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Pergamon Press.

ONTO A VERTICAL SURFACE

R. P. SPIERS, C. V. SUBBARAMAN

and W. L. WILKINSON

Schools of Chemical Engineering, University of Bradford, Bradford 7, Yorkshire, England

(Received 19 March 1973; accepted 10 July 1973)

Abstract-The

entrainment of Newtonian liquid films onto a vertical surface which is continuously

withdrawn from a bath of the liquid is considered. A new theoretical treatment is presented which is

significantly different from previous theories and which predicts accurately the relationship between

the dimensionless thickness parameter, T,, and the Capillary Number, Ca, up to a value of Cu of 2.

Experimental results have been obtained using a capacitance technique for film thickness measurement for a variety of Newtonian fluids with viscosities ranging from 0406 to 24% N. set m-*.

I/

1. INTRODUCTION

is a problem of considerable practical significance,

notably in industries concerned with the application

-L

3 -

RapionI

1. This is

region

of the liquid in the bath where the film thickness becomes constant at ho, and in which only viscous and

gravity forces are involved.

Region 2. This is normally referred to as the

dynamic meniscus region in which the film thickness, h, varies with height above the bath, x, and in

which viscous, gravity and surface tension forces

have all to be taken into account.

Region 3. In this region, close to the surface of

the bath, flow effects can be neglected to a first

approximation

and only surface tension forces

considered.

from the

389

R. P.

390

SPIERS,

C. V.

SUBBARAMAN,

the relevant equation of motion for a Newtonian

fluid of viscosity, p, and density, p, is simply:

d2u

cL&-r-Pg=O

and by using boundary

W. L.

WILKINSON

withdrawal problem, when only viscous and gravity

forces are involved. Groenveld [4] has also obtained

solutions based on an empirical estimate of the position of the stagnation point at the surface in Region

2.

conditions:

3. THEORETICAL

(i) y=O;u=U

(ii) y = ho; (duldy)

(2)

=0

by:

q=

Uhn(l-!g).

ho since neither are known and an additional constraint has to be invoked which relates to the flow

situation either above or below the constant thickness region in order that the problem may be

solved.

Landau and Levich [l] obtained a solution by

matching the curvatures of the free surface at the

extremities of the dynamic meniscus region. Their

result, which is only applicable to low speed withdrawal since the gravity force was neglected in Region 2, may be written in the form:

T,, = 0.944Ca 6

(4)

TREATMENT

and Tallmadge[2] claims good agreement with experimental results up to a Capillary Number of 2,

there are significant departures from this theory for

values of Ca as low as 0.01. The probable explanation for this discrepancy

is that White and

Tallmadge used an incorrect approximation to the

normal stress at the free surface in the dynamic

meniscus region. The modified treatment presented

below incorporates a more realistic boundary condition which was recently used by Williamson [5] in

a study of the separation of two tapes bonded by a

viscous liquid. This results in a relationship between To and Ca which agrees accurately with experimental data for a variety of Newtonian liquids

up to a Capillary Number of 2.

The film is considered in three regions as before,

but the dynamic meniscus region will be considered

in detail here, and the surface matching procedure

will be used. By neglecting inertia effects and considering one-dimensional

flow, the Navier-Stokes

equations reduce to:

gravitational to viscous forces and is defined by:

forces to surface tension forces and is defined by:

Co

=cL

(f-9

The boundary

are:

conditions

(i) u(x, 0) = U

CT

The gravitational force was included in Region 2

in the gravity-corrected

theory of White and

Tallmadge[2] who also used the surface matching

procedure to obtain the following relationship between To and Ca:

(S)

stress at the free surface:

@ii)

and (iii) the normal stress at the free surface:

Y = h(x),

p + r,, sin 0 + 7YY

cos 28 + r,, sin 28 = p. - g

(7)

This result reduces to the Landau-Levich

equation for low speed withdrawal, i.e. where both Ca

and To approach zero, (say Ca < OeOl), and for high

values of Ca (say Cu > lo), it reduces to To = 1,

which is the result obtained by Deryagin[3] based

@iii)

where the stresses on the atmospheric side of the

interface are considered negligible compared to

those in the fluid, 0 is the angle between the normal

to the surface and the y-axis, and R is the radius of

curvature of the free surface.

For consistency with the Reynolds approximation in the dynamic meniscus region, we also require that:

(10)

Taking the atmospheric pressure, po, to be zero,

the boundary conditions (9ii) and (9iii) become respectively:

dx,h)=O=-p#x,h)

P+?Y=-u&7

second term in Eq. (16) is comparable in magnitude

to the other terms and may not be neglected. If it is

omitted, Eq. (16) reduces to that considered by

White and Tallmadge [2]; boundary condition (14)

also reduces to that used by White and Tallmadge.

By introducing the two further dimensionless

variables.

L = h/h,

(17)

du

(lli)

dh

(llii)

flux, q, in the constant film thickness region is obtained by the solution of Eq. (8) with boundary conditions (9i) and (1 li), the normal stress, Eq. (1 lii) reducing to zero for the flat free surface.

Assuming dp ldx -S pg, Eq. (8) may be integrated

using boundary conditions (9i) and (1 li):

dP 3~

~=jp

Uh-q-T

(

391

mh3

>

(12)

in the form:

$-

(3Ca).(l-

To2/3)$

(+

g)

++(L-l+T,,(l-L3)/3)=0.

(18)

using the starting value procedure outlined by

Landau and Levich[lJ with the boundary conditions:

and

L=l,

u = U+3(;

-+)(?&

hy).

$0

(13)

at a position

from boundary condition

tonian fluid becomes:

(llii) which, for a New-

third boundary condition required by the Landau

and Levich solution is given by:

dL

v+Oas

&=-p

-2p$(x,

h).

L+m

(14)

and

(19)

Eq. (13), noting that:

where /3 is a numerical constant. However, if we

integrate Eq. (18) directly, the Landau and Levich

boundary condition is impossible to apply as:

giving:

$x,h)=-&$

(15)

Differentiating Eq. (14) with respect to x, equating with the pressure gradient of Eq. (12) and substituting Eq. (15), we obtain:

dh

w-3p+($$)+~(Uh-q-$=0.

(16)

and hence

d2L

G+mas

L+m.

1 + Q where c is a small quantity, following White

392

R. P. SPIERS.C. V. SUBBARAMAN,

W. L. WILKINSON

variable:

x = [(l - To2).

Equation

(18) becoming:

(20)

Tallmadge[2] except that in their derivation a degenerates to a constant, as seen from Eq. (7). The

relationship between T, and Ca may be computed

from Eq. (25) using values of a obtained by numerical integration of Eq. (20). This was carried aut

using a fourth order Runge-Kutta method with the

starting value procedure of Landau and Levich[l]

and the following limiting boundary conditions:

dL

d*L

L+f,--O,--_z+Oas~+~.

dx

strain rate term at the fluid-air interface, Eq. (20) is

identical in form to that obtained by Landau and

Levich[l].

dL L -1

--$+7=0.

Integration of Eq. (21) is found to satisfy boundary condition (19), and Eq. (20) is also found to

satisfy it. We may then apply the curvature matching procedure of Landau and Levich which requires that the curvature of the free surface is continuous from the constant film thickness region to

the static meniscus region.

From Eq. (20) we can find the limit of the second

derivative at the lower limit of the dynamic meniscus region where it merges with the static meniscus

region in the form:

dZL

m -@ = cu(Ca, To).

from capillary statics that:

(22)

$4

(23)

m as x + 0, and

following

condition

Landau

and

that:

lirn d=L d2

L + 1 1 = Y To(1 - TuZ)-23Ca-b. (24)

dx

Continuity of the second derivative is then ensured by equating the limits given by Eqs. (22) and

(24) from which we obtain:

To =

Ca

TO

ToC2'

OGol

0.003

0.006

0.01

0.03

0.06

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.6

1.0

0.2829

0.3322

0.3663

0.3926

0.4525

0.4920

0.5215

0.5617

0.5852

0.6246

0.6530

0.2839

0.3346

0.3702

0.3984

0.4651

0.5120

0.5494

0.6043

0.6387

0.7008

0.7480

;:;

4.0

8:;

0.7107

0.6900

0.7249

0.7575

0.7443

0.8455

0.8108

0.8686

0.9155

0.8973

10-o

0.7674

0.9280

region, we have

$/[l+($r]112=5.

Integrating

Further details of the numerical methods employed are given in the Appendix. The result for To

as a function of Ca is given in tabular form in Table

1, and is shown graphically in Figs. 3-7, where it is

(21)

dx

L lim

(26)

dx

Ca 6.

(25)

(2) New theory, given by Eq. (25).

compared with experimental results and the previous theories of Landau and Levich[l], and White

and Tallmadge [23.

4. EXPERIMENTAL

PROGRAMME

Experimental results have been obtained on a

range of Newtonian fluids using the apparatus

illustrated in Fig 2. The equipment consisted of two

20 cm dia pulleys over which a 5 cm wide thin brass

belt was stretched. The belt was drawn through a

bath of fluid by driving the lower pulley by means

of a variable speed motor. The thickness of the liquid film in the constant thickness region was measured by two non-contact

capacitance

probes

situated on each side of the belt, a procedure which

393

Table 2. Experimental

Capacitance

_j_p_ro,bee

Roller to remove

Voriable

speed

drive

movements

of the belt. The probes measure the

combined

air gaps at each side of the belt from

which the liquid film thickness can be easily found.

to 25 pm could be measured to an accuracy better

than 2 pm. This measurement

technique is also

useful for the detection of ripples which can give

rise to serious errors with the contact micrometer

technique which has been widely used in the past.

The film of fluid on the inside of the belt was removed by a roller, rather than by using a scraper,

which returns the fluid to the bath, since the latter

arrangement can give rise to significant errors due

to disturbance of the liquid surface by the returning

liquid. The size of the bath and the liquid depth

were sufficiently large to avoid effects on the liquid

film.

Some 21 Newtonian fluids, listed in Table 2 were

used in the work, 10 being glycerol/water solutions,

5 sugar solutions and 6 hydrocarbon oils. The viscosity range was from 0.006 to 2.06 N.sec m-*. Surface tensions and densities were measured

fluid used. The experimental programme

Solution

No.

Glycerol-water

Glycerol-water

Glycerol-water

Glycerol-water

Glycerol-water

Glycerol-water

Glycerol-water

Glycerol-water

Glycerol-water

Glycerol-water

0.0180

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

0.0195

0.0280

0.0648

0.1695

0.0628

0.0156

0.0097

0.0062

06408

for each

Cu from 0.003 to 18.

N.s!m.

1I

12

Syrup-water

Syrup-water

Syrup-water

Syrup-water

Syrup-water

13

14

15

0.1302

0.0980

0.0830

0~0500

0.0220

Liquid Paraffin-I

Liquid Paraffin-II

16

17

0.1695

0.1932

Lubricating

Lubricating

Lubricating

Lubricating

18

19

20

21

0.1318

0.2115

0.7712

2.0580

Sugar

Sugar

Sugar

Sugar

Sugar

5.

fluids

Oil I

Oil II

Oil III

Oil IV

DISCUSSION

OF RESULTS

by plotting the dimensionless thickness parameter,

T,,, against the Capillary Number, Ca. Fig 3 shows

the range of experimental data obtained in the present work for the fluids listed in Table 2. Figure 4

covers the glycerol/water solutions, Fig. 5 the sugar

solutions and Fig. 6 a range of hydrocarbon oils.

The results of the theoretical treatment presented

here, and the theoretical predictions of White and

Tallmadge[2], and Landau and Levich[l] are also

shown. Figure 7 shows a comparison of these three

theories with earlier experimental results obtained

by van Rossum[6], Gutfinger [7], and Soroka[8].

These data were obtained from continuous belt apparatus similar to that used in the present work, except for the use of a micrometer to measure the

final film thickness.

It is seen that the modified theory agrees very

closely with the experimental data up to a value of

Cu of about 2. For greater values of Ca it is seen

that T,, becomes nearly constant. The same effect

can be observed in the results of Gutfinger[7] and

Soroka[8]. The former, particularly, exhibit considerable scatter. Gutfinger measured the film thickness four times for each speed, while Soroka made

between six and ten measurements depending on

the reproducibility.

Van Rossum, however, meas-

394

-Tallmadge

II

0

Symbol

12

A

I3

l

14

A

I5

0

0.9

9

6-5

I

co

I

e*

t.0

Landau-Levich

0.6

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

Fluid

Symbol0

2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 IO

l q A 4 v v l o o

0.2

395

I

0.9

0.6

3;

0.7

O-6

P

0.5

,I

tz

04

16

17

lcJ.arv.

0.3

18

19

20

21

02

.

0.9t

0.6

C&L!

Q

twenty times for each withdrawal speed, and his results, though very few,

agree will with the present theory at low Capillary

Numbers. It is worthwhile to point out that the present work was attempted initially with a micrometer similar to that of Gutfinger, and Soroka. Using

this technique we experienced many of the difficulties encountered by Gutfinger[7] these being:

(i) the accurate measurement of thin films,

(ii) the inaccuracy caused by the inevitable lateral movements of the belt , and

(iii) the formation of surface waves, particularly

as the speed increased.

The experimental set-up used here reduces these

difficulties considerably, yielding accurate, reproducible data for a wide range of Newtonian liquids.

A similar range of experimental data obtained by

Groenveld[9] also showed a levelling off but at

lower values of Cu. This may be due to the experimental arrangement since a large rotating disc was

used and not a vertical belt. His data are not, therefore, compared with the present theory.

The discrepancy between the theory and experiment at high values of Cu is to be expected since

the assumption of one-dimensional

flow in the

meniscus region is no longer valid, and capillary

statics no longer adequately describe the shape of

the film near to the bath surface. For many problems of industrial interest this limitation is unlikely

to be serious.

6. CONCLUSIONS

The modified

gravity-corrected

withdrawal

theory gives predictions which are significantly

different from previous treatments and accurately

predicts the relationship between TO and Cu for

Newtonian fluids up to a value of Ca of about 2.

The experimental

techniques used in this work

have been shown to be capable of higher accuracy

than those previously used for studies of the withdrawal problem.

3%

NOTATION

Ca

it

ha

L

P

4

R

TO

;

x

Y

gravitational acceleration, m.sec-*

film thickness, m

final constant film thickness, m

dimensionless film thickness, h/ho

pressure, N.m-*

volumetric flow rate/unit belt width,

m.sec-

radius of curvature of free surface, m

dimensionless final film thickness, ho

(PglPW

velocity, m.sec-

belt velocity, m.sec-

co-ordinate direction parallel to belt,

m

co-ordinate direction perpendicular

to belt, m

Greek symbols

by Eq. (22)

limiting numerical constant defined

by Eq. (1%

a small number

small starting value for integration of

Equation (20)

viscosity, N.sec m.-*

density, kg. m.-

surface tension, N.m.-

angular orientation of free surface

stress components, N.m.?

co-ordinate,

dimensionless

x

$ (3 cu)3

transformed

T:)

dimensionless

dimensionless

Differential Equations, Pergamon Press, Oxford

1962.

[I 1] WHITE D. A., Ph.D. Thesis, Yale University 1%5.

APPENDIX

NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF EQ. (20)

As the limiting boundary conditions given by Eq. (26)

for Eq. (20) are not suitable for the numerical integration

of the latter, we choose some position above the bath such

that:

L=l+E

(Al-l)

d2L

-=e

dx

where e is a small parameter. These are the starting values of Landau and Levich[l]. It should also be noted that

an origin is not uniquely defined for Eq. (20) and we are

thus free to choose it such that the boundary conditions

(Al-l) are given at x = 0. We may then let x decrease

through the numerical integration. The Merson version of

the fourth order Runge-Kutta method[lO] was used,

enabling the error at each step and the accumulated error

to be examined as the integration proceeded.

To perform the integration it is necessary to select suitable values of l and Ax,, the initial step length. Values of

l and AX, were therefore varied over a twenty fold range,

keeping Ax,/r constant. Little variation was found in the

final value of a. This is in contrast to the second order

method employed by White and Tallmadge[2], details of

which are given by White [ 111,where extrapolation to zero

step length was required to obtain a. The final values for

e and AX, chosen were:

AX, = 5 x lo-

(Al-2)

6 = 5 x lo-

Because the initial steps of the integration need to be

co-ordinate,

&(l-

initial step length

accurate

( dx

>

condition may, however, be relaxed as the integration proceeds without giving rise to large step errors. The continuous variation, as given by White [ 1l] was used

Ax,+, = 1.01 Axi

REFERENCES

1942 17 41.

I21 WHITE D. A. and TALLMADGE J. A., C&m.

Engng Sci. 1%5 20 33.

131DERYAGIN B. V., Do/d. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 1943

39 11.

[41 GROENVELD P., Chem. Engng Sci. 1970 25 1259.

151WILLIAMSON A. S., J. Fluid Me&. 1972 52 639.

WI VAN ROSSUM J. J., Appl. Scient. Res. 1958 A7 121.

C. and TALLMADGE

J. A.,

171GUTFINGER

A.I.ChE. JI 1965 11 403.

181SOROKA A. J. and TALLMADGE J. A., A.LCh.E.

n 1971 17 505.

[91 GROENVELD P., Chem. Engng Sci. 1970 25 33.

(Al-3)

The use of the variation leads to a considerable reduction in the overall computation time compared to the use

of a fixed step length. It was found that approximately 500

steps were required to achieve a constant second derivative $$

smaller.

The new theory, Eq. (25), may then be evaluated, at

fixed Ca, using polynomial interpolation to find (Y(T~).A

simple search procedure was used in this evaluation as

this avoids

Newton-Raphson

techniques.

to find s

for

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