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# 1

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
NO.

TOPICS

1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

Introduction
Hydrogenation Of Oil
Factors affecting hydrogenation
Catalysts Used
Iodine Value

Literatur Survey

3
3.1
3.2

Material Balance
Energy Balance

## Process Description &Flowsheet

Design Calculation

Safety &Hazard

Plant Layout

PAGE
NO.

PROBLEM STATEMENT
Soybean oil having iodine value (I.V.) of 128 is to be hydrogenated in a jet reactor at 5
bar gauge and 165C. Initially the charge is heated fro 30 C to 140C with the
circulating hot oil in external heat exchanger. Hydrogen is introduced in hot soybean oil
and pressure is maintained in the reactor at 5 bar gauge. Reaction is exothermic and
temperature of mass increases. Cold oil flow in the external heat exchanger controls the
temperature at 165C. I.V. reduction is desired upto 68 when the reaction is considered
to be over. Thereafter the hydrogenated mass is cooled to 60C in about 1.5 hour before
it is discharged to the filter. 150 Kg. spent nickel is charged with soybean oil while 5 to
10 kg nickel catalyst is discharged at intervals in the reactor under pressure. A bleed is
maintained from the system to purge out waste vapour and non condensable.

A) Submit a neat flow diagram of the plant showing all control systems.
B) Design the jet reactor and submit a neat scale drawing of the same.
Data Given :

Charge=25 tones soybean oil (Mol wt. =278, chain length of fatty acids=17.78)
with 128 I.V.
Product specification: 68 I.V., melting point=39C (max)
Average exothermic heat of reaction = 7.1 KJ/Kg I.V. reduction
Hydrogen feed rate = 110 to 125 Nm3/h, bleed rate = 1 to 2 Nm3/h
Cooling oil is available at 2 bar gauge and 32C, a rise of 5C is permitted.
Cooling water is used for cooling the oil from 80C to 70C in oil cooler of oil
cycle.
Assume the following properties of fluids for the design:

Property

## Circulating oil (thermic

fat

fluid)

Density, Kg/L

0.825

0.71

Specific heat,kJ/kgC

2.65

2.95

Viscosity, mPa.s

2.0

0.5

Thermal

0.16

0.1

conductivity,W/m.C

CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION
Soybean oil is normally produced by extraction with hexane. The production consists of the
following steps. The soybeans are first cleaned, dried and de-hulled prior to extraction. The
soybean hulls need to be removed because they absorb oil and give a lower yield. This
dehulling is done by cracking the soybeans and a mechanical separation of the hulls and
cracked soybeans. Magnets are used to separate any iron from the soybeans. The soybeans
are also heated to about 75oC to coagulate the soy proteins to make the oil extraction easier.
To extract the oil, first the soybeans are cut into flakes, which are put in percolation extrac
tors and emerged in hexane. Counter flow is used as extraction system because it gives the
highest yield. After removing the hexane, the extracted flakes only contain about 1% of soy
bean oil and are used as livestock feed, or to produce food products such as soy protein. The
hexane is recovered and returned to the extraction process. The hexane free crude soybean oil
is then further purified. World production of soybean oil in 2010-2011 rose 8.0% to a new
record high of 41.874 million metric tons. The U.S. accounts for 20.6% of world soybean oil
production, while Brazil produces 15.8% and the European Union accounts for 5.8%. The
consumption of soybean oil rose 9.2% worldwide in 2010-2011, with the U.S. accounting for
18.6%, Brazil accounting for 12.4%, India accounting for 6.9%, and the European Union
accounting for 6.4% of demand.
Of the total of 18 million pounds of soybean oil consumed in 2011, approximately 9 million
pounds was used for cooking and salad oil. 3.75 million pounds was used for baking, and 3.6
million pounds on industrial products. The remaining 900,000 pounds is used in various other
edible products. The high smoke point of soybean oil makes it often used as a frying oil. If
overused, however, it causes the formation of free radicals. Soybean oil contains 52.7%
linoleic,7.9% linolenic,24.9% oleic acid,5.4% stearic acid,8.3% palmitic acid,0.9% arachidic
acid. In the late 1800s, a French chemist discovered that an unsaturated fatty acid can be
converted to a saturated fatty acid by bubbling hydrogen through a heated vegetable oil in a
closed vessel. If completely hydrogenated, they become stearic acid. The commercial use of
partial hydrogenation of soybean oil began in the early 1900s. The exact fatty acid
composition of the partially hydrogenated soybean oil was essentially unknown until the
development of gas chromatography (GC) by James and Martin in 1952. The Food and Drug
Administration, using the American Oil Chemists Society method, labelled the isomers in
partially hydrogenated fat as only one peak (elaidic acid). It is only with a GC equipped with

a 200 meter column that it is possible to further separate the fatty acid isomers of partially
hydrogenated fat into at least 14 separate isomeric fatty acids.
Vanaspati is vegetable oil which has been refined, hydrogenated, deodorised and
vitaminised. Refining removes the objectionable slime, dirt, free fatty acids and colour
which are always present in crude vegetable oils. Hydrogenation changes the liquid oil into a
plastic fat and, at the same time, it improves the keeping properties of the oil. Deodorisation
removes the malodorous and unpalatable constituents which crude vegetable oils always
contain. Packing in hygienic containers ensures that the product reaches the market in the
same fresh, uncontaminated and unadulterated state in which it left the factory. Vanaspati is
officially known as "Vegetable Oil Product," The first vanaspati factory was established in
India in 1930 by Messrs. Indian Vegetable Products Limited who erected a factory at
Bombay. The vanaspati industry is the second largest food processing industry in India,
second only to the sugar industry. It is the largest of its kind in Asia, and the fifth largest in
the world.

## 1.1Hydrogenation Of Oil: Hydrogenation of oils consists in the addition of hydrogen at

the double bonds in the fatty acid chains. The degree of hydrogenation of an oil is thus related
directly to its iodine value, the addition of one molecule of hydrogen corresponding to the
absorption of one molecule of iodine. The process of hydrogenating vegetable oils as carried
out in industry is a catalytic reaction. For hydrogenation to take place, gaseous hydrogen,
liquid oil and a solid catalyst (finely divided nickel is the commonest) must be brought
together at a suitable temperature. The hydrogenation of an oil is believed to involve the
following sequence of operations :

## Solution of hydrogen in the oil.

Adsorption of dissolved hydrogen on the catalyst.
Reaction to form a nickel-hydrogen-oil complex.
Decomposition of the complex to yield hydrogenated oil and free nickel.
Desorption of the hydrogenated oil.

The rate at which hydrogenation proceeds depends upon the temperature, the nature of the
oil, the activity of the catalyst, the concentration of the catalyst and the rate at which
hydrogen and the unsaturated oil molecules are supplied at the active catalyst surface. The
composition and characteristics of the resultant hydrogenated product vary according to the
positions of the double bonds which are hydrogenated as well as certain isomerising
influences which accompany the reaction. In the case of one pure fatty acid, a mixture of fatty

acids, or oils, the addition of hydrogen to the polyethenoid acids can occur either at random at
anyone of the double bonds or preferentially at a specific double bond; in the latter case,
dehydrogenation can take place simultaneously. In the case of the hydrogenation of oils, the
following views have been expressed:

in a mixture of fatty acids having two, three or more double bonds, hydrogen is added
first to the acid with the maximum number of double bonds; then to the acid with
fewer double bonds and so forth until all the double bonds are completely saturated.

## Such progressive hydrogenation is called "selective"

during prolonged hydrogenation at about 180C, a considerable degree of acyl

## wandering takes place from one glycerol position to another;

the higher molecular weight fatty acids are hydrogenated more slowly than those of
lower molecular weight. Finally, although it has not been proved conclusively, it is to
be believed that the fatty acid attached at the position of the glycerol molecule is
less reactive than that attached at the or ' position.

During the process of hydrogenation, the degree of unsaturation is reduced and the melting
point of the oil is increased. In addition to the decrease in unsaturation and increase in
hardness which are achieved during the hydrogenation process, a considerable amount of
decolourising takes place. Hydrogenation also results in decrease in iodine value,very slight
increase in molecular weight, improvement in oxidative stability.

## 1.2Factors affecting the course of Hydrogenation are as follows:

Effect of temperature: Increasing the temperature leads to a greater rate of reaction and to a
greater rate of diffusion of the oil molecules. Also an increase in temperature favours
selective hydrogenation and the formation of iso-oleic acid.
Effect of pressure: The greater the pressure of hydrogen, the greater is the dissolution of
hydrogen in oil and hence the greater the concentration of activated hydrogen molecules on
the surface of the catalyst. The result is more rapid but less selective hydrogenation.
Effect of agitation: An increase in the rate of agitation improves the conditions of contact in
the gas-oil-catalyst system, but it decreases the selective nature of hydrogenation.
Effect of the amount of catalyst: An increase in the amount of catalyst has an influence on
selective hydrogenation but it is not as great as in the case of increased temperature.
Effect of the nature of catalyst: No positive inferences can be drawn regarding the influence
of the nature of the catalyst on the hydrogenation process. There is a considerable variation in
the quantity of iso-oleic acid formed, but this point cannot be directly explained.

1.3Catalysts Used: With rare exceptions, no reaction below 480 C (750 K or 900 F)
occurs between H2 and organic compounds in the absence of metal catalysts. The unsaturated
substrate is chemisorbed onto the catalyst, with most sites covered by the substrate. In
heterogeneous catalysts, hydrogen forms surface hydrides (M-H) from which hydrogen can
be transferred to the chemisorbed substrate. Platinum, palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium
form highly active catalysts, which operate at lower temperatures and lower pressures of H2.
Non-precious metal catalysts, especially those based on nickel (such as Raney nickel) have
also been developed as economical alternatives, but they are often slower or require higher
temperatures. The trade-off is activity (speed of reaction) vs. cost of the catalyst and cost of
the apparatus required for use of high pressures. Notice that the Raney-nickel catalyzed
hydrogenations require high pressures. Two broad families of catalysts are knownhomogeneous catalysts and heterogeneous catalysts. Homogeneous catalysts dissolve in
the solvent that contains the unsaturated substrate. Heterogeneous catalysts are solids that are
suspended in the same solvent with the substrate or are treated with gaseous substrate
.

1.4Iodine Value: The iodine value (or "iodine adsorption value" or "iodine number" or
"iodine index") in chemistry is the mass of iodine in grams that is consumed by 100 grams of
a chemical substance. Iodine numbers are often used to determine the amount of unsaturation

in fatty acids. This unsaturation is in the form of double bonds, which react with iodine
compounds. The higher the iodine number, the more C=C bonds are present in the fat.
This particular analysis is an example of iodometry. A solution of iodine is yellow/brown in
colour. When this is added to a solution to be tested, however, any chemical group (usually in
this test C=C double bonds) that react with iodine effectively reduce the strength, or
magnitude of the colour (by taking iodine out of solution). Thus the amount of iodine
required to make a solution retain the characteristic yellow/brown colour can effectively be
used to determine the amount of iodine sensitive groups present in the solution.

The precursor alkene (RCH=CHR') is colourless and so is the organoiodine product (RCHICHIR'). In a typical procedure, the fatty acid is treated with an excess of the Hanu or Wijs
solution, which are, respectively, solutions of iodine monobromide (IBr) and iodine
monochloride (ICl) in glacial acetic acid. Unreacted iodine monobromide (or monochloride)
is then allowed to react with potassium iodide, converting it to iodine, whose concentration
can be determined by titration with sodium thiosulfate.
It can be seen from the table that coconut oil is very saturated, which means it is good for
making soap. On the other hand, linseed oil is highly unsaturated, which makes it a drying
oil, well suited for making oil paints.
Hydrogenation is a strongly exothermic reaction. In the hydrogenation of vegetable oils and
fatty acids, for example, the heat released is about 25 kcal per mole (105 kJ/mol), sufficient to
raise the temperature of the oil by 1.61.7 C per iodine number drop. The mechanism of
metal-catalyzed hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes has been extensively studied. First of
all isotopelabeling using deuterium confirms the regiochemistry of the addition:

RCH=CH2 + D2 RCHDCH2D

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE SURVEY
History of Hydrogenation of Oil In the late 1970s the lipid hypothesis came in to
existences stating that eating saturated fats leads to elevated LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein)
which was perceived to be "bad cholesterol." This will result in coronary heart disease which
is hardening and narrowing of arteries resulting in heart attack. Fats were eventually
classified in to 2 categories: healthy fats and unhealthy fats. Unhealthy fats where
perceived to be saturated fats and healthy fats where perceived to be unsaturated fats.
A meta-analysis of 72 studies with over 103,052 people have found no validity in the lipid
hypothesis. The conclusion of the Meta-Analysis was, In contrast to current
recommendations, this systematic review found no evidence that saturated fat increases the
risk of coronary disease, or that polyunsaturated fats have a cardio protective effect.
Dietary fats play a critical role in human health. They help keep cells healthy, help with brain
development, help with the use of fat soluble vitamins, and they help cushion organs
protecting them against blunt trauma. Fats come in multiple forms, saturated, unsaturated and
trans fats just to name a few.
Saturated Fats Saturated fats are solid at room temperature due to their molecular shape.
The term saturated is in reference to an sp3 carbon chain that has its remaining sp3 orbitals
bonded with hydrogen atoms. Thus the term saturated. Its saturated with hydrogen.
Saturated fats have a chain like structure which allows them to stack very well forming a
solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fats are not linear due to double bonded carbons
which results in a different molecular shape because the sp2 carbons are trigonal planar, not
tetrahedral (sp3 carbons) as the carbons are in saturated fats. This change in structure will
cause the fat molecules to not stack very well resulting in fats that are liquid at room
temperature. Butter is mostly saturated fat, thats why its solid at room temperature. Olive
Oil is liquid at room temperature, thus its an unsaturated fat. An unsaturated fat can be made
in to a saturated fat via hydrogenation reactions.

## Margarine: Vegetable oils are commonly referred to as "polyunsaturated". This simply

means that there are several double bonds present. Vegetable oils may be converted from

liquids to solids by the hydrogenation reaction. Margarines and shortenings are "hardened" in
this way to make them solid or semi-solids. Vegetable oils which have been partially
hydrogenated, are now partially saturated so the melting point increases to the point where a
solid is present at room temperature. The degree of hydrogenation of unsaturated oils controls
the final consistency of the product.
Industrial Reactor:
Catalytic hydrogenation is done in a tubular plug-flow reactor (PFR) packed with a supported
catalyst. The pressures and temperatures are typically high, although this depends on the
catalyst. Catalyst loading is typically much lower than in laboratory batch hydrogenation, and
various promoters are added to the metal, or mixed metals are used, to improve activity,
selectivity and catalyst stability. The use of nickel is common despite its low activity, due to
its low cost compared to precious metals.
Gas Liquid Induction Reactors (Hydrogenator) are also used for carrying out catalytic
hydrogenation.
However, nowadays Jet Reactors are being used to carry out the hydrogenation process. This
is because Jet Reactors provide better mixing of the reactants. Hence the yield of saturated
fatty acids is more.

## Plug Flow Reactor

10

CHAPTER-3
3.1 Mass Balance :
Table 3.1 Composition Of Soyabean Oil

SL.NO
1
2
3
4
5
6

COMPONENTS
Palmitic acid
Stearic acid
Oleic acid
Linoleic acid
Linolenic acid
Arachidic acid

FORMULA

% PRESENT IN

C15H31COOH
C17H35COOH
C17H33COOH
C17H31COOH
C17H29COOH
C19H39COOH

ACID
8.3
5.4
24.9
52.7
7.9
0.9

## 25 tonnes of soyabean oil was charged

Table 3.2 Amounts of component acids present in 25 tonnes of oil are as follows

SL.NO
1
2
3
4
5
6

COMPONENTS

## AMOUNT PRESENT (in tonnes)

Palmitic acid
Stearic acid
Oleic acid
Linoleic acid
Linolenic acid
Arachidic acid

2.075
1.35
6.225
13.175
1.975
0.225

Reactions :

1. (C15H31COO)3C3H5 + 3H2

Ni

(C15H33COO)3C3H5

11

2. (C17H35COO)3C3H5 + 3H2
3. (C17H35COO)3C3H5 + 3H2
4. (C17H31COO)3C3H5 + 3H2
5. (C17H29COO)3C3H5 + 3H2

Ni

Ni

Ni

Ni

(C17H37COO)3C3H5
(C17H35COO)3C3H5

(C17H35COO)3C3H5

(C17H31COO)3C3H5

Ni

6. (C19H39COO)3C3H5 + 3H2

(C19H41COO)3C3H5

## Molecular weight of carbon = 12

Molecular weight of hydrogen = 1
Molecular weight of oxygen = 16
Supplied hydrogen feed rate = 125 N m3/hr = 125 * 0.08988 kg/hr
= 11.235 kg/hr

## Basis : 1 hour of operation

Mass balance for Palmitic Acid

(C15H31COO)3C3H5 + 3H2
A
B
806
6

Ni

(C15H33COO)3C3H5
C
812

For hydrogen
806 kg of A gives 6 kg of hydrogen (B)

2075 kg of A gives

6
806

## Supplied hydrogen = 11.235 kg/hr

12

% conversion =

11.235
15.44

* 100

= 72.76 %

For Product
Now for 100% conversion from reaction stoichiometry
806 kg of A gives 812 kg of C

2075 kg of A gives

812
806

* 2075 = 2090.44 kg of C

## So for 72.76 % conversion,

Amount of hydrogenated product(C) produced = 0.7276 * 2090.44
= 1521 kg

= 569.44 kg

## Mass balance for Stearic Acid

(C17H35COO)3C3H5 + 3H2

Ni

(C17H37COO)3C3H5

890

896

For Hydrogen

13

## 890 kg of A gives 6 kg of hydrogen (B)

1350 kg of A gives

6
890

## So, unreacted H2 = 11.235 9.10 =2.135 kg

Here 100% conversion of Hydrogen takes place

## For product (C)

890 kg of A gives 896 kg of (C)

1350 kg of A gives

896
890

## Assuming 98% conversion,

Product(C) produced = 1359.10 * 0.98
= 1331.92 kg

= 27.18 kg

## Mass balance of Oleic Acid:

(C17H35COO)3C3H5 + 3H2
A
B
884
6

Ni

For hydrogen
884 kg of A gives 6 kg of hydrogen (B)

(C17H35COO)3C3H5
C
890

14

6
884

6225 kg of A gives

## Supplied hydrogen = 11.235 kg/hr

% conversion =

11.234
42.25

* 100

= 26.59 %

For Product
Now for 100% conversion from reaction stoichiometry
884 kg of A gives 890 kg of C

6225 kg of A gives

890
884

* 6225 = 6267.25 kg of C

## So for 26.59 % conversion,

Amount of hydrogenated product(C) produced = 0.2659 * 6267.25
= 1666.46 kg

= 4600.78 kg

## Mass balance for Linoleic Acid:

(C17H31COO)3C3H5 + 3H2

Ni

(C17H35COO)3C3H5

878

884

15

For hydrogen
878 kg of A gives 6 kg of hydrogen (B)

13175 kg of A gives

6
878

## Supplied hydrogen = 11.235 kg/hr

% conversion =

11.235
90.034

= 12.47 %
Now for 100% conversion from reaction stoichiometry
878 kg of A gives 884 kg of C

13175 kg of A gives

884
878

* 13175 = 13265.034 kg of C

## So for 12.47 % conversion,

Amount of hydrogenated product(C) produced = 0.1247 * 13265.034
= 1654.14 kg

= 11610.88 kg

## Mass balance for Linolenic Acid :

(C17H29COO)3C3H5 + 3H2
A
B
872
6

Ni

(C17H31COO)3C3H5
C
878

16

For hydrogen
872 kg of A gives 6 kg of hydrogen (B)
6
872

1975 kg of A gives

## But the supplied hydrogen = 11.235 kg/hr

% conversion =

11.235
13.49

* 100

= 83.24 %
Now for 100% conversion from reaction stoichiometry,
872 kg of A gives 878 kg of C

1975 kg of A gives

878
872

* 1975 = 1988.58 kg of C

## So for 83.24 % conversion,

Amount of hydrogenated product(C) produced = 0.8324 * 1988.58
= 1659.29 kg

= 329.29 kg

## Similarly, mass balance for equation number Arachidic Acid

(C19H39COO)3C3H5 + 3H2

Ni

(C19H41COO)3C3H5

974

980

17

For hydrogen,
974 kg of A gives 6 kg of H2 (B)

225 kg of A gives

6
974

* 225 = 1.386 kg H2

## Supplied hydrogen = 11.235 kg

Unconverted H2 = 9.848 kg

## Here 100% conversion of hydrogen takes place

For product,
974 kg of A gives 980 kg of (C)

225 kg of A gives

980
974

REACTIONS
1
2
3
4
5
6

% CONVERSIONS
72.76
100
26.59
12.47
83.24
100

6

= 65.82 %

18

## Input soyabean oil : 25 tonnes

Hydrogenated product formed : 8.086 tonnes
Unreacted soyabean oil : 17.11 tonnes
Input hydrogen : 11.235 kg
Hydrogen reacted : 7.395 Kg
Unreacted hydrogen : 3.84 Kg

3.1Energy Balance
Energy balance for the reactor
Heat of reaction = 7.1 KJ/Kg I.V reduction * (128-68)
= 426 KJ/Kg
Heat duty across the first heat exchanger
= heat of reaction * (reaction mass/time)

= 426

KJ
Kg

25000 Kg
5
hr

= 21.35 * 105 *

KJ
1 hr
*
hr 3600 sec

## = 5.91* 10-3 * 105 KW

= 591.67 KW

For this much heat duty, flow rate of circulating oil required

19

591.67
2.95

KJ
sec

Kg
* (80 70)
Kg 0c

= 20.056 kg sec-1
Cooling water flow rate in oil cooler
591.67
4.2

mw =

KJ
sec

KJ
* 5K
KgK

= 28.17 Kg sec-1

20

CHAPTER-4
PROCESS DESCRIPTION &FLOWSHEET
Hydrogenation tends to increase the melting point of the vegetable oils (that have very low
melting points) to about 36oC that is near about human body temperature. Hence, the
hydrogenated oils that normally remain in solid state get liquefied at human body
temperature. All these properties maximize the shelf life of the hydrogenated oils and thus,
these are widely used in varied food items like snacks, bakery products, sweets, etc.
Basically, all oils have both unsaturated as well as saturated fatty acids. By adding hydrogen,
unsaturated fats get converted to saturated fats, decreasing the overall iodine value. Finally,
the

hydrogenated

oil

gets

solidified

at

lower

temperature.

The entire process of hydrogenation is carried out in batch vessels under pressure, in which,
oil to be hydrogenated is heated. The entire hydrogenation process is done in the presence of
nickel

catalyst.

Post hydrogenation, the catalyst is recovered for re- use through the filtration of hydrogenated
oil in plate and frame filter presses. The hydrogenation process ensures no loss of oil, as the
hydrogen added makes up the oil loss that goes with the catalyst.

21

CHAPTER-5
DESIGN OF JET-REACTOR
Amount Of Soyabean Oil charged =25 tons (I.V 128)
Volume of liquid inside jet Reactor = 25000/0.825 = 30,308 L =30.303 m3
VL = /4 * Di2*hL + inside volume of the bottom head
Where, Di = Inside diameter of the jet reactor, m
hL = Height of the liquid inside the shell of jet Reactor, m
Let, hL = 1.5 * Di
Type of the bottom head = torrispherical
Inside volume of the torrispherical head = 0.084672 Di3 + /4 * Di2SF [From Coulson
&Richardson]
Let, SF = 1.5 = 0.0381 m
30.303 = /4Di2(1.5Di) + 0.084672Di3 + /4*0.0381*Di2
30.303 = 1.1781 Di3 + 0.084672 Di3 + 0.0299 Di2
30.303 = 1.262772 Di3 + 0.0299 Di2
Using bisection method,
f(x) = 1.262772 x3 + 0.0299 x2 30.303
Putting

## x=1, f(x) = -29.01

x =3, f(x) = 4.0609

22

x = 2, f(x) = -20.08
x = 2.5, f(x) = -10.385
x = 2.75, f(x) = -3.81517
x = 2.875, f(x) = -0.04776
... Di = 2.875 m
hL = 1.5 * 2.875 m = 4.3125 m
Total height of shell of the reactor (H) = 2*2.875 = 5.75 m

Density of hydrogen: 0.08988 g/L
Pressure: 5 bar
Temperature: 165 C
Working pressure = (5+1) bar = 6 bar
Design pressure = 6.5 bar
Material: Stainless steel
Tensile strength: 510 N/mm2
Design stress at 165C = 125 N/mm2
Welded joint efficiency: 85% 0.85
Corrosion Allowance = 1.0 mm

## Minimum Practical Wall Thickness

Here vessel diameter = 2.875 m
... Minimum wall thickness = 10 mm

23

## Minimum shell thickness required = e =

PiDi
2Jf Pi

Di = 2.875 m
Pi = Internal Pressure = 6.5 bar = 6.5 * 105 N/m2
Pi = 6.5 * 1.013 * 105 N/m2
f = 125 N/ mm2 = 125 * 106 N/m2
J = 0.85

e=

## (2 * 0.85 * 125 *10^ 6) (6.52 * 10^5)

= 8.85 m

Crown Radius = RC = Di = 2.875 m
Knuckle Radius = 6% of RC = 6/100 * 2.875 = 0.1725 m
CS = Stress concentration factor for torrespherical heads

= (3 +

Rc
Rk

) = 1.7706 = 1.771

## Minimum thickness required ,

PiRcCs
e = 2Jf Pi(Cs0.2)

e=

6.52*10 ^ 5*2.875*1.771
( 2*125*10 ^ 6*0.85) ( 6.52*10 ^ 5*1.571)

= 0.0155m

24

Wv = Cv** Pm* Dm* g*( Hv + 0.8 Dm)* t * 10-3
Let us take ,
Cv = 1.01 ( few interval fitting)
Hv = 5.75 m
t = 8.85 mm
Dm = mean diameter of vessel = (Di + (t*10-3)) m =(2.875 + (8.85*10-3)) m = 2.884 m
For steel vessel
Wv = 240 CVDm(Hv + 0.8 Dm) t
= 240 * 1.08 * 2.884 (5.75 + (0.8 * 2.884))*8.85
= 53303.74 N
= 53.304 kN

Material Chosen: Asbestos with 3.2 mm with a thick binder for the operating conditions.
Minimum design seating stress = 11.2 N/mm2
Now,
Go
Gi

## (Ya pm)/(Ya p( m+1))

Go = 1.035* Gi
= 1.035*(shell OD + 12 )mm
= 1.035*(2875+8.85+12)mm
= 2997.2 mm

p=design pressure

25

1 G 0 Gi
2
2
b0= [
]=25.34mm

b=b0,when b0<=6.3mm

b=2.5

bo

when b0>6.3mm

G=(G0+Gi)/2 =2946.5mm
The minimum bolt load for atmospheric condition is calculated to be
Wm1 = * b*G*Ya
= 1304232.39 N =1304.232 KN

Wm2 = { *(2*b)*m*G*p} + { 4

* G2 * p}

= 4749504.398 N = 4749.504 KN
Number of bolts = (mean gasket diameter in cm)/2.54
= 294.65/2.54
= 116
Number of bolts are always in multiples of 4
... no.of bolts =116 is accepted.
Permissible stress ()= 54.5 N/mm2
Total bolt area = Wm2 /
= 87146.87 mm2 = 0.087147 m2
Area of each bolt = 751.27 mm2
(/4)*d2=751.27mm2,d=bolt diameter.
...d=30.93mm
Pitch of bolts=4.25*30.93=131.45mm,

## [... pitch lies between 3.5 to 5 times bolt dia. ]

Pitch circle diameter (B) = Outside diameter of gasket + (2* bolt dia)+12

26

= 3071.06mm
Outside diameter of flange = P.C.D + (2* bolt diameter)
= 3132.92mm

Thickness of flange
tf = G *

k=

P
(hf )

+c

1
0.3+(1.5Wm hG /HG)

P = Design pressure = 6.52* 105 N/m2=0.652N/mm2
f = permissible stress = 95N/mm2
B = Bolt circle diameter = 3071.06 mm
C = Corrosion Allowance = 1 mm
Wm = Total bolt load = 4749504.398N

H = Total hydrostatic end force =

k=

* G2 * p=4445804.57N

1
(0.3+(1.54749504.39862.28)/( 2946.54445804.57))

= 2.96

## tf = 2946.5 * 0.652/(2.9 695) + 1 = 142.88mm

Nozzle calculation
Di = 8.4*W0.45/

0.31

27

## W = Vapour mass flow rate, kg/hr

= Density of top vapour kg/m3 = 0.08988 kg/ m3
Hydrogen flow rate = 125 Nm3/hr = 125 m3/hr = 11.235 kg/hr
Di = 52.65 mm

Support design
Type of support: Bracket support
No of brackets : 4 (Since,Vessel diameter < 3 m)
Bracket Dimensions : (referred from Table 13.2 of Joshi &Mahajani)
Centre to centre of bolt holes in lugs (Dimension A) = 3.125 m
Other dimensions :
B = 150 mm

c = 230 mm D = 10 mm E = 10 mm F = 8 mm

## Jet mixer design

Let us assume that the inside diameter of the jet is
top
1
Diameter of the jet = 3

* Di

=0.9583m

## Feed nozzle calculation

Di = (8.4 * W0.45) /

0.31

Di = 99.83 mm

1
3

rd

28

## Product nozzle calculation

Di = (8.4 * W0.45) /

0.31

## W = 25000 kg/hr, = 825 kg/m3

Di = 99.83 mm

CHAPTER-6
SAFETY AND HAZARDS OF HYDROGENATION OF OIL IN
INDUSTRIES
The main hazards associated with the hydrogenation of oil industries and their safety
measures are as follows:

Atmospheric emissions :
Process emissions : Particulate matter (dust)and VOCs are the principal
emissions from vegetable oil production and processing. Dust results from

29

## the processing including cleaning, screening and crushing, of raw materials,

whereas VOC emissions are caused by the use of oil-extraction solvents,
normally hexane. Several sources within vegetable oil processing plants
generate solvent emission.
The recommended techniques adopted for such emissions are:
o We have to optimize recovery of solvents by distilling the oil

## from the extractor.

o We have to improve exhaust air collection systems.
o We have to implement leak prevention systems.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) : Vegetable oil processing produces GHG
emissions through the use of fossil energy. The high nutrient loading of wastewater
can be a source of methane (CH4), when treated or disposed off anaerobically.
The recommended techniques adopted for such emissions are:
o We should avoid open anaerobic conditions for wastewater
treatment by ensuring a regular program of operational
maintenance in the wastewater treatment system.
o We should consider biological methods of wastewater
treatment, such as anaerobic digestion and methane

capture.
Occupational Health and Safety: Occupational health and safety impacts during the
construction and decommissioning of vegetable oil processing plants are common to
those of most large industrial facilities and their prevention and control are discussed
in the General EHS Guidelines. Occupational health and safety issues during the
operational phase include:
Chemical hazards: Operators in vegetable oil facilities may be exposed to
hazardous substances via, inhalation of toxic chemicals (e.g., sodium
methylate can cause burns on the skin and lung tissue if inhaled); eye or skin
exposure to acids or bases; inhalation of dust from the transportation of raw
materials.
The recommended techniques adopted for such hazards are :

30

## o In oil extraction areas, we should ensure that there is

adequate air circulation to reduce the concentration of
solvents.
o We should

provide

ventilation,

workstations

devoted

to raw-material handling,

especially

at

## milling, handling of bleaching earth, and use of

solvents.
o We should ensure proper distillation of oil after
extraction for effective solvent removal.
o We should prevent leaks and spills of oils in the
extraction plant.
Physical hazards: Physical hazards in vegetable oil production and
processing facilities are similar to those present in other industry sectors and
include the potential for falls caused by slippery floors and stairs; injuries
caused by unprotected machinery or moving parts; hazards associated with
potential collisions with internal transport, such as trucks. The various
physical hazards that can take place are:
Confined Space Entry: Grain silos present a significant risk
of death from asphyxia. Extremely toxic nitrogen oxides and
CO2 begin to accumulate in the head space of the silo within
hours of its filling. The recommendation for this hazard is

## control of the toxic nitrogen oxides and CO2.

Electrical hazards: Electrical systems are a source of danger
for workers that can lead to injuries or fatalities. The
recommendation for this hazard

is control of electrical

systems.
Risk of Fire and Explosion: Risks of fire and explosion occur
at different stages of vegetable oil production and processing
and can lead to loss of property, as well as possible injury or
fatalities

among

project

workers.

General

fire

safety

Guidelines.

## control or removal of potential ignition sources are key to

eliminating the explosion hazard.

31

CHAPTER-7
PLANT - LAYOUT
Filter
Press
Process Material
Storage

Room
Fat
Trap
Catalyst
Reducer
&
Cooling

Work
Boiler
Shop
House
Engg.
Spray
Stores
Pond
Pum

Mixer
Rooms

Tank
Ware House
R
E

F
I
N

Blending

Generator
Splitting

A
N

&

T
E

R
Hydrogen
Soap Stock

Installation

Y
Laboratory
Fillin
g

N
Office

Wash
room