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ELECTRICAL

CHAPTER 10
ELECTRICAL
GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3
SPECIAL TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3
ELECTRICAL SERVICE NOTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3
UNDER-HOOD COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3

SWITCHES / CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4


HEADLAMP SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4
AWD / REAR DIFFERENTIAL SWITCH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4
DIFFERENTIAL SOLENOID. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4
BRAKE LIGHT SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5
PARKING BRAKE SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5
GEAR INDICATOR LIGHT CIRCUIT OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.6
INDICATOR LAMP REPLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7

HEAD LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7


HIGH BEAM HEADLIGHT ADJUSTMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7
HEADLAMP BULB REPLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.8
HEADLAMP HOUSING REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.8
HEADLAMP HOUSING INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.9

TAIL LIGHT / BRAKE LIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.9


LAMP REPLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.9

POWER DISTRIBUTION MODULE (NON-EFI MODELS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.10


PDM OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.10
PDM BLOCK DIAGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.11

PDM ISOLATION TESTS (NON-EFI MODELS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.11


BATTERY VOLTAGE TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.11
GROUND TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.12
STATIC STATOR TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.12
RUN SIGNAL TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.12
DYNAMIC STATOR TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.12
BATTERY + TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.13
PROTECTED BATTERY + TEST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.13
IGNITION SWITCH TEST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.13
ACCESSORY POWER TEST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.14
PDM TO FAN OUTPUT TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.14
FAN MOTOR TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.14
STATIC THERMISTOR TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.15
DYNAMIC THERMISTOR TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.15
HOT LAMP TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.15
DIFFERENTIAL SOLENOID TEST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.16
AWD OUT TEST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.16
AWD / TURF SWITCH TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.16
DIFFERENTIAL OUT TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.17
DIFFERENTIAL GROUND TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.17
ACS OUT TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.17

10

POWER DISTRIBUTION MODULE (EFI MODELS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.18


PDM OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.18
PDM FUNCTION OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.19
PDM BLOCK DIAGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.20

TIMING CHECK PROCEDURE (NON-EFI MODELS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.21

10.1

ELECTRICAL
COOLING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.22
NON-EFI COOLING SYSTEM BREAK-OUT DIAGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.22
EFI COOLING SYSTEM BREAK-OUT DIAGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.23
FAN CONTROL CIRCUIT OPERATION / TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.24

DC / CDI IGNITION SYSTEM (NON-EFI MODELS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.25


DC / CDI IGNITION SYSTEM OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.25
IGNITION SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.25
CRANKING OUTPUT TESTS USING PEAK READING ADAPTOR OR VOM . . . . . . 10.26
RESISTANCE TESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.26
FLYWHEEL IDENTIFICATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.26
IGNITION SYSTEM TESTING FLOW CHART. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.27
COMPONENTS OF DC / CDI IGNITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.28

EFI DIAGNOSTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.29


CHARGING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.29
CURRENT DRAW - KEY OFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.29
CHARGING SYSTEM BREAK EVEN TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.29
CHARGING SYSTEM ALTERNATOR TESTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.30
CHARGING SYSTEM TESTING FLOW CHART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.31

BATTERY TERMINAL BLOCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.32


BATTERY SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.32
BATTERY TERMINALS / BOLTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.32
BATTERY IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.32

CONVENTIONAL BATTERY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.33


BATTERY ACTIVATION / INSPECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.33
BATTERY REMOVAL / INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.34
CONVENTIONAL BATTERY TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.34
OCV - OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE TEST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.34
SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.34
LOAD TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.35
OFF SEASON STORAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.35
CHARGING PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.35

LOW MAINTENANCE BATTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.36


BATTERY CHECK / INSPECTION / REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.36
BATTERY INSTALLATION / TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.37
OCV - OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE TEST / LOAD TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.37
OFF-SEASON STORAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.38
BATTERY CHARGING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.38

STARTER SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.39


TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.39
VOLTAGE DROP TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.39
STARTER MOTOR DISASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.39
BRUSH INSPECTION / REPLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.40
ARMATURE TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.40
STARTER REASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.41
STARTER DRIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.41
STARTER SYSTEM TEST FLOW CHART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.42

ELECTRIC BOX LIFT ACTUATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.44


DIAGNOSIS (IF EQUIPPED) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.44

ELECTRICAL BREAKOUT DIAGRAMS (EFI MODELS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.45


STARTING CIRCUIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.45
KEY-ON POWER CIRCUIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.45
TRANSMISSION SWITCH CIRCUIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.46
DIFFERENTIAL SOLENOID CIRCUIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.46
CHARGING SYSTEM CIRCUIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.47
COOLING FAN CIRCUIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.47
AWD CIRCUIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.48

10.2

ELECTRICAL
GENERAL INFORMATION

When measuring resistance of a component that has a


resistance value under 10 Ohms, remember to subtract
meter lead resistance from the reading. Connect the
leads together and record the resistance. The resistance
of the component is equal to tested value minus the lead
resistance.

Special Tools
Part Number

Tool Description

PV-43568

Fluke77 Digital Multimeter

2870630

Timing Light

2870836

Battery Hydrometer

2460761

Hall Sensor Probe Harness

2871745

Static Timing Light Harness

Become familiar with the operation of your meter. Be


sure leads are in the proper jack for the test being
performed (i.e. 10A jack for current readings). Refer to
the Owners manual included with your meter for more
information.

PU-47063

Digital Wrench Diagnostic Software

PU-47471

Digital Wrench SmartLink Module Kit

Voltage, amperage, and resistance values included in


this manual are obtained with a Fluke 77 Digital
Multimeter (PV-43568). This meter is used for when
diagnosing electrical problems. Readings obtained with
other meters may differ.

Electrical Service Notes

Pay attention to the prefix on the multimeter reading (K,


M, etc.) and the position of the decimal point.

Keep the following notes in mind when diagnosing an electrical


problem.

For resistance readings, isolate the component to be


tested. Disconnect it from the wiring harness or power
supply.

Refer to wiring diagram for stator and electrical


component resistance specifications.

Under-Hood Components

A
B
G

10
A. Power Distribution Module (PDM)
B. Starter Solenoid

E
D

C. Terminal Block
D. Positive Battery Cable

E. Negative Battery Cable


F. Battery
G. Starter Motor Positive Lead

10.3

ELECTRICAL
SWITCHES / CONTROLS
Headlamp Switch
1.

Lift the front hood.

2.

The wires are located on the back side of the instrument


panel.

3.

Disconnect the headlamp switch harness (Brown, Green,


and Yellow), by depressing the connector lock and pulling
on the connector. Do not pull on the wiring.

4.

Test the switch connections and check for continuity at the


following pins as shown in the illustration.

4.

Test the switch connections and check for continuity at the


following pins shown in the illustration.
AWD / REAR DIFFERENTIAL SWITCH

HEADLAMP SWITCH

BACK VIEW OF SWITCH


(INTERNAL CONNECTIONS)

Differential Solenoid

BACK VIEW OF SWITCH


(INTERNAL CONNECTIONS)

The differential solenoid is located on the rear gear case. The


solenoid actuates the carrier, which locks and unlocks the rear
carrier. (Refer to Chapter 7 for more information on rear carrier
operation.)
Solenoid

AWD / Rear Differential Switch


1.

Lift the front hood.

2.

The wires are located on the back side of the instrument


panel.

3.

Disconnect the switch harness (Grey, Orange/White,


Brown, White/Green), by depressing the connector lock
and pulling on the connector. Do not pull on the wiring.
The rear differential controller is located within the Power
Distribution Module (PDM) that is located under the hood.

10.4

ELECTRICAL
Differential Solenoid Circuit Operation

CAUTION

Power is present at the AWD / Diff-Lock Switch when the


ignition key is turned ON.

Do not power the solenoid with 12 Volts for more


than 1 second, or damage may occur
to the solenoid.

When the switch is pushed to activate Turf mode, power is


sent to the PDM.
The voltage input from the AWD / Diff-Lock Switch signals the
PDM to provide a ground path for the differential solenoid to
activate.

Brake Light Switch


1.

Rear Differential Solenoid Circuit

The brake light switch is located near the steering gearbox


along the frame. The brake pressure switch is installed into
this block.

AWD / Diff-Lock
Switch

Brake Switch
Key-On
Power

PDM

PDM Connector

2.

Disconnect wire harness from switch.

3.

Connect an ohmmeter across switch contacts. Reading


should be infinite ().

4.

Apply foot brake and check for continuity between switch


contacts. If there is no continuity or greater than .5 ohms
resistance when the brake is applied with slight pressure,
first clean the switch contacts and re-test. Replace switch
if necessary.

Parking Brake Switch


If the rear carrier fails to switch from operational modes:
Check the connector located under the left rear fender.
Look for loose wires or bad connections.

The parking brake switch is located under the dash or under the
hood. Follow the parking brake lever under the dash to locate
the switch.
Parking Brake Switch

10

Check for power from the connector, to ensure the


solenoid has power to be activated.
Check the operators switch wires for loose
connections.
Remove solenoid from carrier and ensure the solenoid
plunger is actuating.

10.5

ELECTRICAL
The switch remains in the open position when the park brake
lever is not applied.

3.

Apply the parking brake. There should be continuity


between the switch terminals. If no continuity exists when
the park brake is applied, try to clean the switch terminals
and re-test. Replace switch if necessary.
Indicator
Panel

Parking Brake
Switch

Parking Brake
Not Applied
BN
The switch makes contact when the park brake is applied and
provides a ground path to illuminate the Park Brake Light in
the indicator panel.

OG/RD

Gear Indicator Light Circuit Operation


The transmission switch provides the ground path for the
indicator panel lamps located on the dashboard. For example,
when neutral is selected, the DG / WH wire is connected to
ground through the switch and the neutral lamp is illuminated.

Ground

Parking Brake
Applied
TESTING PARK BRAKE SWITCH
1.

Disconnect the Orange/Red wire and Brown wire from the


switch.

Key-On Power

2.

Place the ohmmeter leads onto terminals A and C. The


reading should be infinite ().

Overheat Input

BN

OG/RD

Parking Brake Input

If the light does not illuminate when neutral is selected, check


the bulb. If the bulb is good, check the wiring, transmission
switch, and lamp socket source voltage. Perform the same test
for all four gear indicators. Refer to the wire diagram for wire
colors.
Brake

Indicator Panel

Temperature

10.6

Reverse

Neutral

Low

High

ELECTRICAL
Indicator Lamp Replacement

HEAD LIGHTS

1.

Lift the hood.

High Beam Headlight Adjustment

2.

Reach in behind the console panel and lift on the release to


unplug the light from the harness.

The headlight beam is adjustable.

3.

Using a small flathead screwdriver, press on the tab on top


of the light to remove the indicator panel from the console.

4.

To remove defective lamp: Use a small screwdriver and


turn lamp holder a quarter turn, pull the bulb assembly out
with a needle nose pliers or equivalent. Replace with a new
bulb.

1.

Place the vehicle on a level surface with the headlight


approximately 25 ft. (7.6 m) from a wall.

25 ft.
(7.6 m)

8 in. (20 cm)

Rear View of Indicator Panel

1/4 Turn To Remove

2.

Measure the distance from the floor to the center of the


headlight and make a mark on the wall at the same height.

3.

With the machine in Neutral and park brake applied, start


the engine and turn the headlight switch to high beam.

4.

The most intense part of the headlight beam should be


aimed 8 in. (20 cm) below the mark placed on the wall in
Step 2.

Replacement Bulbs
PN 4010416

NOTE: Rider weight must be included in the seat


while performing this procedure.
5.

Reverse the disassembly procedure to reinstall the indicator


panel.

5.

Adjust the beam to the desired position by loosening the


adjustment screw (A) and moving the lamp to the
appropriate height.

10

10.7

ELECTRICAL
6.

Adjust the beam to desired position. Repeat the procedure


to adjust the other headlight.

WARNING
Due to the nature of light utility vehicles and
where they are operated, headlight lenses
become dirty. Frequent washing is necessary to
maintain lighting quality. Riding with poor
lighting can result in severe injury or death.

Headlamp Housing Removal


1.

Open the hood.

2.

Unplug the headlamp from the wiring harness. Be sure to


pull on the connector, not on the wiring.

3.

Remove the O-ring (A) from the headlamp brackets (both


sides)

Headlamp Bulb Replacement


1.

Open the hood.

2.

Unplug the headlamp bulb (A) from the wiring harness. Be


sure to pull on the connector, not on the wiring.

3.

Turn the lamp counterclockwise to remove it.

4.

4.

Insert new bulb. Reinstall the harness assembly into the


headlight assembly.

NOTE: Make sure the tab on the lamp locates


properly in the housing.

10.8

After the O-rings are removed from the headlamp, Remove


the adjustment screw (B) and pull the headlamp from the
brackets.

ELECTRICAL
Headlamp Housing Installation

TAIL LIGHT / BRAKE LIGHT

1.

To install the headlamp housing, press the headlamp tabs


back into the brackets.

Lamp Replacement

2.

Secure the headlamp housing with the rubber O-rings on


each side (A). Install the adjustment screw (B).

Before replacing the tail light, use a digital multi-meter to test


the harness to ensure the lamp is receiving 12 volts and that a
ground path is present.

If the tail light / brake light does not work the lamp assembly
may need to be replaced.
1.

3.

Reconnect wire harness or re-insert bulb if previously


removed.

4.

Adjust headlights using the High Beam Headlight


Adjustment procedure on the previous page.

From the rear of the tail light remove two screws holding
lens cover in place and remove lens cover. (T-20 Torx)

Tail Light Screws

2.

Remove lamp by turning the rubber base 1/4 turn and


pulling the bulb out. Replace it with recommended lamp.
Apply Dielectric Grease (PN 2871329).

Tail Light
RD and BN

Brake Light
OG and RD

Replacement Bulbs
PN 4030040

3.

Reinstall the lens cover removed in Step 1.

4.

Test the tail light / brake light to see it is working.

10.9

10

ELECTRICAL
POWER DISTRIBUTION MODULE (NON-EFI MODELS)
PDM Operation

10.10

ELECTRICAL
PDM Block Diagram

PDM ISOLATION TESTS (NON-EFI MODELS)


Battery Voltage Test
Battery Voltage Test
Test Procedure

Check DC volts across positive and negative battery terminals. Voltage should be above 12 VDC.

What does passing


If battery voltage is at or above 12 VDC, the battery and charging system are likely OK.
this test indicate?
What does failing If battery voltage is below 12 VDC, the battery and charging system may be suspect. The battery must
this test indicate? be charged and load tested.

10.11

10

ELECTRICAL
Ground Test
GROUND Test
Test Procedure

The PDM uses pin N for a ground wire; it connects to the PDM through connector SSCB # 1. Check for
continuity between the brown wire at SSCB # 1 and the terminal block ground post. There should be
continuity to ground on the wire to pass.

What does passing


Wire harness and connections are acceptable.
this test indicate?
What does failing
Wire harness and/or connections are suspect.
this test indicate?

Static Stator Test


Static Stator Test
Test Procedure

Disconnect the stator wire harness connector from the PDM. Measure resistance () between each of the
three yellow leads, for example: Y1 to Y2, Y1 to Y3, Y2 to Y3. Resistances should be 0.43 20%
with no continuity to ground to pass this test.

What does passing


Passing these tests indicates the stator is operating normally.
this test indicate?
What does failing
If resistance values are not near equal on all three legs, there is likely a broken or shorted leg in the stator.
this test indicate?

Run Signal Test


RUN Signal Test

Test Procedure

The ignition switch must be turned to "ON" before completing this test. Disconnect PDM connector SSCB
# 2. Using a multimeter, check for continuity between the orange wire leaving this connector and the red/
white wire returning to this PDM connector; there should be continuity to pass this test. There should be
no continuity to ground to pass this test.

What does passing The RUN Signal wires, harness and connections are functioning normally. Problem likely exists in PDM
this test indicate? or Main PDM connection.
What does failing
There may be a problem with the wire harness, switches, connections or splice block.
this test indicate?

Dynamic Stator Test


Dynamic Stator Test

Test Procedure

Place the unit in Park and start the unit. Disconnect the stator connection and measure the AC Voltage
from each stator leg. Separately test each leg of the stator by connection the meter leads to the wires
leading from the stator (Y to Y/R, Y to Y/B, Y/R to Y/B). AC voltage output should be 17 VAC 25%
@ 1300 RPM, 40 VAC 25% @ 3000 RPM, and 65 VAC 25% @ 5000 RPM.

What does passing Passing this test indicates the stator is sufficiently supplying AC voltage to the PDM. If a charging system
this test indicate? problem exists, the cause may be the PDM, wire harness, battery, or fusible link.
What does failing Failing this test indicates there is a problem with one or more of the stator legs not providing sufficient
this test indicate? AC Voltage to the PDM. If a charging system problem exists, the stator or flywheel is likely the cause.

10.12

ELECTRICAL
Battery + Test
BAT + Test

Test Procedure

1: Complete the Battery Voltage and GROUND Tests; note your results. Disconnect PDM connector
SSCB # 1 and check for DC Volts on the red wire entering pin H at the PDM. The voltage should be at
or near Battery Voltage.
2: Check the resistance of the red wire between the battery and PDM connector SSCB # 1. There should
be no open leads or shorts to ground.

What does passing


Wiring harness, connections and fusible link between the PDM and the battery are good.
this test indicate?
A: There may be a wire in the main harness that is broken or shorted to ground.
What does failing
B: There may be a damaged fusible link.
this test indicate?
C: There may be a bad wire connection at the starter solenoid.

Protected Battery + Test


PROTECTED BAT + Test

Test Procedure

The ignition switch must be turned to the "ON" position before completing this test.
1. Complete the BAT + Test and note your results.
2. An Orange wire exits the PDM on pin M in SSCB #2. Check for DC Volts on this Orange wire at the
ignition switch; the voltage should be at or near BAT + voltage to pass.

What does passing 1: The PDM is supplying the correct amount of protected battery voltage to the orange wire.
this test indicate? 2: The wiring harness and connections are good.
1: The PDM may not be receiving a RUN signal from splice block 1 on Pin B on SSCB #2.
What does failing
2: If voltage at the orange wire entering the ignition switch differs significantly from BAT + voltage, there
this test indicate?
may be a problem in the wiring harness or PDM.

Ignition Switch Test


Ignition Switch Test
Test Procedure

The ignition switch must be turned to the "ON" position before completing this test.
1. Check for DC voltage on the red/white wires leaving the ignition switch; the voltage should be at or
near PROTECTED BAT + voltage to pass.

What does passing


The ignition switch is good.
this test indicate?
What does failing If voltage at the red/white wires is significantly different from the orange wire, the problem is most likely
this test indicate? in the ignition switch.

10.13

10

ELECTRICAL
Accessory Power Test
ACCESORY POWER Test

Test Procedure

The ignition switch must be turned to the "ON" position before completing this test. Measure DC volts
at the orange/white accessory terminal post leading from pin J on the PDM SSCB #1 connector.
Measurement should be at or near Battery voltage when RUN Signal is present at PDM (Ignition Switch
in the "ON" position). RUN Signal can be removed from the PDM by turning the Ignition Switch "OFF",
damaged wiring, or a faulty PDM.

What does passing


Passing this test indicates the accessory lead, wire harness, connections, PDM, and RUN Signal are good.
this test indicate?
Failing this test indicates there is a problem with the wire harness, connections, RUN Signal, battery, or
What does failing
PDM. If Voltage is not present on the accessory lead, check wiring, connections, and battery before
this test indicate?
proceeding to RUN Signal Test.

PDM to Fan Output Test


PDM to FAN Output Test

Test Procedure

This test should be conducted with the vehicle Parking brake set and the Vehicle in Neutral with the engine
running. The PDM supplies power to the fan motor via pin K on SSCB # 1. To test the PDM for FAN
output, unplug the thermistor at the connector near the left side of the engine cylinder head. Measure the
DC voltage on the orange/black wire at the fan connector. Voltage should be at or near battery voltage.

What does passing


A constant fan voltage of near battery voltage indicates that the fan output is correct.
this test indicate?
Fan voltage less than battery voltage indicates a problem with the fan output circuit of the PDM. If the
What does failing
fan output is 12 VDC for a few seconds then falls to zero, this means that the PDM is going into a safe
this test indicate?
mode because the PDM has detected a no load condition. Proceed to Fan Motor Test.

Fan Motor Test


Fan Motor Test

Test Procedure

Disconnect the fan connector. Verify the fan is free to rotate before proceeding. Connect a DC ammeter
in-line with the orange/black wire. Ground the brown wire leaving the fan motor connector. Unplug the
thermistor at the left side of the engine cylinder head. With the vehicle parking brake set and the vehicle
in Neutral, start the engine. The cooling fan should start running. The ammeter should show a constant
current draw of 8.8 A or less.

What does passing A current measurement of 8.8 A or less indicates the fan motor is in good condition and is operating
this test indicate? properly.
A current draw of 0 A (the fan is not spinning) indicates that the fan motor is inoperative or it is not
receiving voltage from the PDM. If PDM to FAN Output Test has already been passed, replace the fan
What does failing
motor; if not, proceed to the PDM to FAN Output Test after checking the fan for obstructions. Current
this test indicate?
draw greater than 8.8 A indicates that the fan motor should be replaced, but only after checking the fan
for obstructions.

10.14

ELECTRICAL
Static Thermistor Test
Static Thermistor Test
Test Procedure

This test should be conducted with the engine near room temperature. Measure the resistance between
the two yellow/black wires on Pins E and F of SSCB #1 . The thermistor resistance should be 2200-2700
ohms when the engine is at room temperature.

What does passing A resistance between 2200-2700 ohms indicates the thermistor is functioning normally and the connection
this test indicate? with the thermistor is in good condition.
If an open or short circuit is found, this test should be repeated between the two yellow/black wires at the
What does failing thermistor connector leading directly into the thermistor. An open or short here means there is a problem
this test indicate? inside the thermistor and it must be replaced. If no short or open is found here, the problem is in the yellow/
black wires between the PDM and thermistor.

Dynamic Thermistor Test


Dynamic Thermistor Test

Test Procedure

To perform this test, the thermistor will need to be removed from the unit. Place an appropriate container
on a hot plate, add enough water to the container to submerge a thermistor; begin to apply heat. Place the
thermistor and a thermometer in the water. As the water heats, measure the thermistor resistance. To pass
this test, resistance should be 622 - 760 at 131o F (55o C), 339 - 414 at 167o F (75o C), and 196
- 240 at 203o F (95o C).

What does passing


Thermistor resistance within specification at each temperature indicates normal operation.
this test indicate?
What does failing If the thermistor resistance is is significantly out of specification at any of the above temperatures, it should
this test indicate? be replaced.

Hot Lamp Test


HOT LAMP Test
Test Procedure

With the ignition switch on and the thermistor and indicator panel unplugged, Check for continuity from
the Blue/white wire at the indicator panel to ground. There should be continuity to ground to pass this test.

The PDM is properly providing a ground path for the HOT LAMP. If the unit passes the test and the HOT
What does passing
LAMP will not illuminate with the indicator panel and PDM plugged in, and the thermistor unplugged,
this test indicate?
inspect the hot lamp bulb and indicator panel, and indicator power source.
If there is no continuity to ground, you may not be testing to a known good ground. There may be damage
What does failing to the blue/white wire or connections between the indicator panel and PDM. It is also possible that the
this test indicate? PDM may not be providing a proper ground path. Replace the PDM only after verifying a good ground
path, wiring harness, and connections.

10.15

10

ELECTRICAL
Differential Solenoid Test
Differential Solenoid Test

Test Procedure

Using a known good 12V power source, connect directly to the Differential Solenoid at the harness
connection located near the left hand frame rail. Connect battery positive to the solenoid side of the
harness on the Orange/Red and Battery negative on the Blue wire. Audible operation of the solenoid
should be noted. Caution: DO NOT POWER THE SOLENOID WITH 12V FOR MORE THAN 1
SECOND OR DAMAGE TO THE SOLENOID MAY OCCUR.

What does passing


Passing this test indicates the solenoid is operating correctly.
this test indicate?
What does failing If there is no audible operation coming from the differential solenoid inspect wire harness leading up to
this test indicate? solenoid. If all connections are good, replace the solenoid.

AWD Out Test


AWD OUT Test
Test Procedure

With the ignition and AWD switches in the "on" position. Disconnect the connector going to the AWD
hub coil. Use a Digital Multimeter to check for power on the harness side of the connector on the Gray
wire. Your reading should be at or near battery voltage.

What does passing


Passing this test indicates the PDM and AWD switch are operating correctly.
this test indicate?
What does failing
Failing this test indicates there may be a problem with the AWD switch, wire harness or PDM.
this test indicate?

AWD / Turf Switch Test


AWD / Turf Switch Test

Test Procedure

The following tests must be performed with the Ignition switch in the ON position.
1. Verify switch is properly lighting. There will be one small light at the bottom of the switch illuminated
at all times. A larger light will illuminate when the switch is placed in AWD.
2. Place the switch is in the lowest or "Turf" mode position. Using a Digital Multimeter, verify the white/
green wire leaving the switch is at or near battery voltage. With the switch in the top or AWD position,
verify the gray wire leaving the switch is at or near battery voltage.

What does passing 1. Passing this test indicates there is a power source to the AWD/Turf Switch.
this test indicate? 2. Passing both of these tests indicates the switch is functioning normally.
1. Failing this test indicates they may be a problem with the power source to the switch; verify the wire
What does failing harness. If there is power at the switch and no illumination replace the switch.
this test indicate? 2. Failing either of these tests indicates the switch is not operating normally. If test 1 has been completed
and passed, replace the switch.

10.16

ELECTRICAL
Differential Out Test
Diff OUT Test
Test Procedure

The following test must be performed with the key switch in the "on" position. Disconnect the solenoid
from the harness. Using a Digital Mutimeter check for DC power on the orange/white wire on the harness
side of the connector. The measurement should be at or near battery voltage.

What does passing


Passing this test indicates the PDM is supplying the solenoid with a voltage.
this test indicate?
What does failing Failing this test indicates the PDM is not supplying the solenoid with a voltage. Proceed to the Protected
this test indicate? Bat + Test

Differential Ground Test


Diff GROUND Test

Test Procedure

Perform the following test with the Ignition switch ON and AWD/Turf Mode switch in the on or lowest
position. Unplug the harness leading to the differential solenoid. Using a Digital Multimeter check the
resistance to ground at the Blue wire on the harness side of the connection. The reading will be
approximately 5.5k. With the Ignition switch in the off position or the AWD/Turf switch in center or
upper positions the resistance reading will be approximately 15.5k.

What does passing


Passing this test indicates the PDM and AWD/Turf Mode switch are operating normally.
this test indicate?
What does failing
Failing this test indicates the AWD/Turf Mode switch, wire harness, or PDM may be suspect.
this test indicate?

ACS Out Test


ACS OUT

Test Procedure

Using Digital Multimeter check for DCV on the pink wire at the back of the hour meter. Immediately after
the Ignition switch is turned to the on position (Engine off) a reading of at or near battery voltage will be
present for 5 seconds. After 5 seconds the reading will drop to 0 DCV. A reading of at or near battery
voltage will be present on the pink wire at all times when AC signal is present at the PDM from the stator
(Engine running).

What does passing


Passing this test indicates the PDM is correctly providing power to the circuit.
this test indicate?
What does failing
Failing this test indicates the PDM, stator, or harness may be suspect.
this test indicate?

10

10.17

ELECTRICAL
POWER DISTRIBUTION MODULE (EFI MODELS)
PDM Operation

Solid State Circuit Breaker (SSCB #1)


Pin Signal Name

BAT +

Description
Used to carry DC current to and from
the battery and PDM. DC output from
the PDM is used to charge the battery.
DC input to the PDM is used for power
distribution.

ACCESSORY 12 DCV output signal that provides


POWER
power to the accessory circuit.

FAN

DIFF OUT

Provides DCV to the differential


solenoid.

DIFF
GROUND

Provides a ground path for the


differential solenoid.

GROUND

Battery negative - Used to ground the


PDM.

12 DCV output that powers the fan.

ECU RELAY Powers the ECU relay output

Solid State Circuit Breaker (SSCB #2)


Pin Signal Name

Solid State Circuit Breaker (SSCB #1)


Pin Signal Name
C

Description

Description

COIL 1

AC input from stator coil winding 1.

RUN

12 DCV input signal to the PDM when


the ignition switch is in the ON
position.

FUEL
ENABLE

Fuel pump control input from PDM to


ECU.

FUEL PUMP

Power output to fuel pump and hour


meter.

COIL 2

AC input from stator coil winding 2.

BRAKE
SWITCH

Input Signal from Parking Brake /


Disables differential solenoid.

COIL 3

AC input from stator coil winding 3.

AWD

DIFF IN

Voltage input from the AWD Switch


that signals the PDM to provide a
ground path for the differential
solenoid.

Provides DCV to the hub coil. Voltage


is activated by the AWD switch. Power
is connected internally to pin J2-L.

HUB COIL +

Provides a positive connection to the


hub coil.

HUB COIL -

Provides a negative connection to the


hub coil.

FAN ON

Relay control input to enable operation


of the fan (from thermistor switch).

EFI

Relay control to enable the operation of


the Ignition and ECU outputs.

N
P

10.18

BATTERY 12 DCV protected battery output used


PROTECTION for supplying voltage to the key switch.
IGNITION

Powers the ignition output.

ELECTRICAL
PDM Function Overview

Ignition Relay Output

Functional Description
The Polaris PDM integrates many electronic features designed
for Polaris RANGERs. These features include the rectifier /
regulator, battery protected output, accessory power output,
ignition relay output, fan relay controller, ECU relay output, fuel
pump drive, differential solenoid drive, hub safety interlock,
and a starter diode.

The IGNITION relay uses a smart high-side power switch. The


IGNITION relay output is enabled when the RUN input is
activated and disabled when its removed. If the maximum
output current threshold is exceeded, the output current will be
reduced until the devise thermally shuts down. It will
automatically turn back on when it has cooled, based on thermal
recovery. Repeated cycles will cause the short-circuit limit to
turn off repeatedly until the overload has been removed.

Rectifier / Regulator

Accessory Power

The rectifier converts the 3-phase AC stator input from coils 1,


2, and 3 into DC voltage, which charges the battery and/or
supplies current to the PDM loads. The regulator monitors the
battery voltage and shuts off the rectifier when full--charge
exists on the battery. SCRs are used to connect and disconnect
the alternator from the battery to achieve regulation of the
battery voltage. The regulator shuts off current on the BAT+ pin
if the battery exceeds the over--voltage threshold. A high
voltage transient will cause the regulator to turn off for a short
period of time. If there truly is an open battery condition then the
regulator will remain off, as the minimum battery requirement
will not be met. The regulator will not turn on unless there exists
battery voltage in excess of the minimum battery voltage
requirement. Therefore, do not attempt to charge dead batteries
using the vehicles charging system.
Battery Protected Output
The battery protected output provides a Solid State Circuit
Breaker (SSCB) output and enables most of the functions on the
PDM. The output must be routed only to the vehicle key/run
switch for proper power up sequence. Battery protection is
enabled when the key switch connects the battery protection
output to loads (must include RUN input). This causes the
micro-controller to power-up and energize battery protection.
When RUN input goes high, the micro-controller will remain
ON until RUN input goes low by disconnection of the battery
protection via the key switch. The battery protection output is
protected from overloads and short circuits. If this occurs, the
output turns off. Once tripped, the SSCBs can be reset by
removing the overload or cycling the key switch. The SSCB will
trip again if the issue causing the overload is not removed.
ECU Relay Output

The ACCESSORY POWER switch uses a smart high-side


power switch. The output is enabled when the RUN input is
activated and disabled when its removed. If the output current
exceeds the short-circuit limit, the output current will be
reduced until the devise thermally shuts down. It will
automatically turn back on when it has cooled, based on thermal
recovery. Repeated cycles will cause the short-circuit limit to
turn off repeatedly until the overload has been removed.
Fan Relay Controller
The FAN relay is a smart high-side power switch. The FAN
controller requires the RUN input to be active and then is
enabled by the FAN ON signal. The FAN output current is
monitored by the micro-controller. If the over-current limit is
exceeded for the amount of delay time programmed, the output
will shut off. If the maximum current limit is exceeded, the
current will shut off immediately. The micro-controller disables
the FAN output for a pre--programmed amount of time, then
resets the FAN switch. This will continue until the issue causing
the fault has been removed. When the FAN relay is off, the
micro-controller also monitors the output to see if the fan has
been disconnected.
Fuel Pump Relay
The fuel pump circuit provides a FUEL ENABLE smart highside power switch output. The FUEL_PUMP output is enabled
when RUN is activated and FUEL_ENABLE is low. If the
maximum output current threshold is exceeded, the output
current will be reduced until the device thermally shuts down. It
will automatically turn back on when it has cooled, based on
thermal recovery. Repeated cycles will cause the short-circuit
limit to turn off repeatedly until the overload has been removed.

The ECU RELAY is a smart high-side power switch. The ECU


RELAY output is enabled when the RUN input is activated and
EFI input is low. Once enabled, the output will remain enabled
until the EFI input goes high. If the maximum ECU output
current threshold is exceeded, the output current will be reduced
until the devise thermally shuts down. It will automatically turn
back on when it has cooled.

10.19

10

ELECTRICAL
Differential Solenoid
The differential solenoid driver provides a current-regulated
low-side drive for the solenoid coil. The low side driver sinks
current from the inductive load that is sourced internally via the
ACCESSORY POWER output. To activate the solenoid driver,
the DIFF IN input and the BRAKE SWITCH must be high.
Once enabled, the driver provides an initial pull-in current for
a pre-determined time and then lowers to a hold current until
the DIFF IN input or the BRAKE SWITCH goes low. The
positive side of the differential solenoid is current limited via
ACCESSORY POWER. The solenoid driver provides shut
down to shorts to battery.

Hub Coil Drive


The hub safety interlock control (HSI) prevents the HUB COIL
- output from activating if the stator coil input frequency is too
high. Once the frequency is below the set limit, the HUB COIL
- output is allowed to sink current. Once the hub coil is activated
it will remain engaged until current is removed from HUB COIL
+. Engine speed is measured via the stator coil input frequency.
This provides the coil with short circuit, overload and reverse
polarity protection. AWD terminal is available for the high-side
power input to the hub coil. The hub coil must be connected
between the HUB COIL + and HUB COIL -. The hub coil drive
circuit provides no current limit or short circuit protection
Reverse Polarity Protection
The reverse polarity protection circuit is in series with the
battery positive input of the PDM. When the battery terminals
are connected in reverse, the protection switch is forced off,
interrupting any current flow other than bias current.

PDM Block Diagram

10.20

ELECTRICAL
TIMING CHECK PROCEDURE
(NON-EFI MODELS)
1.

Stator Adjustment

The ignition timing check hole is in the starter recoil/


magneto housing. Remove the check plug.

NOTE: The ignition timing marks are stamped on the


outside of the flywheel. Ignition timing must be
inspected with the engine at room temperature (68 F
/ 20 C).
2.

With the transmission in neutral, start the engine and set


engine speed to 5000 200 RPM.

3.

Direct the timing light at the ignition timing check hole and
check the ignition timing. NOTE: Do not allow the engine
to warm up. The timing will retard approximately 2 when
the engine is warm.

If the ignition timing is not within the specified range, adjust the
stator plate position as described in Stator Adjustment.
Timing
Inspection
Hole

Flywheel
Rotation

1.
2.
3.

Remove the magneto housing.


Remove the flywheel.
Loosen the stator plate screws and adjust the stator plate
position.
NOTE: Moving the stator plate clockwise retards
(delays) the ignition timing. Moving the plate
counterclockwise advances it.

Rotation

Retard

Advance

TYPICAL IGNITION TIMING CURVE - ACTUAL ADVANCE POINT


MAY VARY BY SEVERAL HUNDRED RPM ABOVE OR BELOW 5000.
USE THE POINT OF MAXIMUM ADVANCE WHEN CHECKING IGNITION TIMING.

32

10

Timing
Pointer
30
28
EH50PL

30o

BTDC @ 5000 RPM

Ignition Timing
30 2 BTDC@5000 RPM

10.21

ELECTRICAL
COOLING SYSTEM
Non-EFI Cooling System Break-Out Diagram
PDM

Overheat Indicator
Output

Thermister
Input

Fan 12 V
Output

SSCB#1

SSCB#2

Key-On
12 V Power

RD / WH

10.22

ELECTRICAL
EFI Cooling System Break-Out Diagram
Key-On
12 V Power

RD / WH

10
PDM

10.23

ELECTRICAL
Fan Control Circuit Operation / Testing
(Non-EFI Models)
The cooling fan is controlled through the Power Distribution
Module and thermistor. Perform the tests in the next two
sections if you are experiencing problems with the cooling fan
operation.

Coolant Temperature Sensor Test


(Non-EFI Models)
Thermistor Test

Fan Control Circuit Bypass Test


(Non-EFI Models)
1.

Disconnect harness from the coolant temperature sensor


(thermistor) on the engine.

2.

With the vehicle in neutral and the parking brake applied,


turn the ignition key on. The fan should start running.

3.

If the fan does not run or runs slowly, check the fan motor
wiring, connections, ground path, 12V power input, and fan
motor condition. (Refer to Fan Motor Current Draw in
the next section of this chapter) Repair or replace as
necessary. If the fan runs with the sensor harness
disconnected, but will not turn on when the engine is hot,
verify the coolant level is correct and check the coolant
temperature sensor and connector terminals

Fan Control Circuit Bypass Test


(EFI Models)
1.

Disconnect harness from the coolant temperature sensor


(thermistor) on the engine.

2.

With the vehicle in neutral and the parking brake applied,


start the vehicle. While the engine is running you should
here the cooling fan turn on and remain running.

3.

If the fan does not run or runs slowly, check the fan motor
wiring, connections, ground path, 12V power input, and fan
motor condition. (Refer to Fan Motor Current Draw in
the next section of this chapter) Repair or replace as
necessary. If the fan runs while the ening is running with
the sensor harness disconnected, but will not turn on when
the engine is hot, verify the coolant level is correct and
check the coolant temperature sensor and connector
terminals.

10.24

If the thermistor circuit is open the engine hot light and fan will
both come on. With engine cold, disconnect lead and measure
resistance of sensor between the two Yellow/Black connector
terminals. There should be no continuity or very high resistance
(see chart below).
Situation

Ohms
Reading

Diagnosis / Action

Hot light ON
& Fan ON

Above 50k

Open Thermistor / Replace


Thermistor

Hot light ON

Below 185

Engine Overheat or Bad


Thermistor

THERMISTOR READING DURING OPERATION


Approx. Reading
(Ohms)

Temperature

Hot Light On

185 3%

215 F (102 C)

Fan On (Temp +

245 3%

195 F (91 C)

Fan Off (Temp -)

307 3%

180 F (82 C)

Room Temperature

2000 3%

77 F (25 C)

Condition

ELECTRICAL
DC / CDI IGNITION SYSTEM (NON-EFI MODELS)
DC / CDI Ignition System Overview

Operation Overview:

This engine uses a DC / CDI ignition system.

The DC / CDI system relies on battery power for ignition.


Instead of generating DC voltage via magnetic induction, a 12
volt DC current is supplied directly to the CDI unit from the
battery.

Some of the advantages of DC ignition are:


Stronger, more consistent spark at low rpm for better
performance
Easier starts
Simpler component design for ease of trouble shooting
and maintenance

At the CDI, 12 volt DC current charges an internal capacitor to


build up the initial ignition charge. A small A/C signal from the
Trigger (Pulse) coil closes a thyristor (located in the CDI) at a
point pre-determined in the crankshaft rotation by magnets on
the flywheels outer diameter. This signal releases the electrical
charge which saturates the coil for ignition. DC/CDI systems
have the ability to ignite with as little as 6 volts of power.
NOTICE: Do not remove the wiring harness from the CDI box
while the key switch is on or while the engine is running.
Damage to the CDI box may occur!

Maximum Timing
NOTE:
DC/CDI systems and
components are not
interchangeable with
any other system.

Ignition System Troubleshooting

Faulty stator (measure resistance of all ignition related


windings)

No Spark, Weak or Intermittent Spark


Spark plug gap incorrect
Fouled spark plug
Faulty spark plug cap or poor connection to high
tension lead
Related wiring loose, disconnected, shorted, or
corroded
Engine Stop switch or ignition switch faulty
ETC switch misadjusted or faulty
Wire harness or connections wet, corroded.
Poor ignition coil ground (e.g. coil mount loose or
corroded)

Incorrect wiring (inspect color coding in connectors


etc)
Faulty ignition coil winding (measure resistance of
primary and secondary)
Worn magneto (RH) end Crankshaft bearings
Sheared flywheel key
Flywheel loose or damaged
Trigger coil air gap too wide (where applicable) should be .016 - .030" (.4 - .75 mm)
Excessive crankshaft runout on magneto (RH) end should not exceed .0024
Faulty CDI module

10.25

10

ELECTRICAL
Cranking Output Tests Using
Peak Reading Adaptor or Volt Ohm Meter
The following peak voltage tests will measure the amount of
output directly from each component. A peak reading voltmeter
can be used to perform the tests. A variety of peak reading
adaptors are commercially available for use with the Fluke 77
Digital Multimeter (PV-43568) and other digital VOMs which
will allow peak voltage tests to be performed accurately. Follow
the directions provided with the adaptor. All measurements are
indicated in DC Volts. Readings obtained without a peak reading
adaptor will be significantly different.
CDI Output

Resistance Tests
Perform these tests using an Ohm meter or multimeter with the
ignition key turned off. All readings are in Ohms.
Connect Meter Wires
Reading In Ohms
To:
White / Red and White
185 20%
White / Red and Ground
Open
Yellow and Yellow
0.43 20%
Yellow and Ground
Open

Test
Pulser Coil
Pulser Coil
Charge Coil
Charge Coil

Flywheel Identification

Locate the CDI module under the drivers side seat. Make sure
all stator and CDI wires are connected. Remove the CDI output
wire (White/Blue) from the ignition coil primary terminal.
Using the test table below crank the engine to check for proper
CDI output.

Pulse Coil Output


Disconnect the stator connector from the CDI module. While
cranking the engine, test output from the pulse (trigger) coil.
Measure between the (White/Red and White) wires and
compare the cranking output to the test table below.

Ground

The flywheel can be identified by the stamp mark in location A.

Key-On Power

Engine Application
EH500PLE

Output Reading 20%


Connect
Meter Leads
(With VOM or Peak
Reading Adaptor)
To:
White / Blue and
CDI
200-400 DCV
Ground
White / Red and 4.5 Volts DC (Peak Adaptor)
Pulse Coil
White
0.15 Volts AC (VOM)
Test

10.26

Wattage
250W

ELECTRICAL
Ignition System Testing Flow Chart
Whenever troubleshooting an electrical problem first check all terminal connections to be sure they are clean and tight. Also be sure
that colors match when wires are connected. Use the following pages as a guide for troubleshooting. The resistance values are also
given on the specification pages.
Condition: No spark or intermittent spark.
Verify 12 Volt DC power is present on the red wire entering the CDI module. Replace Spark Plug.
Disconnect the black wire from the 3 wire connector
attached to the CDI module to isolate the ignition
from the kill system. Verify the CDI has a good
ground path (Brown) for operation.

- Test the ignition switch and speed


limiter circuit for shorts to ground.
Yes
- Check connectors for moisture,
wire color matching or corrosion.

Does it have spark?

No

Disconnect the pulse (trigger) coil connector from


the CDI module. Measure the resistance of the
trigger coil. Refer to the exploded view or the
wiring schematic for meter connections
and specifications?

Inspect connectors, wiring and


grounds to the component in
question. Replace the component
if a wiring problem cannot be found.

No

Yes

Check coil ground connection between engine and coil


mount using an ohmmeter. The coil mount should
have good continuity to ground on the engine (0-.2 ).

Clean coil mounting area.


Repair ground wire connections.

No

Yes
Disconnect and check the ignition coil.
Resistance values should be:
Primary Side - Primary Wire Tab to Ground
(on coil mount or engine): 0.11
Secondary Side - High Tension Wire to Engine Ground
Cap installed - 11,700
Cap removed - 6700

No

Replace the ignition coil.

10

Are these values within specs?


Yes
If all of the above tests are within specifications, and all grounds, connections, and wire color coding
have been inspected, perform voltage output tests on page 10.25 or replace the CDI module.

10.27

ELECTRICAL
Components of DC / CDI Ignition
NOTE: CDI boxes may look the same but have
different internal circuitry. Be sure to always use
the correct CDI box part number.

Resistor
Cap

Check coil mount for good


ground to engine (0 - .2)

Meter
5k

Ignition
Coil

Stator
Plate

CDI Box

Meter
6.7 k

Pulse Coil (Trigger)


Air Gap: .016-.030
(.4-.75 mm)

Battery Charging Coils

Flywheel and
Ring Gear Casting
Refer To Wiring Diagrams For
Specified Stator Coil Resistance

10.28

ELECTRICAL
EFI DIAGNOSTICS

Charging System Break Even Test

EFI Component Testing

CAUTION

All EFI component information and diagnostic testing


procedures are located in Chapter 4.

Do not allow the battery cables to become


disconnected with the engine running. Follow the
steps below as outlined to reduce the chance of
damage to electrical components.

Refer to Chapter 4 Electronic Fuel Injection System (EFI)


when diagnosing an EFI System.

CHARGING SYSTEM
Current Draw - Key Off

The break even point of the charging system is the point at


which the alternator overcomes all system loads (lights, etc.)
and begins to charge the battery. Depending on battery condition
and system load, the break even point may vary slightly. The
battery should be fully charged before performing this test.

CAUTION

WARNING

Do not connect or disconnect the battery cable


or ammeter with the engine running. Damage will
occur to electrical components.
Connect an ammeter in series with the negative battery cable.
Check for current draw with the key off. If the draw is excessive,
loads should be disconnected from the system one by one until
the draw is eliminated. Check component wiring as well as the
component for partial shorts to ground to eliminate the draw.

Current Draw Inspection


Key Off

30 Amp

Current Draw - Key Off:


Maximum of .01 DCA (10 mA)

Never start the engine with an ammeter


connected in series. Damage to the meter or
meter fuse will result.
Do not run test for extended period of time.
Do not run test with high amperage accessories.
1.

Connect a tachometer to the engine.

2.

Using an inductive amperage metering device, (set to DC


amps) connect to the negative battery cable

3.

With engine off and the key, kill switch, and lights in the
ON position, the ammeter should read negative amps
(battery discharge). Reverse meter lead if a positive reading
is indicated.

4.

Shift transmission into neutral with the park brake on and


start the engine. With the engine running at idle, observe
meter readings.

5.

Increase engine RPM while observing ammeter and


tachometer.

6.

Note RPM at which the battery starts to charge (ammeter


indication is positive).

7.

With lights and other electrical loads off, the break even
point should occur at approximately 1500 RPM or lower.

8.

With the engine running, turn the lights on and engage


parking brake lock to keep brake light on.

9.

Repeat test, observing ammeter and tachometer. With


lights on, charging should occur at or below 2000 RPM.

10.29

10

ELECTRICAL
Charging System Alternator Tests

TEST 2: Resistance Value of Each Stator Leg to Ground

Three tests can be performed using a multimeter to determine


the condition of the stator (alternator).

1.

Carb Model

Measure the resistance value of each of the stator legs to


ground: Y1 to Ground, Y2 to Ground, Y3 to Ground.
Each test should measure: Open Line (OL)

Test

Connect Meter
Leads To:

Ohms Reading

Battery Charge Coil

Y1, Y2, or Y3
to Ground

Open Line
(Infinity)

NOTE: Any measurement other than Infinity (open)


will indicate a failed or shorted stator leg.
TEST 3: Measure AC Voltage Output of Each Stator Leg at
Charging RPM
Y1 Y2

Y3

1.
2.
3.

EFI Model

4.

Set the selector dial to measure AC Voltage.


Start the engine and let it idle.
While holding the engine at a specified RPM, separately
measure the voltage across each leg of the stator by
connecting the meter leads to the wires leading from the
alternator (Y1 to Y2, Y1 to Y3, Y2 to Y3).
Refer to the following table for approximate AC Voltage
readings according to RPM. Test each leg at the specified
RPM in the table.
Example: The alternator current output reading should be
approximately 18 VAC at 1300 RPM between each leg.

NOTE: If one or more of the stator leg output AC


voltage varies significantly from the specified value,
the stator may need to be replaced.
RPM Reading

AC Voltage (VAC) Reading

1300

18 VAC 25 %

TEST 1: Resistance Value of Each Stator Leg

3000

42 VAC 25 %

1.

5000

64 VAC 25 %

Y1

Y2

Y3

Measure the resistance value of each of the three stator


legs: Y1 to Y2, Y1 to Y3, and Y2 to Y3.
Each test should measure: 0.43 20%

Test

Connect Meter
Leads To:

Ohms Reading

Battery Charge Coil

Y1 to Y2

0.43 20%

Battery Charge Coil

Y1 to Y3

0.43 20%

Battery Charge Coil

Y2 to Y3

0.43 20%

NOTE: If there are any significant variations in


ohms readings between the three legs; it is an
indication that one of the three stator legs maybe
weak or failed.

10.30

ELECTRICAL
Charging System Testing Flow Chart
Whenever charging system problems are suspected, proceed with the following system check after verifying that all wires are in good
condition, connected and not exposed or pinched.:
Using a multitester set on D.C. volts, measure the battery open circuit voltage (See
earlier test). It should be 12.4 volts or more.
Is it?

No

Remove the battery and properly service. Reinstall the fully charged battery
or a fully charged shop battery.

Yes

Check Key off Current Draw.

Yes

Check for owner modification, and


discuss operating habits. The battery
will continually discharge if operated
below the Break Even RPM. Continued problems would call for battery
inspection.

Yes
Meter Setting: DC Volts

With the transmission in Neutral, start the


engine and increase RPM to between 3000
and 4000. Read battery voltage with the
multitester. Readings should increase to
between 13.0 and 14.6 V D.C.Are they?
No
Meter Setting: DC Amps

Perform system Break Even Amperage


test outlined in this chapter.
Does charging occur as specified?
No
Ohm stator wires, if bad replace stator, if good,
continue with alternator output test.
Meter Setting: AC Volts
Disconnect the Yellow wires from the regulator /
rectifier. Using a multitester, perform an Alternator
Output test. See test procedure on Page 10.29.

No

Does output meet specification?

Inspect the wiring harness between


the panel and the stator for
damage. If no damage is found,
remove the recoil and flywheel.
Inspect the flywheel magnets, stator
coils and stator wires for damage.
Repair or replace any damaged
components.

Yes
Meter Setting: DC Volts

Reconnect the alternator wires. Note: Red


wire must be connected to harness. Battery
voltage must be present on red wire terminal
on harness side of voltage regulator connector.
Is voltage present?

No

Check stator, PDM, ground, battery


and battery connections. Also check
wire connections and wire condition.
Repair or replace faulty wiring or
components.

Yes
If all of the previous tests indicate a good
condition, but the charging voltage does not
rise above battery voltage at the connector
or wire harness, replace the voltage regulator.

10.31

10

ELECTRICAL
BATTERY TERMINAL BLOCK

Battery Identification

The terminal block is located under the front hood next to the
battery. The terminal block provides easy access to the main
battery and starting cables. The terminal block also provides
easy hookup for accessories.

IMPORTANT: Identify what type of battery you have


installed in your RANGER. Different types of batteries
require different service procedures. Proper servicing
and upkeep of your battery is very important for
maintaining long battery life.

TERMINAL BLOCK
Orange/White
Orange/White
(Accessories)

Black

Red

Black
(Ground)

Your RANGER may have a Conventional Battery or a Sealed


Low Maintenance Battery. To identify which type of battery
your RANGER has, refer to the illustration below and follow the
correct service and charging procedures that follow in the
manual.
CONVENTIONAL BATTERY
Removable
Caps

Red
(Battery+)

Top View

=T

Electrolyte Level
Indicator

Terminal Block Nuts: 20-25 in. lbs. (2.3-2.8 Nm)

BATTERY SERVICE

Side View

Battery Terminals / Bolts


Use Polaris corrosion resistant Nyogel grease (PN 2871329)
on battery terminal bolts. See Battery Installation on Page
10.33.

SEALED LOW
MAINTENANCE BATTERY
No Caps
(Non-removable
sealed Top)
Top View

Polaris Sticker
Apply
Nyogel
Side View

10.32

ELECTRICAL
CONVENTIONAL BATTERY
Battery Activation
WARNING

4.

Add electrolyte to bring level back to upper level mark on


case.
NOTE: This is the last time that electrolyte should
be added. If the level becomes low after this point,
add only distilled water.
5.

Battery electrolyte is poisonous. It contains


sulfuric acid. Serious burns can result from
contact with skin, eyes or clothing. Antidote:
6.
External: Flush with water.
Internal: Drink large quantities of water or milk.
Follow with milk of magnesia, beaten egg, or
vegetable oil. Call physician immediately.

Charge battery at 1/10 of its amp/hour rating. Examples: 1/


10 of 9 amp battery = .9 amp; 1/10 of 14 amp battery = 1.4
amp; 1/10 of 18 amp battery = 1.8 amp (recommended
charging rates).
Check specific gravity of each cell with a hydrometer to
assure each has a reading of 1.270 or higher.

Battery Inspection
The battery is located under the hood.

Eyes: Flush with water for 15 minutes and get


prompt medical attention.
Batteries produce explosive gases. Keep
sparks, flame, cigarettes etc. away. Ventilate
when charging or using in an enclosed space.
Always shield eyes when working
near batteries.
KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.

WARNING
The gases given off by a battery are explosive.
Any spark or open flame near a battery can
cause an explosion which will spray battery acid
on anyone close to it. Should there be contact
with battery acid, wash the affected area with
large quantities of cool water and seek
immediate medical attention.
To ensure maximum service life and performance from a new
battery, perform the following steps. NOTE: Do not service the
battery unless it will be put into regular service within 30 days.
After initial service, add only distilled water to the battery.
Never add electrolyte after a battery has been in service.

Inspect the battery fluid level. When the battery fluid nears the
lower level, remove the battery and fill with distilled water only
to the upper level line. To remove the battery:

Maintain
between upper
and lower level
marks

10

NOTE: New Battery: Battery must be fully charged


before use or battery life will be significantly
reduced 10-30% of the batterys full potential.
To activate a new battery:
1.
2.
3.

Remove vent plug from vent fitting. Remove cell caps.


Fill battery with electrolyte to upper level marks on case.
Set battery aside to allow for acid absorption and
stabilization for 30 minutes.

10.33

ELECTRICAL
Battery Removal

OCV - Open Circuit Voltage Test

1.
2.

Battery voltage should be checked with a digital multitester.


Readings of 12.6 volts or less require further battery testing and
charging. See charts and Load Test on below.

Disconnect holder strap and remove covers.


Disconnect battery negative (-) (black) cable first, followed
by the positive (+) (red) cable.

CAUTION
Whenever removing or reinstalling the battery,
disconnect the negative (black) cable first and
reinstall the negative cable last!
3.
4.

Remove the battery.


Remove the filler caps and add distilled water only as
needed to bring each cell to the proper level. Do not overfill
the battery.

NOTE: Lead-acid batteries should be kept at or near


a full charge as possible. Electrolyte level should be
kept between the low and full marks. If the battery is
stored or used in a partially charged condition, or
with low electrolyte levels, hard crystal sulfation will
form on the plates, reducing the efficiency and
service life of the battery.
OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE
State of Charge

Refill using only distilled water. Tap water contains


minerals which are harmful to a battery.

Do not allow cleaning solution or tap water inside the


battery. Battery life may be reduced.
5.

Reinstall the battery caps.

Conventional
Lead-Acid

YuMicron Type

100% Charged

12.60 V

12.70 V

75% Charged

12.40 V

12.50 V

50% Charged

12.10 V

12.20 V

25% Charged

11.90 V

12.0 V

0% Charged

less than
11.80 V

less than
11.9 V

Battery Installation

Specific Gravity Test

1.

A tool such as a Battery Hydrometer (PN 2870836) can be used


to measure electrolyte strength or specific gravity. As the battery
goes through the charge/discharge cycle, the electrolyte goes
from a heavy (more acidic) state at full charge to a light (more
water) state when discharged. The hydrometer can measure
state of charge and differences between cells in a multi-cell
battery. Readings of 1.270 or greater should be observed in a
fully charged battery. Differences of more than .025 between the
lowest and highest cell readings indicate a need to replace the
battery.

2.
3.

4.

5.

Clean battery cables and terminals with a stiff wire brush.


Corrosion can be removed using a solution of one cup
water and one tablespoon baking soda. Rinse well with
clean water and dry thoroughly.
Route the cables correctly.
Reinstall battery, attaching positive (+) (red) cable first and
then the negative (-) (black) cable. Coat terminals and bolt
threads with Nyogel Grease (PN 2871329).
Install clear battery vent tube from vehicle to battery vent.
WARNING: Vent tube must be free from obstructions and
kinks and securely installed. If not, battery gases could
accumulate and cause an explosion. The vent tube should
be routed away from frame and body to prevent contact
with electrolyte. Avoid skin contact with electrolyte, as
severe burns could result. If electrolyte contacts the vehicle
frame, corrosion will occur.
Reinstall the holder strap.

Conventional Battery Testing

Battery Hydrometer (PN 2870836)


1.10
1.15

Detail A

1.20
1.25

Whenever a service complaint is related to either the starting or


charging systems, the battery should be checked first.
Following are three tests which can easily be made on a battery
to determine its condition: OCV Test, Specific Gravity Test and
Load Test.

10.34

1.30

ELECTRICAL
Using a wire brush or knife, remove any corrosion from
the cables and terminals.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY
State of Charge*

Conventional
Lead-Acid

YuMicron Type

100% Charged

1.265

1.275

75% Charged

1.210

1.225

50% Charged

1.160

1.175

25% Charged

1.120

1.135

0% Charged

less than 1.100

less than 1.115

* At 80 F
NOTE: Subtract .01 from the specific gravity reading at 40 F.

Load Test
CAUTION
To prevent shock or component damage,
remove spark plug high tension leads and
connect securely to engine ground
before proceeding.
NOTE: This test can only be performed on machines
with electric starters. This test cannot be performed
with an engine or starting system that is not working
properly.
A battery may indicate a full charge condition in the OCV test
and the specific gravity test, but still may not have the storage
capacity necessary to properly function in the electrical system.
For this reason, a battery capacity or load test should be
conducted whenever poor battery performance is encountered.
To perform this test, hook a multitester to the battery in the same
manner as was done in the OCV test. The reading should be 12.6
volts or greater. Engage the starter and observe the battery
voltage while cranking the engine. Continue the test for 15
seconds. During cranking the observed voltage should not drop
below 9.5 volts. If the beginning voltage is 12.6 volts or higher
and the cranking voltage drops below 9.5 volts during the test,
replace the battery.

Make sure that the electrolyte is at the proper level. Add


distilled water if necessary.
Charge at a rate no greater than 1/10 of the batterys
amp/hr capacity until the electrolytes specific gravity
reaches 1.270 or greater.
Store the battery either in the machine with the cables
disconnected, or store in a cool place.
NOTE: Recharge to full capacity every 30 to 60 days
during a non-use period. If the battery is stored
during the winter months, electrolyte will freeze at
higher temperatures as the battery discharges. The
chart below indicates freezing points by specific
gravity.
Electrolyte Freezing Points
Specific Gravity
of Electrolyte
1.265

-75 F

1.225

-35 F

1.200

-17 F

1.150

+5 F

1.100

+18 F

1.050

+27 F

Charging Procedure
1.
2.

3.

Off Season Storage

Remove the battery to prevent damage from leaking or


spilled acid during charging.
Charge the battery with a charging output no larger than 1/
10 of the batterys amp/hr rating. Charge as needed to raise
the specific gravity to 1.270 or greater.
Install battery in vehicle with positive terminal toward the
front. Coat threads of battery bolt with a corrosion resistant
dielectric grease.

Dielectric Grease

To prevent battery damage during extended periods of non-use,


the following basic battery maintenance items must be
performed:
Remove the battery from the machine and wash the
case and battery tray with a mild solution of baking
soda and water. Rinse with lots of fresh water after
cleaning. NOTE: Do not get any of the baking soda
into the battery or the acid will be neutralized.

Freezing Point

(PN 2871329)
4.

Connect battery cables.

WARNING
To avoid the possibility of explosion, connect
positive (+) cable first and negative (-) cable last.

10.35

10

ELECTRICAL
5.
6.

7.

After connecting the battery cables, install the cover on the


battery and attach the hold down strap.
Install clear battery vent tube from vehicle to battery vent.
WARNING: Vent tube must be free from obstructions and
kinks and securely installed. If not, battery gases could
accumulate and cause an explosion. Vent should be routed
away from frame and body to prevent contact with
electrolyte. Avoid skin contact with electrolyte, as severe
burns could result. If electrolyte contacts the vehicle frame,
corrosion will occur.
Route cables so they are tucked away in front and behind
battery.

NOTE: New Batteries: Batteries must be fully


charged before use or battery life will be reduced by
10-30% of full potential. Charge battery for 3-5 hours
at a current equivalent of 1/10 of the battery's rated
amp/hour capacity. Do not use the alternator to
charge a new battery. (Refer to Battery Activation
and Maintenance video PN 9917987)
NEVER attempt to add electrolyte or water to a Low
Maintenance battery. Doing so will damage the case and shorten
the life of the battery. Refer to the Battery Maintenance Video
(PN 9917987) for proper instruction on servicing Low
Maintenance batteries.
To service a Low Maintenance battery:

LOW MAINTENANCE BATTERY


Battery Check

1.
2.

Remove battery from the vehicle.


Test battery with a voltage meter or load tester to determine
battery condition. This will determine the length of time
required to charge the battery to full capacity. Refer to
capacity table.
Charge battery using a variable rate charger.

NOTE: All Low Maintenance batteries are fully


charged and tested at the factory before installation.
Expected shelf life varies upon storage conditions.
As a general rule before placing the battery into
service, check the battery condition and charge
accordingly.

Battery Inspection

1.

The battery is located under the front hood.

2.
3.

Check the date label on the side of the battery to calculate


when to check voltage. The battery should be checked
every 3 months.
Check the voltage with a voltmeter or multimeter. A fully
charged battery should be 12.8 V or higher.
If the voltage is below 12.8 V, the battery will need to be
recharged.

3.

Low Maintenance Battery


shown, but not used on
current RANGER Models

Battery Removal
1.
2.

Remove the seat and remove battery holder strap.


Disconnect battery negative (-) (black) cable first, followed
by the positive (+) (red) cable.

CAUTION
Low Maintenance batteries are permanently sealed at the time of
manufacture. The use of lead-calcium and AGM technology
instead of lead-antimony allows the battery acid to be fully
absorbed. For this reason, a Low Maintenance battery case is
dark and the cell caps are not removable, since there is no need
to check electrolyte level.

10.36

Whenever removing or reinstalling the battery,


disconnect the negative (black) cable first and
reinstall the negative cable last!
3.

Remove the battery.

ELECTRICAL
Battery Installation
1.

2.
3.

4.

Load Test

Clean battery cables and terminals with a stiff wire brush.


Corrosion can be removed using a solution of one cup
water and one tablespoon baking soda. Rinse well with
clean water and dry thoroughly.
Route the cables correctly.
Reinstall battery, attaching positive (+) (red) cable first and
then the negative (-) (black) cable. Coat terminals and bolt
threads with Nyogel Grease (PN 2871329).
Reinstall the holder strap.

Battery Testing
Whenever a service complaint is related to either the starting or
charging systems, the battery should be checked first.
Following are two tests which can easily be made on a Sealed
Low Maintenance battery to determine its condition: OCV Test
and a Load Test.

OCV - Open Circuit Voltage Test


Battery voltage should be checked with a digital multitester.
Readings of 12.8 volts or less require further battery testing and
charging. See charts and Load Test.

CAUTION
To prevent shock or component damage,
remove spark plug high tension leads and
connect securely to engine ground
before proceeding.
NOTE: This test can only be performed on machines
with electric starters. This test cannot be performed
with an engine or starting system that is not working
properly.
A battery may indicate a full charge condition in the OCV test
and the specific gravity test, but still may not have the storage
capacity necessary to properly function in the electrical system.
For this reason, a battery capacity or load test should be
conducted whenever poor battery performance is encountered.
To perform this test, hook a multitester to the battery in the same
manner as was done in the OCV test. The reading should be 12.6
volts or greater. Engage the starter and observe the battery
voltage while cranking the engine. Continue the test for 15
seconds. During cranking the observed voltage should not drop
below 9.5 volts. If the beginning voltage is 12.6 volts or higher
and the cranking voltage drops below 9.5 volts during the test,
replace the battery.

NOTE: Lead-acid batteries should be kept at or near


a full charge as possible. If the battery is stored or
used in a partially charged condition, or with low
electrolyte levels, hard crystal sulfation will form on
the plates, reducing the efficiency and service life of
the battery.
NOTE: Use a voltmeter or multimeter to test batter
voltage.
OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE
State of Charge

Maintenance
Free

YuMicron Type

100%

13.0 V

12.70 V

75% Charged

12.80 V

12.50 V

50% Charged

12.50 V

12.20 V

25% Charged

12.20 V

12.0 V

0% Charged

less than 12.0 V

less than 11.9 V

10

* At 80 F
NOTE: Subtract .01 from the specific gravity reading at 40 F.

10.37

ELECTRICAL
Off-Season Storage

Battery Charging

To prevent battery damage during extended periods of non-use,


the following basic battery maintenance items must be
performed:

If battery voltage is 12.8 V or less, the battery may need


recharging. When using an automatic charger, refer to the
charger manufacturers instructions for recharging. When using
a constant current charger, use the following guidelines for
recharging.

Remove the battery from the machine and wash the


case and battery tray with a mild solution of baking
soda and water. Rinse with lots of fresh water after
cleaning.

NOTE: Always verify battery condition before and 12 hours after the end of charging.

Using a wire brush or knife, remove any corrosion from


the cables and terminals.
Charge at a rate no greater than 1/10 of the batterys
amp/hr capacity.
Store the battery either in the machine with the cables
disconnected, or store in a cool place.
NOTE: Stored batteries lose their charge at the rate
of 1% per day. Recharge to full capacity every 30 to
60 days during a non-use period. If the battery is
stored during the winter months, electrolyte will
freeze at higher temperatures as the battery
discharges. The chart below indicates freezing
points by specific gravity.
Electrolyte Freezing Points
Specific Gravity
of Electrolyte

Freezing Point

1.265

-75 F

1.225

-35 F

1.200

-17 F

1.150

+5 F

1.100

+18 F

1.050

+27 F

10.38

WARNING
An overheated battery could explode, causing
severe injury or death. Always watch charging
times carefully. Stop charging if the battery
becomes very warm to the touch.
Allow it to cool before resuming charging.
Battery Charging Reference Table
State of
Charge

Voltage

Action

Charge Time

None, check
voltage at 3 mos.
100%
12.8-13 V
None Required
after manufacture
date
May need slight
75-100% 12.5-12.8 V
3-6 hours
charge
50-75% 12.0-12.5 V Needs Charge
5-11 hours
At least 13
25-50% 11.5-12.0 V Needs Charge
hours, verify
state of charge
0-25%
11.5 V or less Needs Charge
At least 20 hours

WARNING
To avoid the possibility of sparks and explosion,
connect positive (red) cable first and negative
(black) cable last.

ELECTRICAL
STARTER SYSTEM

Starter Motor Disassembly

Troubleshooting

NOTE: Use only electrical contact cleaner to clean


starter motor parts. Some solvents may leave a
residue or damage internal parts and insulation.

Starter Motor Does Not Turn


Battery discharged. Low specific gravity

1.

Note the alignment marks on both ends of the starter motor


casing. These marks must align during reassembly.

2.

Remove the two bolts, washers, and sealing O-Rings.


Inspect O-Rings and replace if damaged.

3.

Remove brush terminal end of housing while holding other


two sections together.

Loose or faulty battery cables or corroded connections


(see Voltage Drop Tests)
Related wiring loose, disconnected, or corroded
Poor ground connections at battery cable, starter motor
or starter solenoid (see Voltage Drop Tests)
Faulty key switch
Faulty kill switch
Faulty starter solenoid or starter motor
Engine problem - seized or binding (Can engine be
rotated easily with recoil starter?).
Starter Motor Turns Over Slowly
Battery discharged - low specific gravity
Excessive circuit resistance - poor connections (see
Voltage Drop Test below)
Engine problem - seized or binding (Can engine be
rotated easily?)
Faulty or worn brushes in starter motor
Automatic compression release inoperative
Starter Motor Turns - Engine Does Not Rotate
Faulty starter drive
Faulty starter drive gears or starter motor gear
Faulty flywheel gear or loose flywheel

Voltage Drop Test


The Voltage Drop Test is used to test for bad connections. When
performing the test, you are testing the amount of voltage drop
through the connection. A poor or corroded connection will
appear as a high voltage reading. Voltage shown on the meter
when testing connections should not exceed .1 VDC per
connection or component.

10

To perform the test, place the meter on DC volts and place the
meter leads across the connection to be tested. Refer to the chart
on 10.27 to perform voltage drop tests on the starter system.

Voltage should not exceed


0.1 DC volts per connection

4. Remove shims from armature shaft.


NOTE: All shims must be replaced
reassembly.

during

10.39

ELECTRICAL
Brush Inspection / Replacement

7.

Install the O-Ring over the bolt. Make sure the O-ring is
fully seated.

8.

Remove the electrical tape and reinstall the two small


phenolic washers, the large phenolic washer, flat washer,
and nut.

Brush Set

1.

2.

Using a digital multitester, measure the resistance between


the cable terminal and the insulated brush. The reading
should be .3 ohms or less. Measure the resistance between
the cable terminal and brush housing. Make sure the brush
is not touching the case. The reading should be infinite.
Remove nut, flat washer, large phenolic washer, two small
phenolic washers, and O-Ring from brush terminal. Inspect
the O-Ring and replace if damaged.
Brush Length

Armature Testing
1.
2.

Remove armature from starter casing. Note order of shims


on drive end for reassembly.
Inspect surface of commutator. Replace if excessively
worn or damaged.

5/16 (.8 cm)

Brush Length Service Limit:


5/16 (.8 cm)
3.
3.

Remove brush plate and brushes. Measure length of


brushes and replace if worn past the service limit. Replace
springs if they are discolored or have inadequate tension.
4. Inspect surface of commutator for wear or discoloration.
See Steps 3-6 of Armature Testing.
5. Install a new carbon brush assembly in the brush housing.
NOTE: Be sure that the terminal bolt insulating
washer is properly seated in the housing, and the
tab on the brush plate engages the notch in the
brush plate housing
6.

Place a wrap of electrical tape on the threads of the terminal


bolt to prevent O-Ring damage during reinstallation.

10.40

Using a digital multitester, measure the resistance between


each of the commutator segments. The reading should be
.3 ohms or less.

ELECTRICAL
4.

5.

6.

Measure the resistance between each commutator segment


and the armature shaft. The reading should be infinite (no
continuity).
Check commutator bars for discoloration. Bars discolored
in pairs indicate shorted coils, requiring replacement of the
starter motor.
Place armature in a growler. Turn growler on and position
a hacksaw blade or feeler gauge lengthwise 1/8" (.3 cm)
above armature coil laminates. Rotate armature 360o. If
hacksaw blade is drawn to armature on any pole, the
armature is shorted and must be replaced.

Starter Drive
Pinion Gear - Anti Kick-out Shoe, Garter Spring Replacement
If the garter spring is damaged, the overrun clutch may fail to
return properly. The replacement spring is (PN 7042039). Use
either of the following methods to remove and install a new
garter spring
Rear Brkt Assy
Washer Set

Starter Reassembly
1.
2.
3.

4.

5.
6.
7.

Carbon
Brush
Set

Armature

Inspect permanent magnets in starter housing. Make sure


they are not cracked or separated from housing.
Place armature in field magnet casing.
Place shims on drive end of armature shaft with phenolic
washer outermost on shaft. Engage tabs of stationary
washer in drive end housing, holding it in place with a light
film of grease.
Install case sealing O-Ring. Make sure O-Ring is in good
condition and not twisted on the case. Lubricate needle
bearing and oil seal with a light film of grease, and install
housing, aligning marks.
Install O-Ring on other end of field magnet casing. Make
sure it is in good condition and not twisted on the case.
Align casing marks and install housing, pushing back
brushes while installing shaft in bushing.
Reinstall starter motor housing set bolts. Make sure ORings are in good condition and seated in groove.

Rubber Rings
Washer

O-ring

Set Bolt Assy


35-52 in. lbs.
(3.9-5.9 Nm)
Weight Spring
Return spring
1.

Set Bolt Torque: 35-52 in. lbs. (3.9-5.9 Nm)

CAUTION
Use care when handling starter housing.
Do not drop or strike the housing as magnet
damage is possible. If magnets are damaged,
starter must be replaced.

2.

Screw the overrun clutch out to the engaged position on the


pinion shaft assembly. Use a small piece of wire with the
end bent in a hook and pick the old spring out of its
channel. Slide it off the end of the shaft. Slide the new
spring over the overrun clutch and into the spring groove.
Make sure that the spring is positioned between the shoe
alignment pins and the back flange of the anti kick-out
shoes.
Remove the lock ring, end washer, spring retainers and
clutch return spring. Screw the overrun clutch off the end
of the pinion shaft. Remove the old spring and install a new
one. Lightly grease the pinion shaft and reinstall the clutch,
spring, retainers, end washer and lock ring in the reverse
order. Make sure the end washer is positioned properly so
that it will hold the lock ring in its groove

Polaris Premium Starter Drive Grease


(PN 2871460)

10.41

10

ELECTRICAL
Starter System Test Flow Chart
Condition: Starter fails to turn motor. NOTE: Make sure engine crankshaft is free to turn before proceeding with dynamic testing
of starter system. A digital multitester must be used for this test.
NOTE: The footbrake must be compressed to the starter circuit to engage.
With the tester on the VDC position, place the tesRemove battery and properly service.
ters black lead on the battery negative and the red
Install fully charged shop battery to
No
lead on the battery positive.
continue test.
Reading should be 12.4 or greater.
Yes

Disconnect the White/Red and Orange coil engagement wires from the starter solenoid. Connect black
tester wire to battery ground. Connect red tester
lead to White/Red harness wire. Turn the ignition
switch as if starting the vehicle. Tester should read
battery voltage on White/Red wire.

Yes

No

Check voltage on both sides of circuit breaker and ignition switch. The voltage on both
sides should be the same. NOTE: The
ignition switch actuated. Replace the
defective component.

Test starter solenoid coil by connecting an ohmmeter between the solenoid


White/Red wire and the Orange wire. Resistance should be 4.2.

Brake Pressure
Switch Testing Test A
Test B (Next Page)
Locate the brake pressure switch near the steering
gearbox along the frame member. The switch is
installed in a junction block. Perform the Brake
Light Switch Test on Page 10.5.

No

Replace the diode assembly.

No

Repair wiring.

Yes, Good Reading

Test all wiring for the brake pressure switch. If test


is ok go back to the original troubleshooting
procedure.

10.42

ELECTRICAL
Starter System Test Flow Chart, contd.
Test B (from previous page)
Voltage Drop Testing

Continued from previous page

Reconnect the solenoid. Connect the tester black


lead to the battery positive and the red lead to the
solenoid end and actuate the starter. Reading
should be less than .1 V D.C
.

No

Clean the battery-to-solenoid cable ends


or replace the cable.

Yes

Connect the black tester lead to solenoid end of


battery-to-solenoid cable. Connect red tester lead
to solenoid end of solenoid-to-starter cable.
Reading should be less than .1 V D.C.

No

Replace the starter solenoid.

No

Clean the solenoid-to-starter cable ends


or replace the cable.

Yes

Connect the black tester lead to the solenoid end


of the solenoid-to-starter cable. Connect the red
tester lead to the starter end of the same cable.
The reading should be less than .1 V D.C.

Yes

If all of these indicate a good condition, yet the starter still fails to turn, the starter
must be removed for static testing and inspection.

10

10.43

ELECTRICAL
ELECTRIC BOX LIFT ACTUATOR
DIAGNOSIS (if equipped)
1. Disconnect the wiring harness to the
box lift actuator.

Disconnect Harness

2. Connect a multimeter across the


box lift actuator harness connection.

3. Actuate the box lift switch in both


directions. Verify that there is 12 Volts
reaching the box lift actuator. Follow
the diagram below for diagnosis.
NO

YES

YES - (12 Volts at actuator)

(Not 12 Volts at actuator)


Lift the hood. Locate the box lift switch.
Check for 12 Volts between the RED/BLACK
wire terminal on the back of the switch and
the BROWN wire terminal.
YES

NO

(Not 12 Volts between wires)


On the main connector behind the dashboard,
measure for 12 Volts between RED/BLACK
wire terminal and ground.

NO

(Not 12 Volts between wires)


Test the accessory and wiring circuit
breaker located under the seat.
(Refer to Wiring Schematic)
Test the wiring between the main
connector and the circuit breaker.

10.44

(12 Volts between wires)


Check the switch. Check the
wires between the switch
and the actuator motor.

YES

(12 Volts between wires)


Test wiring between the main
connector and the circuit
breaker.

ELECTRICAL
ELECTRICAL BREAKOUT DIAGRAMS (EFI MODELS)

Starting Circuit

Key-On Power Circuit

10

10.45

ELECTRICAL
Transmission Switch Circuit

Differential Solenoid Circuit

10.46

ELECTRICAL
Charging System Circuit

Cooling Fan Circuit

10

10.47

ELECTRICAL
AWD Circuit

10.48