several high-prole conductors Baroque music from the 1600s to the 1750s, the group
to take pay cuts in recent years.[23][24][25] Music admin- would typically be led by the harpsichordist or rst viistrators such as Michael Tilson Thomas and Esa-Pekka olinist (see concertmaster), an approach that in modern
Salonen argued that new music, new means of presenting times has been revived by several music directors for music from this period. Conducting while playing a piano
it, and a renewed relationship with the community could
revitalize the symphony orchestra. The American critic or synthesizer may also be done with musical theatre pit
orchestras. Communication is typically non-verbal durGreg Sandow has argued in detail that orchestras must
revise their approach to music, performance, the concert ing a performance (this is strictly the case in art music,
but in jazz big bands or large pop ensembles, there may
experience, marketing, public relations, community involvement, and presentation to bring them in line with be occasional spoken instructions, such as a count in).
However, in rehearsals, frequent interruptions allow the
the expectations of 21st-century audiences immersed in
conductor to give verbal directions as to how the music
popular culture.
should be played or sung.
It is not uncommon for contemporary composers to use
unconventional instruments, including various synthesiz- Conductors act as guides to the orchestras and/or choirs
ers, to achieve desired eects. Many, however, nd they conduct. They choose the works to be performed
more conventional orchestral conguration to provide and study their scores, to which they may make certain
better possibilities for color and depth. Composers like adjustments (e.g., regarding tempo, articulation, phrasJohn Adams often employ Romantic-size orchestras, as ing, repetitions of sections, and so on), work out their
in Adams opera Nixon in China; Philip Glass and others interpretation, and relay their vision to the performers.
to organizational matters, such as
may be more free, yet still identify size-boundaries. Glass They may also attend[28]
scheduling
rehearsals,
planning a concert season, hearin particular has recently turned to conventional orchesing
auditions
and
selecting
members, and promoting their
tras in works like the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra
ensemble
in
the
media.
Orchestras,
choirs, concert bands
and the Violin Concerto No. 2.
and other sizable musical ensembles such as big bands are
Along with a decrease in funding, some U.S. orchestras usually led by conductors.
have reduced their overall personnel, as well as the number of players appearing in performances. The reduced
numbers in performance are usually conned to the string 3.6.1 Conductorless orchestras
section, since the numbers here have traditionally been
exible (as multiple players typically play from the same Main article: Conductorless orchestra
part).

3.6 Role of conductor


Main article: Conducting
Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance,
such as an orchestral or choral concert. The primary duties of the conductor are to set the tempo, ensure correct entries by various members of the ensemble, and
to shape the phrasing where appropriate.[26] To convey
their ideas and interpretation, a conductor communicates
with their musicians primarily through hand gestures, typically though not invariably with the aid of a baton, and
may use other gestures or signals, such as eye contact with
relevant performers.[27] A conductors directions will almost invariably be supplemented or reinforced by verbal
instructions or suggestions to their musicians in rehearsal
prior to a performance.[27]
The conductor typically stands on a raised podium with a
large music stand for the full score, which contains the
musical notation for all the instruments and/or voices.

In the Baroque music era (1600-1750), most orchestras


were led by one of the musicians, typically the principal
rst violin, called the concertmaster. The concertmaster
would lead the tempo of pieces by lifting his or her bow
in a rhythmic manner. Leadership might also be provided
by one of the chord-playing instrumentalists playing the
basso continuo part which was the core of most Baroque
instrumental ensemble pieces. Typically, this would be a
harpsichord player, a pipe organist or a luteist or theorbo
player. A keyboard player could lead the ensemble with
his or her head, or by taking one of the hands o the keyboard to lead a more dicult tempo change. A lutenist or
theorbo player could lead by lifting the instrument neck
up and down to indicate the tempo of a piece, or to lead a
ritard during a cadence or ending. In some works which
combined choirs and instrumental ensembles, two leaders were sometimes used: a concertmaster to lead the instrumentalists and a chord-playing performer to lead the
singers. During the Classical music period (ca. 17201800), the practice of using chordal instruments to play
basso continuo was gradually phased out, and it disappeared completely by 1800. Instead, ensembles began to
use conductors to lead the orchestras tempos and playing

50

CHAPTER 3. ORCHESTRA

style, while the concertmaster played an additional leadership role for the musicians, especially the string players,
who imitate the bowstroke and playing style of the concertmaster, to the degree that is feasible for the dierent
stringed instruments.

principal conductors gestures, which can lead to the ostage instruments being out of time. In the late 20th century and early 21st century, some orchestras use a video
camera pointed at the principal conductor and a closedcircuit TV set in front of the ostage performer(s), inIn 1922, the idea of a conductor-less orchestra was re- stead of using two conductors.
vived in post-revolutionary Soviet Union. The symphony
orchestra Persimfans was formed without a conductor, Contemporary music
because the founders believed that the ensemble should
be modeled on the ideal Marxist state, in which all peo- The techniques of polystylism and polytempo[30] muple are equal. As such, its members felt that there was sic have led a few 20th and 21st century composers
no need to be led by the dictatorial baton of a conductor; to write music where multiple orchestras or ensembles
instead they were led by a committee, which determined perform simultaneously. These trends have brought
tempos and playing styles. Although it was a partial suc- about the phenomenon of polyconductor music, wherein
cess within the Soviet Union, the principal diculty with separate sub-conductors conduct each group of musithe concept was in changing tempo during performances, cians. Usually, one principal conductor conducts the subbecause even if the committee had issued a decree about conductors, thereby shaping the overall performance. In
where a tempo change should take place, there was no Percy Grainger's "The Warriors" which includes three
leader in the ensemble to guide this tempo change. The conductors: the primary conductor of the orchestra, a
orchestra survived for ten years before Stalins cultural secondary conductor directing an o-stage brass ensempolitics disbanded it by taking away its funding.[29]
ble, and a tertiary conductor directing percussion and
In Western nations, some ensembles, such as the Orpheus harp. One example in the late century orchestral muChamber Orchestra, based in New York City, have had sic is Karlheinz Stockhausen's Gruppen, for three ormore success with conductorless orchestras, although de- chestras, which are placed around the audience. This
cisions are likely to be deferred to some sense of lead- way, the sound masses could be spacialized, as in
ership within the ensemble (for example, the principal an electroacoustic work. Gruppen was premiered in
wind and string players, notably the concertmaster). Oth- Cologne, in 1958, conducted by Stockhausen, Bruno
ers have returned to the tradition of a principal player, Maderna and Pierre Boulez. It has been performed by
usually a violinist, being the artistic director and running Simon Rattle, John Carewe and Daniel Harding.
rehearsal and leading concerts. Examples include the
Australian Chamber Orchestra, Amsterdam Sinfonietta
& Candida Thompson and the New Century Chamber 3.7 See also
Orchestra. As well, as part of the early music movement,
some 20th and 21st century orchestras have revived the
Classical music
Baroque practice of having no conductor on the podium
List of symphony orchestra concert halls
for Baroque pieces, using the concertmaster or a chordplaying basso continuo performer (e.g., harpsichord or
List of symphony orchestras
organ) to lead the group.
List of symphony orchestras in Europe

3.6.2

Multiple conductors

List of symphony orchestras in the United


States

Ostage instruments

List of youth orchestras in the United States

Some orchestral works specify that an ostage trumpet


should be used or that other instruments from the orchestra should be positioned o-stage or behind the stage,
to create a haunted, mystical eect. To ensure that the
ostage instrumentalist(s) play in time, sometimes a subconductor will be stationed ostage with a clear view of
the principal conductor. Examples include the ending of
"Neptune" from Gustav Holst's The Planets. The principal conductor leads the large orchestra, and the subconductor relays the principal conductors tempo and gestures to the ostage musician (or musicians). One of the
challenges with using two conductors is that the second
conductor may get out of synchronization with the main
conductor, or she may mis-convey (or misunderstand) the

Orchestral enhancement
Orchestration
Radio orchestra
Shorthand for orchestra instrumentation
Conductorless orchestra
Chinese orchestra
String orchestra
Concert band
Jazz ensemble

3.9. BIBLIOGRAPHY

51

Rhythm section

[18] Blom 1954.

World music

[19] Hector Berlioz. Traite d'instrumentation et d'orchestration


(Paris: Lemoine, 1843).

Film score

3.8 Notes and references


[1] , Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A GreekEnglish Lexicon, on Perseus
[2] Michael Kennedy & Joyce Bourne Kennedy (2007).
Conducting. Oxford Concise Dictionary of Music
(Fifth ed.). Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN
9780199203833.
[3] Jack Westrup, Instrumentation and Orchestration: 3.
1750 to 1800, New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed., edited by Stanley Sadie (New York:
Grove, 2001).

[20] Richard Wagner. On Conducting (Ueber das Dirigiren), a


treatise on style in the execution of classical music (London:
W. Reeves, 1887).
[21] See Lance W. Brunner. (1986). The Orchestra and
Recorded Sound, pp 479-532 in Joan Peyser Ed. The Orchestra: Origins and Transformations, New York: Scribners Sons.
[22] Michael Cooper (2015-06-13). Ronald Wilford, Manager of Legendary Maestros, Dies at 87. The New York
Times. Retrieved 2015-07-11.
[23] Zachary Lewis (2009-03-24). Cleveland Orchestra plans
'deep' cuts; Welser-Most takes pay cut. Cleveland Plain
Dealer. Retrieved 2015-07-11.

[4] D. Kern Holoman, Instrumentation and Orchestration: 4.


19th Century, in ibid.

[24] Donna Perlmutter (2011-08-21). He conducts himself


well through crises. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 201507-11.

[5] G.W. Hopkins and Paul Griths, Instrumentation and


Orchestration: 5. Impression and Later Developments,
in ibid.

[25] Graydon Royce (2014-05-09). Osmo Vnsk hires on to


rebuild Minnesota Orchestra. Minneapolis Star-Tribune.
Retrieved 2015-07-11.

[6] The Wagner Tuba. The Wagner Tuba. Retrieved 201406-04.

[26] Michael Kennedy and Joyce Bourne Kennedy (2007). Oxford Concise Dictionary of Music (Fifth ed.). Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 9780199203833. Conducting

[7] G.W. Hopkins and Paul Griths, op. cit.


[8] An Investigation of Members Roles in Wind Quintets.
Pom.sagepub.com. 2003-01-01. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
[9] The worlds greatest orchestras. gramophone.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
[10] James R. Oestreich, Berlin in Lights: The Woman Question, Arts Beat, The New York Times, 16 November 2007
[11] Westdeutscher Rundfunk Radio 5, Musikalische Misogynie, 13 February 1996, transcribed by Regina Himmelbauer; translation by William Osborne
[12] The Vienna Philharmonics Letter of Response to the
Gen-Mus List. Osborne-conant.org. 1996-02-25. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
[13] Jane Perlez, Vienna Philharmonic Lets Women Join in
Harmony, The New York Times, February 28, 1997
[14] Vienna opera appoints rst ever female concertmaster,
France 24
[15] James R. Oestrich, Even Legends Adjust To Time and
Trend, Even the Vienna Philharmonic, The New York
Times, 28 February 1998
[16] Hannah Levintova. Heres Why You Seldom See Women
Leading a Symphony. Mother Jones. Retrieved 201512-24.
[17] Burton, Clemency (2014-10-21). Culture - Why aren't
there more women conductors?". BBC. Retrieved 201512-24.

[27] Holden, Raymond: The technique of conducting, p. 3


in The Cambridge Companion to Conducting ed. Jos Antonio Bowen
[28] About.com: The Conductor at the Wayback Machine
(archived April 15, 2013)
[29] John Eckhard, Orchester ohne Dirigent, Neue Zeitschrift
fr Musik 158, no. 2 (1997): 4043.
[30] Polytempo Music Articles. Greschak.com. Retrieved
2014-06-04.

3.9 Bibliography
Raynor, Henry (1978). The Orchestra: a history.
Scribner. ISBN 0-684-15535-4.
Sptizer, John, and Neil Zaslaw (2004). The Birth of
the Orchestra: History of an Institution, 1650-1815.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-816434-3.

3.10 External links


The Orchestra: A Users ManualA fairly concise
overview, including detailed video interviews with
players of each instrument and various resources

52
Greg Sandow on the Future of Classical Music, Artsjournal.com blog, 25 September 2011
Chisholm, Hugh, ed.
(1911).
"Orchestra".
Encyclopdia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge
University Press.

CHAPTER 3. ORCHESTRA

Chapter 4

String instrument
In the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument
classication, used in organology, string instruments are
called chordophones. Common instruments in the string
family include the violin, guitar, sitar, electric bass, viola,
cello, harp, double bass, rebab, banjo, mandolin, ukulele,
and bouzouki. String instruments can be sounded using a number of approaches. The classical strings (violin, viola, cello and double bass) are played pizzicato (by
plucking) and using a bow. Guitar-family instruments are
played with a variety of techniques, including plucking
and strumming.

4.1 History

Numerous stringed instruments of Chinese make on display in a


shop.

Some of the earliest stringed instruments have been identied in archaeological digs of Ancient Mesopotamian
sites, like the lyres of Ur which include artifacts over
three thousand years old. Lyre instruments with wooden
bodies, and strings used for plucking or playing with a
bow represent key instruments that point towards later
harps and violin type instruments; moreover, Indian instruments from 500 BC have been discovered with anything from 7 to 21 strings.
During the medieval era, the rate by which string instruments developed arguably varied from country to country Middle Eastern rebecs represented breakthroughs in
terms of shape and strings, with a half a pear shape using three strings. Early versions of the violin and ddle,
by comparison, emerged in Europe through instruments
such as the gittern, a four stringed precursor to the guitar,
Viol, del and rebec (from left to right) on display at Amakusa
and basic lutes. These instruments typically used catgut
Korejiyokan in Amakusa, Kumamoto, Japan
and other materials, including silk, for their strings.
String instruments, stringed instruments, or
chordophones are musical instruments that produce
sound from vibrating strings. In most string instruments,
the vibrations are transmitted to the body of the instrument, which also vibrates, along with the air inside
it. The body of mostbut not all string instrumentsis
hollow. There are exceptions, such as types of electric
guitar which have a solid wood body; with the electric
guitar, a guitar amplier is used to make the vibrations
of the strings audible.

String instrument design was rened during the


Renaissance and into the Baroque period of musical
history violins and guitars became more stable in
terms of their design changes, and were roughly similar
to what we now use the violins of the Renaissance
featured intricate woodwork and stringing, while more
elaborate bass instruments such as the bandora were
produced alongside quill plucked citterns, and Spanish
body guitars.
In the 19th century, string instruments were made more

53

54

CHAPTER 4. STRING INSTRUMENT

widely available through mass production, with woodwind string instruments a key part of orchestras cellos,
violas, and upright basses, for example, were now standard instruments for chamber and smaller orchestras. At
the same time, the 19th century guitar became more typically associated with six string models, rather than traditional ve string versions. Major changes to string instruments in the 20th century primarily involved innovations in amplication and electronic music electric violins were available by the 1920s, and were an important part of emerging jazz music trends in the United
States. Breakthroughs in electric guitar and basses then
saw major breakthroughs in pop and rock music through
the middle of the 20th century. The ongoing connection
of string instruments to electronic amplication added variety to classical performances, and enabled experimentation in the dynamic range of orchestras, bands, and solo
performances.[1]

4.2 Types of instruments


4.2.1

Construction

All string instruments produce sound from one or more


vibrating strings, transferred to the air by the body of the
instrument (or by a pickup in the case of electronically
amplied instruments). They are usually categorized by
the technique used to make the strings vibrate (or by the
primary technique, in the case of instruments where more
than one may apply.) The three most common techniques
are plucking, bowing, and striking. An important dierence between bowing and plucking is that in the former
the phenomenon is periodic, so that the overtones are kept
in a strictly harmonic relationship to the fundamental.[2]
Plucking
Main article: Plucked string instrument
Plucking is a method of playing on instruments such as
the veena, banjo, ukulele, guitar, harp, lute, mandolin,
oud, and sitar, using either a nger, thumb, or quills (now
plastic plectra) to pluck the strings.
Instruments normally played by bowing (see below) may
also be plucked, a technique referred to by the Italian term
pizzicato.

String instruments can be divided in three groups.


Lutes instruments that support the strings via
a neck and a bout (gourd), for instance a
guitar, a violin, or a saz

Bowing
Main article: Bowed string instrument

Harps instruments that contain the strings


within a frame

Bowing (Italian: arco) is a method used in some string


instruments, including the violin, viola, cello, and the
Zithers instruments that have the strings
double bass (of the violin family), and the old viol family.
mounted on a body, such as a guqin, a
The bow consists of a stick with horse tail hairs stretched
cimbalom, an autoharp, or a piano
between its ends. The hairs are rubbed with rosin to make
the bow grip the string. The bow can be drawn across
It is also possible to divide the instruments in groups fo- the string to produce held notes or used in short back
cused on how the instrument is played.
and forth movements to produce rhythms. Bowing the
instruments string causes a stick-slip phenomenon to occur, which makes the string vibrate.

4.2.2

Types of playing techniques

The ravanahatha is one of the oldest string instruments.


Ancestors of the modern bowed string instruments are
the rebab of the Islamic Empires, the Persian kamanche
and the Byzantine lira. Other bowed instruments are
the rebec, hardingfele, nyckelharpa, koky, erhu, igil,
sarangi and K'ni. The hurdy-gurdy is bowed by a wheel.
Rarely, the guitar has been played with a bow (rather than
plucked) for unique eects.
Striking

An acoustic guitar being strummed.

For a full list, see List of string instruments.

The third common method of sound production in


stringed instruments is to strike the string. The piano and
hammered dulcimer use this method of sound production. Even though the piano strikes the strings, the use of
felt hammers means that the sound that is produced can
nevertheless be mellow and rounded, in contrast to the

4.3. CHANGING THE PITCH OF A VIBRATING STRING

55

sharp attack produced when a very hard hammer strikes is impractical. Instruments with a ngerboard are then
the strings.
played by adjusting the length of the vibrating portion
Violin family string instrument players are occasionally of the strings. The following observations all apply to a
instructed to strike the string with the stick of the bow, a string that is innitely exible strung between two xed
technique called col legno. This yields a percussive sound supports. Real strings have nite curvature at the bridge
along with the pitch of the note. A well-known use of and nut, and the bridge, because of its motion, are not excol legno for orchestral strings is Gustav Holst's Mars actly nodes of vibration. Hence the following statements
about proportionality are approximations.
movement from The Planets suite.
Other methods

4.3.1 Length

The aeolian harp employs a very unusual method of sound


production: the strings are excited by the movement of
the air.
Some instruments that have strings have attached
keyboards that the player uses instead of directly manipulating the strings. These include the piano, the clavichord,
and the harpsichord.
With these keyboard instruments too, strings are occasionally plucked or bowed by hand. Composers such as
Henry Cowell wrote music that requires that the player
reach inside the piano and pluck the strings directly,
bow them with bow hair wrapped around the strings,
or play them by rolling the bell of a brass instrument such
as a trombone on the array of strings.

String ngering is proportional and not xed,[3] as on the piano

Pitch can be adjusted by varying the length of the string.[2]


A longer string results in a lower pitch, while a shorter
string results in a higher pitch. The frequency is inversely
proportional to the length:

Other keyed string instruments, small enough for a


1
strolling musician to play, include the plucked autoharp,
f
the bowed nyckelharpa, and the hurdy-gurdy, which is
l
played by cranking a rosined wheel.
A string twice as long produces a tone of half the freSteel-stringed instruments (such as the guitar, bass, vio- quency (one octave lower).
lin, etc.) can be played using a magnetic eld. An E-Bow
is small hand-held battery-powered device that magnetically excites the strings of an electric string instrument to 4.3.2 Tension
provide a sustained, singing tone.
Pitch can be adjusted by varying the tension of the string.
Third bridge is a plucking method where the player frets A string with less tension (looser) results in a lower pitch,
a string and strikes the side opposite the bridge. The while a string with greater tension (tighter) results in a
technique is mainly used on electric instruments, because higher pitch. The frequency is proportional to the square
these have a pickup that amplies only the local string vi- root of the tension:
bration. It is possible on acoustic instruments as well, but
less eective. For instance, a player might press on the

seventh fret on a guitar and pluck it at the head side to f T


make a tone resonate at the opposed side. At electric instruments this technique generates multitone sounds reminiscent of a clock or bell.
4.3.3 Linear density

4.3 Changing the pitch of a vibrating string


Main article: Mersennes laws

The pitch of a string can also be varied by changing the


linear density (mass per unit length) of the string. The
frequency is inversely proportional to the square root of
the linear density:
1
f

There are three ways to change the pitch of a vibrating


string. String instruments are tuned by varying the strings Given two strings of equal length and tension, the string
tension because adjusting length or mass per unit length with higher mass per unit length produces the lower pitch.

56

4.4 String length or scale length


The length of the string from nut to bridge on bowed or
plucked instruments ultimately determines the distance
between dierent notes on the instrument. For example,
a double bass with its low range needs a scale length of
around 42 inches (110 cm), whilst a violin scale is only
about 13 inches (33 cm). On the shorter scale of the violin, the left hand may easily reach a range of slightly more
than two octaves without shifting position, while on the
bass longer scale, a single octave or a ninth is reachable
in lower positions.

4.5 Contact points along the string

The strings of a piano

In bowed instruments, the bow is normally placed perpendicularly to the string, at a point half way between
the end of the ngerboard and the bridge. However,
dierent bow placements can be selected to change
timbre. Application of the bow close to the bridge
(known as sul ponticello) produces an intense, sometimes
harsh sound, which acoustically emphasizes the upper
harmonics. Bowing above the ngerboard (sul tasto) produces a purer tone with less overtone strength, emphasizing the fundamental, also known as autando, since it
sounds less reedy and more ute-like.
Similar timbral distinctions are also possible with plucked
string instruments by selecting an appropriate plucking
point, although the dierence is perhaps more subtle.

CHAPTER 4. STRING INSTRUMENT


plucking point close to the bridge, producing a reedier
nasal sound rich in upper harmonics.

4.6 Production of multiple notes


A string at a certain tension and length only produces one
note, To produce multiple notes, string instruments use
one of two methods. One is to add enough strings to cover
the required range. The other is to provide a way to stop
the strings along their length to shorten the part that vibrates. The piano and harp are examples of the former
method, where each note on the instrument has its own
string or course of multiple strings. (Many notes on a piano are strung with a choir of three strings tuned alike.)
A guitar represents the second methodthe players ngers push the string against the ngerboard to force the
string over a fret and shorten the vibrating part.
Some zithers combine stoppable (melody) strings with a
greater number of open harmony or chord strings. On
instruments with stoppable strings, such as the violin or
guitar, the player can shorten the vibrating length of the
string, using their ngers directly (or more rarely through
some mechanical device, as in the nyckelharpa and the
hurdy-gurdy). Such instruments usually have a ngerboard attached to the neck of the instrument, that provides a hard at surface the player can stop the strings
against. On some string instruments, the ngerboard has
frets, raised ridges perpendicular to the strings, that stop
the string at precise intervals, in which case the ngerboard is also called a fretboard.
Moving frets during performance is usually impractical.
The bridges of a koto, on the other hand, may be moved
by the player occasionally in the course of a single piece
of music. Many modern Western harps include levers,
either directly moved by ngers (on Celtic harps) or controlled by foot pedals (on orchestral harps), to raise the
pitch of individual strings by a xed amount. The Middle
Eastern zither, the qanun, is equipped with small levers
called mandal that allow each course of multiple strings
to be incrementally retuned on the y while the instrument is being played. These levers raise or lower the pitch
of the string course by a microtone, less than a half step.

In keyboard instruments, the contact point along the


4.7 Sympathetic strings
string (whether this be hammer, tangent, or plectrum) is
a choice made by the instrument designer. Builders use a
combination of experience and acoustic theory to estab- Main article: Sympathetic string
lish the right set of contact points.
In harpsichords, often there are two sets of strings of
equal length. These choirs usually dier in their plucking points. One choir has a normal plucking point, producing a canonical harpsichord sound; the other has a

Some instruments are employed with sympathetic strings,


additional strings not meant to be plucked. These strings
resonate along with the played notes. This system is for
instance present on a sarangi.

4.9. SYMPHONIC STRINGS

57

4.8 Sound production

4.8.2 Electronic amplication

4.8.1

Most string instruments can be tted with piezoelectric


or magnetic pickups to convert the strings vibrations into
an electrical signal that is amplied and then converted
back into sound by loudspeakers. Some players attach a
pickup to their traditional string instrument to electrify
it. Another option is to use a solid-bodied instrument,
which reduces unwanted feedback howls or squeals.

Acoustic instruments

Amplied string instruments can be much louder than


their acoustic counterparts, so musicians can play them in
relatively loud rock, blues, and jazz ensembles. AmpliA vibrating string on its own makes only a very quiet ed instruments can also have their amplied tone modisound, so string instruments are usually constructed in ed by using electronic eects such as distortion, reverb,
such a way that this sound is coupled to a hollow resonat- or wah-wah.
ing chamber, a soundboard, or both. On the violin, for Bass-register string instruments such as the double bass
example the tout strings pass over a bridge resting on a and the electric bass are amplied with bass instrument
hollow box. The strings vibrations are distributed via the ampliers that are designed to reproduce low-frequency
bridge and soundpost to all surfaces of the instrument, sounds. To modify the tone of amplied bass instruand are thus made louder. The correct technical expla- ments, a range of electronic bass eects are available,
nation is that they allow a better match to the acoustic such as distortion and chorus.
impedance of the air.
See also: Musical acoustics

It is sometimes said that the sounding board or soundbox


amplies the sound of the strings. Technically speak- 4.9 Symphonic strings
ing, no amplication occurs, because all of the energy to
produce sound comes from the vibrating string. What reThe string instruments usually used in the orchestra, and
ally happens is that the sounding board of the instrument
often called the symphonic strings are:[4]
provides a larger surface area to create sound waves than
that of the string. A larger vibrating surface moves more
Violins (divided into two sectionsrst violins and
air, hence produces a louder sound.
second violins)
All lute type instruments traditionally have a bridge,
Violas
which holds the string at the proper action height from
the fret/nger board. On acoustic instruments, the bridge
Cellos
performs an equally important function of transmitting
string energy into the sound box of the instrument,
Double basses
thereby increasing the sound volume. The specic design,
and materials the used in the construction of the bridge
When the instrumentation of an orchestral work is said
of an instrument, have a dramatic impact upon both the
to include strings, is it very often this combination of
sound and responsiveness of the instrument.
string parts that is indicated. Orchestral works rarely omit
Achieving a tonal characteristic that is eective and any of these string parts, but fairly often will include adpleasing to the players and listeners ear is something ditional string instruments, especially harp and piano. In
of an art, and the makers of string instruments often the Baroque orchestra, harpsichord is almost always used
seek very high quality woods to this end, particularly to play the basso continuo part (the written-out bass line
spruce (chosen for its lightness, strength and exibility) and improvised chords), and often a theorbo or lute. In
and maple (a very hard wood). Spruce is used for the some classical music, such as the string quartet, the dousounding boards of instruments from the violin to the pi- ble bass is not typically used; the cello plays the bass role
ano. Instruments such as the banjo use a drum, covered in this literature.
in natural or synthetic skin as their soundboard.
Acoustic instruments can also be made out of articial
materials, such as carbon ber and berglass (particularly
the larger instruments, such as cellos and basses).
In the early 20th century, the Stroh violin used a
diaphragm-type resonator and a metal horn to project the
string sound, much like early mechanical gramophones.
Its use declined beginning about 1920, as electronic amplication came into use.

4.10 See also


"Essay on the ngering of the violoncello and on the
conduct of the bow"
List of string instruments
Luthier (maker of stringed instruments)

58

CHAPTER 4. STRING INSTRUMENT

Musical acoustics
Ravanahatha
String instrument extended technique
String instrument repertoire
String orchestra
Strings (music)
Stringed instrument tunings

4.11 References
[1] Michael Chanan (1994). Musica Practica: The Social
Practice of Western Music from Gregorian Chant to Postmodernism. Verso. p. 170. ISBN 978-1-85984-005-4.
[2] Oxford
Music
Online
www.oxfordmusiconline.com.
17.

by
subscription.
Retrieved 2015-09-

[3] Piston, Walter (1955). Orchestration, p.5.


[4] The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. Oxford University Press. 1964. p. 412. ISBN 0-19-311302-3.

4.12 External links


The physics of the bowed string
Instruments in Depth: The Viola, an online feature
presented by Bloomingdale School of Music (2010)
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Stringed instruments". Encyclopdia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Chapter 5

Woodwind instrument
5.1 Flutes
Main article: Flute
Flutes produce sound by directing a focused stream of air
across the edge of a hole in a cylindrical tube.[2] The ute
family can be divided into two sub-families: open utes,
and closed utes.[3]
To produce a sound with open utes, the player is required
to blow a stream of air across a sharp edge that then splits
the airstream . This split airstream then acts upon the air
column contained within the utes hollow causing it to
vibrate and produce sound. Examples of open utes are
the transverse ute, panpipes and shakuhachi.[4] Ancient
utes of this variety were often made from tubular sections of plants such as grasses, reeds, and hollowed-out
tree branches. Later, utes were made of metals such as
tin, copper, or bronze. Modern concert utes are usually made of high-grade metal alloys, usually containing
nickel, silver, copper, or gold.[5]
To produce a sound with a closed ute, the player is required to blow air into a duct. This duct acts as a channel bringing the air to a sharp edge. As with the open
utes, the air is then split; this causes the column of air
within the closed ute to vibrate and produce sound. Examples of this type of ute include the recorder, ocarina,
and organ pipes.[6]

Alto and tenor saxophone reeds

5.2 Reed instruments


Reed instruments produce sound by focusing air into a
mouthpiece which then causes a reed, or reeds, to vibrate.
Similar to utes, Reed pipes are also further divided into
[7]
Woodwind instruments are a family of musical instru- two types: single reed and double reed.
ments within the more general category of wind instru- Single-reed woodwinds produce sound by placing a reed
ments. There are two main types of woodwind instru- onto the opening of a mouthpiece (using a ligature).
ments: utes and reed instruments (otherwise called reed When air is forced between the reed and the mouthpiece,
pipes). What dierentiates these instruments from other the reed causes the air column in the instrument to viwind instruments is the way in which they produce their brate and produce its unique sound. Single reed instrusound.[1] Examples are a saxophone, a bassoon, piccolo ments include the clarinet, saxophone, and others such as
and others.
the chalumeau.[8]
59

60

CHAPTER 5. WOODWIND INSTRUMENT

Double-reed instruments use two precisely cut, small bellows (e.g. accordion).[11][12]
pieces of cane bound together at the base. This form of
sound production has been estimated to have originated in
the middle to late Neolithic period; its discovery has been 5.3 Modern orchestra and concert
attributed to the observation of wind blowing through a
band woodwinds
split rush. The nished, bound reed is inserted into the
instrument and vibrates as air is forced between the two
pieces (again, causing the air within the instrument to vi- Main article: Woodwind section
brate as well).[9] This family of reed pipes is subdivided
further into another two sub-families: exposed double
The modern orchestra's woodwind section typically inreed, and capped double reed instruments.
cludes: utes, oboes, clarinets, and bassoons. The
Exposed double-reed instruments are played by having piccolo, cor anglais, bass clarinet, E-at clarinet, and
the double reed directly between the players lips. This contrabassoon are commonly used supplementary woodfamily includes instruments such as the oboe, cor anglais wind instruments. The section may also on occasion be
(also called English horn) and bassoon, and many types expanded by the addition of saxophone(s).
of shawms throughout the world.
The concert band's woodwind section is typically much
On the other hand, Capped double-reed instruments have larger and more diverse than the orchestras. The conthe double reed covered by a cap. The player blows cert bands woodwind section typically includes: piccolo,
through a hole in this cap that then directs the air through utes, oboes, B clarinets, bass clarinets, bassoons, alto
the reeds. This family includes the crumhorn.
saxophones, tenor saxophone, and baritone saxophone.
The cor anglais, E clarinet, alto clarinet, contra-alto clarinet, contrabass clarinet, contrabassoon, and soprano saxophone are also used, but not as frequently as the other
woodwinds.

5.4 See also


Brass instrument
Musical instrument
Wind instrument
Percussion instrument

5.5 References
[1] Woodwind Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
[2] Flutes; Encyclopedia Britannica.
[3] Carroll, Paul Baroque Woodwind instruments p. 45.
Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate, 1999
A piper playing the bagpipes

Bagpipes are unique reed pipe instruments since they use


two or more double or single reeds. However, bagpipes
are functionally the same as a capped double reed instruments since the reeds are never in direct contact with
players lips.[10]

[4] Carroll, Paul Baroque Woodwind instruments p. 45.


Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate, 1999.
[5] Flutes Encyclopedia Britannica Online
[6] Carroll, Paul Baroque Woodwind instruments p. 45.
Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate, 1999
[7] Woodwind Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

Free reed aerophone instruments are likewise unique [8]


since sound is produced by 'free reeds small metal
[9]
tongues arranged in rows within a metal or wooden frame.
The airow necessary for the instruments sound is generated either by a players breath (e.g. harmonica), or by [10]

Wind Instruments Encyclopedia Britannica Online.


Carroll, Paul Baroque Woodwind instruments pp.88.
Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate, 1999.
Bagpipes Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

5.6. EXTERNAL LINKS

[11] Harmonica Encyclopedia Britannica Online


[12] Accordion Encyclopedia Britannica Online

5.6 External links


How do Woodwind Instruments work
Woodwind Fingering Chart
Woodwind Reference ClassicalMusicHomepage.com

61

Chapter 6

Brass instrument
sound is made, as above, and not by whether the instrument is actually made of brass. Thus one nds brass instruments made of wood, like the alphorn, the cornett, the
serpent and the didgeridoo, while some woodwind instruments are made of brass, like the saxophone.

6.1 Families
Modern brass instruments generally come in one of two
families:
Valved brass instruments use a set of valves (typically three or four but as many as seven or more
in some cases) operated by the players ngers that
introduce additional tubing, or crooks, into the instrument, changing its overall length. This family
includes all of the modern brass instruments except the trombone: the trumpet, horn (also called
French horn), euphonium, and tuba, as well as the
cornet, ugelhorn, tenor horn (alto horn), baritone
horn, sousaphone, mellophone, and the saxhorn.
As valved instruments are predominant among the
brasses today, a more thorough discussion of their
workings can be found below. The valves are usually piston valves, but can be rotary valves; the latter
are the norm for the horn (except in France) and are
also common on the tuba.

A trumpet in the foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a


ugelhorn in background

Slide brass instruments use a slide to change the


length of tubing. The main instruments in this category are the trombone family, though valve trombones are occasionally used, especially in jazz. The
trombone familys ancestor, the sackbut, and the
folk instrument bazooka are also in the slide family.

A brass instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular
resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the players
lips. Brass instruments are also called labrosones, literally meaning lip-vibrated instruments.[1]
There are several factors involved in producing dierent pitches on a brass instrument. Slides, valves, crooks
(though they are rarely used today), or keys are used
to change vibratory length of tubing, thus changing the
available harmonic series, while the players embouchure,
lip tension and air ow serve to select the specic harmonic produced from the available series.

There are two other families that have, in general, become


functionally obsolete for practical purposes. Instruments
of both types, however, are sometimes used for periodinstrument performances of Baroque or Classical pieces.
In more modern compositions, they are occasionally used
for their intonation or tone color.

The view of most scholars (see organology) is that the


term brass instrument should be dened by the way the

Natural brass instruments only play notes in the instruments harmonic series. These include the bugle

62

6.1. FAMILIES

63

and older variants of the trumpet and horn. The


the 1910s and 1920s, the E.A. Couturier company
trumpet was a natural brass instrument prior to about
built brass band instruments utilizing a patent for a
1795, and the horn before about 1820. In the 18th
continuous conical bore without cylindrical portions
century, makers developed interchangeable crooks
even for the valves or tuning slide.
of dierent lengths, which let players use a single instrument in more than one key. Natural instruments
are still played for period performances and some Whole-tube vs. half-tube
ceremonial functions, and are occasionally found in
division, based on bore diameter in relation
more modern scores, such as those by Richard Wag- The second
[2]
to
length,
determines
whether the fundamental tone or
ner and Richard Strauss.
the rst overtone is the lowest partial practically available
Keyed or Fingered brass instruments used holes to the player:
along the body of the instrument, which were covered by ngers or by nger-operated pads (keys) in
Whole-tube instruments have larger bores in relaa similar way to a woodwind instrument. These intion to tubing length, and can play the fundamental
cluded the cornett, serpent, ophicleide, keyed bugle
tone with ease and precision. The tuba and euphoand keyed trumpet. They are more dicult to play
nium are examples of whole-tube brass instruments.
than valved instruments.
Half-tube instruments have smaller bores in relation to tubing length and cannot easily or accurately
6.1.1 Bore taper and diameter
play the fundamental tone. The second partial (rst
overtone) is the lowest note of each tubing length
Brass instruments may also be characterised by two genpractical to play on half-tube instruments. The
eralizations about geometry of the bore, that is, the tubing
trumpet and horn are examples of half-tube brass
between the mouthpiece and the aring of the tubing into
instruments.
the bell. Those two generalizations are with regard to
For whole tube instruments the 'fundamental', although
the degree of taper or conicity of the bore and
half the frequency of the second harmonic, is in fact a
pedal note rather than a true fundamental[4]
the diameter of the bore with respect to its length.
Cylindrical vs. conical bore

6.1.2 Other brass instruments

While all modern valved and slide brass instruments con- The instruments in this list fall for various reasons outsist in part of conical and in part of cylindrical tubing, side the scope of much of the discussion above regarding
families of brass instruments.
they are divided as follows:
Cylindrical bore brass instruments are those in
which approximately constant diameter tubing predominates. Cylindrical bore brass instruments are
generally perceived as having a brighter, more penetrating tone quality compared to conical bore brass
instruments. The trumpet, baritone horn and all
trombones are cylindrical bore. In particular, the
slide design of the trombone necessitates this.

Alphorn (wood)

Conical bore brass instruments are those in which


tubing of constantly increasing diameter predominates. Conical bore instruments are generally perceived as having a more mellow tone quality than
the cylindrical bore brass instruments. The "British
brass band" group of instruments fall into this category. This includes the ugelhorn, cornet, tenor
horn (alto horn), horn, euphonium and tuba. Some
conical bore brass instruments are more conical than
others. For example, the ugelhorn diers from
the cornet by having a higher percentage of its tubing length conical than does the cornet, in addition to possessing a wider bore than the cornet. In

Keyed trumpet (keyed brass)

Conch (shell)
Didgeridoo (wood, Australia)
Natural horn (no valves or slidesexcept tuning
crooks in some cases)
Keyed bugle (keyed brass)

Serpent (keyed brass)


Ophicleide (keyed brass)
Shofar (animal horn)
Vladimirskiy rozhok (wood, Russia)
Vuvuzela (simple short horn, origins disputed but
achieved fame or notoriety through many plastic examples in the 2010 World Cup)
Lur

64

CHAPTER 6. BRASS INSTRUMENT

6.2 Valves

versed, i.e., pressing a valve removes a length of tubing


rather than adding one. One modern example of such an
ascending valve is the Yamaha YSL-350C trombone,[5]
Main article: Brass Instrument Valves
Valves are used to change the length of tubing of a brass in which the extra valve tubing is normally engaged to
pitch the instrument in B, and pressing the thumb lever
removes a whole step to pitch the instrument in C. Valves
require regular lubrication.

Piston valve

A core standard valve layout based on the action of three


valves had become almost universal by (at latest) 1864
as witnessed by Arbans Method published in that year.
The eect of a particular combination of valves may be
seen in the table below. This table is correct for the core
3-valve layout on almost any modern valved brass instrument. The most common four-valve layout is a superset
of the well-established 3-valve layout and is noted in the
table, despite the exposition of four-valve and also vevalve systems (the latter used on the tuba) being incomplete in this article.

6.2.1 Tuning

Rotary valve

Since valves lower the pitch, a valve that makes a pitch


too low (at) creates an interval wider than desired, while
a valve that plays sharp creates an interval narrower than
desired. Intonation deciencies of brass instruments that
are independent of the tuning or temperament system
are inherent in the physics of the most popular valve design, which uses a small number of valves in combination
to avoid redundant and heavy lengths of tubing[6] (this
is entirely separate from the slight deciencies between
Western musics dominant equal (even) temperament system and the just (not equal) temperament of the harmonic
series itself). Since each lengthening of the tubing has an
inversely proportional eect on pitch (Pitch of brass instruments), while pitch perception is logarithmic, there is
no way for a simple, uncompensated addition of length to
be correct in every combination when compared with the
pitches of the open tubing and the other valves.[7]
Absolute tube length
For example, given a length of tubing equaling 100 inches
when open, one may obtain the following tuning discrepancies:

Playing notes using valves (notably 1st + 3rd and 1st +


2nd + 3rd) requires compensation to adjust the tuning appropriately, either by the players lip-and-breath control,
via mechanical assistance of some sort, or, in the case of
Slide
horns, by the position of the stopping hand in the bell. 'T'
instrument allowing the player to reach the notes of var- stands for trigger on a trombone.
ious harmonic series. Each valve pressed diverts the air
stream through additional tubing, individually or in conjunction with other valves. This lengthens the vibrating Relative tube length
air column thus lowering the fundamental tone and associated harmonic series produced by the instrument. De- Traditionally[8] the valves lower the pitch of the instrusigns exist, although rare, in which this behaviour is re- ment by adding extra lengths of tubing based on a just

6.2. VALVES

65

tuning:

the pitch of the 1-3 and 1-2-3 valve combinations. On the


trumpet and cornet, these valve combinations correspond
1st valve: 1/8 of main tube, making an interval of to low D, low C, low G, and low F, so chromatically, to
stay in tune, one must use this method.
9:8, a pythagorean major second
In instruments with a fourth valve, such as tubas, eupho 2nd valve: 1/15 of main tube, making an interval of
niums, piccolo trumpets, etc. that valve lowers the pitch
16:15, a just minor second
by a perfect fourth; this is used to compensate for the
3rd valve: 1/5 of main tube, making an interval of sharpness of the valve combinations 1-3 and 1-2-3 (4 replaces 1-3, 2-4 replaces 1-2-3). All three normal valves
6:5, a just minor third
may be used in addition to the fourth to increase the instruments range downwards by a perfect fourth, although
Combining the valves and the harmonics of the instruwith increasingly severe intonation problems.
ment leads to the following ratios and comparisons to 12tone equal tuning and to a common ve-limit tuning in When four-valved models without any kind of compensation play in the corresponding register, the sharpness
C:
becomes so severe that players must nger the note a halfstep below the one they are trying to play. This eliminates
6.2.2 Tuning compensation
the note a half-step above their open fundamental.
Manufacturers of low brass instruments may choose one
The additional tubing for each valve usually features a
or a combination of four basic approaches to compenshort tuning slide of its own for ne adjustment of the
sate for the tuning diculties, whose respective merits
valves tuning, except when it is too short to make this
are subject to debate:
practicable. For the rst and third valves this is often
designed to be adjusted as the instrument is played, to
account for the deciencies in the valve system.
Compensation system
In the Compensation system, each of the rst two (or
three) valves has an additional set of tubing extending
from the back of the valve. When the third (or fourth)
valve is depressed in combination with another one, the
air is routed through both the usual set of tubing plus the
extra one, so that the pitch is lowered by an appropriate
amount. This allows compensating instruments to play
with accurate intonation in the octave below their open
second partial, which is critical for tubas and euphoniums
in much of their repertoire.
The compensating system was applied to horns to serve a
dierent purpose. It was used to allow a double horn in
F and B at to ease playing diculties in the high register. In contrast to the system in use in tubas and euphoniums, the default 'side' of the horn is the longer F horn,
with secondary lengths of tubing coming into play when
the rst, second or third valves are pressed; pressing the
thumb valve takes these secondary valve slides and the extra length of main tubing out of play to produce a shorter
B-at horn. A later full double design has completely
separate valve section tubing for the two sides, and is considered superior, although rather heavier in weight.
Additional valves
Trumpet valve bypass (depressed)

In most trumpets and cornets, the compensation must be


provided by extending the third valve slide with the third
or fourth nger, and the rst valve slide with the left hand
thumb (see Trigger or throw below). This is used to lower

Initially, compensated instruments tended to sound stuy


and blow less freely due to the air being doubled back
through the main valves. In early designs, this led to
sharp bends in the tubing and other obstructions of the
air-ow. Some manufacturers therefore preferred adding
more straight valves instead, which for example could

66

CHAPTER 6. BRASS INSTRUMENT

be pitched a little lower than the 2nd and 1st valves and
were intended to be used instead of these in the respective
valve combinations. While no longer featured in euphoniums for decades, many professional tubas are still built
like this, with ve valves being common on CC- and BBtubas and ve or six valves on F-tubas.

notes using the rst valve, most notably the players written top line F, the A above directly above that, and the B
above that. Other notes that require the rst valve slide,
but are not as problematic without it include the rst line
E, the F above that, the A above that, and the third line
B.

Compensating double horns can also suer from the


stuness resulting from the air being passed through the
valve section twice, but as this really only aects the
longer F side, a compensating double can be very useful
for a 1st or 3rd horn player, who uses the F side less.

Triggers or throws are often found on the third valve slide.


They are operated by the players fourth nger, and are
used to adjust the lower D and C. Trumpets typically
use throws, whilst cornets may have a throw or trigger.

Trombone Trombone triggers are primarily but not


exclusively[5] installed on the F-trigger, bass, and contrabass trombones[9] to alter the length of tubing, thus makAnother approach was the addition of two sets of slides ing certain ranges and pitches more accessible.
for dierent parts of the range. Some euphoniums and
tubas were built like this, but today, this approach has
become highly exotic for all instruments except horns, Euphoniums A euphonium occasionally has a trigger
where it is the norm, usually in a double, sometimes even on valves other than 2 (especially 3), although many
triple conguration.
professional quality euphoniums, and indeed other brass
Additional sets of slides on each valve

Trigger or throw
Some valved brass instruments provide triggers or
throws that manually lengthen (or, less commonly,
shorten) the main tuning slide, a valve slide, or the main
tubing. These mechanisms alter the pitch of notes that are
naturally sharp in a specic register of the instrument, or
shift the instrument to another playing range. Triggers
and throws permit speedy adjustment while playing.

band instruments, have a trigger for the main tuning


slide.[10]

6.2.3 Mechanism

The two major types of valve mechanisms are rotary


valves and piston valves. The rst piston valve instruments
were developed just after the start of the 19th century.
The Stlzel valve (invented by Heinrich Stlzel in 1814)
was an early variety. In the mid 19th century the Vienna
Trigger is used in two senses:
valve was an improved design. However many professional musicians preferred rotary valves for quicker, more
A trigger can be a mechanical lever that lengthens a reliable action, until better designs of piston valves were
slide when pressed in a contrary direction. Triggers mass manufactured towards the end of the 19th century.
are sprung in such a way that they return the slide to Since the early decades of the 20th century, piston valves
have been the most common on brass instruments except
its original position when released.
for the orchestral horn and the tuba.[11] See also the arti The term trigger also describes a device that cle Brass Instrument Valves.
lengthens certain brass instruments main length of
tubing to shift its range to another playing range, as
with certain trombones.
A throw is a simple metal grip for the players nger
or thumb, attached to a valve slide. The general term
throw can describe a u-hook, a saddle (u-shaped grips),
or a ring (ring-shape grip) in which a players nger
or thumb rests. A player extends a nger or thumb to
lengthen a slide, and retracts the nger to return the slide
to its original position.
Examples of instruments that use triggers or throws

6.3 Sound production in brass instruments

Because the player of a brass instrument has direct control of the prime vibrator (the lips), brass instruments exploit the players ability to select the harmonic at which
the instruments column of air vibrates. By making the
instrument about twice as long as the equivalent woodwind instrument and starting with the second harmonic,
players can get a good range of notes simply by varying
the tension of their lips (see embouchure).

Trumpet or cornet Triggers or throws are sometimes Most brass instruments are tted with a removable
found on the rst valve slide. They are operated by the mouthpiece. Dierent shapes, sizes and styles of mouthplayers thumb and are used to adjust a large range of piece may be used to suit dierent embouchures, or to

6.5. ENSEMBLES

67

more easily produce certain tonal characteristics. Trum- 6.5 Ensembles


pets, trombones, and tubas are characteristically tted
with a cupped mouthpiece, while horns are tted with a Main article: Brass section
conical mouthpiece.
One interesting dierence between a woodwind instrument and a brass instrument is that woodwind instruments
are non-directional. This means that the sound produced
propagates in all directions with approximately equal volume. Brass instruments, on the other hand, are highly
directional, with most of the sound produced traveling
straight outward from the bell. This dierence makes it
signicantly more dicult to record a brass instrument
accurately. It also plays a major role in some performance
situations, such as in marching bands.

Brass instruments are one of the major classical instrument families and are played across a range of musical
ensembles.
Orchestras include a varying number of brass instruments
depending on music style and era, typically:
two to three trumpets
two to four French horns
two tenor trombones
one bass trombone

6.4 Manufacture
Traditionally the instruments are normally made of brass,
polished and then lacquered to prevent corrosion. Some
higher quality and higher cost instruments use gold or
silver plating to prevent corrosion. A few specialty instruments are made from wood.

one tuba
Baroque and classical period orchestras may
include valveless trumpets or bugles, or have
valved trumpets/cornets playing these parts,
and they may include valveless horns, or have
valved horns playing these parts.
Romantic, modern, and contemporary orchestras may include larger numbers of brass including more exotic instruments.

Alternatives to brass include other alloys containing signicant amounts of copper or silver. These alloys are
biostatic due to the oligodynamic eect, and thus sup- Concert bands generally have a larger brass section than
press growth of molds, fungi or bacteria. Brass instru- an orchestra, typically:
ments constructed from stainless steel or aluminium have
good sound quality but are rapidly colonized by microor four to six trumpets or cornets
ganisms and become unpleasant to play.
Most higher quality instruments are designed to prevent
or reduce galvanic corrosion between any steel in the
valves and springs, and the brass of the tubing. This may
take the form of desiccant design, to keep the valves dry,
sacricial zincs, replaceable valve cores and springs, plastic insulating washers, or nonconductive or noble materials for the valve cores and springs. Some instruments use
several such features.

four French horns


two to four tenor trombones
one to two bass trombones
two to three euphoniums or baritone horns
two to three tubas

The process of making the large open end (bell) of a brass British brass bands are made up entirely of brass, mostly
instrument is called metal beating. In making the bell of, conical bore instruments. Typical membership is:
for example, a trumpet, a person lays out a pattern and
shapes sheet metal into a bell-shape using templates, ma one soprano cornet
chine tools, handtools, and blueprints. The maker cuts
out the bell blank, using hand or power shears. He ham ten cornets
mers the blank over a bell-shaped mandrel, and butts the
one ugelhorn
seam, using a notching tool. The seam is brazed, using
a torch and smoothed using a hammer or le. A draw
three tenor (alto) horns
bench or arbor press equipped with expandable lead plug
is used to shape and smooth the bell and bell neck over
two baritone horns
a mandrel. A lathe is used to spin the bell head and to
two tenor trombones
form a bead at the edge of bell head. Previously shaped
bell necks are annealed, using a hand torch to soften the
one bass trombone
metal for further bending. Scratches are removed from
two euphoniums
the bell using abrasive-coated cloth.

68

CHAPTER 6. BRASS INSTRUMENT

two E tubas
two B tubas
Quintets are common small brass ensembles; a quintet
typically contains:
two trumpets
one horn

6.7 References
[1] Baines, Anthony (1993). Brass instruments: their history
and development. Dover Publications. p. 300. ISBN 0486-27574-4.
[2] 1911 Encyclopdia Britannica article on the Bombardon
[3] Orchestration, Forsyth, Cecil; MacMillan Books, 1922.
[4] http://newt.phys.unsw.edu.au/jw/brassacoustics.html#
pedal

one trombone

[5] Yamaha Catalog YSL-350C with ascending B/C rotor

one tuba or bass trombone

[6] Understanding Brass Instrument Intonation, University of


Oklahoma Horn Studio

Big bands and other jazz bands commonly contain cylindrical bore brass instruments.
A big band typically includes:
four trumpets
four tenor trombones
one bass trombone (in place of one of the tenor
trombones)
Smaller jazz ensembles may include a single trumpet
or trombone soloist.

[7] http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/jw/brassacoustics.html#
valves
[8] Christopher W. Monk, The Older Brass Instruments:
Cornet, Trombone, Trumpet, in Musical Instruments
Through the Ages, revised edition, edited by Anthony
Baines, (London: Faber and Faber, 1966):
[9] Yamaha Catalog Professional Trombones
[10] The Besson Prestige euphonium.
[11] The Early Valved Horn by John Q. Ericson, Associate
Professor of horn at Arizona State University

6.8 External links


Mexican bandas have:
three trumpets
three trombones
two alto horns, also called charchetas and saxores
one sousaphone, called tuba

Brass Instruments Information on individual Brass


Instruments
The traditional manufacture of brass instruments,
a 1991 video (RealPlayer format) featuring maker
Robert Barclay; from the web site of the Canadian
Museum of Civilization.
The Orchestra: A Users Manual Brass
Brassmusic.Ru Russian Brass Community

Single brass instruments are also often used to accompany other instruments or ensembles such as an organ or
a choir.

Acoustics of Brass Instruments from Music Acoustics at the University of New South Wales

6.6 See also

3-Valve and 4-Valve Compensating Systems, David


Werden

Wind instruments
Drum and bugle corps (modern)
Pitch of brass instruments
Horn section
Brass Instrument Valves

Early Valve designs, John Ericson

Chapter 7

Percussion instrument
Percussion redirects here.
For other uses, see
Percussion (disambiguation).
A percussion instrument is a musical instru-

Orchestral percussion section with timpani, unpitched auxiliary


percussion and pitched tubular bells

Yoruba drummers: One holds omele ako and bat, the other two
hold dunduns.

Djemb and balafon played by Susu people of Guinea

ment that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a


beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles);
struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument. The percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments, following the human voice.[1]

as in body percussion. On the other hand, keyboard instruments, such as the celesta, are not normally part of
the percussion section, but keyboard percussion instruments such as the glockenspiel and xylophone (which do
The percussion section of an orchestra most commonly not have piano keyboards) are included.
contains instruments such as timpani, snare drum, bass Percussion instruments are most commonly divided into
drum, cymbals, triangle and tambourine. However, the two classes: Pitched percussion instruments, which prosection can also contain non-percussive instruments, such duce notes with an identiable pitch, and unpitched peras whistles and sirens, or a blown conch shell. Percus- cussion instruments, which produce notes or sounds withsive techniques can also be applied to the human body, out an identiable pitch.[2][3]
69

70

CHAPTER 7. PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT

Very large drum kit played by Terry Bozzio

Concussion idiophones (claves), and struck drums (conga drum)

A Percussion Instrument named Mridangam played by T S Nandakumar

Modern Japanese taiko percussion ensemble

7.1 Function

Evelyn Glennie was the 20th centurys rst full-time percussion


soloist

Percussion instruments may play not only rhythm, but


also melody and harmony.
chestrated to place emphasis on the strings, woodwinds,
Percussion is commonly referred to as the backbone or and brass. However, often at least one pair of timpani is
the heartbeat of a musical ensemble, often working in included, though they rarely play continuously. Rather,
close collaboration with bass instruments, when present. they serve to provide additional accents when needed. In
In jazz and other popular music ensembles, the pianist, the 18th and 19th centuries, other percussion instruments
bassist, drummer and sometimes the guitarist are referred (like the triangle or cymbals) have been used, again generto as the rhythm section. Most classical pieces written for ally sparingly. The use of percussion instruments became
full orchestra since the time of Haydn and Mozart are or- more frequent in the 20th century classical music.

7.3. CLASSIFICATION
In almost every style of music, percussion plays a pivotal
role. In military marching bands and pipes and drums,
it is the beat of the bass drum that keeps the soldiers in
step and at a regular speed, and it is the snare that provides that crisp, decisive air to the tune of a regiment.
In classic jazz, one almost immediately thinks of the distinctive rhythm of the hi-hats or the ride cymbal when
the word swing is spoken. In more recent popular music culture, it is almost impossible to name three or four
rock, hip-hop, rap, funk or even soul charts or songs that
do not have some sort of percussive beat keeping the tune
in time.

71
HornbostelSachs has no high-level section for percussion. Most percussion instruments (as the term is
normally understood) are classied as idiophones and
membranophones. However the term percussion is instead used at lower-levels of the HornbostelSachs hierarchy, including to identify instruments struck with either
a non-sonorous object (hand, stick, striker) or against a
non-sonorous object (human body, the ground) as opposed to concussion which refers to instruments in which
two or more complementary sonorous parts are struck
against each other and for other purposes, for example:
111.1 Concussion idiophones or clappers, played in pairs
and beaten against each other, such as zills and clapsticks.

Because of the diversity of percussive instruments, it is


not uncommon to nd large musical ensembles composed 111.2 Percussion idiophones, includes many percussion
entirely of percussion. Rhythm, melody, and harmony are instruments played with the hand or by a percussion malall represented in these ensembles.
let, such as the hang, gongs and the xylophone, but not
drums and only some cymbals.

7.2 Percussion notation

21 Struck drums, includes most types of drum, such as


the timpani, snare drum, and tom-tom. (Included in most
drum sets or

Main article: Percussion notation

412.12 Percussion reeds, a class of wind instrument unrelated to percussion in the more common sense

Music for pitched percussion instruments can be notated There are many instruments that have some claim to being
on a sta with the same treble and bass clefs used by many percussion, but are classied otherwise:
non-percussive instruments. Music for percussive instruments without a denite pitch can be notated with a spe Keyboard instruments such as the celesta and
cialist rhythm or percussion-clef; More often a treble clef
piano.[4]
(or sometimes a bass clef) is substituted for rhythm clef.
Stringed instruments played with beaters such as the
hammered dulcimer.

7.3 Classication
Main article: Classication of percussion instruments
See also: List of percussion instruments

Unpitched whistles and similar instruments, such as


the pea whistle and Acme siren.

Percussion instruments are classied by various criteria


sometimes depending on their construction, ethnic origin,
function within musical theory and orchestration, or their
relative prevalence in common knowledge.
The word percussion has evolved from Latin terms:
percussio (which translates as to beat, strike in the
musical sense, rather than the violent action), and percussus (which is a noun meaning a beating). As a noun
in contemporary English it is described in Wiktionary as
the collision of two bodies to produce a sound. The
usage of the term is not unique to music but has application in medicine and weaponry, as in percussion cap,
but all known and common uses of the word, percussion, appear to share a similar lineage beginning with
the original Latin: percussus. In a musical context then,
the term percussion instruments may have been coined
originally to describe a family of musical instruments including drums, rattles, metal plates, or blocks which musicians would beat or strike (as in a collision) to produce
sound.

Percussion beaters and sticks

Percussion instruments are sometimes classied as


"pitched" or unpitched. While valid, this classication
is widely seen as inadequate. Rather, it may be more informative to describe percussion instruments in regards
to one or more of the following four paradigms:

72

7.3.1

CHAPTER 7. PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT

By methods of sound production

Main article: HornbostelSachs

Slit drum
Steelpan
Suspended cymbal

Many texts, including Teaching Percussion by Gary Cook


of the University of Arizona, begin by studying the physical characteristics of instruments and the methods by
which they can produce sound. This is perhaps the
most scientically pleasing assignment of nomenclature
whereas the other paradigms are more dependent on historical or social circumstances. Based on observation and
experimentation, one can determine how an instrument
produces sound and then assign the instrument to one of
the following four categories:

Temple blocks
Thumb piano (or Kalimba)
Triangle
Vibraphone
Vibraslap
Wood block
Xylophone

Idiophone
Main article: Idiophone
See also: Category:Idiophones

Membranophone
Main article: Membranophone
See also: Category:Membranophones

Idiophones produce sounds through the vibration of their


entire body.[5] Examples of idiophones:
Most objects commonly known as "drums" are membranophones. Membranophones produce sound when the
Bock-a-da-bock
membrane or head is struck with a hand, mallet, stick,
beater, or improvised tool.[5]
Cabasa
Examples of membranophones:
Cajn
Castanets

Bass drum

Celesta

Bongos

Chimes

Conga

Cowbell

Darbuka

Crash cymbals

Djembe

Crotales

Mridangam

Daxophone

Octoban

Flexatone

Snare drum

Giro

Tabla

Handbells

Timpani

Hi-hat

Tom-tom

Lummi stick

The lions roar and the cuca are friction instruments


which are not struck like other drums, but the sound
is produced by applying friction to a string (lions
roar) or to a stick (cuca) that is attached to the center of the membrane. In both cases, it is the membrane that vibrates, not the string nor the stick, thus
ensuring their classication as membranophones. In
the case of the lions roar, a resined string (or gut)
is fastened through a hole in the membrane. In the
case of the cuca, the stick is attached (tied) to the
membrane before it is stretched and tightened to the

Maraca
Marimba
Orchestra bells
Quadrangularis Reversum
Ratchet
Singing bowls

7.3. CLASSIFICATION

73

body of the instrument, and the stick is accessible For example, some percussion instruments (such as the
by placing one hand inside the body, rubbed with a marimba and timpani) produce an obvious fundamental
wet cloth.
pitch and can therefore play melody and serve harmonic
functions in music. Other instruments (such as crash
Wind machines: A wind machine in this context is cymbals and snare drums) produce sounds with such
not a wind tunnel and therefore not an aerophone. complex overtones and a wide range of prominent freInstead, it is an apparatus (often used in theatre as quencies that no pitch is discernible.
a sound eect) in which a sheet of canvas (a membrane) is rubbed against a screen or resonator; this
action produces a sound which resembles the blow- Denite pitch
ing of wind.
Main article: pitched percussion instrument
Chordophone
Main article: Chordophone
See also: Category:String instruments
Most instruments known as chordophones are dened
as string instruments, but some such as these examples
are percussion instruments also.
Hammered dulcimer, Cimbalom
Onavillu
Piano
Berimbau
Jhallari

Percussion instruments in this group are sometimes referred to as pitched or tuned.


Examples of percussion instruments with denite pitch:
Chimes/Tubular bells
Crotales
Glass harmonica
Glass harp
Glockenspiel
Handbells
Marimba
Mridangam

Aerophone

Rototom

Main article: Aerophone


See also: Category:Aerophones

Steelpan

Most instruments known as aerophones are dened as


wind instruments such as a saxophone whereby sound is
produced by a person or thing blowing air through the
object. In a traditional ensemble setting, aerophones are
played by a percussionist, generally due to the instruments unconventional nature. Examples of aerophones
played by percussionists:

Timpani

Apito or samba whistle


Siren

Tabla

Tuned Triangle
Vibraphone
Wind chimes
Xylophone
Xylo-marimba

Slide whistle

Indenite pitch

Whistle or police whistle

Main article: unpitched percussion instrument

7.3.2

By musical function or orchestration Instruments in this group are sometimes referred to as

non-pitched, unpitched, or untuned. Traditionally


When classifying instruments by function it is useful to these instruments are thought of as making a sound that
note if a percussion instrument makes a denite pitch or contains such complex frequencies that no discernible
indenite pitch.
pitch can be heard.

74

CHAPTER 7. PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT

In fact many traditionally unpitched instruments, such as


triangles and even cymbals, have also been produced as
tuned sets.[3]

Clay pots

Examples of percussion instruments with indenite pitch:

Garbage cans

Bass drum
Castanets
Cymbals
Rainstick
Slapstick or whip
Snare drum
Tamtam
Tom-tom

7.3.3

By prevalence in common knowledge

Although it is dicult to dene what is common knowledge, there are instruments in use by percussionists and
composers in contemporary music which are certainly not
considered by most to be musical instruments of any kind.
Therefore, it is worthwhile to try to make distinction between instruments based on their acceptance or consideration by a general audience.
For example, it is safe to argue that most people would not
consider an anvil, a brake drum (the circular hub which
houses the brake on the wheel of a motor vehicle), or a
fty-ve gallon oil barrel to be musical instruments, yet
these objects can be used by composers and percussionists of modern music.
One might assign various percussion instruments to one
of the following categories:
Conventional or popular
Drum kit
Gong (tamtam)
Tambourine
Triangle
Unconventional
(Sometimes referred to as found instruments or as custom percussion)

Five gallon buckets

Hammer
Metal pipes
Metal pots
Plastic bag
Rocks in a bucket
Shopping carts
Spokes on a bicycle wheel
John Cage, Harry Partch, Edgard Varse, and Peter
Schickele, all noted composers, created entire pieces of
music using unconventional instruments. Beginning in
the early 20th century, perhaps with Ionisation by Edgard
Varse which used air-raid sirens (among other things),
composers began to require percussionists to invent or
nd objects to produce the desired sounds and textures. Another example includes the use of a hammer
and saw in Penderecki's De Natura Sonoris No. 2. By
late 20th century, such instruments had become common
in modern percussion ensemble music and popular productions, such as the o-Broadway show, Stomp. Rock
band Aerosmith used a number of unconventional instruments in their song Sweet Emotion, including shotguns,
brooms, and a sugar bag. The metal band Slipknot is well
known for utilizing custom percussion, being that two of
the nine pieces in the band are custom percussion. Most
of their songs include this custom percussion, which includes hitting wooden baseball bats and other objects on
beer kegs to create a distinctive sound.

7.3.4 By cultural signicance or tradition


It is not uncommon to discuss percussion instruments in
relation to their cultural origin. This has led to a division
between instruments which are considered common or
modern, and folk instruments which have a signicant
history or purpose within a geographic region or cultural
group.
Folk percussion instruments
Berimbau
Bodhrn

Automobile Brake Drum

Bombo legero

Beer kegs

Cajon

Brooms

Dhaa

7.3. CLASSIFICATION

75
Gamelan
Kalimba (Thumb Piano)
Kpanlogo
Lagerphone
Latin percussion
Madal
Marimba
Marimbula
Naykheen

Some percussion instruments

Pogo cello
Skrabalai
Steelpan
Tabla
Taiko
Tambourine
Thavil
Timbales
Tonbak
Urumee

Ancient Chinese musical bronze bells from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, c. 6th century BC.

Udukai
Common drums
This category includes instruments which are widely
available and popular throughout the world:
Drum kit, typically consisting of:
Bass drum
Crash cymbal
Floor tom
Hi-Hat cymbals

A traditional Indonesian gamelan orchestra, composed almost


entirely of percussion instruments

Snare drum
Tom-tom drums
Marching percussion instruments

Dhime

Orchestral percussion instruments

Dhol
Dholak

7.3.5 By capability of melodic production

Djembe

Non-melodic percussion: bongos, snare drum, etc.

Dunun

Melodic percussion: glass marimba, gendr, etc.

76

7.3.6

CHAPTER 7. PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT

7.6 See also

By percussive beater

Dierent objects are used to strike a percussion instrument in order to produce its sound.

Beat boxing
Bock-a-da-bock

Hands: hand drums, body percussion

Drum

Sticks: drum kit

Drum beat (including a list of drum beats)

Mallets: mallet percussion, timpani

Drum Corps International

Auxiliary: triangle, cymbals

Drum Kit

Feet: step dance (inc. tap percussion)

Drumline
Electronic drum

7.4 Names for percussionists

Hand percussion
The general term for a musician who plays percussion instruments is percussionist but the terms listed below are
often used to describe a persons specialties:

Klopotec
Latin percussion

Balafonist: a balafon player

List of percussion instruments

Bombisto: a bombo legero player

List of percussionists

Bongocero: someone who plays bongos and usually


cencerro (a cow bell)

Melodic percussion instrument

Congalero, conguero: someone who plays congas

Musical Stones of Skiddaw


Orchestral percussion

Cymbalist: someone who plays cymbals


Djembefola: djembe player.

Percussion notation

Drummer: a term usually used to describe someone


who plays the drumset, hand drums or a single drum
such as Snare drum.

Pipes and Drums Corps

Vocal percussion

Dununfola: dunun player.


Glockenspielist:
glockenspiel.

someone

Practice pad

who

plays

the

Girero: someone who plays the gira, a Dominican scraper used in merengue music
Marimbist: a marimba player
Panman, pannist: a steelpan player
Timbalero, timbero: someone who plays timbales

Rudimental percussion
Percussion Ensemble

7.7 Notes and references


[1] The Oxford Companion to Music, 10th edition, p.775,
ISBN ISBN 0-19-866212-2

Timpanist: a timpani player

[2] Instruments :: Philharmonia Orchestra. Philharmonia.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-03-30.

Vibraphonist: a vibraphone player

[3] Archived July 4, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.

Xylophonist: a xylophone player

7.5 Manufacturers
For a list of percussion instrument manufacturing companies, see the categories link down below this article.

[4] Note however that percussion instruments such as the


xylophone, which share the layout of the piano keyboard
but themselves have no keyboard, are termed keyboard
percussion and are universally regarded as being within
the percussion family.
[5] Gary D. Cook, Teaching Percussion, p.2, 3rd edn, 2006,
Thomson Schirmer, ISBN 0-534-50990-8

7.9. EXTERNAL LINKS

7.8 Further reading


James Blades, Percussion Instruments and Their History, (1970).
Shen, Sinyan, Acoustics of Ancient Chinese Bells,
Scientic American, 256, 94 (1987).
Schick, Steven (May 2006). The Percussionists
Art - Same Bed, Dierent Dreams. University of
Rochester Press. ISBN 978-1-58046-214-3.

7.9 External links


Percussion instruments at DMOZ
Drummer Brasil Website for drummers and percussionists
Video clips of percussion instruments demonstrated
Drum Museum, Information about antique hand
drums from Africa, New Guinea and the Himalayas

77

Chapter 8

Piano
This article is about the musical instrument. For other
uses, see Piano (disambiguation).
Pianoforte redirects here. For earliest versions of the
instrument only, see Fortepiano. For the 1984 lm, see
Pianoforte (lm).
Grand piano redirects here. For the 2013 lm, see
Grand Piano (lm).
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument, in
which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard,[1] which is a row of keys (small levers)
that the performer presses down or strikes with the ngers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers
to strike the strings. Invented in about 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), the piano is widely employed in
classical, jazz, traditional and popular music for solo
and ensemble performances, accompaniment, and for
composing, songwriting and rehearsals. Although the piano is very heavy and thus not portable and is expensive
(in comparison with other widely used accompaniment
instruments, such as the acoustic guitar), its musical versatility (i.e., its wide pitch range, ability to play chords
with up to 10 notes, louder or softer notes and two or more
independent musical lines at the same time), the large
number of musicians and amateurs trained in playing it
and its wide availability in performance venues, schools
and rehearsal spaces have made it one of the Western
worlds most familiar musical instruments.

are released, by the use of pedals at the base of the instrument. The sustain pedal enables pianists to play musical passages that would otherwise be impossible, such as
sounding a 10 note chord in the lower register and then,
while this chord is being continued with the sustain pedal,
shifting both hands to the treble range to play a melody
and arpeggios over top of this sustained chord. Unlike
two of the major keyboard instruments that were widely
used before the piano, the pipe organ and the harpsichord,
the weight or force with which a performer presses or
strikes the keys on a piano changes the dynamics and tone
of the instruments sound.

Pressing one or more keys on the pianos keyboard causes


a padded hammer (typically padded with rm felt) to
strike the strings. The hammer rebounds from the strings,
and the strings continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency.[2] These vibrations are transmitted through a
bridge to a soundboard that amplies by more eciently
coupling the acoustic energy to the air. When the key
is released, a damper stops the strings vibration, ending
the sound. Although an acoustic piano has strings, it is
usually classied as a percussion instrument rather than
as a stringed instrument, because the strings are struck
rather than plucked (as with a harpsichord or spinet); in
the Hornbostel-Sachs system of instrument classication,
pianos are considered chordophones. With technological
advances, amplied electric pianos (1929), electronic pianos (1970s), and digital pianos (1980s) have also been
An acoustic piano usually has a protective wooden case developed. The electric piano became a popular instrusurrounding the soundboard and metal strings, which are ment in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion and
strung under great tension on a heavy metal frame. Most rock music.
modern pianos have a row of 88 black and white keys (52 The word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the
white keys for the notes of the C Major scale (the notes Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instruC, D, E, F, G, A and B) and 36 shorter black keys, which ment, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano
are raised above the white keys, and set further back on e forte[3] and fortepiano. The Italian musical terms piano
the keyboard. This means that the piano can play 88 dif- and forte indicate soft and loud respectively,[4] in this
ferent pitches (or notes), going from the deepest bass context referring to the variations in volume produced in
range to the highest treble range. The black keys are for response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the
the "accidental" notes (or black notes), which are the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of
sharp and at notes, which are F#, G#, Bb, C#, and Eb, the hammer hitting the strings, and the louder the sound
which are needed to play in all twelve keys. The strings of the note produced and the stronger the attack. The
are sounded when the keys are pressed or struck, and si- rst fortepianos in the 1700s had a quieter sound and less
lenced by a damper when the hands are lifted o the key- dynamic range. Over the 1800s, inuenced by the musiboard. The notes can be sustained, even when the keys cal trends of the Romantic music era, many innovations

78

8.1. HISTORY

79

were made to make grand pianos louder, and give them a


stronger and more powerful tone, such as using massive
cast-iron frames and adding extra aliquot stringing.

8.1 History

Grand piano by Louis Bas of Villeneuve-ls-Avignon, France,


1781. Earliest French grand piano known to survive; includes
an inverted wrestplank and action derived from the work of Bartolomeo Cristofori (ca. 1700) with ornately decorated soundboard.

The piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments. Pipe organs have
been used since Antiquity, and as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to
learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding
pitches. The rst string instruments with struck strings
were the hammered dulcimers,[5] which were used since
the Middle Ages in Europe. During the Middle Ages,
there were several attempts at creating stringed keyboard
instruments with struck strings.[6] By the 17th century,
the mechanisms of keyboard instruments such as the
clavichord and the harpsichord were well developed. In
a clavichord, the strings are struck by tangents, while in
a harpsichord, they are mechanically plucked by quills
when the performer depresses the key. Centuries of work
on the mechanism of the harpsichord in particular had
shown instrument builders the most eective ways to construct the case, soundboard, bridge, and mechanical action for a keyboard intended to sound strings.

8.1.1

Invention

See also: Bartolomeo Cristofori

Early piano replica by the modern builder Paul McNulty, after


Walter & Sohn, 1805

The invention of the piano is credited to Bartolomeo


Cristofori (16551731) of Padua, Italy, who was employed by Ferdinando de' Medici, Grand Prince of Tuscany, as the Keeper of the Instruments. Cristofori was an
expert harpsichord maker, and was well acquainted with
the body of knowledge on stringed keyboard instruments.
He used his knowledge of harpsichord keyboard mechanisms and actions to help him to develop the rst pianos.
It is not known exactly when Cristofori rst built a piano.
An inventory made by his employers, the Medici family,
indicates the existence of a piano by the year 1700; another document of doubtful authenticity indicates a date
of 1698. The three Cristofori pianos that survive today
date from the 1720s.[7][8] Cristofori named the instrument un cimbalo di cipresso di piano e forte (a keyboard
of cypress with soft and loud), abbreviated over time as
pianoforte, fortepiano, and later, simply, piano.[9]
While the clavichord allowed expressive control of volume and sustain, it was too quiet for large performances
in big halls. The harpsichord produced a suciently
loud sound, especially when a coupler was used to sound
both manuals of a two-manual harpsichord, but it oered
no dynamic or accent-based expressive control over each
note. A harpsichord could not produce a variety of dynamic levels from the same keyboard during a musical
passage (although a harpischord with two manuals could
be used to alternate between two dierent stops (settings

80

CHAPTER 8. PIANO

on the harpsichord which determined which set of strings


are sounded), which could include a louder stop and a
quieter stop). The piano oered the best features of both
instruments, combining the ability to play loudly and perform sharp accents, which enabled the piano to project
more during piano concertos and play in larger venues,
with dynamic control that permitted a range of dynamics, including soft, quiet playing.[8]
Cristoforis great success was solving, with no known
prior example, the fundamental mechanical problem of
designing a stringed keyboard instrument in which the
notes are struck by a hammer. The hammer must strike
the string, but not remain in contact with it, because this
would damp the sound and stop the string from vibrating and making sound. This means that after striking
the string, the hammer must be lifted or raised o the
strings. Moreover, the hammer must return to its rest
position without bouncing violently, and it must return
to a position in which it is ready to play almost immediately after its key is depressed so the player can repeat the
same note rapidly. Cristoforis piano action was a model
for the many approaches to piano actions that followed
in the next century. Cristoforis early instruments were
made with thin strings, and were much quieter than the
modern piano, but they were much louder and with more
sustain in comparison to the clavichordthe only previous keyboard instrument capable of dynamic nuance via
the weight or force with which the keyboard is played.

were too soft to allow a full dynamic range. Although this


earned him some animosity from Silbermann, the criticism was apparently heeded. Bach did approve of a later
instrument he saw in 1747, and even served as an agent in
selling Silbermanns pianos. Instrument: piano et forte
genandt"a reference to the instruments ability to play
soft and loudwas an expression that Bach used to help
sell the instrument when he was acting as Silbermanns
agent in 1749.[10]
Piano-making ourished during the late 18th century in
the Viennese school, which included Johann Andreas
Stein (who worked in Augsburg, Germany) and the Viennese makers Nannette Streicher (daughter of Stein)
and Anton Walter. Viennese-style pianos were built with
wood frames, two strings per note, and leather-covered
hammers. Some of these Viennese pianos had the opposite coloring of modern-day pianos; the natural keys were
black and the accidental keys white.[11] It was for such
instruments that Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed
his concertos and sonatas, and replicas of them are built
in the 2000s for use in authentic-instrument performance
of his music. The pianos of Mozarts day had a softer,
more ethereal tone than 2000-era pianos or English pianos, with less sustaining power. The term fortepiano
has in modern times come to be used to distinguish these
early instruments (and modern re-creations of them) from
later pianos.

8.1.3 Modern piano


8.1.2

Early fortepiano

Main article: Fortepiano


Cristoforis new instrument remained relatively unknown
until an Italian writer, Scipione Maei, wrote an enthusiastic article about it in 1711, including a diagram
of the mechanism, that was translated into German and
widely distributed.[8] Most of the next generation of piano builders started their work based on reading the article. One of these builders was Gottfried Silbermann,
better known as an organ builder. Silbermanns pianos
were virtually direct copies of Cristoforis, with one important addition: Silbermann invented the forerunner of
the modern sustain pedal, which lifts all the dampers from
the strings simultaneously. This allows the pianist to sustain the notes that she has depressed even after her ngers
are no longer pressing down the keys. This innovation
enabled pianists to, for example, play a loud chord with
both hands in the lower register of the instrument, sustain
the chord with the sustain pedal, and then, with the chord
continuing to sound, relocate their hands to a dierent
register of the keyboard in preparation for a subsequent
section.

For more details on this topic, see Innovations in the


piano.
In the period from about 1790 to 1860, the Mozart-era piano underwent tremendous changes that led to the modern form of the instrument. This revolution was in response to a preference by composers and pianists for a
more powerful, sustained piano sound, and made possible by the ongoing Industrial Revolution with resources
such as high-quality piano wire for strings, and precision
casting for the production of massive iron frames that
could withstand the tremendous tension of the strings.
Over time, the tonal range of the piano was also increased
from the ve octaves of Mozarts day to the seven octave
(or more) range found on modern pianos.
12

9b

Silbermann showed Johann Sebastian Bach one of his


early instruments in the 1730s, but Bach did not like the
instrument it at that time, claiming that the higher notes Broadwood square action (click for page with legend)
11

10

8.1. HISTORY

81

Early technological progress in the late 1700s owed much


to the rm of Broadwood. John Broadwood joined with
another Scot, Robert Stodart, and a Dutchman, Americus
Backers, to design a piano in the harpsichord casethe
origin of the grand. They achieved this in about 1777.
They quickly gained a reputation for the splendour and
powerful tone of their instruments, with Broadwood constructing pianos that were progressively larger, louder,
and more robustly constructed. They sent pianos to both
Joseph Haydn and Ludwig van Beethoven, and were the
rst rm to build pianos with a range of more than ve octaves: ve octaves and a fth (interval) during the 1790s,
six octaves by 1810 (Beethoven used the extra notes in his
later works), and seven octaves by 1820. The Viennese
makers similarly followed these trends; however the two
schools used dierent piano actions: Broadwoods used a
more robust action, whereas Viennese instruments were
more sensitive.
9

Erard square action (click for page with legend)

By the 1820s, the center of piano innovation had shifted


to Paris, where the Pleyel rm manufactured pianos used
by Frdric Chopin and the rard rm manufactured
those used by Franz Liszt. In 1821, Sbastien rard invented the double escapement action, which incorporated
a repetition lever (also called the balancier) that permitted repeating a note even if the key had not yet risen
to its maximum vertical position. This facilitated rapid
playing of repeated notes, a musical device exploited by
Liszt. When the invention became public, as revised by
Henri Herz, the double escapement action gradually became standard in grand pianos, and is still incorporated
into all grand pianos currently produced in the 2000s.
Other improvements of the mechanism included the use
of rm felt hammer coverings instead of layered leather
or cotton. Felt, which was rst introduced by Jean-Henri
Pape in 1826, was a more consistent material, permitting wider dynamic ranges as hammer weights and string
tension increased. The sostenuto pedal (see below), invented in 1844 by Jean-Louis Boisselot and copied by the
Steinway rm in 1874, allowed a wider range of eects,
such as playing a 10 note chord in the bass range, sustaining it with the pedal, and then moving both hands over to
the treble range to play a two-hand melody or sequence
of arpeggios.

One innovation that helped create the powerful sound


of the modern piano was the use of a massive, strong,
cast iron frame. Also called the plate, the iron frame
sits atop the soundboard, and serves as the primary bulwark against the force of string tension that can exceed 20 tons in a modern grand. The single piece cast
iron frame was patented in 1825 in Boston by Alpheus
Babcock,[12] combining the metal hitch pin plate (1821,
claimed by Broadwood on behalf of Samuel Herv) and
resisting bars (Thom and Allen, 1820, but also claimed
by Broadwood and rard). Babcock later worked for the
Chickering & Mackays rm who patented the rst full
iron frame for grand pianos in 1843. Composite forged
metal frames were preferred by many European makers
until the American system was fully adopted by the early
20th century. The increased structural integrity of the
iron frame allowed the use of thicker, tenser, and more
numerous strings. In 1834, the Webster & Horsfal rm of
Birmingham brought out a form of piano wire made from
cast steel; according to Dolge it was so superior to the
iron wire that the English rm soon had a monopoly.[13]
But a better steel wire was soon created in 1840 by the
Viennese rm of Martin Miller,[13] and a period of innovation and intense competition ensued, with rival brands
of piano wire being tested against one another at international competitions, leading ultimately to the modern
form of piano wire.[14]
Other important advances included changes to the way
the piano is strung, such as the use of a choir of
three strings rather than two for all but the lowest
notes, and the implementation of an over-strung scale,
in which the strings are placed in two separate planes,
each with its own bridge height. (This is also called crossstringing. Whereas earlier instruments bass strings were a
mere continuation of a single string plane, over-stringing
placed the bass bridge behind and to the treble side of
the tenor bridge area. This crossed the strings, with the
bass strings in the higher plane.) This permitted a much
narrower cabinet at the nose end of the piano, and optimized the transition from unwound tenor strings to the
iron or copper-wrapped bass strings. Over-stringing was
invented by Pape during the 1820s, and rst patented for
use in grand pianos in the United States by Henry Steinway, Jr. in 1859.
Some piano makers developed schemes to enhance the
tone of each note. Julius Blthner developed Aliquot
stringing in 1893 as well as Pascal Taskin (1788),[15]
and Collard & Collard (1821). These systems were
used to strengthen the tone of the highest register of
notes on the piano, which up till this time were viewed
as being too weak-sounding. Each used more distinctly ringing, undamped vibrations of sympathetically
vibrating strings to add to the tone, except the Blthner
Aliquot stringing, which uses an additional fourth string
in the upper two treble sections. While the hitchpins
of these separately suspended Aliquot strings are raised
slightly above the level of the usual tri-choir strings, they

82

CHAPTER 8. PIANO
simple actions and string spacing that made proper hammer alignment dicult.

Duplex scaling of an 1883 Steinway Model 'A'. From lower left to


upper right: main sounding length of strings, treble bridge, duplex
string length, duplex bar (nickel-plated bar parallel to bridge),
hitchpins, plate strut with bearing bolt, plate hole.

are not struck by the hammers but rather are damped


by attachments of the usual dampers. Eager to copy
these eects, Theodore Steinway invented duplex scaling,
which used short lengths of non-speaking wire bridged
by the aliquot throughout much of upper the range of
the piano, always in locations that caused them to vibrate sympathetically in conformity with their respective overtonestypically in doubled octaves and twelfths.
The mechanical action structure of the upright piano was
invented in London, England in 1826 by Robert Wornum,
and upright models became the most popular model.[16]
Upright pianos took less space than a grand piano, and as
such they were a better size for use in private homes for
domestic music-making and practice.

8.1.4

Variations in shape and design

Some early pianos had shapes and designs that are no


longer in use. The square piano (not truly square, but
rectangular) was cross strung at an extremely acute angle above the hammers, with the keyboard set along the
long side. This design is attributed to Gottfried Silbermann or Christian Ernst Friderici on the continent, and
Johannes Zumpe or Harman Vietor in England, and it
was improved by changes rst introduced by GuillaumeLebrecht Petzold in France and Alpheus Babcock in the
United States. Square pianos were built in great numbers through the 1840s in Europe and the 1890s in the
United States, and saw the most visible change of any type
of piano: the iron-framed, over-strung squares manufactured by Steinway & Sons were more than two-and-a-half
times the size of Zumpes wood-framed instruments from
a century before. Their overwhelming popularity was due
to inexpensive construction and price, although their tone
and performance were limited by narrow soundboards,

The mechanism and strings in upright pianos are perpendicular


to the keys.

The tall, vertically strung upright grand was arranged like


a grand set on end, with the soundboard and bridges above
the keys, and tuning pins below them. The term was
later revived by many manufacturers for advertising purposes. Girae pianos, pyramid pianos and lyre pianos were arranged in a somewhat similar fashion, using
evocatively shaped cases. The very tall cabinet piano was
introduced about 1805 and was built through the 1840s.
It had strings arranged vertically on a continuous frame
with bridges extended nearly to the oor, behind the keyboard and very large sticker action. The short cottage upright or pianino with vertical stringing, made popular by
Robert Wornum around 1815, was built into the 20th century. They are informally called birdcage pianos because
of their prominent damper mechanism. The oblique upright, popularized in France by Roller & Blanchet during the late 1820s, was diagonally strung throughout its
compass. The tiny spinet upright was manufactured from
the mid-1930s until recent times. The low position of
the hammers required the use of a drop action to preserve a reasonable keyboard height. Modern upright and
grand pianos attained their present, 2000-era forms by
the end of the 19th century. While improvements have
been made in manufacturing processes, and many individual details of the instrument continue to receive attention, and a small number of acoustic pianos are produced
with MIDI recording and sound module-triggering capabilities, the 19th century was the era of the most dramatic
innovations and modications of the instrument.

8.2 Types
Modern acoustic pianos have two basic congurations,
the grand piano and the upright piano, with various styles
of each. There are also specialized and novelty pianos, electric pianos based on electromechanical designs,
electronic pianos that synthesize piano-like tones using

8.2. TYPES

83

oscillators, and digital pianos using digital samples of string stiness; as a struck string decays its harmonics viacoustic piano sounds.
brate, not from their termination, but from a point very
slightly toward the center (or more exible part) of the
string. The higher the partial, the further sharp it runs.
8.2.1 Grand
Pianos with shorter and thicker string (i.e., small pianos
with short string scales) have more inharmonicity. The
greater the inharmonicity, the more the ear perceives it
as harshness of tone.

Steinway grand piano in the White House

The inharmonicity of piano strings requires that octaves


be stretched, or tuned to a lower octaves corresponding
sharp overtone rather than to a theoretically correct octave. If octaves are not stretched, single octaves sound
in tune, but doubleand notably tripleoctaves are unacceptably narrow. Stretching a small pianos octaves to
match its inherent inharmonicity level creates an imbalance among all the instruments intervallic relationships,
not just its octaves. In a concert grand, however, the octave stretch retains harmonic balance, even when aligning treble notes to a harmonic produced from three octaves below. This lets close and widespread octaves sound
pure, and produces virtually beatless perfect fths. This
gives the concert grand a brilliant, singing and sustaining
tone qualityone of the principal reasons that full-size
grands are used in the concert hall during piano concerto
with orchestra. Smaller grands satisfy the space and cost
needs of domestic use; as well, they are used in some
small teaching studios and smaller performance venues..

8.2.2 Upright (vertical)


Upright pianos, also called vertical pianos, are more compact because the frame and strings are vertical. Upright
pianos are generally less expensive than grand pianos.
Upright pianos are widely used in churches, community
centers, elementary schools, high schools, music conservatories and university music programs as rehearsal and
practice instruments and they are popular models for inhome purchase. The hammers move horizontally, and
return to their resting position via springs, which are susceptible to degradation. Upright pianos with unusually
August Frster upright piano
tall frames and long strings are sometimes called upright
grand pianos. Some authors classify modern pianos acIn grand pianos, the frame and strings are horizontal, with cording to their height and to modications of the action
the strings extending away from the keyboard. The action that are necessary to accommodate the height.
lies beneath the strings, and uses gravity as its means of
return to a state of rest. There are many sizes of grand
Studio pianos are around 42 to 45 inches (106 to
piano. A rough generalization distinguishes the concert
114 cm) tall. This is the shortest cabinet that can
grand (between 2.2 and 3 meters long, about 710 feet)
accommodate a full-sized action located above the
from the parlor grand or boudoir grand (1.7 to 2.2 meters
keyboard.
long, about 67 feet) and the smaller baby grand (around
1.5 metres (5 feet)).
Console pianos have a compact action (shorter hamAll else being equal, longer pianos with longer strings
mers), and are a few inches shorter than studio modhave larger, richer sound and lower inharmonicity of
els.
the strings. Inharmonicity is the degree to which the
frequencies of overtones (known as partials or harmonics)
The top of a spinet model barely rises above the keysound sharp relative to whole multiples of the fundamenboard. The action is located below, operated by vertal frequency. This results from the pianos considerable
tical wires that are attached to the backs of the keys.

84

CHAPTER 8. PIANO

Anything taller than a studio piano is called an upright.

8.2.3

Specialized

The minipiano 'Pianette' model viewed with its original matching


stool; the wooden ap at the front of the instrument has been
dropped revealing the tuning pins at the front.

Player piano from 1920 (Steinway)

paper, metal screws, or washers in between the strings.


These either mute the strings or alter their timbre. A
harpsichord-like sound can be produced by placing or
dangling small metal buttons in front of the hammer.
Adding an eraser between the bass strings produces a
mellow, thumpy sound reminiscent of the plucked double bass. Inserting metal screws or washers can cause the
piano to make a jangly sound as these metal items vibrate against the strings. In 1954 a German company exhibited a wire-less piano at the Spring Fair in Frankfurt,
Germany that sold for $238. The wires were replaced by
metal bars of dierent alloys that replicated the standard
wires when played.[20] A similar concept is used in the
electric-acoustic Rhodes piano.

The toy piano, introduced in the 19th century, is a


small piano-like instrument, that generally uses round
metal rods to produce sound, rather than strings. The
US Library of Congress recognizes the toy piano as a
unique instrument with the subject designation, Toy Piano Scores: M175 T69.[17] In 1863, Henri Fourneaux invented the player piano, which plays itself from a piano
roll. A machine perforates a performance recording into
rolls of paper, and the player piano replays the performance using pneumatic devices. Modern equivalents of
the player piano include the Bsendorfer CEUS, Yamaha
Disklavier and QRS Pianomation,[18] using solenoids and
MIDI rather than pneumatics and rolls. A silent piano is
an acoustic piano having an option to silence the strings 8.2.4
by means of an interposing hammer bar. They are designed for private silent practice, to avoid disturbing others. Edward Ryley invented the transposing piano in
1801. This rare instrument has a lever under the keyboard as to move the keyboard relative to the strings so a
pianist can play in a familiar key while the music sounds
in a dierent key.

Electric, electronic, and digital

The minipiano, an instrument patented by the Brasted


brothers of the Eavesta Ltd. piano company, was
patented in 1934.[19] This instrument has a braceless
back, and a soundboard positioned below the keys
meaning that long metal rods pulled on the levers to make
the hammers strike the strings. The rst model, known as
the Pianette,' was unique in that the tuning pins extended
through the instrument, so it could be tuned at the front.
The prepared piano, present in some contemporary art
music from the 20th and 21st century is a piano with
objects placed inside it to alter its sound, or has had its
mechanism changed in some other way. The scores for
music for prepared piano specify the modications, for
example instructing the pianist to insert pieces of rubber,

Wurlitzer 210 Electric Piano

The rst electric pianos from the late 1920s used metal
strings with a magnetic pickup, an amplier and a
loudspeaker. The electric pianos that became most pop-

8.3. CONSTRUCTION AND COMPONENTS


ular in pop and rock music in the 1960s and 1970s, such
as the Fender Rhodes use metal tines in place of strings
and use electromagnetic pickups similar to those on an
electric guitar. The resulting electrical, analogue signal
can then be amplied with a keyboard amplier or electronically manipulated with eects units. Electric pianos
are rarely used in classical music, where the main usage of
them is as inexpensive rehearsal or practice instruments in
music schools. However, electric pianos, particularly the
Fender Rhodes, became important instruments in funk,
jazz fusion and some rock music genres.

85
and with what velocity). Computer based software, such
as Modartts 2006 Pianoteq, can be used to manipulate
the MIDI stream in real time or subsequently to edit it.
This type of software may use no samples but synthesize
a sound based on aspects of the physics that went into the
creation of a played note.

8.3 Construction and components

Electronic pianos are non-acoustic; they do not have


strings, tines or hammers, but are a type of synthesizer
that simulates or imitates piano sounds using oscillators
and lters that synthesize the sound of an acoustic
piano.[21] They need to be connected to a keyboard amplier and speaker to produce sound (however, some electronic keyboards have a built-in amp and speaker). Alternatively, a person can practice an electronic piano with
headphones to avoid disturbing others.
(1) frame (2) lid, front part (3) capo bar (4) damper (5) lid, back
Digital pianos are also non-acoustic and do not have part (6) damper mechanism (7) sostenuto rail (8) pedal mechstrings or hammers. They use digital sampling technol- anism, rods (9, 10,11) pedals: right (sustain/damper), middle
ogy to accurately reproduce the acoustic sound of each (sostenuto), left (soft/una-corda) (12) bridge (13) hitch pin (14)
frame (15) sound board (16) string
piano note. They also need to be connected to a keyboard
amplier and speaker to produce sound (however, most
Pianos can have upwards of 12,000 individual parts,[22]
digital pianos have a built-in amp and speaker). Altersupporting six functional features: keyboard, hammers,
natively, a person can practice with headphones to avoid
dampers, bridge, soundboard, and strings.[23]
disturbing others. Digital pianos can include sustain pedals, weighted keys, multiple voice options (e.g., sampled
or synthesized imitations of electric piano, Hammond organ, violin, etc.), and MIDI interfaces. MIDI inputs and
outputs allow a digital piano to be connected to other electronic instruments or musical devices. For example, a
digital pianos MIDI out signal could be connected by a
patch cord to a synth module, which would allow the performer to use the keyboard of the digital piano to play
modern synthesizer sounds. Early digital pianos tended to
lack a full set of pedals but the synthesis software of later
models such as the Yamaha Clavinova series synthesised
the sympathetic vibration of the other strings (such as
when the sustain pedal is depressed) and full pedal sets
can now be replicated. The processing power of digiOuter rim of Estonia grand piano during the manufacturing protal pianos has enabled highly realistic pianos using multi- cess
gigabyte piano sample sets with as many as ninety recordings, each lasting many seconds, for each key under dif- Many parts of a piano are made of materials selected
ferent conditions (e.g., there are samples of each note be- for strength and longevity. This is especially true of the
ing struck softly, loudly, with a sharp attack, etc.). Ad- outer rim. It is most commonly made of hardwood, typditional samples emulate sympathetic resonance of the ically hard maple or beech, and its massiveness serves
strings when the sustain pedal is depressed, key release, as an essentially immobile object from which the exithe drop of the dampers, and simulations of techniques ble soundboard can best vibrate. According to Harold A.
such as re-pedalling.
Conklin,[24] the purpose of a sturdy rim is so that, "...
Digital, MIDI-equipped, pianos can output a stream of
MIDI data, or record and play via a CD ROM or USB
ash drive using MIDI format les, similar in concept to
a pianola. The MIDI le records the physics of a note
rather than its resulting sound and recreates the sounds
from its physical properties (e.g., which note was struck

the vibrational energy will stay as much as possible in


the soundboard instead of dissipating uselessly in the case
parts, which are inecient radiators of sound.
Hardwood rims are commonly made by laminating thin,
hence exible, strips of hardwood, bending them to
the desired shape immediately after the application of

86

CHAPTER 8. PIANO

glue.[25] The bent plywood system was developed by C.F.


Theodore Steinway in 1880 to reduce manufacturing time
and costs. Previously, the rim was constructed from several pieces of solid wood, joined and veneered, and this
method continued to be used in Europe well into the
20th century.[26] A modern exception, Bsendorfer, the
Austrian manufacturer of high-quality pianos, constructs
their inner rims from solid spruce,[27] the same wood that
the soundboard is made from, which is notched to allow it
to bend; rather than isolating the rim from vibration, their
resonance case principle allows the framework to more
freely resonate with the soundboard, creating additional
coloration and complexity of the overall sound.[28]

This view of the underside of a 182 cm (6 foot) grand piano


shows, in order of distance from viewer: softwood braces, tapered soundboard ribs, soundboard. The metal rod at lower right
is a humidity control device.

Cast iron plate of a grand piano

The plate (harp), or metal frame, of a piano is usually


made of cast iron. A massive plate is advantageous. Since
the strings vibrate from the plate at both ends, an insufciently massive plate would absorb too much of the vibrational energy that should go through the bridge to the
soundboard. While some manufacturers use cast steel in
their plates, most prefer cast iron. Cast iron is easy to
cast and machine, has exibility sucient for piano use,
is much more resistant to deformation than steel, and is
especially tolerant of compression. Plate casting is an art,
The pinblock, which holds the tuning pins in place, is an- since dimensions are crucial and the iron shrinks about
other area where toughness is important. It is made of one percent during cooling.
hardwood (typically hard maple or beech), and is laminated for strength, stability and longevity. Piano strings Including an extremely large piece of metal in a pi(also called piano wire), which must endure years of ex- ano is potentially an aesthetic handicap. Piano makers
treme tension and hard blows, are made of high carbon overcome this by polishing, painting, and decorating the
steel. They are manufactured to vary as little as possi- plate. Plates often include the manufacturers ornamenble in diameter, since all deviations from uniformity in- tal medallion. In an eort to make pianos lighter, Alcoa
troduce tonal distortion. The bass strings of a piano are worked with Winter and Company piano manufacturmade of a steel core wrapped with copper wire, to in- ers to make pianos using an aluminum plate during the
crease their mass whilst retaining exibility. If all strings 1940s. Aluminum piano plates were not widely accepted,
throughout the pianos compass were individual (mono- and were discontinued.
chord), the massive bass strings would overpower the up- The numerous parts of a piano action are generally made
per ranges. Makers compensate for this with the use of from hardwood, such as maple, beech, and hornbeam,
double (bichord) strings in the tenor and triple (trichord) however, since World War II, makers have also incorporated plastics. Early plastics used in some pianos in
strings throughout the treble.
The thick wooden posts on the underside (grands) or back
(uprights) of the piano stabilize the rim structure, and are
made of softwood for stability. The requirement of structural strength, fullled by stout hardwood and thick metal,
makes a piano heavy. Even a small upright can weigh
136 kg (300 lb), and the Steinway concert grand (Model
D) weighs 480 kg (990 lb). The largest piano available
on the general market, the Fazioli F308, weighs 570 kg
(1257 lb).[29][30]

8.3. CONSTRUCTION AND COMPONENTS

87

the late 1940s and 1950s, proved disastrous when they


lost strength after a few decades of use. Beginning in
1961, the New York branch of the Steinway rm incorporated Teon, a synthetic material developed by DuPont,
for some parts of its Permafree grand action in place of
cloth bushings, but abandoned the experiment in 1982
due to excessive friction and a clicking that developed
over time; Teon is humidity stable whereas the wood
adjacent to the Teon swells and shrinks with humidity
changes, causing problems. More recently, the Kawai
rm built pianos with action parts made of more modern materials such as carbon ber reinforced plastic, and
the piano parts manufacturer Wessell, Nickel and Gross
has launched a new line of carefully engineered composite parts. Thus far these parts have performed reasonably, Keyboard of a grand piano
but it will take decades to know if they equal the longevity
of wood.
0

An 88-key piano, with the octaves numbered and Middle C


(cyan) and A440 (yellow) highlighted.

Ivorite that they claim mimics the look and feel of ivory.
It has since been imitated by other makers.

Strings of a grand piano

Almost every modern piano has 52 white keys and 36


black keys for a total of 88 keys (seven octaves plus a
minor third, from A0 to C8 ). Many older pianos only
have 85 keys (seven octaves from A0 to A7 ). Some piano
manufacturers extend the range further in one or both directions. Some Bsendorfer pianos, for example, extend
the normal range down to F0 , and one of their models
has 97 keys reaches a bottom C0 for a full eight octave
range. These extra keys are sometimes hidden under a
small hinged lid that can cover the keys to prevent visual
disorientation for pianists unfamiliar with the extra keys,
or the colors of the extra white keys are reversed (black
instead of white).

In all but the poorest pianos the soundboard is made


of solid spruce (that is, spruce boards glued together
along the side grain). Spruces high ratio of strength
to weight minimizes acoustic impedance while oering
strength sucient to withstand the downward force of the
strings. The best piano makers use quarter-sawn, defectfree spruce of close annular grain, carefully seasoning it
over a long period before fabricating the soundboards.
This is the identical material that is used in quality acousThe extra keys are added primarily for increased resotic guitar soundboards. Cheap pianos often have plywood
nance from the associated strings; that is, they vibrate
soundboards.[31]
sympathetically with other strings whenever the damper
pedal is depressed and thus give a fuller tone. Only a very
small number of works composed for piano actually use
8.3.1 Keyboard
these notes. More recently, the Stuart and Sons company
has
also manufactured extended-range pianos, with the
Further information: Musical keyboard
rst
102 key piano. On their instruments, the frequency
In the early years of piano construction, keys were comrange
extends from C0 to F8 , which is the widest practimonly made from sugar pine. Today they are usually
cal
range
for the acoustic piano. The extra keys are the
made of spruce or basswood. Spruce is typically used in
same
as
the
other keys in appearance.
high-quality pianos. Black keys were traditionally made
of ebony, and the white keys were covered with strips
of ivory. However, since ivory-yielding species are now
endangered and protected by treaty, makers use plastics
almost exclusively. Also, ivory tends to chip more easily than plastic. Legal ivory can still be obtained in limited quantities. The Yamaha rm invented a plastic called

The toy piano manufacturer Schoenhut started manufacturing both grands and uprights with only 44 or 49 keys,
and shorter distance between the keyboard and the pedals.
These pianos are true pianos with action and strings. The
pianos were introduced to their product line in response
to numerous requests in favor of it.

88
There is a rare variants of piano that has double keyboards
called the Emnuel Mor Pianoforte. It was invented
by Hungarian composer and pianist, Emnuel Mor (19
February 1863 20 October 1931). It consisted of two
keyboards lying one above each other. The lower keyboard has the usual 88 keys and the upper keyboard has
76 keys. When pressing the upper keyboard the internal mechanism pulls down the corresponding key on the
lower keyboard, but an octave higher. This lets a pianist reach two octaves with one hand, impossible on a
conventional piano. Due to its double keyboard musical work that were originally created for double-manual
Harpsichord such as Goldberg Variations by Bach become much easier to play, since playing on a conventional
single keyboard piano involve complex and hand-tangling
cross-hand movements. The design also featured a special fourth pedal that coupled the lower and upper keyboard, so when playing on the lower keyboard the note
one octave higher also played. Only about 60 Emnuel
Mor Pianoforte were made, mostly manufactured by
Bsendorfer. Other piano manufactures such as Bechstein, Chickering, and Steinway & Sons had also manufactured a few.[32]

CHAPTER 8. PIANO
models may lack the practice pedal. In Europe the standard for upright pianos is two pedals: the soft and the
sustain pedals.

Notations used for the sustain


pedal in sheet music
The sustain pedal (or, damper pedal) is often simply
called the pedal, since it is the most frequently used.
It is placed as the rightmost pedal in the group. It lifts
the dampers from all keys, sustaining all played notes. In
addition, it alters the overall tone by allowing all strings,
including those not directly played, to reverberate. When
all of the other strings on the piano can vibrate, this allows
sympathetic vibration of strings that are harmonically related to the sounded pitches. For example, if the pianist
plays the 440 Hz A note, the higher octave A notes
will also sound sympathetically.

The soft pedal or una corda pedal is placed leftmost in


the row of pedals. In grand pianos it shifts the entire
action/keyboard assembly to the right (a very few instruPianos have been built with alternative keyboard systems, ments have shifted left) so that the hammers hit two of the
e.g., the Jank keyboard.
three strings for each note. In the earliest pianos whose
unisons were bichords rather than trichords, the action
shifted so that hammers hit a single string, hence the name
8.3.2 Pedals
una corda, or 'one string'. The eect is to soften the note
as well as change the tone. In uprights this action is not
Main article: Piano pedals
possible; instead the pedal moves the hammers closer to
Pianos have had pedals, or some close equivalent, since the strings, allowing the hammers to strike with less kinetic energy. This produces a slightly softer sound, but
no change in timbre.

Piano pedals from left to right: una corda, sostenuto and sustain
pedal

the earliest days. (In the 18th century, some pianos used
levers pressed upward by the players knee instead of pedals.) Most grand pianos in the US have three pedals: the
soft pedal (una corda), sostenuto, and sustain pedal (from
left to right, respectively), while in Europe, the standard
is two pedals: the soft pedal and the sustain pedal. Most
modern upright pianos also have three pedals: soft pedal,
practice pedal and sustain pedal, though older or cheaper

On grand pianos, the middle pedal is a sostenuto pedal.


This pedal keeps raised any damper already raised at the
moment the pedal is depressed. This makes it possible to
sustain selected notes (by depressing the sostenuto pedal
before those notes are released) while the players hands
are free to play additional notes (which are not sustained).
This can be useful for musical passages with low bass
pedal points, in which a bass note is sustained while a series of chords changes over top of it, and other otherwise
tricky parts. On many upright pianos, the middle pedal is
called the practice or celeste pedal. This drops a piece
of felt between the hammers and strings, greatly muting
the sounds. This pedal can be shifted while depressed,
into a locking position.
There are also non-standard variants. On some pianos
(grands and verticals), the middle pedal can be a bass sustain pedal: that is, when it is depressed, the dampers lift
o the strings only in the bass section. Players use this
pedal to sustain a single bass note or chord over many
measures, while playing the melody in the treble section.
On the Stuart and Sons piano as well as the largest Fazioli
piano, there is a fourth pedal to the left of the principal
three. This fourth pedal works in the same way as the soft
pedal of an upright piano, moving the hammers closer to

8.4. MECHANICS
the strings.[33]

89
type, consists of two independent pianos (each with separate mechanics and strings) placed one above the other
one for the hands and one for the feet. This was developed
primarily as a practice instrument for organists, though
there is a small repertoire written specically for the instrument.

8.4 Mechanics

An upright pedal piano by Challen

The rare transposing piano (an example of which was


owned by Irving Berlin) has a middle pedal that functions as a clutch that disengages the keyboard from the
mechanism, so the player can move the keyboard to the
left or right with a lever. This shifts the entire piano action so the pianist can play music written in one key so
that it sounds in a dierent key. Some piano companies
have included extra pedals other than the standard two or
three. Crown and Schubert Piano Co. produced a fourpedal piano. Fazioli currently oers a fourth pedal that
provides a second soft pedal, that works by bringing the
keys closer to the strings.

A pianist playing Prelude and Fugue No. 23 in B major (BWV


868) from Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier on a grand piano

When the key is struck, a chain reaction occurs to produce the sound. First, the key raises the wippen mechanism, which forces the jack against the hammer roller (or
knuckle). The hammer roller then lifts the lever carrying
the hammer. The key also raises the damper; and immediately after the hammer strikes the wire it falls back,
allowing the wire to resonate and thus produce sound.
When the key is released the damper falls back onto the
strings, stopping the wire from vibrating, and thus stopping the sound.[36] The vibrating piano strings themselves
are not very loud, but their vibrations are transmitted to a
large soundboard that moves air and thus converts the energy to sound. The irregular shape and o-center placement of the bridge ensure that the soundboard vibrates
strongly at all frequencies.[37] (See Piano action for a diagram and detailed description of piano parts.)

Wing and Son of New York oered a ve-pedal piano


from approximately 1893 through the 1920s. There is
no mention of the company past the 1930s. Labeled left
to right, the pedals are Mandolin, Orchestra, Expression,
Soft, and Forte (Sustain). The Orchestral pedal produced There are three factors that inuence the pitch of a via sound similar to a tremolo feel by bouncing a set of brating wire.
small beads dangling against the strings, enabling the piano to mimic a mandolin, guitar, banjo, zither and harp,
Length: All other factors the same, the shorter the
thus the name Orchestral. The Mandolin pedal used a
wire, the higher the pitch.
similar approach, lowering a set of felt strips with metal
Mass per unit length: All other factors the same, the
rings in between the hammers and the strings ( aka rinkythinner the wire, the higher the pitch.
tink eect). This extended the life of the hammers when
the Orch pedal was used, a good idea for practicing, and
Tension: All other factors the same, the tighter the
created an echo-like sound that mimicked playing in an
wire, the higher the pitch.
orchestral hall.[34][35]
The pedalier piano, or pedal piano, is a rare type of piano that includes a pedalboard so players can user their
feet to play bass register notes, as on an organ. There
are two types of pedal piano. On one, the pedal board is
an integral part of the instrument, using the same strings
and mechanism as the manual keyboard. The other, rarer

A vibrating wire subdivides itself into many parts vibrating at the same time. Each part produces a pitch of its
own, called a partial. A vibrating string has one fundamental and a series of partials. The most pure combination of two pitches is when one is double the frequency of
the other.[38]

90

CHAPTER 8. PIANO

For a repeating wave, the velocity v equals the wavelength ensure the felt hammers and key mechanisms are func times the frequency f,
tioning properly. Aged and worn pianos can be rebuilt
or reconditioned by piano rebuilders. Often, by replacing a great number of their parts, and adjusting them, old
v = f
instrumnets can perform as well as new pianos.
On the piano string, waves reect from both ends. The
superposition of reecting waves results in a standing
wave pattern, but only for wavelengths = 2L, L, L/2,
... = 2L/n, where L is the length of the string. Therefore, the only frequencies produced on a single string are
f = nv/(2L). Timbre is largely determined by the content
of these harmonics. Dierent instruments have dierent
harmonic content for the same pitch. A real string vibrates at harmonics that are not perfect multiples of the
fundamental. This results in a little inharmonicity, which
gives richness to the tone but causes signicant tuning
challenges throughout the compass of the instrument.[37]
Striking the piano key with greater velocity increases the
amplitude of the waves and therefore the volume. From
pianissimo (pp) to fortissimo () the hammer velocity
changes by almost a factor of a hundred. The hammer
contact time with the string shortens from 4 ms at pp to
less than 2 ms at .[37] If two wires adjusted to the same
pitch are struck at the same time, the sound produced by
one reinforces the other, and a louder combined sound of
shorter duration is produced. If one wire vibrates out of
synchronization with the other, they subtract from each
other and produce a softer tone of longer duration.[39]

8.5.1 Tuning
Main article: Piano tuning
Piano tuning involves adjusting the tensions of the pianos
strings, thereby aligning the intervals among their tones
so that the instrument is in tune. While guitar and violin
players tune their own instruments, a pianist usually hires
a piano tuner, a specialized technician, to tune her or his
piano. The piano tuner uses special tools. The meaning
of the term in tune in the context of piano tuning is not
simply a particular xed set of pitches. Fine piano tuning
carefully assesses the interaction among all notes of the
chromatic scale, dierent for every piano, and thus requires slightly dierent pitches from any theoretical standard. Pianos are usually tuned to a modied version of
the system called equal temperament (see Piano key frequencies for the theoretical piano tuning). In all systems
of tuning, each pitch is derived from its relationship to a
chosen xed pitch, usually the internationally recognized
standard concert pitch of A4 (the A above middle C). The
term A440 refers to a widely accepted frequency of this
pitch - 440 Hz.

8.5 Maintenance
Main article: Piano maintenance
Pianos are heavy yet delicate instruments. Over the

A piano tuner

The piano at the social center in the 19th century (Moritz von
Schwind, 1868). The man at the piano is composer Franz Schubert (1797-1828).

years, professional piano movers have developed special techniques for transporting both grands and uprights,
which prevent damage to the case and to the pianos mechanical elements. Pianos need regular tuning to keep
them on pitch. The hammers of pianos are voiced to compensate for gradual hardening, and other parts also need
periodic regulation. Pianos need regular maintenance to

The relationship between two pitches, called an interval,


is the ratio of their absolute frequencies. Two dierent intervals are perceived as the same when the pairs
of pitches involved share the same frequency ratio. The
easiest intervals to identify, and the easiest intervals to
tune, are those that are just, meaning they have a simple
whole-number ratio. The term temperament refers to a
tuning system that tempers the just intervals (usually the
perfect fth, which has the ratio 3:2) to satisfy another
mathematical property; in equal temperament, a fth is
tempered by narrowing it slightly, achieved by attening
its upper pitch slightly, or raising its lower pitch slightly.

8.6. PLAYING AND TECHNIQUE


A temperament system is also known as a set of bearings. Tempering an interval causes it to beat, which is
a uctuation in perceived sound intensity due to interference between close (but unequal) pitches. The rate of
beating is equal to the frequency dierences of any harmonics that are present for both pitches and that coincide
or nearly coincide. Piano tuners have to use their ear to
"stretch" the tuning of a piano to make it sound in tune.
This involves tuning the highest-pitched strings slightly
higher and the lowest-pitched strings slightly lower than
what a mathematical frequency table (in which octaves
are derived by doubling the Hertz) would suggest.

91
a larger number of middle-class people. They appeared in
music halls and pubs during the 19th century, providing
entertainment through a piano soloist, or in combination
with a small band. Pianists began accompanying singers
or dancers performing on stage, or playing dance tunes
for patrons dancing on a dance oor.

8.6 Playing and technique


As with any other musical instrument, the piano may
be played from written music, by ear, or through
improvisation. Piano technique evolved during the transition from harpsichord and clavichord to fortepiano playing, and continued through the development of the modern piano. Changes in musical styles and audience preferences, as well as the emergence of virtuoso performers
contributed to this evolution, and to the growth of distinct
approaches or schools of piano playing. Although technique is often viewed as only the physical execution of a
musical idea, many pedagogues and performers stress the
interrelatedness of the physical and mental or emotional
aspects of piano playing.[40][41][42][43][44]

Birthday party honoring French pianist Maurice Ravel in 1928.


From left to right: conductor, Oscar Fried; singer, Eva Gauthier;
Maurice Ravel (at piano); composer-conductor, Manoah LeideTedesco; and composer George Gershwin.

Many classical music composers, including Haydn,


Mozart, and Beethoven, composed for the fortepiano, a
rather dierent instrument than the modern piano. The
fortepiano was a quieter instrument with a narrower dynamic range and a smaller span of octaves. Even composers of the Romantic movement, like Liszt, Chopin,
Robert Schumann, Felix Mendelssohn, and Johannes
Brahms, wrote for pianos substantially dierent from
2010-era modern pianos. Contemporary musicians may
adjust their interpretation of historical compositions from
the 1600s to the 1800s to account for sound quality differences between old and new instruments or to changing
performance practice.

During the 19th century, American musicians playing for


working-class audiences in small pubs and bars, particularly African-American composers, developed new musical genres based on the modern piano. Ragtime music,
popularized by composers such as Scott Joplin, reached
a broader audience by 1900. The popularity of ragtime music was quickly succeeded by Jazz piano. New
techniques and rhythms were invented for the piano, including ostinato for boogie-woogie, and Shearing voicing. George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue broke new
musical ground by combining American jazz piano with
symphonic sounds. Comping, a technique for accompanying jazz vocalists on piano, was exemplied by Duke
Ellington's technique. Honky-tonk music, featuring yet
another style of piano rhythm, became popular during the
same era. Bebop techniques grew out of jazz, with leading composer-pianists such as Thelonious Monk and Bud
Powell. In the late 20th century, Bill Evans composed
pieces combining classical techniques with his jazz experimentation. Herbie Hancock was one of the rst jazz
xomposer-pianists to nd mainstream popularity working
with newer urban music techniques such as jazz-funk.

Starting in Beethovens later career, the fortepiano


evolved into an instrument more like the modern piano
of the 2000s. Modern pianos were in wide use by the
late 19th century. They featured an octave range larger
than the earlier fortepiano instrument, adding around 30
more keys to the instrument, which extended the deep
bass range and the high treble range. Factory mass production of upright pianos made them more aordable for

Pianos have also been used prominently in rock and


roll and rock music by entertainers such as Jerry Lee
Lewis, Little Richard, Keith Emerson (Emerson, Lake &
Palmer), Elton John, Ben Folds, Billy Joel, Nicky Hopkins, and Tori Amos, to name a few. Modernist styles
of music have also appealed to composers writing for
the modern grand piano, including John Cage and Philip
Glass.

Well-known approaches to piano technique include those


by Dorothy Taubman, Edna Golandsky, Fred Karpo,
Charles-Louis Hanon and Otto Ortmann.

8.6.1

Performance styles

92

8.7 Role
See also: Social history of the piano

CHAPTER 8. PIANO
Electronic piano
Harmonichord
Keyboard instruments

The piano is a crucial instrument in Western classical


Keytar
music, jazz, blues, rock, folk music, lm and television
scoring, and many other Western musical genres. A
Melodica
large number of composers and songwriters are pro Organ
cient pianists because the piano keyboard oers an effective means of experimenting with complex melodic
Orphica
and harmonic interplay and trying out multiple, independent melody lines that are played at the same time.
Piano accordion
Bandleaders often learn the piano, as it is an excellent in Pipe organ
strument upon which to learn new pieces and songs which
one will be leading during a performance. The piano is an
Player piano
essential tool in music education in elementary and secondary schools and universities and colleges. Most music classrooms and practice rooms have a piano. Pianos Other
are used to help teach music theory, music history and
music appreciation classes. Many conductors are trained
Chiroplast
in piano, because it allows them to play parts of the sym Pianist
phonies they are conducting (using a piano reduction or
doing a reduction from the full score), so that they can
List of classical pianists
develop their interpretation.
List of lms about pianists

8.8 See also

List of piano brand names


List of piano makers

General

List of piano composers

Jazz piano
Piano extended technique
Piano transcription
Piano trio

8.9 References
[1] Denition of pianoforte in the Oxford Dictionary..
Oxford University Press.

PianoForte Foundation

[2] John Kiehl. Hammer Time. Wolfram Demonstrations


Project.

Street piano

[3] Pollens (1995, 238)

String piano
Technical
Agrae
Aliquot stringing
Piano acoustics
Related instruments
Digital piano
Electric piano
Electronic keyboard

[4] Scholes, Percy A.; John Owen Ward (1970). The Oxford
Companion to Music (10th ed.). Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press. pp. lvi.
[5] David R. Peterson (1994), Acoustics of the hammered
dulcimer, its history, and recent developments, Journal
of the Acoustical Society of America 95 (5), p. 3002.
[6] Pollens (1995, Ch.1)
[7] Erlich, Cyril (1990). The Piano: A History. Oxford University Press, USA; Revised edition. ISBN 0-19-8161719.
[8] Powers, Wendy (2003). The Piano: The Pianofortes
of Bartolomeo Cristofori (16551731) | Thematic Essay
| Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan
Museum of Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum
of Art. Retrieved 2014-01-27.

8.9. REFERENCES

[9] Isaco (2012, 23)


[10] Palmieri, Bob & Meg (2003). The Piano: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-93796-2..
Instrument: piano et forte genandt [was] an expression Bach also used when acting as Silbermanns agent in
1749.

93

[31] Fletcher, Neville Horner; Thomas D. Rossing (1998). The


Physics of Musical Instruments. Springer. p. 374.
[32] Baron, James (July 15, 2007). Lets Play Two: Singular
Piano. New York Times. Retrieved 2015-03-03.
[33] Fourth pedal. Fazioli. Archived from the original on
2008-04-16. Retrieved 2008-04-21.

[11] The Viennese Piano. Retrieved 2007-10-09.


[12] Isaco (2012, 74)
[13] Dolge (1911, 124)
[14] Dolge (1911, 125-126)
[15] Piano queue (in French). Mdiathque de la Cit de
la musique. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
[16] Palmieri, ed., Robert (2003). Encyclopedia of keyboard
instruments, Volume 2. Routledge. p. 437. ISBN 978-0415-93796-2.
[17] Good, Dave (4 September 2012). M175 T69: Not
Childs Play. San Diego Reader. Retrieved 20 February
2015.
[18] PNOmation II. QRS Music Technologies. Retrieved 6
July 2014.

[34] Piano with instrumental attachments. Musica Viva. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
[35] Wing & Son. Antique Piano Shop. Retrieved 27 August
2010.
[36] Macaulay, David. The New How Things Work. From
Levers to Lasers, Windmills to Web Sites, A Visual guide
to the World of Machines. Houghton Miin Company,
United States. 1998. ISBN 0-395-93847-3. pp. 2627.
[37] Physics of the Piano by the Piano Tuners Guild
[38] Reblitz, Arthur A. Piano Servicing, Tuning, and Rebuilding. For the Professional, the Student, and the Hobbyist.
Vestal Press, Lanham Maryland. 1993. ISBN 1-87951103-7 Pp. 203215.

[19] History of the Eavesta Pianette Minipiano. Pianotuners.org. Retrieved 2014-01-27.

[39] Reblitz, Arthur A. Piano Servicing, Tuning, and Rebuilding. For the Professional, the student, and the Hobbyist.
Vestal Press, Lanham Maryland. 1993. ISBN 1-87951103-7 Pp. 203215.

[20] Wireless Piano Exhibited in Germany. Popular Mechanics, April 1954, p. 115, bottom of page.

[40] Edwin M. Ripin; et al. Pianoforte. Grove Music Online


(Oxford University Press). Retrieved 17 November 2014.

[21] Davies, Hugh (2001). The New Grove Dictionary of Music


and Musicians (Second edition). London: Macmillan.

[41] Matthay, Tobias (1947). The Visible and Invisible in Pianoforte Technique : Being a Digest of the Authors Technical Teachings Up to Date. London: Oxford University
Press. p. 3.

[22] 161 Facts About Steinway & Sons and the Pianos They
Build. Steinway & Sons. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
[23] Nave, Carl R. The Piano. HyperPhysics. Retrieved 19
November 2014.
[24] The Piano Case. Five Lectures on the Acoustics of the Piano. Royal Swedish Academy of Music. 1990. Retrieved
30 August 2010.
[25] Navi, Parvis; Dick Sandberg (2012). Thermo-HydroMechanical Wood Processing. CRC Press. p. 46. ISBN
1-4398-6042-4.
[26] p. 65
[27] Fine, Larry (2007). 20072008 Annual Supplement to
The Piano Book. Brookside Press. p. 31. ISBN 1929145-21-7.
[28] The resonance case principle is described by Bsendorfer in terms of manufacturing technique and description
of eect.

[42] Harrison, Sidney (1953). Piano Technique. London: I.


Pitman. p. 57.
[43] Fielden, Thomas (1934). The Science of Pianoforte Technique. London: Macmillan. p. 162.
[44] Boulanger, Nadia. Sayings of Great Teachers. The Piano Quarterly. Winter 19581959: 26.

Dolge, Alfred (1911). Pianos and Their Makers: A


Comprehensive History of the Development of the Piano from the Monochord to the Concert Grand Player
Piano. Covina Publishing Company.
Isaco, Stuart (2012). A Natural History of the
Piano: The Instrument, the Music, the Musicians From Mozart to Modern Jazz and Everything in Between. Knopf Doubleday Publishing.

[29] Fazioli, Paolo, Grove Music Online, 2009. Accessed 12


April 2009.

8.9.1 General

[30] Model F308, Ocial Fazioli Website. Accessed 6 March


2015.

Most of the information in this article can be found in the


following published works:

94
Fine, Larry; Gilbert, Douglas R (2001). The Piano
Book: Buying and Owning a New or Used Piano (4th
ed.). Jamaica Plain, MA: Brookside Press. ISBN 1929145-01-2. Gives the basics of how pianos work,
and a thorough evaluative survey of current pianos
and their manufacturers. It also includes advice on
buying and owning pianos.
Good, Edwin M. (2001). Giraes, black dragons, and other pianos: a technological history from
Cristofori to the modern concert grand (2nd ed.).
Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 08047-4549-8. is a standard reference on the history
of the piano.
Pollens, Stewart (1995). The Early Pianoforte.
Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 978-0-521-11155-3. is an authoritative work
covering the ancestry of the piano, its invention by
Cristofori, and the early stages of its subsequent evolution.
Sadie, Stanley; John Tyrrell, ed. (2001). The
New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2nd
ed.). London: Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 0-19517067-9. contains a wealth of information. Main
article: Edwin M. Ripin, Stewart Pollens, Philip
R. Belt, Maribel Meisel, Alfons Huber, Michael
Cole, Gert Hecher, Beryl Kenyon de Pascual, Cynthia Adams Hoover, Cyril Ehrlich, Edwin M. Good,
Robert Winter, and J. Bradford Robinson. Pianoforte.

8.10 Further reading


Banowetz, Joseph; Elder, Dean (1985). The pianists
guide to pedaling. Bloomington: Indiana University
Press. ISBN 0-253-34494-8.
Carhart, Thad (2002) [2001]. The Piano Shop on
the Left Bank. New York: Random House. ISBN
0-375-75862-3.
Ehrlich, Cyril (1990). The Piano: A History. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 978-0-19-816171-4.
Giordano, Sr., Nicholas J. (2010). Physics of the Piano. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0-19-954602-2.
Lelie, Christo (1995). Van Piano tot Forte (The History of the Early Piano) (in Dutch). Kampen: KokLyra.
Loesser, Arthur (1991) [1954]. Men, Women, and
Pianos: A Social History. New York: Dover Publications.

CHAPTER 8. PIANO
Parakilas, James (1999). Piano Roles: Three Hundred Years of Life with the Piano. New Haven,
Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-30008055-7.
Reblitz, Arthur A. (1993). Piano Servicing, Tuning and Rebuilding: For the Professional, the Student,
and the Hobbyist. Vestal, NY: Vestal Press. ISBN
1-879511-03-7.
Schejtman, Rod (2008). Music Fundamentals. The
Piano Encyclopedia. ISBN 978-987-25216-2-2.
White, William H. (1909). Theory and Practice of
Pianoforte-Building. New York: E. Lyman Bill.

8.11 External links


History of the Piano Forte, Association of Blind Piano Tuners, UK
Section Table of Music Pitches of the Virginia
Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary
The Frederick Historical Piano Collection
The Pianofortes of Bartolomeo Cristofori, Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan
Museum of Art
Five lectures on the Acoustics of the piano
The Piano in Polish Collections (historical instruments)

8.12. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

95

8.12 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


8.12.1

Text

Music Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music?oldid=738854690 Contributors: Sodium, Brion VIBBER, Eloquence, Mav, Bryan
Derksen, Zundark, Koyaanis Qatsi, Danny, Vignaux, Federico~enwiki, XJaM, Christian List, Aldie, Matusz, Anthere, Merphant, Graham,
Heron, Camembert, J.F.Quackenbush, Hephaestos, Stevertigo, Iorek~enwiki, Quintessent, Patrick, Infrogmation, Michael Hardy, Tim
Starling, Lexor, Jahsonic, Chuck SMITH, Ixfd64, Cyde, TakuyaMurata, Tregoweth, CesarB, Wintran, Mdebets, Ahoerstemeier, Ronz,
Muriel Gottrop~enwiki, Theresa knott, Snoyes, Notheruser, Angela, BigFatBuddha, DropDeadGorgias, , Glenn, Nikai, Scott,
Kwekubo, Andres, Evercat, Jacquerie27, Rl, Denny, Nikola Smolenski, Dysprosia, Tedius Zanarukando, Fuzheado, Zoicon5, Markhurd,
Maximus Rex, Hyacinth, Omegatron, Ed g2s, Morven, Traroth, Opus33, Fvw, Raul654, Gakrivas, Secretlondon, Jusjih, David.Monniaux,
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Rasmus Faber, Catbar, Kagredon, Hadal, Wikibot, Ambarish, Mandel, SoLando, Twiin, HaeB, Guy Peters, Dina, Srtxg, Stirling Newberry,
Fabiform, Giftlite, TimGrin, DocWatson42, Jade Hamblyn, Hereward, Wolf530, Kenny sh, Netoholic, Tom harrison, Meursault2004,
Lupin, Mark Richards, Davegillbe, Everyking, Maha ts, Rick Block, Jfdwol, Ajhenderson, Avsa, Mboverload, VampWillow, PlatinumX,
Bobblewik, Edcolins, Golbez, Wmahan, Stevietheman, Pheel, Gadum, Mackeriv, Andycjp, Alexf, Bact, Mendel, CryptoDerk, Jpkoester1,
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Trilobite, Picapica, Pasd, Rculatta, Gazpacho, Mike Rosoft, Prime~enwiki, R, Freakofnurture, Venu62, DanielCD, Gimmick Account,
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Cheema bong, Purple Paint, Demiurge011, Pandithurai, Jwilson89, Headbomb, YS Wong, Marek69, West Brom 4ever, James086, Harryb123, BamaStangGuy, TXiKi, Cool Blue, Ianater, Karamell, Indelamass, J. W. Love, Grayshi, CharlotteWebb, Sam42, Kaveri, Sean
William, Natalie Erin, RoboServien, Futurebird, Escarbot, Eleuther, LachlanA, Itsfrankie1221, Ackers2210, AntiVandalBot, RobotG,
Cultural Freedom, Luna Santin, Chubbles, CZmarlin, Rps, Masamage, Prolog, Dr. Blofeld, DarkAudit, 17Drew, Madder, Paddy Jow,

96

CHAPTER 8. PIANO

Doktor Who, LibLord, Farosdaughter, Tainted Drifter, Chill doubt, MECU, Cgram@adelphia.net, Destroy babalon, Ozgod, Darrenhusted,
Sluzzelin, JAnDbot, Dan D. Ric, Husond, Formation, Danielchoo, MER-C, Californian Treehugger, The Transhumanist, NE2, Keithcadenza, Hut 8.5, Frankie816, Kerotan, .anacondabot, Ophion, Sangak, Pedro, Mildy Amused, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, Sickle Wolf,
Schalow, Moneyshoes, ZeoX, Unspeakable, Yankeesten1, MaestroX, SparrowsWing, Jjasi, RoxkOnz, Wolfgang Wilde, Bubba hotep,
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Accessall, Jemather, Mschel, R'n'B, CommonsDelinker, Turdman, LittleOldMe old, Meathead321, RockMFR, Vanwhistler, J.delanoy,
Pharaoh of the Wizards, CFCF, Trusilver, Mr Ernie, Elizabethrhodes, Foleymark, Numbo3, Sp3000, Jammerman29, BillWSmithJr,
Purplemonkeymusic, Ginsengbomb, Eliz81, WarthogDemon, Boof1891, SU Linguist, Shane18, G. Campbell, Sinohits, Axhahariel, Lipglossjunkie88, Matt1314, Gzkn, Acalamari, SharkD, Cominoverdahill2, St.daniel, Jerniganj, Dancarter10, BrokenSphere, 5theye, LordAnubisBOT, Thomas Larsen, Blackwellfan, 123ccc, Shawngs, Balthazarduju, Snicle, Dmz5, Nkruschandl, AntiSpamBot, Composition,
Floateruss, Ric168, The Transhumanist (AWB), Belovedfreak, Frank Zamjatin, Srpnor, Johndubuc, Wellingtoncat, SJP, Vince53590,
Ogyo, The cherds, Pook2000, Showado, Rasputina993, Cometstyles, WJBscribe, Aminullah, Rabmaster, RB972, Burzmali, SirBob42,
Sparafucil, Ollieollieolliedelahoya, Taranonline, Guyzero, Yellowver, Bonadea, Red Thrush, Adfs, Fiendishfool, Brvman, Killamage921,
Rippleman, Larry J Solomon, Bonniequeenie, DanielleLowe, BubbaGump94, CardinalDan, Idioma-bot, Sdirrim, Lovegoddess, Remi0o,
Germanclub, Tauntobr, Lights, Gothbag, King Lopez, Graphite Elbow, VolkovBot, Part Deux, TreasuryTag, Thedjatclubrock, Iosef, Miubot, Macedonian, Huyremy, AlnoktaBOT, Arnaudscher, Maile66, Barrymmore, Bsroiaadn, FerralMoonrender, Philip Trueman, Fran
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Abdullais4u, Cremepu222, Shadowlapis, Goaty69, Jeeny, Maxim, Donkeyman31, Witchzilla, Jer4346, MearsMan, Geedubs, Etcollen,
Litabandita, Enigmaman, Sexybriana6969, Parsifal, Lamro, Synthebot, Miko3k, Ryanandmatt, Thepunch1, Bugsbunny321, Burntsauce,
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B12man, D. Recorder, ChipChamp, Overtonemusic, Arturo zuniga, Eemmiillyyyx, Bjensen, Cosprings, Ekb2, SieBot, Iceshark7, Coee,
Tooshort052105, Hodiebud, Dreamafter, Moonriddengirl, BotMultichill, Virtual Cowboy, Kid124352, Ambular49, Dawn Bard, Viskonsas, Caltas, Hyper oxtane, Pooptygone, Yintan, Hirohisat, Lukewestcombe, Keilana, Bloodwood, Person 1689, Oda Mari, Sunayanaa,
The juggresurection, Thekelzter, AutomatedPwner, Hippolicious123, Gublenk, Believeinblue594, TotalMILF69, Oxymoron83, Antonio Lopez, Poindexter Propellerhead, Iain99, Sirenyst, Shahram9, Jhacob, MooMooz, AsherSherry, BenoniBot~enwiki, MookieZ, Aowpr,
HAL(Old), Kumioko (renamed), CharlesGillingham, Stfg, Spartan-James, Rahbinhood, Jongleur100, Freshpro, StaticGull, HighInBC, Shelest~enwiki, Disneycat, Dunkelweizen, Longhillrocker12, Ound, Goodfaith99, Tjonp, ImageRemovalBot, The sunder king, Mr. Granger,
Loren.wilton, Martarius, Julietn, Timtam94, Dankey~enwiki, ClueBot, Limitsouls1, Daayviid, Superlamps, Avenged Eightfold, Binksternet, Hutcher, PipepBot, Dollars4thedierence, EVH0Yeah, Hypnox~enwiki, Nnemo, JuPitEer, P0mbal, Nwagner12345, Drmies, Cp111,
Kathleen.wright5, J8079s, Mikefox721, Niceguyedc, Bobby2Fingers, Miemienidsnids, Oshealj, PurplePiers, Omgthissucks, Neverquick,
Coopyloveshim, Drakodan, Emanup~enwiki, Caca425, Inala, Kville105125, Gediminas Varzinskas, DragonBot, Yela0, Povertypop the
2nd, Itsallgood553, No such user, God of battle, Mqrasi, Claygreenberg, Peaceloving anarkist, Glacialspring, Totie, Winston365, Dfsghjkgfhdg, Wiki libs, Cenarium, Jotterbot, Cescoby, Razorame, SchreiberBike, Light show, Overtwitch, Anosim, Tezero, Rockk3r, Crazy
Boris with a red beard, Jengirl1988, Hlamerz, BodhisattvaBot, Stickee, Geordiex8, Fishfreak21, Drumbeatsofeden, Kal-El-Bot, Galzigler,
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MacTire02, AnomieBOT, Localbatman, Jim1138, Teenly, NickK, Inigo1, Thalo, Aldoperani, Fenneck, RagaBhakta, Digital0000, Lavio
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Lamellama, Aeonx, Someguy432, Averaver, RaptureBot, Teptoria, Brandmeister, ClueBot NG, Raiden10, CactusBot, Denteuro, Joefromrandb, Movses-bot, EnekoGotzon, Frietjes, Delusion23, Ben W Brown, Saxgirl66, Artystarty, Crohall, Osamahelal, Helpful Pixie Bot,
Wbm1058, Jomangor, BG19bot, Neptunes Trident, Northamerica1000, Isleofbelle, Jyothishbabu, EsB, DrBaldhead, Tamara Ustinova,
Meclee, Jjtimbrell, Jbailhe, DigitalMediaSage, Madeleined2, , Cyberbot II, Saxophilist, Musiclanka, Orschstaer, Hmainsbot1,
Jc86035, Virenece45,
, Lawnaut, JPaestpreornJeolhlna, Pdecalculus, Rburtonresearch, Melonkelon,
, Readanything1729,
MrLinkinPark333, GulfamUlRehman, LongNailsShortHair, Meganesia, Icensnow42, FelixRosch, ColRad85, 3DFilmaker, Monkbot, Buscus 3, Eman235, HMSLavender, A Great Catholic Person, Smbspo79, WikiEditorial101, DangerousJXD,
, TeaLover1996,
Some Gadget Geek, Rimjhimgolf, Jason.nlw, ZachMitchell12, Whalestate, Z.music.nerd, KasparBot, Brodie Flynn, IWA1864, Brian heim
composer, Zafar24, Omni Flames, GreenC bot, Robot psychiatrist, ThePlatypusofDoom, Motivao, Eyeponu and Anonymous: 1513
Musical instrument Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musical_instrument?oldid=741880903 Contributors: Kpjas, The Cunctator,
Sodium, Vicki Rosenzweig, Robert Merkel, Tarquin, Andre Engels, Eclecticology, Gianfranco, PierreAbbat, Nate Silva, Ortolan88, Merphant, Camembert, Olivier, Someone else, Rbrwr, Bdesham, Patrick, Tim Starling, Erik Zachte, Gabbe, Menchi, Sannse, Jptwo, Muriel
Gottrop~enwiki, CatherineMunro, Suisui, Den fjttrade ankan~enwiki, Glenn, Hyacinth, Paul-L~enwiki, Ed g2s, Finlay McWalter, Robbot, MrJones, Craig Stuntz, Aniu~enwiki, Wikibot, Hig Herteneurst, JoelWhitehouse, Lzur, Unfree, Michael Devore, Andris, Yekrats,
SonicAD, OldakQuill, Stevietheman, Chowbok, Alexf, Antandrus, OverlordQ, Karol Langner, Glogger, Ganymead, Tsemii, Cwoyte,
MToolen, Mike Rosoft, CALR, Discospinster, Ardonik, Pavel Vozenilek, Kjoonlee, El C, RoyBoy, Causa sui, Bobo192, Smalljim, Reinyday, Wisdom89, Elipongo, SpeedyGonsales, Alansohn, Gary, Ricky81682, Velella, Sciurin, LFaraone, Woohookitty, Miaow Miaow,
WadeSimMiser, MONGO, Eleassar777, Dysepsion, Graham87, BD2412, Chun-hian, Ajnewbold, David Levy, Mendaliv, Sjakkalle,
Rjwilmsi, Angusmclellan, , Prowleri, Gryndor, Yamamoto Ichiro, Devellis, RobertG, Nihiltres, RexNL, Gurch,
Chobot, DVdm, Ben Tibbetts, Wavelength, Phantomsteve, Serinde, Anomaly1, DanMS, Manop, Theelf29, Spike Wilbury, RichardMathews, Raven4x4x, Bucketsofg, Alan Millar, Dna-webmaster, Phgao, Zzuuzz, Nikkimaria, Closedmouth, Ketsuekigata, Thomas Blomberg,
Paul Erik, SkerHawx, DVD R W, SmackBot, Helga76, KnowledgeOfSelf, SaxTeacher, Clpo13, Edgar181, Gilliam, Ohnoitsjamie, Chris
the speller, Stevepeterson, MalafayaBot, TheLeopard, TheKMan, PiMaster3, Decltype, Dreadstar, Just plain Bill, Curly Turkey, Ged UK,
Michael Bednarek, RomanSpa, The Bread, Keith-264, Levineps, OnBeyondZebrax, Iridescent, DChapii, Shoeofdeath, IvanLanin, Courcelles, Tawkerbot2, Tanthalas39, Corwen, CWY2190, RincewindSW, AshLin, FlyingToaster, Logical2u, MrFish, AndrewHowse, Kanags,

8.12. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

97

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Phionah, Merbabu, Dfrg.msc, AntiVandalBot, Seaphoto, Prolog, Madder, me Errante, Doktor Who, Sluzzelin, DuncanHill, Nannus,
The Transhumanist, Andonic, Geniac, Bongwarrior, Gjjm, JNW, Jlenthe, Zandweb~enwiki, Catgut, Theroadislong, Bugtrio, Vssun, JaGa,
Esanchez7587, Pax:Vobiscum, Hbent, Jergat, Black Stripe, MartinBot, PAK Man, Vigyani, NAHID, Leyo, Huzzlet the bot, J.delanoy,
Dannodawgs, LordAnubisBOT, Balthazarduju, SJP, KylieTastic, Juliancolton, Cometstyles, Dizzytheegg, Useight, Idioma-bot, VolkovBot,
CWii, RingtailedFox, Uyvsdi, AlnoktaBOT, Lexein, Rikyu, Vlmastra, Ipso2, TXiKiBoT, Oshwah, Peperzout, Slinto, Rei-bot, Drestros
power, Clarince63, Melsaran, Slysplace, Aaron Rotenberg, Jackfork, Houtlijm~enwiki, Enviroboy, VanBuren, Daniel Alan Phillips, Ceranthor, AlleborgoBot, Symane, EmxBot, TenIslands, Cosprings, EJF, SieBot, Smlowe5, YonaBot, P36ad, Winchelsea, Gerakibot, Ninehouse,
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Elassint, ClueBot, PlasmaFire3000, Binksternet, The Thing That Should Not Be, Witchwooder, Drmies, Sevilledade, Cp111, Clockwork
Laser, WDM27, CounterVandalismBot, Niceguyedc, The18765675, Alexbot, Jusdafax, , PixelBot, Vivio Testarossa, ParisianBlade, Wiki
libs, M.O.X, Giandrago, Ludfan, SoxBot, Kakofonous, ClintGoss, Light show, Henry Doktorski, Oriscus, Thingg, Aitias, SoxBot III,
Apparition11, Crowsnest, Steveozone, GM Pink Elephant, AlexGWU, Laser brain, Avoided, Origamiemensch, Yamahamusician, WikiDao, Luolimao, Chipskip, Addbot, Poppyseedbagel, DOI bot, AkhtaBot, This is Paul, Wootwootty, Eivindbot, BepBot, PranksterTurtle,
Glane23, 5 albert square, Munchrazz, Numbo3-bot, Jackjames123456789, Tide rolls, Gail, Joshuadh, Merky588, VP-bot, Luckas-bot, Bunnyhop11, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, Melvalevis, Worm That Turned, AnomieBOT, Materialscientist, 90 Auto, Citation bot, Ruby2010, NurseryRhyme, LilHelpa, Xqbot, Cpt Funkalicious, JimVC3, Capricorn42, Zumiez12, ViktorGorilla, DSisyphBot, - ), Petropoxy (Lithoderm
Proxy), J04n, Laufersweden, Auntieruth55, PocketDocket, LucienBOT, Tobby72, Stradfan, Age Happens, Rigaudon, A little insignicant,
OgreBot, Citation bot 1, Ronnyg28, RedBot, SpaceFlight89, Ght mu , Koakhtzvigad, ActivExpression, FoxBot, Moscow Connection,
SuzyJ53, FSIM09, Tgoodwil, Nataev, Theo10011, Suusion of Yellow, Tynchtyk Chorotegin, Hajatvrc, NerdyScienceDude, Milotoor,
Meesher, EmausBot, ImprovingWiki, WikitanvirBot, Super48paul, ITshnik, Qrsdogg, Tommy2010, Lamb99, JSquish, Harveyr4, Aeonx,
H3llBot, Frank.Defalco, Wayne Slam, Hzb pangus, Lbern18, Baron Von Tarkin, Bob27101, Haigee2007, Bhavalayam2010, ClueBot NG,
Justinslovergirl, Manubot, This lousy T-shirt, , Gilderien, Rezabot, Widr, Helpful Pixie Bot, BobNewby, Splattermusic, Vagobot, PhnomPencil, Darkprincess18, Solomon7968, Mark Arsten, Test35965, Ebbillings, TsunamiiofPower, Mohammad.sameja, Thegreatgrabber,
Klilidiplomus, Haymouse, N3WROYAL, Paradoxical 0^2, JYBot, Musiclanka, Joesteine, Duncanrit, Frosty, Wywin, Baimoon, Maryfaheycolbert, Burninthruthesky, Tacorebel, Acetotyce, Cherubinirules, Virushead, NYBrook098, DavidLeighEllis, Finnusertop, Jianhui67,
V44sandy, Luxure, Monkbot, Daeyun, Crystallizedcarbon, TeaLover1996, PAACEanthony, ScrapIronIV, Truniper, Qsdd, Oldnewnew,
Jessyliem, Dhoolu2001, KasparBot, Jeremykinkennon1990, Coolbaboy, SummerPhDv2.0, Amir R. Pourkashef, The Doctor-Fezman,
Freemusicsites, Music1201, MrAlexDaCreeper, Muzikash and Anonymous: 559
Orchestra Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orchestra?oldid=741487784 Contributors: Kpjas, Dreamyshade, Derek Ross, Sodium,
Koyaanis Qatsi, RobLa, Rmhermen, Gianfranco, Nate Silva, William Avery, SimonP, Camembert, Nevilley, Patrick, David Martland,
Jahsonic, Sannse, Flamurai, Ahoerstemeier, Lovely Chris, TUF-KAT, Andrewa, Glenn, Kaihsu, Malbi, Viajero, Tejano, Wik, Zoicon5,
Freechild, Hyacinth, Mackensen, Opus33, Stormie, AnonMoos, Jerzy, Qertis, Pumpie, Bearcat, Robbot, Psmith, Pigsonthewing, Fredrik,
Romanm, Naddy, MaXim, Halibutt, JackofOz, David Edgar, Aknxy, Rsduhamel, Stirling Newberry, DocWatson42, Lupin, HangingCurve,
Marcika, Rookkey, Micru, Yekrats, Barneyboo, Robsteadman, Andycjp, Antandrus, Arsene, Oneiros, DragonySixtyseven, Klemen Kocjancic, Picapica, Matthew Vaughan, Udzu, Andylkl, SYSS Mouse, Grstain, Mike Rosoft, CALR, Mindspillage, Newkai, Noisy, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, Vsmith, Bishonen, Xezbeth, Bumhoolery, Joepearson, ESkog, Neko-chan, Glenlarson, Adambro, Bobo192,
Fir0002, Cje~enwiki, Oop, Polylerus, Nsaa, Conny, Rsholmes, Preuninger, Alansohn, Gorodski, Lightdarkness, Redfarmer, Andrej86,
M3n747, Sketchee, Sciurin, Waldszenen, Dzhim, Ghirlandajo, Xtopher, Pcpcpc, Feezo, Nuno Tavares, Woohookitty, HowardB, Optichan,
Isnow, Cal T, Urbanguy1, Cybbe, Graham87, Deltabeignet, Magister Mathematicae, BD2412, Ajnewbold, JIP, Missmarple, Jrn0074,
Nneonneo, Dar-Ape, Sango123, RobertG, Crazycomputers, Harmil, Rbonvall, Paul foord, RexNL, Ewlyahoocom, Gurch, Chobot, 334a,
Bgwhite, E Pluribus Anthony, Flcelloguy, YurikBot, Wavelength, RattusMaximus, Sceptre, Huw Powell, Phantomsteve, Killervogel5,
Anonymous editor, AVM, Pigman, CambridgeBayWeather, Wimt, Sanguinity, Sentausa, GunnarRene, NawlinWiki, Grafen, Geo NoNick, Davfoster88, Terwilliger, UniReb, Szalas, RUL3R, Kenkoo1987, Biopresto, S. Neuman, Bota47, Jeh, Gazza1685, Doncram, Kewp,
Engineer Bob, User27091, Leptictidium, Stijndon, 21655, Jacklee, Nikkimaria, Chrishmt0423, Curpsbot-unicodify, NeilN, J Lorraine,
DVD R W, Veinor, SmackBot, H2eddsf3, Ericbateson, Mangoe, KnowledgeOfSelf, Saihtam, Unyoyega, Wegesrand, KocjoBot~enwiki,
Clpo13, Paxse, Btwied, Jpvinall, JGarrick, Gilliam, Hmains, Skizzik, Andy M. Wang, Chris the speller, Bluebot, Frutti di Mare, Kleinzach,
Ada, Apelleti, Raistuumum, Da Vynci, Colonies Chris, Dual Freq, Darth Panda, JGXenite, Springeragh, Wolfdog1, Yid613, Can't sleep,
clown will eat me, Per84, Jjhjjh, Fiziker, Bardsandwarriors, Alton.arts, Nakon, Gidklio, DenisRS, Just plain Bill, ILike2BeAnonymous,
Of7271, Galaxydog2000, Kukini, Bhludzin, SashatoBot, Nishkid64, MusicMaker5376, MegA, BrownHairedGirl, Valfontis, Kuru, J
1982, Butko, Voceditenore, 16@r, Slakr, Rainwarrior, Special-T, MTSbot~enwiki, Jose77, Violncello, Supaman89, OnBeyondZebrax,
Impy4ever, Slicedoranges, JHP, CapitalR, Adambiswanger1, Courcelles, Tawkerbot2, SeanMD80, Gveret Tered, JForget, Thestrad1713,
Schweiwikist, Leujohn, WeggeBot, Neelix, Cassmus, Justin Tokke, Cydebot, Psychomusicianuk, Gogo Dodo, Frosty0814snowman,
Mrstonky, Nmajdan, Dynaow, Cancun771, PamD, FrancoGG, Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Horbor, Daniel Newman, TonyTheTiger, Headbomb,
Marek69, Sturm55, Northumbrian, Escarbot, AntiVandalBot, Luna Santin, Honeygo, Quintote, Lyricmac, Jj137, Katya1812, Sluzzelin,
JAnDbot, MER-C, The Transhumanist, Seanbow, Hut 8.5, .anacondabot, Hugh.glaser, FaerieInGrey, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, Evildoctorcow, JamesBWatson, Jerome Kohl, Catgut, PIrish, Animum, Cgingold, Ahecht, Elliotb2, Pax:Vobiscum, Hdt83, MartinBot, Pjt56, Nikpapag, R'n'B, CommonsDelinker, J.delanoy, Captain panda, Weissmann~enwiki, Lizrael, Uncle Dick, Bakkouz, Katalaveno, DJRafe, Stan
J Klimas, LordAnubisBOT, Indeed123, Foil Fencer~enwiki, Rocket71048576, Coin945, NewEnglandYankee, SJP, TheScotch, Whjayg,
KylieTastic, Kidlittle, Jamesofur, Sparafucil, Treisijs, Nat682, Martial75, CardinalDan, Idioma-bot, Brozhnik, Thepurplecheese, My Core
Competency is Competency, VolkovBot, Will Colwell, ABF, Macedonian, Tesscass, Kidnimbus, Sjones23, Grammarmonger, LeilaniLad, Philip Trueman, Trasamundo, RPlunk2853, TXiKiBoT, Oshwah, Davehi1, GcSwRhIc, Jason McConnell-Leech, Someguy1221,
Vanished user ikijeirw34iuaeolaseric, Moanna, Beyond silence, Jackfork, LeaveSleaves, Master Bigode, Csdorman, Quakeley, Pnswmr, Tritoneking, Hollowdays, Mountaindewzilla, Synthebot, Imheretohelppeople2, WatermelonPotion, Bitbut, Symane, Reginald Perrin, Mark603crny, Z'Alai, Steven Weston, Theavex, NowIReignInBlood, SieBot, Nemesis973, Tresiden, Caltas, Yintan, Albanman, Android Mouse, Happysailor, Flyer22 Reborn, Mhs fa432, Hzh, Aruton, Oxymoron83, Hello71, Lightmouse, C0z0, Ecepsava, Addaick,
Jongleur100, Gilgamesh007, Benny the wayfarer, Adam Cuerden, Georgette2, Hamiltondaniel, Dust Filter, Tronic2, Tjonp, Nocturnal recomer, Niclond23, ClueBot, Fyyer, The Thing That Should Not Be, CharlesYin96, Rjd0060, DionysosProteus, Witchwooder, Nstevens17,
Drmies, Niceguyedc, Thum Fel, Trivialist, Excirial, MartinDower, Readin, Islaammaged126, Wiki libs, Unnecessary Insignicance, Razorame, Sjfuller, Ploping, Thingg, DerBorg, Egmontaz, Percus, Peasantwarrior, Mchaddock, Stickee, Ost316, Nepenthes, Oliver69, Rod
Corkin, PL290, Tayste, Luwilt, Addbot, Non-dropframe, Theleftorium, Armadilloz, Ronhjones, Arrowoame, Redheylin, Mdecandia,
Jmmva, Tide rolls, OlEnglish, Clestur, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Applechair, 2D, TaBOT-zerem, Minervasux, Napra12345, Intothewoods29,

98

CHAPTER 8. PIANO

Natasha.stehr, CinchBug, KamikazeBot, AnomieBOT, 1exec1, Jim1138, Galoubet, JackieBot, Dr.ciel, Bluerasberry, Materialscientist,
ImperatorExercitus, Akilaa, Bob Burkhardt, Eumolpo, Rubbabandmanstan, Masterniro, ArthurBot, Teleevisie, Xqbot, TheAMmollusc,
Scadara, Estlandia~enwiki, Jubileeclipman, Tardistwo, Trinibloodinmeh, Ganellia, Ched, TudorTulok, GrouchoBot, Nico1234522, Omnipaedista, Coltsfan, 08ellisd, Sesu Prime, Josemanimala, BoomerAB, GT5162, FrescoBot, Dogposter, Tobby72, Rigaudon, Jamesooders,
Denison1958, LazyStarryNights, Wrula, HRoestBot, Stormander, Gingermint, Serols, EdoDodo, ShadeofTime09, AnimeEditor, Horstschlaemma, Cello100, DanTruman, Gerda Arendt, , JMRAMOS0109, Vrenator, Harryp642, Capt. James T. Kirk, Bluest, Nataev, SoundMusic, Autamobile, Mttcmbs, Tbhotch, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Edonil, Noommos, Salvio giuliano, Skamecrazy123,
EmausBot, Musicindia1, Matthewthomas93, RA0808, RenamedUser01302013, Meganmumo, Harry5770, Klbrain, Tommy2010, Boombahh19, Jdp407, Ceadge, Selinayang, ZroBot, Cowzy123, PBS-AWB, Cprzybyl, MithrandirAgain, rico, Akushumi, Lnelsonneil20,
Googoo0202, Mooquu, Crochet, Jsayre64, Coasterlover1994, Donner60, Orange Suede Sofa, Nohamahmoud, DASHBotAV, ClueBot
NG, Tatantyler, Hon-3s-T, Loginnigol, Brucekanjokongobuddy, Firefoxcub, Justinbieberfan1010, Widr, Shelleyesque, Wbm1058, Doorknob747, BG19bot, SSDPenguin, Zenkai251, Adervae, TacticalMaster, Codypuma, Toccata quarta, L888Y5, Jsprocks101, Klilidiplomus,
BOLDITANDBROWNIT, Xftom, Jake pm, BattyBot, Justincheng12345-bot, Pratyya Ghosh, Saxophilist, Mediran, EuroCarGT, Harsh
2580, Dexbot, Holmesizzel435142734165, Inayity, Philmin99, Ethant56, Mcquoidn, Epicgenius, NHCLS, Willemdebordes, Jean11, DavidLeighEllis, Sirlawless, Tacotree, Dark manticore, Christopherryan100, TheEditer01, Wikimaury, Josh.avery21, Galobtter, Mirko jorgovic, Mbshu, Bubbles654321, A440boe, Wilj070, Narky Blert, RegistryKey, Coconutporkpie, Fluyunicornyc911, Hussdakiler, Briest
Melta Gth, KasparBot, IiDunnoBro, IvanScrooge98, Christopherwiki3!, Sidrath singh, MaxDonovan, SAOSimon913, Anima Gemini and
Anonymous: 865
String instrument Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/String_instrument?oldid=739064688 Contributors: Tarquin, Danny, Rmhermen,
Camembert, B4hand, Bdesham, Infrogmation, Isomorphic, Bobby D. Bryant, Ixfd64, Shoaler, Paddu, Anobo, Basswulf, Andrewa, Salsa
Shark, Jonik, Bemoeial, Maximus Rex, Hyacinth, Nv8200pa, Jimbreed, SEWilco, Omegatron, DiN, Opus33, Scalasaig, 80.255, Robbot,
Altenmann, Nurg, Arseni, Miles, Seth Ilys, Dmn, ComplexZeta, Everyking, Timtammann, Yekrats, Gyrofrog, R. end, Antandrus, Karol
Langner, Picapica, Ratiocinate, Alperen, Mike Rosoft, Duja, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, Caillan, Pavel Vozenilek, ESkog, Hapsiainen,
Pt, Robert P. O'Shea, Alberto Orlandini, Fiveless, Jpgordon, Longhair, Johnkarp, Sippan, Zoso~enwiki, Unused0022, Nsaa, Jumbuck,
Alansohn, Andrew Gray, Paradiso, TheVenerableBede, Pion, Snowolf, Vcelloho, Sketchee, RainbowOfLight, Woodstone, Nuno Tavares,
Mel Etitis, LOL, Pol098, HiFiGuy, Gwil, Deltabeignet, Chun-hian, Ajnewbold, Josh Parris, Canderson7, Rjwilmsi, Fuwah, Nihiltres,
RexNL, Le Anh-Huy, CJLL Wright, Chobot, Marc pasquin, Bgwhite, Ben Tibbetts, Wavelength, Phantomsteve, RobHutten, Aaron Walden,
CambridgeBayWeather, Wimt, NawlinWiki, Dysmorodrepanis~enwiki, Badagnani, Irishguy, Retired username, Baskholm, Jpeob, Light
current, Knotnic, Closedmouth, Chrishmt0423, Tyrenius, Rikimaru~enwiki, NeilN, J Lorraine, Nick-D, Bibliomaniac15, SmackBot, MattieTK, Cantrixargenta, Reedy, Am, Jagged 85, SarcasticDwarf, Brossow, UrsaFoot, Plaidfury, Duke Ganote, Skizzik, MK8, Jprg1966, Baa,
Zachorious, Springeragh, Ritchie333, Jiddisch~enwiki, RandomP, NaySay, Just plain Bill, ILike2BeAnonymous, Roeland P., Rigadoun,
Special-T, Mets501, Kvng, Violncello, Stephen B Streater, OnBeyondZebrax, Shoeofdeath, Red, IvanLanin, Courcelles, Tawkerbot2,
Xcentaur, RdCrestdBreegull, Dycedarg, NickW557, Iokseng, Nauticashades, Tagrich1961, AndrewHowse, Valodzka, Hello cello, ChardingLLNL, Ghanonmatta, Tawkerbot4, RottweilerCS, Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Indef blocked user 001, Curious George 57, Marek69, Tellyaddict, Dfrg.msc, Escarbot, AntiVandalBot, Luna Santin, Leuqarte, Gkhan, JAnDbot, MER-C, Fetchcomms, WolfmanSF, VoABot II,
A4, JNW, Cgingold, Cpl Syx, Lenticel, Chrisportelli, Hdt83, MartinBot, S.dedalus, Ralphscheider42, Tgeairn, J.delanoy, Pharaoh of the
Wizards, Ali, Lizrael, Darth Mike, SharkD, Katalaveno, SJP, Jp kiddo, Jamesontai, PeaceNT, Philip Trueman, Oshwah, Technopat, Peperzout, Slinto, Anna Lincoln, Sanfranman59, Ian.hall39, BotKung, FironDraak, Houtlijm~enwiki, Killing sparrows, Tomaxer, Nagy, Logan,
PGWG, Spork the Great, Swanstone, Artypants, Tresiden, Malcolmxl5, Dawn Bard, Ho2901, Yintan, Camern 333, Baxter9, Ayudante,
Techman224, Hobartimus, Thelmadatter, Anchor Link Bot, Mr. Stradivarius, EPadmirateur, Atif.t2, ClueBot, The Thing That Should Not
Be, Garyzx, Arakunem, Niceguyedc, Ldavis2, Excirial, Eeekster, Tnxman307, Thingg, Sarindam7, Rini2006, Egmontaz, Aaron north,
Ilikepie2221, Skarebo, SilvonenBot, Kbdankbot, MatthewVanitas, Addbot, American Eagle, Cohaniuc, Jojhutton, Opus88888, Ronhjones,
Lemonade100, MagdelenaDiArco, Diglibs2, Djritz310037361, Tide rolls, Balabiot, Volkov, Ettrig, Yobot, Fraggle81, Shine Music School,
AnomieBOT, Galoubet, Piano non troppo, SJ3000, Bob Burkhardt, Adcoon, Pmlineditor, Kevdave, Mathonius, Amaury, Shadowjams,
Kat17js, Arthur1414, Thanhluan001, Rigaudon, A little insignicant, SpacemanSpi, Rikaris, Elockid, Serols, Pdebee, Moscow Connection, Tokorokoko, Cysinger, Nataev, Tbhotch, DennisStork, ABN13a, EmausBot, Dewritech, GoingBatty, Tommy2010, John Cline,
PBS-AWB, Aeonx, Donner60, Ego White Tray, DASHBotAV, ClueBot NG, Cwmhiraeth, MelbourneStar, Primergrey, Asukite, 336, Widr,
Thevampireashlee, BobNewby, MusikAnimal, UnvoicedConsonant, MrBill3, MathewTownsend, Anbu121, ThatBrownLady, Zhaofeng Li,
Myxomatosis57, Mr.Brayano, Musiclanka, HIVnegativeAndHetero, Frosty, CaliforniaAssyriologist, Faizan, Rockon2550, NottNott, Kind
Tennis Fan, Vieque, BethNaught, F*ck it, F*ckyo*, ApGlyndwr, Muzammilhussain619, Tjclopedia, Truniper, RKBITMX, HadoukenJaeger, KasparBot, Hinono134, Rkatkgo, BayleysHugs, Harry W 069, Fmadd and Anonymous: 466
Woodwind instrument Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodwind_instrument?oldid=742152194 Contributors: Bryan Derksen,
Rizniz, PierreAbbat, Ortolan88, Stephen Hutchinson, Hephaestos, Michael Hardy, Oliver Pereira, Gnomon42, Samw, Bemoeial, Pladask,
Tedius Zanarukando, Furrykef, Nv8200pa, EldKatt, Jni, Bearcat, Craig Stuntz, Romanm, Smjg, Mark.murphy, Gilgamesh~enwiki, Yekrats,
Gyrofrog, SURIV, Antandrus, Karol Langner, Bodnotbod, Mike Rosoft, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, Pavel Vozenilek, Triona,
Bobo192, Smalljim, Viriditas, Kappa, L.Willms, Haham hanuka, Jumbuck, Rsholmes, Andrewpmk, MarkGallagher, Cjnm, Ceyockey,
Issk, Gmaxwell, Mel Etitis, Woohookitty, Spettro9, Peb1991, Altophoenix, Mihhkel, Christoel~enwiki, Graham87, BD2412, Chunhian, Erebus555, Tawker, Afterwriting, Michaelschmatz, Psemmusa, Chobot, DVdm, Wavelength, Kymacpherson, Serinde, Chris Capoccia, Chaser, Stephenb, Gaius Cornelius, Theelf29, Cryptic, Thane, NawlinWiki, Msikma, Snek01, Irishguy, Emersoni, Ormanbotanigi,
DeadEyeArrow, Dddstone, 21655, Nikkimaria, Closedmouth, GraemeL, Katieh5584, Thomas Blomberg, Maxamegalon2000, DVD R W,
SmackBot, Od Mishehu, Gilliam, Keegan, MK8, MalafayaBot, Onkelschark, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Pnkrockr, Dirgni1986, TunaSpleen, Nakon, SashatoBot, Special-T, Stwalkerster, Luokehao, Meco, KK700, Aloysius XII, Outriggr (2006-2009), WeisheitSuchen,
HokieRNB, Synergy, Robert.Allen, Storeye, Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Escarbot, Mentisto, AntiVandalBot, Seaphoto, Jj137, Canadian-Bacon,
Sluzzelin, JAnDbot, Leuko, Nipplest, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, JNW, JamesBWatson, Ali'i, LoboSooner, LorenzoB, JaGa, Kayau, Black
Stripe, WelshMatt, J.delanoy, Thegreenj, Rocket71048576, Matthardingu, Burzmali, Deor, RingtailedFox, AlnoktaBOT, Vlmastra, TXiKiBoT, Wiae, Enviroboy, Insanity Incarnate, Alexdeangelis86, SieBot, Gerakibot, Peter cohen, Flyer22 Reborn, Hoardmaster, OKBot,
Denisarona, ClueBot, The Thing That Should Not Be, Jan1nad, TheRasIsBack, Puchiko, Excirial, Jusdafax, NuclearWarfare, Greeneld1,
Aitias, MelonBot, DumZiBoT, GM Pink Elephant, Numbskullray, Avoided, SilvonenBot, NellieBly, Liamcrouse1, Shoemakers Holiday, Addbot, Willking1979, Opus88888, Favonian, AtheWeatherman, Amarantus, Lemonade100, Pensanet, Tide rolls, Zorrobot, Ruled,
Luckas-bot, Yobot, QueenCake, Magog the Ogre, Galoubet, Piano non troppo, Materialscientist, Xqbot, Txebixev, Transity, Mononomic,
Purplebackpack89, Anna Frodesiak, Anastius, Erik9, George2001hi, Rigaudon, Pinethicket, I dream of horses, A412, RedBot, Double
sharp, TobeBot, Yunshui, Diannaa, Suusion of Yellow, EmausBot, Kippydippy99, ColonelClink8, Tommy2010, Wwm101, Dcirovic,
Lucas Thoms, Sepguilherme, Traxs7, Cricketer101, AvicAWB, ChrisCarss Former24.108.99.31, 28bot, ClueBot NG, RAB8010, Apple-

8.12. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

99

headsproduction, Snotbot, Widr, Antiqueight, Calabe1992, Regulov, Zenkai251, Mark Arsten, Cncmaster, Morning Sunshine, Vanished
user lt94ma34le12, Saxophilist, FoCuSandLeArN, Inayity, Lugia2453, CaSJer, LucasBerman, RadioactivFly, Nerf elite, Ginsuloft, Kizjls,
KasparBot, ImYoona088, Niceguy149, MusicExpert112 and Anonymous: 345
Brass instrument Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brass_instrument?oldid=739484291 Contributors: The Cunctator, Mav, Bryan
Derksen, PierreAbbat, Ortolan88, Ray Van De Walker, Merphant, Camembert, Stephen Hutchinson, Olivier, Nevilley, Bdesham, Infrogmation, Michael Hardy, Kku, Llull, Fuzheado, Hyacinth, SEWilco, Omegatron, Shizhao, Opus33, Rschmertz, Francs2000, Robbot,
Sanders muc, Romanm, Academic Challenger, Arseni, CompUTOSer~enwiki, Ancheta Wis, Zigger, Everyking, Yekrats, Avala, Chowbok, Telso, Zeimusu, Quandaryus, Antandrus, Eroica, Karol Langner, Horndude77, Grunt, Monkeyman, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough,
Guanabot, Bender235, Kjoonlee, Foolip, Epikuros, Kwamikagami, Mwanner, Triona, Bobo192, Viames, Acjelen, Haham hanuka, Ranveig, Jumbuck, Rohirok, Snowolf, Wtmitchell, Sketchee, Staeiou, Aaron Bruce, Joshbrez, Woodstone, Kznf, Brookie, Issk, Sterio, The
JPS, Firsfron, Dbolton, Dzordzm, Prashanthns, Christoel~enwiki, BD2412, RalfX, Yurik, Rjwilmsi, FlaBot, RobertG, McAusten, Wctaiwan, Gurch, Chobot, YurikBot, Wavelength, Hairy Dude, Phantomsteve, Kymacpherson, Miskatonic, Telescopium1, Draeco, NawlinWiki,
Efenstor, Formina Sage, Erielhonan, Samir, Brat32, Engineer Bob, David Underdown, Zzuuzz, Nikkimaria, Sotakeit, Shawnc, Allens, GrinBot~enwiki, TuukkaH, SmackBot, YellowMonkey, Zephyris, Gilliam, BirdValiant, Andy M. Wang, Bluebot, MK8, Fluri, SchftyThree,
Bob the ducq, Darth Panda, Springeragh, Zsinj, EOZyo, Pboyd04, Bardsandwarriors, Tyrane, Shadow1, J.Wolfe@unsw.edu.au, Just plain
Bill, NetherlandishYankee, Bdiscoe, Qmwne235, SashatoBot, BubbaTuba, Isaacquah, Special-T, Dicklyon, Wizard191, ILovePlankton,
Iridescent, Clocker, RGrimmig, CapitalR, CmdrObot, Neelix, W.F.Galway, MKnight, HokieRNB, Selnformation, B, DumbBOT, NDCompuGeek, Ward3001, Cancun771, Robert.Allen, John kirk, Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Crockspot, MarkBuckles, HappyInGeneral, DonShirer,
Mentisto, Porqin, AntiVandalBot, Luna Santin, Quintote, Kdano, AxiomShell, JAnDbot, DuncanHill, Hut 8.5, Rothorpe, Geniac, Nipplest, VoABot II, Hasek is the best, JNW, Jerome Kohl, Wbchilds, Dulciana, Nikevich, BrianGV, Animum, Cocytus, Black Stripe,
Hdt83, MartinBot, Doodledoo, CommonsDelinker, Starwarsgeek71, J.delanoy, Rhinestone K, Kudpung, Bobxii, Nat682, Deor, VolkovBot,
CWii, Je G., AlnoktaBOT, MenasimBot, Charleca, TXiKiBoT, Oshwah, Skopelos-slim, Myles325a, Mcpgv, Rei-bot, Clarince63, Cremepu222, Csdorman, Djiboun, Billinghurst, Pnswmr, Happy B., Kehrbykid, The Realms of Gold, SieBot, BotMultichill, France3470,
Felliot, Oxymoron83, Antonio Lopez, Tpvibes, Rocksanddirt, WikiLaurent, Tjonp, 03jkeeley, ClueBot, The Thing That Should Not Be,
Der Golem, Mild Bill Hiccup, LizardJr8, Excirial, Alexbot, Panyd, Wikitumnus, NuclearWarfare, Versus22, Jnw222, Fastily, Markcoulter50, Nomorenonotnever, MystBot, HexaChord, Tayste, Addbot, Willking1979, Opus88888, Ronhjones, Ironholds, Fluernutter,
Download, AndersBot, LinkFA-Bot, 5 albert square, Tide rolls, Lightbot, QuadrivialMind, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Legobot II, DisillusionedBitterAndKnackered, Maltelauridsbrigge, Rubinbot, Adeliine, Materialscientist, Xqbot, TinucherianBot II, Capricorn42, Bihco, Grim23,
Br77rino, Schwijker, Loganklein, Unthink, As if its zac efrons girlfriend!, Doulos Christos, Shadowjams, SD5, FrescoBot, Stradfan,
Whatsup190, Redrose64, I dream of horses, HRoestBot, Jovan528, MastiBot, Jaxdelaguerre, Jmankool, Suusion of Yellow, Mrh96, The
Utahraptor, Rawj swch, Regancy42, Fwchapman, Mandolinface, EmausBot, John of Reading, Orphan Wiki, Illogicalpie, Ssamhe, Ultimateguy9999, MithrandirAgain, Access Denied, Aeonx, TyA, Ryankat12, Tunborough, ChuispastonBot, DASHBotAV, Rwberndt, ClueBot NG, Satellizer, Flubadubdub, Helpful Pixie Bot, Curb Chain, ISTB351, Dan653, Toccata quarta, Motherofdog, Pajon101, Juasjuasxd,
Shaun, Treeeert, Tomsomad, Adecoder, ChrisGualtieri, Basemetal, Saxophilist, Soccerbeast9, Dobie80, MadGuy7023, Dexbot, JRYon,
Frosty, BenHochstedler, Katzyxx, FKeenor1927, SuperCheesyCheese, PK2014, Djdoodah, Truniper, Zortwort, KasparBot, Yippee105,
CAPTAIN RAJU and Anonymous: 386
Percussion instrument Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percussion_instrument?oldid=741288407 Contributors: Kpjas, PierreAbbat, Ortolan88, William Avery, Merphant, Heron, Camembert, Montrealais, Bdesham, Isomorphic, Flamurai, Ronz, Andrewa, Raven in
Orbit, Bemoeial, Jni, Altenmann, Arseni, Alan Liefting, Dave6, DocWatson42, Tom harrison, Lupin, Brequinda, Leonard G., Beardo,
Marcus-e, Utcursch, DavidBrooks, SarekOfVulcan, Antandrus, CaribDigita, DragonySixtyseven, B.d.mills, Mike Rosoft, Mindspillage,
Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, Pavel Vozenilek, Jelammers, Violetriga, Fenice, MBisanz, Lankiveil, Triona, Bobo192, AmosWolfe,
Johnkarp, Viames, .:Ajvol:., Dungodung, Kjkolb, Alansohn, Macho, Lord Pistachio, Yamla, Snowolf, Marianocecowski, Wtmitchell,
Velella, Clubmarx, Amorymeltzer, Deadworm222, Nuno Tavares, Woohookitty, Etymophony, Lkjhgfdsa, Eleassar777, Isnow, Mandarax,
LimoWreck, Kinkku Ananas, NatusRoma, Quiddity, Jmcc150, The wub, Rbeas, Svaksha, EvanSeeds, SchuminWeb, Gurch, Yinch,
Joedeshon, Metropolitan90, DVdm, Bgwhite, JohnRonald, Thirstyg, Ben Tibbetts, Roboto de Ajvol, Taurrandir, Red Slash, Killervogel5, Pigman, TimNelson, Gaius Cornelius, CambridgeBayWeather, Pseudomonas, Sanguinity, Friday, NawlinWiki, Wiki alf, Neural,
Badagnani, Misza13, DeadEyeArrow, Black Falcon, Septje, Bonzo the Moon Man, GraemeL, Foolestroupe, Garion96, DoriSmith, David
Biddulph, Stevouk, Paul Erik, Zvika, DVD R W, Akrabbim, SmackBot, Bigbluesh, C.Fred, SaxTeacher, MeiStone, Gilliam, Ohnoitsjamie, Chris the speller, SuMadre, Bluebot, MalafayaBot, Gutworth, Bbq332, Baa, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, MyNameIsVlad,
Jpq21, Eric Mushroom Wilson, Andy moore, Rrburke, Derek R Bullamore, Weregerbil, Jon Awbrey, Just plain Bill, ILike2BeAnonymous,
Richard0612, Tbkgm79, Midkay, BrownHairedGirl, AmiDaniel, Rigadoun, Gobonobo, Disavian, Jefe619, NewTestLeper79, Mets501,
Violncello, Cnbrb, Clarityend, Shoeofdeath, IvanLanin, Igoldste, Majora4, PaddyM, Dpeters11, Esn, Darthwiki, The Haunted Angel,
Ale jrb, Dgw, WeggeBot, Karenjc, WeisheitSuchen, Thescot, Bddmagic, Fl, PawelQ, Killerserv, UberMan5000, Demomoke, RottweilerCS, Epbr123, Mercury~enwiki, Mojo Hand, Neil916, Onur, Philip.t.day, Grayshi, Dawnseeker2000, Mentisto, AntiVandalBot, DMF,
Odikuas, Opelio, Punctured Bicycle, Sonofgoodnature, Res2216restar, Sluzzelin, MortimerCat, JAnDbot, Husond, Formation, MERC, Andonic, PhilKnight, Kerotan, SuperSprode, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, A4, Transcendence, Liverpool Scouse, JNW, Freddythehat,
Catgut, ChankaChank, Giggy, JJ-Barnes, BashmentBoy, DerHexer, Flowanda, Rettetast, Arkudias, Tgeairn, J.delanoy, Rgoodermote,
Hans Dunkelberg, Uncle Dick, AgainErick, Darth Mike, Strobilus, Mcohan, Textangel, Sabila26, 5theye, Austin512, Charlesjustice, Balthazarduju, Rocket71048576, DjScrawl, AntiSpamBot, Bushcarrot, NewEnglandYankee, TheScotch, Flatterworld, , Cometstyles, Treisijs, Bonadea, Useight, Steel1943, Idioma-bot, Deor, VolkovBot, Carnaticdude, Thisisborin9, AlnoktaBOT, MenasimBot, Philip
Trueman, Fran Rogers, TXiKiBoT, Mercurywoodrose, Bdb484, Bingbangbong, Vipinhari, Slinto, Moonman1, Aymatth2, Qxz, Sintaku,
Clarince63, Slysplace, LeaveSleaves, Gudzwabofer, Krzysfr, CarinaT, Enviroboy, Kinadel, Aladin2, Finnrind, Ticholo, S.rvarr.S, Dogah, SieBot, PercusssionKing, No sekeponer, NPUGelb, Nathan, Yintan, Keilana, Oda Mari, Antzervos, Allmightyduck, U7born, OKBot,
Addaick, Jereyholsen, JL-Bot, Escape Orbit, Angel caboodle, ClueBot, MBD123, Sdurrant, Mynameislee2, The Thing That Should
Not Be, Plastikspork, Drummercafe, Boing! said Zebedee, Niceguyedc, LizardJr8, DragonBot, Palijer, Excirial, Jusdafax, Bde1982,
Leonard^Bloom, MusicTree3, Maser Fletcher, Sun Creator, Bikinibomb, 842U, Dekisugi, Rabi99, Anywikiuser, Hollister678, Ixkeys,
Rockofella55, Antti29, Arkkeeper, Helixweb, XLinkBot, Navneetam, Lobo, Little Mountain 5, Skarebo, SilvonenBot, NellieBly, PL290,
Badgernet, HexaChord, MatthewVanitas, Addbot, Proofreader77, Lukematt, Opus88888, Olli Niemitalo, Fieldday-sunday, CanadianLinuxUser, CactusWriter, Chamal N, Doniago, West.andrew.g, Tide rolls, Allyklein.262, Hot2handle, Zorrobot, LuK3, Luckas-bot, Yobot,
Themfromspace, OrgasGirl, Tohd8BohaithuGh1, Fraggle81, Je517, Naturalowdirect, Wendymae, Shine Music School, AnomieBOT,
Andrewrp, Jakecarr678, Killiondude, Piano non troppo, Morganiuy, Materialscientist, Xqbot, Robertjinkerson, The Banner, Capricorn42,
Renaissancee, 12345gay, Sionk, Riotrocket8676, Frankie0607, RibotBOT, Doulos Christos, Bradhinio, iedas, FrescoBot, Blackguard SF,
Gandhi145, JIK1975, Artouge, LittleWink, Be good silverster, Walter Valencia, ShadeofTime09, Jaxdelaguerre, Lotje, LilyKitty, Aoidh,

100

CHAPTER 8. PIANO

Suusion of Yellow, PleaseStand, Drumzfan, Edilson.silveira, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DASHBot, EmausBot, Gfoley4, Panzak7, Yt95, Solarra, RadiumMetal, Traxs7, Krd, Sp1955, L Kensington, ChuispastonBot, Mrt1952, Strangely Real, ClueBot NG, Astatine211, A520,
PRPLwiki2, Rezabot, WikiPuppies, Reify-tech, Anna, Helpful Pixie Bot, Martimsaintive, Chocapub, Kai Ojima, AAP inc., PhnomPencil, MusikAnimal, Amp71, Altar, TsunamiiofPower, MichiHenning, Primedark75, Mmerez89, Cyberbot II, Azianboy4, LAPercRentals,
Ducknish, JakeDowell, Poiu222, Mogism, PROMANXXX, Lugia2453, Ashantiyana, Faizan, Connorbg, Sushicaddy, The Black Notes,
Charmlet, Qzply, TheDarkCharm, Macchaladea, Ryk72, Filedelinkerbot, Prymshbmg, Vieque, GAMERBRADROX, Cool 340, Smbbot,
Cmorlolo13, Kiera jane, Asdklf;, Lilshua117, JH208246, Zppix, YITYNR, Truniper, RichardIsler, Thepercussor, KasparBot, Lollieollie,
3 of Diamonds, MDaxo, Hndfdfhjj, Tonyjays, Kota2025, ILazerx and Anonymous: 564
Piano Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piano?oldid=741825946 Contributors: Tarquin, Rmhermen, Christian List, William Avery,
SimonP, Merphant, Camembert, Montrealais, Hephaestos, Olivier, Bdesham, Infrogmation, D, Tubby, PhilipMW, Tim Starling, Spartacan, Liftarn, Ixfd64, Gnomon42, Karada, Ahoerstemeier, Andrewa, Mark Foskey, Julesd, Whkoh, Kaihsu, John K, Pipian, Kat, Bemoeial, Ww, Pladask, Dysprosia, Hydnjo, Fuzheado, Zoicon5, DJ Clayworth, Tpbradbury, Hyacinth, Saltine, SEWilco, Paul-L~enwiki,
Head, Morn, Shizhao, Opus33, Gakrivas, EldKatt, Finlay McWalter, Mordomo, UninvitedCompany, Lumos3, PuzzletChung, Robbot,
Craig Stuntz, Jwpurple, Fredrik, Chris 73, TMC1221, Wanwan, Altenmann, Naddy, Hadal, JackofOz, Mandel, HaeB, Tsavage, Lzur,
Unfree, Snobot, Giftlite, Smjg, DocWatson42, Fennec, Qartis, Massysett, Lethe, Lupin, HangingCurve, MSGJ, Angmering, Peruvianllama, Everyking, Leonard G., Gilgamesh~enwiki, Jackol, Tagishsimon, Christopherlin, Chowbok, Utcursch, Andycjp, Pamri, Latitudinarian, Mike R, SarekOfVulcan, Knutux, Antandrus, OverlordQ, Kaldari, Jossi, Karol Langner, DragonySixtyseven, Icairns, Jesta, JHCC,
Mschlindwein, Jh51681, BrianWilloughby, Ratiocinate, Adashiel, Trevor MacInnis, Acsenray, Jfpierce, Kate, Mike Rosoft, Jwolfe, Jiy,
EugeneZelenko, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, Vsmith, Ld, Ardonik, Mani1, Pavel Vozenilek, Bender235, ESkog, Kbh3rd, JoeSmack,
Dpotter, CanisRufus, Livajo, MBisanz, El C, Fenevad, Zenohockey, Lankiveil, Mwanner, Shanes, Tom, EurekaLott, Femto, Bobo192,
Longhair, Jpceayene, Johnkarp, Func, Keron Cyst, Wisdom89, Malafaya, Juzeris, Unused0022, Rockhopper10r, Jojit fb, Nk, Bleh fu,
NickSchweitzer, Shorne, Sam Korn, Benbread, Dygituljunky, Jjron, Jakew, ClementSeveillac, Knucmo2, Jumbuck, Schissel, LibraryLion,
Alansohn, Gary, Tablizer, Vslashg, Qwe, Wjbean, Yamla, Bart133, Snowolf, Wtmitchell, Velella, CloudNine, Sciurin, Mikeo, Deadworm222, LukeSurl, Blaxthos, HenryLi, Killing Vector, Dismas, Mindmatrix, Georgia guy, LOL, Spettro9, Swiftblade21, JeremyA,
Dbolton, MONGO, Miss Madeline, Firien, Mangojuice, Macaddct1984, MKleid, Noetica, Wayward, Gniw, Manga-kid, Urbanguy1, Pfalstad, Turnstep, Graham87, Magister Mathematicae, Buxtehude, BD2412, MC MasterChef, FreplySpang, MauriceJFox3, Edison, Shortenfs, Canderson7, , Quale, Gryndor, Missmarple, Commander, RiseAbove, Bruce1ee, Stevekeiretsu, InFairness,
Boccobrock, Cfortunato, Matt Deres, Sango123, Qaqaq, Yamamoto Ichiro, Roo60, FlaBot, Moskvax, RobertG, Windchaser, Pfctdayelise,
Musser, Nihiltres, Gurch, Vilcxjo, Sstrader, GreyCat, M7bot, Press Start, Mstroeck, King of Hearts, Esslk, Chobot, DVdm, Mhking, Hall
Monitor, Gwernol, Melodia, The Rambling Man, YurikBot, Wavelength, TexasAndroid, Sceptre, Taurrandir, Chriskhong, Phantomsteve,
Bhny, Aaron Walden, Stephenb, Tenebrae, David Woodward, Zimbricchio, Rsrikanth05, Sentausa, NawlinWiki, EWS23, Pianoman199,
Wiki alf, UCaetano, Grafen, Chick Bowen, Erielhonan, Dforest, Badagnani, Johann Wolfgang, Exir Kamalabadi, Mesolimbo, Robchurch,
Dureo, Nick, Retired username, Ospalh, Wangi, Todeswalzer, Psy guy, Private Butcher, Alpha 4615, Bantosh, Nlu, Kelovy, Sandstein,
Dmcc, NostinAdrek, J. Van Meter, Nikkimaria, Closedmouth, Spondoolicks, Ketsuekigata, Fang Aili, Ro2nie, Josh3580, Rconroy, Mafal,
JuJube, Shawnc, Katieh5584, Hagie, Meegs, sgeir IV.~enwiki, SDS, Mjroots, WeepingElf, Paul Erik, GrinBot~enwiki, Zvika, Draicone,
DVD R W, Yeyonghe, Luk, DocendoDiscimus, Veinor, Neier, SmackBot, YellowMonkey, Teenwriter, FunnyYetTasty, My2cents, Ashley thomas80, KnowledgeOfSelf, DCGeist, Pgk, C.Fred, Blue520, Bomac, Jagged 85, Brucejohn, Chairman S., Jsa23899, WayneConrad, Jab843, Wengrobin, Keakealani, Flameeyes, Alsandro, Evanreyes, Moralis, Yamaguchi , Gilliam, Ohnoitsjamie, Skizzik, Andy M.
Wang, Theweekly, Qtoktok, Vercalos, Chris the speller, Unint, Keegan, Agateller, Persian Poet Gal, NCurse, Jprg1966, Tree Biting Conspiracy, Timneu22, SchftyThree, Cheesyk1991, Mireut, Ctbolt, Ted87, DHN-bot~enwiki, Colonies Chris, Toughpigs, Philip Howard,
Springeragh, Salmar, Betsys99, Ishmayl, Zsinj, NYKevin, OrphanBot, Nomenclator, Avb, Tommyjb, VMS Mosaic, Rashad9607, Themeparkphoto, Addshore, Kcordina, Robshill, BUF4Life, Znethru, Dirgni1986, Nakon, Annie L, T-borg, VegaDark, Hoof Hearted, Dreadstar, THD3, Duinemerwen, Astroview120mm, Aotake, Arab bot, Just plain Bill, Copysan, Bdiscoe, Lph, Edwardywang, The undertow,
Dane Sorensen, Gymnopedist, Mgrand, ArglebargleIV, Michelle, Kuru, Rigadoun, J 1982, JorisvS, Goodnightmush, ippawallet, Scetoaux,
IronGargoyle, Bella Swan, A. Parrot, Ex nihil, Drumlineramos, The Bread, Rainwarrior, Special-T, Makyen, Noah Salzman, SQGibbon, Mr
Stephen, Bollinger, Bendzh, TastyPoutine, ISBN, AEMoreira042281, Jose77, Kvng, Violncello, OnBeyondZebrax, Wizard191, Iridescent,
Hayttom, D Hill, Saltlakejohn, CapitalR, Blehfu, Silent reverie86, Courcelles, Peteweez, Tawkerbot2, Alegoo92, Dlohcierekim, Timrem,
Lahiru k, Switchercat, Alexthe5th, JForget, Jbusenitz, Wolfdog, AceKingQueenJack, CmdrObot, Imprimez, Blouis79, AtomBoy, Dgillett,
Dycedarg, Tungchit, SupaStarGirl, JohnCD, Desiromeo107, Charvex, GHe, ThePirate, Dgw, Outriggr (2006-2009), Moreschi, Moogoogaipan, Bocianski, Tex, Karenjc, Ejeinowski, Lookingforgroup, Alton, Jefchip, Equendil, Dogman15, Badseed, Jenniferynn89, Fluence, Brumpz, Carboncopy, Besieged, Jlking3, UncleBubba, Gogo Dodo, Briguychau, Bridgecross, STV0726, Frosty0814snowman, Corpx,
TerranG3, Odie5533, Tawkerbot4, Shirulashem, Walter Humala, DumbBOT, NDCompuGeek, Dinnerbone, Tuvwxyz, Omicronpersei8,
JodyB, Vanished User jdksfajlasd, Aldis90, Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Dancey2, Daniel Newman, Calvinballing, HappyInGeneral, Hazmat2,
Haearnbran, Mojo Hand, Oliver202, Marek69, A3RO, Maxxo, Lakeoftea, Dr. Friendly, Nick Number, WhaleyTim, Dawnseeker2000,
Natalie Erin, IMPERIAL, Escarbot, Pie Man 360, Gossamers, AntiVandalBot, Luna Santin, Widefox, Seaphoto, Brissone, Turlo Lomon,
QuiteUnusual, Quintote, Kbthompson, Julia Rossi, CPMartin, Tmopkisn, Modernist, LibLord, Christadelphos, Altamel, Doktor Faustus, 1Si61515, Myanw, Canadian-Bacon, Res2216restar, Sluzzelin, JAnDbot, LadyKeelah, Leuko, Husond, Coolmanedward, Formation,
Barek, MER-C, Fetchcomms, Bahar, Boguslavmandzyuk, Andonic, J-stan, East718, MSBOT, ~enwiki, Rothorpe, , LittleOldMe, Steve Bob, Magioladitis, Prof.rick, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, A4, Professor marginalia, Wikidudeman, AtticusX, JNW, JamesBWatson, -Kerplunk-, Jerome Kohl, Faizhaider, Think outside the box, Outoftunepiano, CTF83!, Rami R, Ilovepiano, Twsx, Kevinmon, Corporal Tunnel, Drondent, Wisteriapress, Catgut, Indon, KirinX, Crunchy Numbers, Ajcounter, Syphon8, Animum, JJ Harrison, Simatbirch,
28421u2232nfenfcenc, Allstarecho, LorenzoB, Chris G, DerHexer, Edward321, Cricket02, Giroper, Pax:Vobiscum, CrookToe, Rverne8,
SirVulture, Emil76~enwiki, DancingPenguin, Adriaan, FisherQueen, Hdt83, MartinBot, Moggie2002, Clavecin, Arjun01, UnfriendlyFire,
Pandrews76, Joelthesecond, BShiplet, Illuminatedwax, Gaidheal1, Rettetast, Jay Litman, Mschel, CommonsDelinker, Tmbg lover, Nono64,
Heggy~enwiki, Ajs15, Tammy Tang, LedgendGamer, Paranomia, J.delanoy, Pharaoh of the Wizards, Trusilver, Bogey97, Herbythyme,
Uncle Dick, All Is One, Benmon1, Tdadamemd, DanielD1980, PianoNanny, Pyrospirit, AntiSpamBot, (jarbarf), Swhidden, Bushcarrot, NewEnglandYankee, DogcatcherDrew, SJP, TheScotch, Potatoswatter, Fylwind, 2help, Darkwhistle, WJBscribe, Spiesr, Jamesontai,
BILLUS MACGEE, LshIII, Vanished user 39948282, Sparafucil, Doublebassistmagazine, Daviticus82, Pdcook, WhiteOak2006, Idiomabot, Spellcast, Daniel Fenn87, Wikieditor06, Lights, X!, Jpsousa4, VolkovBot, CWii, ABF, Pleasantville, Je G., Petertomas, AlnoktaBOT, 88tuner, Bovineboy2008, Ryan032, LeilaniLad, Philip Trueman, JuneGloom07, DoorsAjar, TXiKiBoT, Oshwah, Zidonuke,
Jogar2, WilliamSommerwerck, Cosmic Latte, EricSerge, Technopat, GDonato, Miranda, Buchanae, Anonymous Dissident, DuGly1, Qxz,
Lradrama, Sintaku, Martin451, LoneliestMaster, Jackfork, LeaveSleaves, ^demonBot2, Jack1993jack, Guest9999, BearGuard, Latulla,
M ajith, ARUNKUMAR P.R, Corvus coronoides, MearsMan, Madhero88, Houtlijm~enwiki, Pianoman315, Dumbhead666, Lerdthen-

8.12. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

101

erd, Mrmoocole, Meters, Synthebot, Strangerer, Falcon8765, Tomaxer, Enviroboy, Burntsauce, Draconx, Edwin M. Good, Sesshomaru,
KleptHoeManiac, DSFanatic, Brianga, HiDrNick, AlleborgoBot, Mawkish1983, Funeral, Logan, Michaelsbll, CraigSilver, PericlesofAthens, EmxBot, Jacob123321, Billytrousers, Cosprings, Tuyvan, Nguyenngaviet, SieBot, StAnselm, Coee, Danmayna, Kurtguz, Chimin
07, Waldhorn, Spartan, Azazyel, Scarian, Euryalus, Malcolmxl5, SheepNotGoats, P36ad, Krawi, Gex999, Caltas, RJaguar3, Cb77305,
Iamcool1234567890, Keilana, PookeyMaster, Oda Mari, Arbor to SJ, The juggresurection, Bookermorgan, Prestonmag, Oxymoron83,
Antonio Lopez, RobertMel, Wakted152, Hannahkkk, Tombomp, Poindexter Propellerhead, Jonpaulusa, Hobartimus, Gunmetal Angel,
IdreamofJeanie, Werldwayd, Jongleur100, Pippitherabbit, StaticGull, Anchor Link Bot, Markus liverpool, Dust Filter, WikiLaurent,
Lcarus27, Svizra, Goatselover22, Elassint, ClueBot, LAX, Binksternet, GorillaWarfare, PipepBot, CiudadanoGlobal, Tumblingboulder,
Tucker001, The Thing That Should Not Be, IceUnshattered, Meisterkoch, Witchwooder, Librarian2, Jan1nad, Lawrence Cohen, Gawaxay,
P0mbal, Drmies, Mild Bill Hiccup, Uncle Milty, Wikiwakiwaki, Regibox, Obelix83, Jmn100, Scotwriter, Harland1, Quiescen, Prasadbrg, Supercko, XXBobertXx, Grunty Thraveswain, DragonBot, Benjpianist, Excirial, Noblestood, Bagworm, Canis Lupus, Jusdafax,
Rjbalon, Cococathy105, Broadwayfreak99, Crushcrushcrushh, Lartoven, Aravis222, Liquidblue8388, Jotterbot, Tyguy123, Jump123,
Tnxman307, RayquazaDialgaWeird2210, Razorame, Justor15, UomoDiHonore, Dekisugi, Birri85, Cheeseniblets69, Phso2, Newyorxico, SchreiberBike, Shem1805, XxMrs.KerestusXx, La Pianista, Rparucci, Bald Zebra, Thingg, 1ForTheMoney, Nimavojdani, Aitias, 7,
Graham1973, Seviolia, NorCal Bosie, Versus22, Joemacgames1, BlueDevil, MelonBot, SoxBot III, Apparition11, DumZiBoT, UncleAndyBob, Danthur, InternetMeme, Jengirl1988, KANNIBAL, AlanM1, XLinkBot, Shpakovich, Delicious carbuncle, Spitre, Gnowor, Rodrigo
Schejtman, Xaltoi, TeppoM, Jovianeye, Rror, Kaitlyn77, Moodie507, Amok116, Musicaline, Little Mountain 5, Avoided, Rod Corkin,
Johnnybb~enwiki, Skarebo, Doc9871, NellieBly, Cmr08, J d hurley, Alexius08, Sweetpoet, Yamahamusician, Gazimo, ZooFari, Wikibob250, Benechanuk, HexaChord, Baghshy, CalumH93, Tayste, Addbot, Some jerk on the Internet, Freakmighty, Tcncv, CL, Globalsolidarity, Ronhjones, Randomized01234, Mww113, Fieldday-sunday, CanadianLinuxUser, Fluernutter, Rj1200, Lklena, Asphatasawhale,
Ka Faraq Gatri, Download, Morning277, Hoogoo, PranksterTurtle, Glane23, AndersBot, Yoos2me, Favonian, AtheWeatherman, Jasper
Deng, Organic Cabbage, Crstewartjr, Jazzpno, SeymourSycamore, Littlemissnikki1995, Numbo3-bot, Prim Ethics, Permose, Tide rolls,
Kxug1234, Lightbot, Pkarsch, Willondon, Coolkate1, Luckas Blade, Gail, MusicalAds, Ashandpikachu, Krenakarore, Hellounable123,
Quantumobserver, LuK3, Frehley, Math Champion, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Themfromspace, Fraggle81, TaBOT-zerem, Smaalouf, Newportm, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, Troyeebarua, Quelasol, Mmxx, Bob Caldwell CSL, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, A Stop at Willoughby,
KamikazeBot, Jaquanzxc, MHLU, MinorProphet, Johncohrs, AnomieBOT, Andrewrp, Kristen Eriksen, Zzxy69, Jim1138, IRP, Cavarrone, Piano non troppo, Fanoftheworld, AdjustShift, Aditya, Pianiccisimo, Kingpin13, Jailane, Flewis, B137, Materialscientist, Foodisgood123, 90 Auto, The High Fin Sperm Whale, Danno uk, Citation bot, Taeshadow, Gsmgm, Xqbot, Thousandandone, Intelati, Purveyor
of Great Knowledge, Capricorn42, Pianosxxi, Jubileeclipman, A455bcd9, TripLikeIDo, Gregmasterson, Purplebackpack89, Gilo1969,
Reggina, Viewwiki, Jmundo, NFD9001, Soccerpianoluvver, Goawayforeveru, BritishWatcher, Willi Gers07, Hwjh sk8er, GrouchoBot,
Carebearac3, Frosted14, Shirik, RibotBOT, Iloveoliver, Barrrakuda, Majorminormusic, Mathonius, Jedougieg, Sparcloud, 78.26, Doulos Christos, Wrestplank, 23pokrzywa, Perry Hotter, Look Busy, Natural Cut, Sael, Friedrich von Knigsberg, Erathgirl56, E0steven,
Jswhit02, Thehelpfulbot, Dan6hell66, Jkt46, FrescoBot, Redrapidsreadingrats, Kystephkwan3, Pepper, Knezzy9, Stradfan, Michael93555,
Athanasius1, D'ohBot, Tavakoli543, Toon Link 891, HJ Mitchell, Monkeydung95, Rigaudon, Synthdreamer, DivineAlpha, Orangesandham, DarkLover93, Cannolis, Citation bot 1, Monteros, My family123, Pinethicket, I dream of horses, Vicenarian, HRoestBot, Edderso, Thecazyandstupidone, Arctic Night, Jack1755, Ruthiedee, Tom.Reding, Jonathantrengrove, MJ94, Triplestop, Tomcat7, Number
Googol, V.narsikar, Pianodude87, Wikiname1109, RedBot, Sebih1, SpaceFlight89, , Pianoplonkers, Gbag09, Gala4ed, Liarliar2009,
Rdouillette, Reconsider the static, Kdmjf12000, Steve2011, SkyMachine, Rebekah2, Augustus the Pony, Scythre, Deskford, ItsZippy,
Etincelles, Lotje, Vrenator, TBloemink, Zvn, SeoMac, Skylarbblue, Piano Play It, Aoidh, Reaper Eternal, Specs112, Diannaa, A Jewish
Family, Sirkablaam, Tbhotch, Ednerdy, Carchuleta, Minimac, Jritche2, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Aniten21, Mean as custard, Alexwill23,
Altes2009, TjBot, DexDor, Jackehammond, Regancy42, Shoehornian, Sk8er517, Midhart90, Mandolinface, Deagle AP, DASHBot, Devper94, EmausBot, Scotteaton92, Orphan Wiki, Acather96, ModWilson, WikitanvirBot, Ilikethesnowcozitscool, Jello is yummy, Alibarbour, MutantRockGod, Perrypierce10, Billysher100, RA0808, Sejunekwon, RenamedUser01302013, TheSoundAndTheFury, Provedadwrong, Solarra, Slightsmile, Publiceyemedia, Wikipelli, Dcirovic, Ornithikos, Erpert, Thecheesykid, Daniel913, ZroBot, Cucucuconn,
S1ckcacoon, Namco235, Pedromd, Pianogen, Ida Shaw, Dustyrannar123, Weed88980, Austin 88888, Superchick106, RoosterBubble82, Prof.smith10101, RoseSoul, XEZx4Shot, Lamellama, A930913, H3llBot, Befeyalcin, Dice326, Bxj, Lawl95, EWikist, Christina
Silverman, MACKA004083, Furries, Sfhintern, Wayne Slam, Crochet, Music Sorter, OnePt618, Tolly4bolly, Losan33, Mes0h0od,
Teaghan11, EricWesBrown, Teptoria, Ac8720, TyA, Jackjack3000, Lothar Klaic, Brandmeister, L Kensington, Peoplefromarizona, Hernelodge, MonoAV, Donner60, Lightningstar101, Upclicks, Damirgrati, Autoerrant, Orange Suede Sofa, ChuispastonBot, M here 4 ever,
Matthewrbowker, Peter Karlsen, Giovannibomoll, Mtoto mdogo, Forever Dusk, Lom Konkreta, TYelliot, DASHBotAV, Yaylorclevenger,
Qwerwqerwqer1, Bb3bb3bb, Borat134, Smellltheeglove, ClueBot NG, Rich Smith, Greenshinobi, Jack Greenmaven, Accountforpicture,
Scotland-inch, NewWaveKid, LogX, This lousy T-shirt, Rtucker913, Gilderien, Satellizer, Picklepopper, Gwendal, Baseball Watcher,
Loginnigol, Dacookiemunster, Gott34, Delusion23, Cntras, KarateKid96, OpenInfoForAll, Anniesotm, Joshkorpolinski, 336, Widr, Xbrebre15, Newyorkadam, Harrylegendkitty, HappyLogolover2011, Funllama680, Billysher, Jadthedestroyer, WickTr, Jk2q3jrklse, MerlIwBot, B-Dubbers, Helpful Pixie Bot, Pianolover1, Robertsner, Jpu19, Zaxander, Calabe1992, Thanrattonkansit, Kinaro, PashaTarsius,
Lowercase sigmabot, Aoidh (Away), BG19bot, Nazkaylad, 12345klfdsjkl, Nikita Beriozkin, Bmusician, Xtfcr7, BFolkman, Haroldcamping, M0rphzone, Ruandpiano, AAP inc., PTJoshua, Billysher100100100, Who.was.phone, AvocatoBot, J991, Mark Arsten, Hosseiniran, Mailgkhandelwal, OttawaAC, Mivio, Joydeep, Lasjenika da, Supernerd11, Flix Wolf, Soerfm, Makerman123, Mmedina15, Wilhelm666666, Hello19971997, JAL78, Emilyabbimayson1, FarleyWiki, Caggymorgan, Glacialfox, Stephaniechung, 220 of Borg, Melodramatically, Eziekiel Summers, Loriendrew, Fairoozrules12345, Anbu121, Cissy15, Oscar45596524, Dmaiolo, Lucy6567, Cameronandboas7, BattyBot, Stephanie95519, MatthewCMehrtens, Lukas, RichardMills65, Professor N, Sir Dejan Djordjevic, Cyberbot II, Mikerrr,
Abob1234567890, Schaerdude18, Zeroman2468, Cedricsimsmahrlig, Thereoncewasafarmerwholivedonarock, Theo Buckley, Mediran,
JakeOneball, Jionpedia, Ted178, It200, Msteveson, Ducknish, Skittlesroxy111, Momo122yeah, Hilmarleujes, Dexbot, Firepitluke, Zachcat, Webclient101, Rikkiapples, Oldenergy, Morgan12345678910, Radiodef, Sydneyrocks247, FAIRYTAILAWESOMENESS, Numbermaniac, Lugia2453, SFK2, Soundscapemusic88, Maxmoefoe1, Jonmaveni, Yopogono, Lightfagbolt, Tntrusty17, Agsbphysics, Jakejericho94, Tommyyu22, Heather998, Scariap, Paige.Banaszak, Evan.willis, Kayla.Cooper, Zachary.meier, DJTCUTZ, Bachbust100, BitBus,
Abster241, Vanamonde93, Xin-Xin W., Dragonzaid6, Gymdiver, Light Peak, Asdfkidasdf, PerthGreekMan, Eyesnore, Van20152708,
B711, Ryenocerous, Lorackio, Limefrost Spiral, Everymorning, Danielbb2013, DrTrumpet, EvergreenFir, Cherubinirules, SirEuropeLads, DavidLeighEllis, Babitaarora, Robert4565, Panpog1, Kharkiv07, Blinggu, Ginsuloft, Dan hardboy, RainCity471, Zenophilius,
V44sandy, Kahtar, AddWittyNameHere, Noyster, Stylishpony123, XdoomdragonX, Ola55555, Narutobi7, Crow, Katyauchter, JaconaFrere, Sol berger, Radiotron, Anthonym7009, DeManolio5, Jammin785, Luckshib, Jimmy01234, Jumbosloth140, Muhamad ittal,
Rotcinco, Monkbot, Hetaliaobsesser, Zacharyjoseph, Popatarion, BethNaught, Mysterious.Brain, Zhulu182, Eman235, Vasthekid, Sassypants45, Zacwill, Chicken in a basket, Chrispp88, Billywanta, Mc awesome10101, CloudlessEveryday, Bunting2012, Narnia.Gate7, Bid-

102

CHAPTER 8. PIANO

dybob5, Weecher II, James Chen 03, Pianobuilder, Noah305, Randomuser0122, ChamithN, Grettaknknknknksdnf, Madeline84, ILikeSandwiches, Qwertzui0717, JahJah007, JPuch19, WCUPA235F14, Seanl226, Kerileake, Personawsome, Chessnut123456789, Dusan22,
Sheev Palpatine, John.haslam, Wayne Robson, Oldnewnew, Lena Key, Pououououp, Mclizard21349999, Aedw3089, Jj1256, Jjfooties,
KasparBot, Ninjasloth88, IvanScrooge98, TerraCodes, FiendYT, Omni Flames, Pachisu124, TheClassicalMusicType, The Prolic Muse,
Entity Not Found, Huynn59, Agata Mierzejewska, Courtneypianos, JLzkSchr, Edw4rd141, Flashypants and Anonymous: 2036

8.12.2

Images

File:'A'_(PSF).png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/68/%27A%27_%28PSF%29.png License: Public domain Contributors: Archives of Pearson Scott Foresman, donated to the Wikimedia Foundation Original artist: Pearson Scott Foresman
File:2002-dmuseum-musik002-800.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/
2002-dmuseum-musik002-800.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Michael Lucan
File:20070727-beleuvenissen-gocoo-11.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/
20070727-beleuvenissen-gocoo-11.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Wim Deprez Vvim
File:2010Jul1-PercussionByVernBarber.JPG
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b1/
2010Jul1-PercussionByVernBarber.JPG License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Villwock
File:20110921-FSIS-RBN-6084_-_Flickr_-_USDAgov.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/
20110921-FSIS-RBN-6084_-_Flickr_-_USDAgov.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: 20110921-FSIS-RBN-6084 Original artist:
U.S. Department of Agriculture
File:Adeste_Fideles_sheet_music_sample.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Adeste_Fideles_sheet_
music_sample.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Created in Adobe Illustrator. Original artist: Tkgd2007
File:AmicusMeus.ogg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1c/AmicusMeus.ogg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Ancasta-LaViottiChamberOrchestraMozartKV136.ogv Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/
Ancasta-LaViottiChamberOrchestraMozartKV136.ogv License: Public domain Contributors: http://antoniocastagna.blip.tv/file/3004693/
Original artist: Antonio Castagna, music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
File:Ashaji.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8f/Ashaji.jpg License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own
work Original artist: Firoze Edassery
File:Assyrianfolk.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Assyrianfolk.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Chaldean Original artist: User Chaldean on en.wikipedia
File:Attributes_of_Music.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Attributes_of_Music.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.bluffton.edu/womenartists/womenartistspw/vallayercoster/vallayercoster.html Original artist: Anne
Vallayer-Coster
File:Audio_a.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/Audio_a.svg License: Public domain Contributors:
'A'_(PSF).png Original artist: 'A'_(PSF).png: Pearson Scott Foresman
File:Beatles_ad_1965_just_the_beatles_crop.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9f/Beatles_ad_1965_
just_the_beatles_crop.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Billboard page 15 1 May 1965
Original artist: EMI.
File:Bechstein_Schriftzug.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Bechstein_Schriftzug.jpg License: CCBY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: KarlKunde
File:Beethoven.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6f/Beethoven.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.fraunhofer.de/archiv/presseinfos/pflege.zv.fhg.de/german/press/pi/pi2002/08/md_fo6a.html Original artist: Joseph Karl
Stieler
File:Bendir.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Bendir.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: No
machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). Original artist: No machine-readable author provided.
Catrin assumed (based on copyright claims).
File:Billie_Holiday,_Downbeat,_New_York,_N.Y.,_ca._Feb._1947_(William_P._Gottlieb_04251).jpg
Source:
https:
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e3/Billie_Holiday%2C_Downbeat%2C_New_York%2C_N.Y.%2C_ca._Feb._1947_
%28William_P._Gottlieb_04251%29.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: This image is available from the United States Library of
Congress's Music Division under the digital ID gottlieb.04251.
This tag does not indicate the copyright status of the attached work. A normal copyright tag is still required. See Commons:Licensing for more information.

Original artist: William P. Gottlieb


File:Binary_form.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e7/Binary_form.png License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Hyacinth
File:Boldini,_Woman_in_Red.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c0/Boldini%2C_Woman_in_Red.jpg
License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.wikiart.org/en/giovanni-boldini/the-woman-in-red Original artist: Giovanni Boldini
File:Bonnie_Raitt_at_John_Edwards_presidential_campaign.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/50/
Bonnie_Raitt_at_John_Edwards_presidential_campaign.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: Flickr Original artist: John Edwards
File:Brass_instrument_slides.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Brass_instrument_slides.svg License:
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File:Breves_dies_hominis.ogg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Breves_dies_hominis.ogg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: [[user:]]
File:Broadwood_grand_square_action.svg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/26/Broadwood_grand_
square_action.svg License: CC BY-SA 2.5 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Mireut

8.12. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

103

File:Brodmann_41_42.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Brodmann_41_42.png License: CC-BYSA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?


File:Clara_Wieck_im_Alter_von_15_Jahren.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ba/Clara_Wieck_im_
Alter_von_15_Jahren.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.schumann-portal.de/tl_files/img/RobertSchumann_Familie/
ClaraWieck_15Jahre.jpg Original artist: Julius Giere
File:Coffee_and_synths._KayoDot_album_\char"0022\relax{}Hubardo\char"0022\relax{}_recording,_2013-06-13.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Coffee_and_synths._KayoDot_album_%22Hubardo%22_recording%2C_
2013-06-13.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: Flickr: Coee and synths Original artist: Daniel Means
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:D274.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/D274.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: selbst fotogrert Original artist: KarlKunde
File:David-harp.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/David-harp.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Belmont University [1] Original artist: Artist: Unknown
File:Dugattyus_szelep.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4d/Dugattyus_szelep.png License: CC-BY-SA3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:DuplexScale.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/DuplexScale.JPG License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Joel Lidstrom
File:DuplexScaling.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/35/DuplexScaling.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: English Wikipedia Original artist: Opus33
File:Eastern_Zhou_Dynasty_Bronze_Bells.jpg Source:
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Dynasty_Bronze_Bells.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons. Original artist:
PericlesofAthens at English Wikipedia
File:Egyptian_lute_players_001.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/68/Egyptian_lute_players_001.jpg
License: Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:
Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.
svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
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File:Erard_double_pilot_action.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/Erard_double_pilot_action.svg License: Public domain Contributors: traced, colorized, and reoriented for right hand view by Mireut from plate III - Perfectionnemens apports dans le mcanisme du piano par les Erard, depuis l'origine de cet instrument jusqu' l'exposition de 1834. Pierre Erard, Paris, 1834,
http://www.musiques-vivantes.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=57&Itemid=32 Original artist: Pierre Erard
File:Estonia_klaver_3.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/Estonia_klaver_3.jpg License: GFDL Contributors: Own work Original artist: Epp
File:Evelyn-glennie.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4d/Evelyn-glennie.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.5
Contributors: No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). Original artist: No machine-readable
author provided. Nomo assumed (based on copyright claims).
File:FGF_museum_01._Leo_and_early_models.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/FGF_museum_
01._Leo_and_early_models.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: Flickr: Fender Guitar Factory Leo and early models Original artist:
Mr. Littlehand
File:Filippino_Lippi_001.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/28/Filippino_Lippi_001.jpg License: Public
domain Contributors: The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVD-ROM, 2002. ISBN 3936122202. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH. Original artist: Filippino Lippi
File:Fluegel-Rahmen.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Fluegel-Rahmen.jpg License: CC-BY-SA3.0 Contributors: Transferred from de.wikipedia to Commons by Lukas9950 using CommonsHelper. Original artist: The original uploader
was Kassander der Minoer at German Wikipedia
File:Flte_palolithique_(muse_national_de_Slovnie,_Ljubljana)_(9420310527).jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/7/7c/Fl%C3%BBte_pal%C3%A9olithique_%28mus%C3%A9e_national_de_Slov%C3%A9nie%2C_Ljubljana%
29_%289420310527%29.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: Flte palolithique (muse national de Slovnie, Ljubljana) Original artist:
dalbera from Paris, France
File:Forgoszelep.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Forgoszelep.png License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Fortepian_-_schemat.svg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/36/Fortepian_-_schemat.svg License:
GFDL Contributors: Own work Original artist: Olek Remesz (wiki-pl: Orem, commons: Orem) Made in cooperation with User:Bechstein.
File:FortepianoByMcNultyAfterWalter1805.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4e/
FortepianoByMcNultyAfterWalter1805.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons.
Original artist: The original uploader was Opus33 at English Wikipedia
File:Frances_Densmore_recording_Mountain_Chief2.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Frances_
Densmore_recording_Mountain_Chief2.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: This image is available from the United States Library
of Congress's Prints and Photographs division under the digital ID npcc.20061.
This tag does not indicate the copyright status of the attached work. A normal copyright tag is still required. See Commons:Licensing for more information.

Original artist: Harris & Ewing


File:Frederic_Chopin_-_Opus_25_-_Twelve_Grand_Etudes_-_c_minor.ogg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/d/d9/Frederic_Chopin_-_Opus_25_-_Twelve_Grand_Etudes_-_c_minor.ogg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: The Al
Goldstein collection in the Pandora Music repository at ibiblio.org. Original artist: Frdric Chopin

104

CHAPTER 8. PIANO

File:Frederic_Chopin_-_etude_no._12_in_c_minor,_op._25.ogg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/


Frederic_Chopin_-_etude_no._12_in_c_minor%2C_op._25.ogg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.musopen.com Original
artist: Frdric Chopin
File:Gangubai_Hangal_-_Raga_Durga_1935.ogg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/Gangubai_
Hangal_-_Raga_Durga_1935.ogg License: Public domain Contributors: collection of Warren Senders Original artist: Unknown<a
href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https:
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File:George_Clinton_2006.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/George_Clinton_2006.jpg License: CC
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File:Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg
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Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work. Based on File:Gnome-mime-audio-openclipart.
svg, which is public domain. Original artist: User:Eubulides
File:Grand_Piano_1781_France_-_Louis_Bas.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Grand_Piano_
1781_France_-_Louis_Bas.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work (Photo by author) Original artist: Charvex
File:Grand_piano_and_upright_piano.jpg Source:
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upright_piano.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: File:Boesendorfer Vienna 006.JPG and File:Pianodroit.jpg Original artist:
User:Gryffindor and User:Megodenas
File:Gu_Hongzhong{}s_Night_Revels_2.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9d/Gu_Hongzhong%27s_
Night_Revels_2.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/painting/4literat.htm#hanxizai, Zhongguo
lidai huihua: Gugong bowuyuan canghua ji, vol. 1 (Beijing: Renmin meishu chubanshe, 1978), p. 89. Original artist: Anonymous Song
Chinese artist after the original by Gu Hongzhong
File:HK_ _Jordan_
_Yue_Hwa_Chinese_Products_Emporium_ _Music_ _String_instruments.jpg
Source:
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83%A1_String_instruments.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Decnaojbon
File:Hasht-Behesht_Palace_ney.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ca/Hasht-Behesht_Palace_ney.jpg
License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Head_of_Christ1.jpg
Source:
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License:
CC0 Contributors:
National Library of Wales Original artist:
Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
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File:Jingle_Bells_refrain_vector.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/Jingle_Bells_refrain_vector.svg
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Immediate source: Own work Original artist: James Lord Pierpont
(Life time: 5 Aug 1883)
File:Klavier_nah_offen.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a5/Klavier_nah_offen.jpg License: CC BYSA 2.5 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Manuel Strehl
File:Kwarastatedrummers.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Kwarastatedrummers.jpg License: CC
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File:Laredo_Philharmonic.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/49/Laredo_Philharmonic.jpg License: CC
BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Bren1968
File:Latin_jazz_clave_percussion_sticks.jpg Source:
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percussion_sticks.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: http://www.flickr.com/photos/culturalis/4639123450/sizes/o/in/photostream/
Original artist: Culturalis
File:Liam_Crouse_playing_at_Sunset.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/34/Liam_Crouse_playing_
at_Sunset.JPG License: GFDL Contributors: the English language Wikipedia (log). Original text: self-made Original artist: Liam Crouse
(talk)
File:Loudspeaker.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg License: Public domain Contributors: New version of Image:Loudspeaker.png, by AzaToth and compressed by Hautala Original artist: Nethac DIU, waves corrected by
Zoid
File:Lydia_Canaan_in_Concert.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Lydia_Canaan_in_Concert.jpg License: CC0 Contributors: I took this photo at a Lydia Canaan concert held at the Casino du Liban that I attended back in 2007.
Previously published: This is the rst time that I have published this photograph, which is part of my extensive collection of concert shots
I took at various concerts around the world. Original artist: Musicus Historia
File:Maler_der_Grabkammer_des_Nacht_004.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Maler_der_
Grabkammer_des_Nacht_004.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVDROM, 2002. ISBN 3936122202. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH. Original artist: Maler der Grabkammer des
Nacht
File:Michel_Richard_Delalande_engraving_BNF_Gallica.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/
Michel_Richard_Delalande_engraving_BNF_Gallica.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: <a data-x-rel='nofollow' class='external
text' href='http://gallica.bnf.fr//'>Bibliothque nationale de France</a> lien/link ici/here Original artist: Henri-Simon Thomassin, engraver
(1687-1741), from a painting by Jean-Baptiste Santerre (1651-1717). Upload, stitch and restoration by Jebulon

8.12. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

105

File:Minipiano_'Pianette'_model_with_matching_stool.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/fd/Minipiano_


%27Pianette%27_model_with_matching_stool.jpg License: CC0 Contributors:
I took a photo of my instrument and made it more accessible for viewing using the appropriate software.
Original artist:
Zaxander
File:Mokugyo.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/11/Mokugyo.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors:
own work (Photograph taken by Patrick Weemeeuw on August 27, 2003 during a sesshin in Steyl) Original artist: Patrick Weemeeuw
File:Moritz_von_Schwind_Schubertiade.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b6/Moritz_von_Schwind_
Schubertiade.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Unknown, uploaded by User:LeastCommonAncestor as a version of File:Moritz
von Schwind Schubertiade.jpg Original artist: Moritz von Schwind
File:Mozart_family_crop.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9e/Mozart_family_crop.jpg License: Public
domain Contributors:
Original uploader was Brianboulton at en.wikipedia; transferred to Commons by User:Magnus Manske using CommonsHelper.
Original artist: Carmontelle
File:Muses_sarcophagus_Louvre_MR880.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Muses_
sarcophagus_Louvre_MR880.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors:
Jastrow (2006) Original artist:
Unknown<a
href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.
wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050'
data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Naxi_Musicians_I.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/95/Naxi_Musicians_I.jpg License: CC BY 2.0
Contributors: Flickr Original artist: Peter Morgan from Beijing, China
File:Office-book.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a8/Office-book.svg License: Public domain Contributors: This and myself. Original artist: Chris Down/Tango project
File:Orquesta_Filarmonica_de_Jalisco.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Orquesta_Filarmonica_
de_Jalisco.jpg License: CC BY 2.5 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Pedro Snchez
File:Pedal_Mark_1.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/Pedal_Mark_1.svg License: CC0 Contributors:
Own work Original artist: Hazmat2
File:Pedal_Mark_2.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/Pedal_Mark_2.svg License: CC0 Contributors:
Own work Original artist: Hazmat2
File:Pedal_piano_1.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b8/Pedal_piano_1.JPG License: Public domain
Contributors: No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). Original artist: No machine-readable
author provided. Clavecin~commonswiki assumed (based on copyright claims).
File:Percussion_Beaters.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/Percussion_Beaters.jpg License: GFDL
Contributors: own work. This is a collection of my own sticks/mallets! Original artist: Philip.t.day
File:Peter_Francken_in_his_studio.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/13/Peter_Francken_in_his_
studio.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Peter2005
File:PharoahSanders.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/PharoahSanders.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Philadelphia_Orchestra_at_American_premiere_of_Mahler{}s_8th_Symphony_(1916).jpg
Source:
https://upload.
wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Philadelphia_Orchestra_at_American_premiere_of_Mahler%27s_8th_Symphony_%281916%
29.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Photo_rcital_028.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1d/Photo_r%C3%A9cital_028.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors: Concert Vannes la chapelle du collge-lyce Saint-Franois Xavier Original artist: Franoise Caudal
File:PianoRange.tif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/PianoRange.tif License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: BFolkman
File:Piano_Frequencies.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2e/Piano_Frequencies.svg License: CC BYSA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: AlwaysAngry
File:Piano_in_Entrance_Hall.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/Piano_in_Entrance_Hall.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: White House Original artist: White House (Zhen-Huan Lu)
File:Piano_string_detail2.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Piano_string_detail2.JPG License: CC
BY 2.0 Contributors: Piano Strings Original artist: Frost Nova from Australia
File:Piano_tuner.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Piano_tuner.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: photo taken by Barbara Mrdter Original artist: Barbara Mrdter
File:Popgoesweasel.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/01/Popgoesweasel.jpg License: PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Por_una_cabeza_carlos_gardel.ogg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/Por_una_cabeza_carlos_
gardel.ogg License: Public domain Contributors: Converted from the 20 Grandes xitos album compilation Original artist: Carlos Cardel
and Alfredo Le Pera
File:Portal-puzzle.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/fd/Portal-puzzle.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ?
Original artist: ?

106

CHAPTER 8. PIANO

File:Proportional_string_fingering.png Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8f/Proportional_string_
fingering.png License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Created by Hyacinth (talk) using Sibelius 5. Original artist: Hyacinth (talk)
File:Question_book-new.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/Question_book-new.svg License: Cc-by-sa-3.0
Contributors:
Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. Based on Image:Question book.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist:
Tkgd2007
File:Raja_Ravi_Varma,_Galaxy_of_Musicians.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f6/Raja_Ravi_
Varma%2C_Galaxy_of_Musicians.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Not stated by uploader Original artist: Raja Ravi Varma
File:Ravel_Gershwin_Leide-Tedesco002.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a6/Ravel_Gershwin_
Leide-Tedesco002.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Scanned from original photo of Manoah Leide-Tedesco. Original artist:
Wide World Photos 1928
File:Samuelpost-BachBMajor.ogg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/Samuelpost-BachBMajor.ogg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: http://blip.tv/file/1607173 Original artist: Uploader at http://blip.tv/file/1607173
File:Saxophone_reeds-alto,_tenor.jpeg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Saxophone_reeds-alto%2C_
tenor.jpeg License: Public domain Contributors: No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims).
Original artist: No machine-readable author provided. Reisio assumed (based on copyright claims).
File:Sol7_accordo_chitarra_G7_guitar_chord.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cd/Sol7_accordo_
chitarra_G7_guitar_chord.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Elenaf
File:SoundboardBracesRibs.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/db/SoundboardBracesRibs.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:SoussousGuiembeBalafon.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/SoussousGuiembeBalafon.jpg
License:
Public domain Contributors:
<a data-x-rel='nofollow' class='external text' href='http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/
btv1b5000001w/'>Bibliothque nationale de France</a> Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Stainer.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9f/Stainer.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own
work Original artist: User:Frinck51
File:Steinway_Grand_Piano_Iron_Plates_and_Strings.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/
Steinway_Grand_Piano_Iron_Plates_and_Strings.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: David Maiolo
File:Steinway_grand_piano_-_pedals.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/da/Steinway_grand_piano_-_
pedals.jpg License: CC0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Fanoftheworld
File:Steinway_piano_-_Duo-Art_small.ogv Source:
Duo-Art_small.ogv License: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Steinway_piano_-_

Steinway_piano_-_Duo-Art.ogg Original artist:


Steinway_piano_-_Duo-Art.ogg
File:Suzuki_violin_recital.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/Suzuki_violin_recital.jpg License: CC
BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Stilfehler
File:Szczecin_filharmonia_(2).jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ad/Szczecin_filharmonia_%282%29.
jpg License: CC0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Kapitel
File:T_S_Nandakumar_self135.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/T_S_Nandakumar_self135.jpg
License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Self clicked Original artist: RahulPatil01
File:Teach-yourself-guitar.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b7/Teach-yourself-guitar.png License:
CC0 Contributors: http://teachyourselfguitareasy.com/228/guitar-practice-really-does-make-perfect/ Original artist: Desray
File:Terry_Bozzio_drums.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fb/Terry_Bozzio_drums.jpg License: CC
BY 2.0 Contributors: http://www.flickr.com/photos/hylom/373599966/ Original artist: Holym
File:Text_document_with_red_question_mark.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a4/Text_document_
with_red_question_mark.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Created by bdesham with Inkscape; based upon Text-x-generic.svg
from the Tango project. Original artist: Benjamin D. Esham (bdesham)
File:The_Duet_c1635_by_Saftleven.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/68/The_Duet_c1635_by_
Saftleven.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: Cornelis Saftleven
File:TimothyBCobb.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/TimothyBCobb.jpg License: Public domain
Contributors: Myself. Original artist: Myself.
File:Toccata_et_Fugue_BWV565.ogg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/be/Toccata_et_Fugue_BWV565.
ogg License: Public domain Contributors: Enregistrement personnel / Personal recording by Ashtar Mora [the uploader] - Tamburini
organ Original artist: Johann Sebastian Bach (disputed), performed by Ashtar Mora
File:Traditional_indonesian_instruments.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/Traditional_
indonesian_instruments.jpg License: GFDL 1.2 Contributors: Own work Original artist:
r0002 | agstaotos.com.au
File:Traditional_indonesian_instruments02.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/26/Traditional_
indonesian_instruments02.jpg License: GFDL 1.2 Contributors: Own work Original artist:
r0002 | agstaotos.com.au

8.12. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

107

File:Trill_example_ornaments.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cd/Trill_example_ornaments.png License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons by Sfan00_IMG using CommonsHelper. Original artist:
Sbrools at English Wikipedia
File:Trumpet_valve_bypass.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Trumpet_valve_bypass.svg License:
CC BY-SA 2.5 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Trumpets02262006.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5d/Trumpets02262006.jpg License: CC BY
2.5 Contributors: No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). Original artist: No machinereadable author provided. Miskatonic assumed (based on copyright claims).
File:Tuning_pegs.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/Tuning_pegs.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: http://photography.mojado.com/archives/2004/11/09/pegs.php Original artist: by permission of Dennis Mojado, given by email
File:Two_Teponaztli.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/Two_Teponaztli.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Madman2001
File:USMC-05376.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/USMC-05376.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.marines.mil/unit/mcasmiramar/PublishingImages/110228-M-2306T%20087.jpg Original artist: Lance Cpl. Lisa M.
Tourtelot
File:Upright_piano_inside.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/80/Upright_piano_inside.jpg License: CC
BY 2.5 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Viol,_fidel_and_rebec.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1c/Viol%2C_fidel_and_rebec.jpg License:
CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist:
File:Wagner_-_die_walkure_fantasie.ogg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/Wagner_-_die_walkure_
fantasie.ogg License: Public domain Contributors: Musopen. Original artist: Music originally composed by Richard Wagner from his
opera Die Walkre, arranged for brass and performed by United States Marine Band
File:Wikibooks-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Wikibooks-logo.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Bastique, User:Ramac et al.
File:Wikinews-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Wikinews-logo.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Contributors: This is a cropped version of Image:Wikinews-logo-en.png. Original artist: Vectorized by Simon 01:05, 2 August 2006 (UTC)
Updated by Time3000 17 April 2007 to use ocial Wikinews colours and appear correctly on dark backgrounds. Originally uploaded by
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Contributors: Own work Original artist: Rei-artur
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Contributors: Rei-artur Original artist: Nicholas Moreau
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created by Smurrayinchester
File:Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart_-_Symphony_40_g-moll_-_1._Molto_allegro.ogg Source:
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wikipedia/commons/9/99/Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart_-_Symphony_40_g-moll_-_1._Molto_allegro.ogg License:
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Contributors: [1] Original artist: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
File:Wurlitzer210.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Wurlitzer210.png License: CC0 Contributors:
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Taylor_Swift_15.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: Flickr Original artist: Marcin Wichary from San Francisco, U.S.A.

8.12.3

Content license

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