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EMM410 Mathematics in the Primary Years

Processes in Designing Learning

EMM410
Mathematics in the
Primary Years
Assessment Two:
Processes in
Designing Learning
Josie Morrow
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EMM410 Mathematics in the Primary Years


Processes in Designing Learning
Table of Contents

Page

Unit Outline
..

Learning Experience I
.... 4
Learning Experience II

Learning Experience III


..

Learning Experience IV
..

Learning Experience V

10

Learning Experience VI
..

10

Learning Experience VII


.

11

Learning Experience VIII

12

Summative Assessment
..

14

Assessment Rubric

15

References
.. 18

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Processes in Designing Learning
Mathematics Unit
Measurement and Geometry - Stage 3
Scope and sequence summary

Duration: 2 weeks

Substrand: Area - Using units of measurement

Detail: 8 learning experiences

Outcomes
Key considerations
describes and represents
Key ideas:
mathematical situations in
identify and use perimeter
a variety of ways using
and area
mathematical terminology
and some conventions MA31WM
Language:
Students should be able to
selects and applies
communicate using the following
appropriate problem-solving
language; length, distance,
strategies, including the use
millimetre, centimetre, metre,
of digital technologies, in
square metre, kilometre, square
undertaking investigations
kilometre, measure, metric units,
MA3-2WM
estimate, perimeter, dimensions,
width.
gives a valid reason for
supporting one possible
Background information:
solution over another MA3Students should have a clear
3WM
understanding of

selects and uses the


appropriate unit to calculate
areas, including areas of

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the distinction between


perimeter and area
converting units of

Overview
This unit of work encompasses:
some of the content of S3 Area
Encouraged to apply their knowledge and
skills in a variety of contexts, students will
practise their literacy and numeracy skills as
they read and interpret new information to
obtain and understand the mathematical
information/concepts required to reach an
informed answer.
Furthermore, students will develop their
critical and creative thinking as they
demonstrate their knowledge, skills and
understanding of area in mathematics and
explain/reason the relationships between
perimeter and area as well as the
relationship between finding the area of
different shapes.
Students will explore a range of information
and communication technologies within the
classroom as they learn to interact with and

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Processes in Designing Learning
squares, rectangles and
triangles
MA3-10MG

Content
establish
the
relationshi
p between
the
lengths,
widths and
areas of
rectangles
record,
using
words, the
method
for finding
the area of
any
rectangle.

calculate
areas of
rectangles

measurement

discover differing ways of applying their


mathematical knowledge and skills.

Teaching, learning and assessment


Resources
Learning Experience I
Measuring
Students will begin the unit by measuring and recording area in square
tapes
centimetres and metres, explain the relationship between length and
Ruler
width using them to calculate the area of a rectangle. Together with the
Calculator
teacher, students will develop their knowledge of array structures in order
Interactive
to establish an understanding of area and associated measurements as it
Whiteboard
enables the area of a rectangle to be associated with the lengths of its
Chalk/masking
sides, and is fundamental for the understanding of the formula for the area
tape
of a rectangle. The array structure provides the basis for rectangular area
Square tiles
to be calculated using multiplication (l x w). As students learn to
Butchers paper
draw/visualise accurate arrays they will be able to demonstrate covering a
Geoboards
region with rectangular units, without gaps or overlaps.
Grid paper
Discuss and review prior knowledge on perimeter and its meaning in
the context of shapes/quadrilaterals.
Paper
Students identify the perimeter of a range of quadrilateral objects
within the classroom using a tape measure demonstrating their
knowledge of converting measurements e.g. millimetres to
centimetres, centimetres to metres etc. as well as their preferred
method/formula for finding perimeter
e.g. 4+4+2+2, 4x2+2x2
Introduce the topic Area with an overview video from Khan Academy
Outlining a square centimetre on the floor with chalk/masking tape,
students will together discuss the length of each side and predict

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Processes in Designing Learning
(including
squares) in
square
centimetre
s and
square
metres

what the area of the shape will be called.


Students are asked to place 10cm square tiles in rows starting from
one side. Together the class will estimate, then count how many will
fit along each side. The class will further discuss and illustrate how
many tiles will be needed to cover the square metre, and how many
square centimetres this would be.
Individual students/in pairs will record the array of tiles and label
with length and area measurements.
Students work in pairs/small groups to make a square metre
template from paper. Using this template, students will find and
record surfaces in the classroom that have an area around 1 square
metre. Whole class discusses how the area can be checked and
measured? Can we use the 10cm square tiles?
Extension: can students accurately estimate areas of 1 square metre
and larger without the template then using the template to check
their answer.
Discuss findings with the class.
Using geoboards, students will create a range of rectangles with a
partner calculating and recording the area measurements. Once
students have become competent using the geoboards they will be
challenged to design an irregular shape comprised of 2, 3 or 4
rectangles. Students transfer the outline of the shape onto grid
paper and then calculate the area of the total shape by measuring
and recording the area of each rectangle.
Extension: students calculate and then design a different pattern of
rectangles that has the same area.
Students can choose to cut their square metre template into halves,
placing the pieces together to make a different shape. Students will
predict then measure the area of the new shape using 10cm tiles or
rulers. The new shape is recorded in their workbooks along with an
explanation of how it was measured.

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Processes in Designing Learning
Extension: cut the square metre into quarters; make irregular
shapes; cut the square metre diagonally.
Reflection:
It looks like this activity: a number of objects/models that relate directly to
the lesson are shown and students explain how it connects to the days
concept.
Differentiating content:
Delivery format: use of video
Group work
Frequent movement breaks scheduled into the hands on activities around the room
Use of manipulatives
Extension activity offered - critical thinkers
Student reflection
Learning Experience II
recognise
Warm up challenge activity: working in small groups students will
that
rectangles
construct at least two shapes that have:
with the

the same area but different perimeter, and


same area

the same perimeter but different area


may have
Once students have attempted this task, ask them to share their
different
work with another group, reporting on what methods they used to
dimension
construct their examples, paying close attention to the units used for
s
measurement (cm = perimeter, cm2 = area). Why do we use these
determine
the
number of
different
rectangles
that can
be formed

different methods of measurement?


With this understanding, students in their small groups will be
provided with an area measurement e.g. 24 cm2. With this
information they are to investigate, find and draw a rectangle with
the correct dimensions that equate to this measurement. Students
will show and discuss any differences between groups.
Class review on converting units of measurement to engage prior

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Grid paper
Measuring
tape/ruler
Calculator
Chalk
Camera
Voice recorder
Mini whiteboard

EMM410 Mathematics in the Primary Years


Processes in Designing Learning
using
wholenumber
dimension
s for a
given
perimeter

calculate

knowledge and check for understanding.


Working in pairs, students will design an alphabetic letter on 1 cm
grid paper. The letter should have a maximum area of 12 cm2.
Students will discuss how to break their alphabetic shapes that have
been drawn on a 1 cm grid, into different areas to measure. The
letter T could be broken into a long rectangle and two squares or
three squares and a rectangle. Finding two different ways of
breaking up each shape students will record the area of their shapes
in cm2 and the total area of the letter.

areas of
Using their same letter, students together will trace the letter on the
rectangles
concrete using a square metre template converting the square
(including
centimetres to square metres. Students find and record the area of
squares) in
their playground letter in square metres.
square
centimetre
Using a camera/voice recorder students will document their learning
s and
experience outdoors
square
Reflection activity:
Students will share their images with the whole class explain 1 thing they
metres
found easy and 1 thing they found difficult during todays lesson.

Differentiating content:
Group work
Hands on activity
Provide students with choice
Use of ICT camera/voice recorder
Student reflection
Learning Experience III
apply
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Grid paper

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Processes in Designing Learning
measurem
ent skills
to solve
problems
involving
the areas
of
rectangles
(including
squares) in
everyday
situations
identify
situations
where
square
kilometres
are used
for
measuring
area
measure
the
dimension
s of a
large
rectangula
r piece of
land in

In small groups, students are assigned roles e.g. overseer, measurer,


recorder, reporter. Together they will measure and work out the area
of as many large shapes as they can within a certain time period
outside of the classroom. For example, playground area, toilet block,
flower bed, water tank etc. However the students are not to use any
metric measures (i.e. metres) they are to use their own improvised
measures such as feet, steps, sticks etc. Together as a class
brainstorm a list of areas/shapes that could potentially be used as a
starting point. And what tools could be used to measure these areas
aside from a measuring tape. Students will use either grid paper or a
small whiteboard to roughly record the areas and dimensions.
Once students have completed this task, back in the classroom ask
them to discuss their findings and write them on the whiteboard.
Did you come up with the same measurements? Why/why not?
What was the same and what was different?
Did you encounter any difficulties when measuring?
What are some more effective and accurate ways to make
such measurements?
In small groups, students find the area of certain features within the
classroom and calculate the area of covering required with regards
to:
Group 1: floor = 1m carpet covers 3.6m2
Group 2: ceiling = 4 litres of paint covers 100m2
Group 3: wall = 4 litres of paint covers 100m2

Group 4: window = 4 litres of paint covers 100m2


Discuss findings as a class, reporters will report back to the class.
Having used area within a real life context, discuss real life
applications of area measurement, the different forms of
measurement that are used to measure these areas and the reasons

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Individual
whiteboards
Interactive
whiteboard
Calculator
Tape measure
Ruler
Post it notes

EMM410 Mathematics in the Primary Years


Processes in Designing Learning
metres
and
calculate
its area in
hectares

for this.

Painting (m2), planting vegetables (m2), cropping (km2/Ha),


Why are different measurements used/needed?
Using Google maps on the interactive whiteboard, students use the
scale on the map to mark a square kilometre with the school in the
centre. Students will locate and describe the interesting features
included in the square kilometre.
Can we extend this to what a hectare would look like?
What are we most likely to find within a hectare?
What are the measurements of a hectare?
Reflection:
3-2-1 activity: 3 things the students learnt, 2 things they have a question
about, 1 thing they would like the teacher to know written on post it
notes and placed on the 3-2-1 display.
Differentiating content:
Group work
Hands on activities
Allocated leadership roles and responsibilities within groups
Use of ICT
Student reflection

investigat Learning Experience IV


The teacher will begin the lesson with a simple origami paper folding
e the area
exercise. As students work independently, the class will discuss the
of a
different shapes they make in order to create the desired outcome
triangle by
e.g. paper plane, flower, dog, frog etc.
comparing
Once students fingers are warmed up, pairs or individual students
the area of
a given
will be instructed to take a rectangle such as an A4 sheet of paper or
triangle to
smaller. Students will follow explicit demonstrations and draw and

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Origami paper
A4 paper
Rulers
Workbooks
Geoboards

EMM410 Mathematics in the Primary Years


Processes in Designing Learning
the area of
the
rectangle
of the
same
length and
perpendic
ular height

cut along one diagonal and investigate whether the two triangles,
which have been made, are the same size. Students continue with
different-sized rectangle to see if they can find a rectangle where the
two triangles are not the same, discussing their findings with peers
as they investigate.
Students select one of their rectangles and use the area of the
rectangle to calculate the area of each triangle.
Whole class discusses how to find the area of a right-angled triangle.
Can a formula be found/used opposed to using a rectangle?
Extension: students will use geoboards to create their own triangles,
measuring and solving their area with the use of rectangles and/or
the hidden formula.
Reflection:
Activity:
! I am excited about
: Id like to learn more about
? A question I have is
Differentiating content:
For diverse learners, the manipulatives and group work will be beneficial for their understanding of the topic. They
will be able to use hands-on manipulatives to help demonstrate the area formula of a triangle. Additionally, if they
are struggling, the peers in their group/knowledgeable others can help explain to the students the relationship
behind the area of the rectangle and the area of the triangle. Also an extension activity is provided for those students
who are exceeding.
Learning Experience V
record,
Tessellated

Students
will
reflect
on
what
they
have
learnt
about
triangles
and
using
triangle
words, the
the different methods used to find their area whilst demonstrating
templates
method
on the board. Once students have demonstrated their understanding
Coloured
for finding
they will be divided into groups.
markers
the area of
The teacher will have 5 individual tessellated triangle templates
Group roles
any
drawn onto large butchers paper placed around the room. Each
Individual
triangle
group will be assigned a template and will be challenged to figure
whiteboards
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Processes in Designing Learning
out the area of each triangle within the tessellated drawing.
Students within group will designate or be given a role helping their
group to complete the task effectively and efficiently. Group work is
the key!!
The students will assist one another to find and record the area of
each triangle. As they calculate the answer, each answer will be
associated with a letter for students to crack the code.
As a group can you create your own? Groups will be challenged to
create their own tessellated template using other shapes e.g.
rectangles and composite shapes to be shared with another group.
Reflection:
Quiz: students will answer 2-4 conceptual questions to show what they
learned. Small individual whiteboards will be used for formative
assessment.
Differentiating content:
Group work
Allocated leadership roles and responsibilities within groups
Hands on activity
Student reflection
Learning Experience VI
solve a
Students will begin the lesson by solving a tangram independently
variety of
problems
or in pairs.
involving
Teacher will discuss with the students the range of shapes used to
the areas
make one large shape.
of
Students will now make a tangram design of their own. With the
rectangles
shapes already cut out ready to go, students will be instructed to
(including
select a range of different shapes to be used to make their own
squares)
individual tangram.

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Tangrams
Rulers
Individual
tangram pieces
Interactive
whiteboard

EMM410 Mathematics in the Primary Years


Processes in Designing Learning
and
triangles

Brainstorm tangram design ideas: a shape, initials, random


pattern, animal, house etc.
Before students start, the teacher will explicitly demonstrate one on
the board, talking through each step. Once the design has been
pieced together the next task is to find the area of each individual
shape and then the whole area of the design. Set out in a table
students will receive a blank copy for them to complete.
Together the class will discuss the order of steps and what
method to follow for those who need assistance.
Reflection:
Students will be provided with an opportunity to show/display their
tangrams.
Did anyone use the same amount of shapes?
If so would the area be the same or different?
Differentiating content:
Hands on activity
Pair work
Explicit demonstration/instruction
Vary the amount of pieces and shapes required e.g. lower students need to use 4 shapes, 3 the same and 1
different
Student reflection
Learning Experience VII
Measuring tape
solve a
Opening class game: one student chooses and measures a surface
Scavenger hunt
variety of
in
the
classroom,
and
calculates
the
area
in
square
centimetres
or
problems
IPad
square metres. The class is told the area measurement and has to
involving
Laptops
guess which object or surface was chosen. Students selected to be
the areas
Tangrams
in may have to measure their area during a break when the class
of
is not in the room.
rectangles
Rotational activities students will be provided with a range of mini
(including
squares)
workshop activities that will allow them to practise, develop and

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and
triangles

demonstrate their learning/understanding with regard to area of


rectangles and triangles.
These activities will be in the form of:
Area scavenger hunt around the classroom
IPad games
http://pbskids.org/cyberchase/math-games/airlinesbuilder/
http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/activities/AreaExp
lorer/
https://www.studyladder.com.au/games/course/mathe
matics-area-646
https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/basicgeometry
Laptop activities
Study ladder
Khan academy
Tangrams
Toward the end of the lesson, the teacher will reflect on the unit of
learning so far discussing with students what they have learnt
following up with a quick discussion and summary of their
assessment task to be conducted next lesson. This time will provide
students with an opportunity to ask any questions and/or clarify any
misconceptions that they may have.
Reflection:
Thumbs up/Thumbs down activity: The teacher will finish the lesson by
posing a range of questions that can be answered thumbs up/down/
sideways to gauge students understanding of area and preparedness for
the assessment task that they will be completing next lesson.

Differentiating content:

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Processes in Designing Learning

Rotational activities
Choice of activity within reason and level
Use of ICT
Student reflection
Learning Experience VIII Summative Assessment
To begin the lesson the class will review and discuss the assessment
activity that they are to complete by the end of the lesson. This will
provide students with another opportunity to have any questions
answered before beginning.
Students will work independently/in small groups creating their mini
zoo.

Assessment
task
Animal/fencing
manipulatives
Camera

Once they have designed their zoo, students will be encouraged to share
their design with others, establishing similarities and differences between
designs. This will allow students to demonstrate their knowledge, skills
and understanding in a peer review environment. Students will be
encouraged to ask questions and make positive and constructive
comments about the design, the shapes used etc.
Differentiating content:
Number of animals and size/shape of enclosures can be differentiated depending on student ability.
Lower level students can choose to present their work using manipulatives to physically create their zoo,
showing working out on a whiteboard whilst the teacher takes photos of their progression.
Small group work
Use of manipulatives
Extension/challenge
Peer review

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Stage 3 Measurement

We Bought

It is your job to design the NEW and

What should it look, soun

Your family has purchased land for thats right, a zoo!! You
Here are some guidelines
The area of the zoo is exa
It must incorporate separate
Elephants
Orang-utan
Giraffes and Ze
Meerkats
Lions and Tig
All enclosures should be a different shape a
Your map should be drawn/designed on grid paper using an appropriate scale as well as must s
If you have time, your map may include other fun features such a

Checklist
Your work should clearly show:

A scaled map of your zoo on grid paper, with each section out
The correct dimensions, perimeter and area for each section,

A different shape for each enclosure with the size of the sectio

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Assessment Rubric : We Bought a Zoo


Criteria
Reasoning;
Applying
concepts
shows
understanding
of linear
dimensions,
perimeter,
area, and their
relationships
by creating
appropriate
areas for each
animal
reflecting their
size and
movement.
Accuracy of
procedures
estimates,
measures and
records the
dimensions of
each section to
scale

shows extensive
knowledge and
thorough
understanding
by:
choosing
appropriate
procedures
selecting
reasonable
dimensions
and areas
for all
animals

shows
shows sound
shows partial
understanding
understanding
understanding
by;
by:
by:
choosing
usually
attempting
appropriate
choosing
to choose
procedures,
appropriate
appropriate
in most
procedures
procedures
instances
selecting
selects
selecting
reasonable
reasonable
reasonable
dimensions
dimensions
dimensions
and areas
and areas
and areas
for most of
for some
for majority
the animals
animals
of the
animals

shows limited
understanding;
may be unable
to:
choose
appropriate
procedures
select
reasonable
dimensions
and areas
for each
animal

accurate and
precise; no errors
or omissions in:
estimating,
measuring
and

generally
accurate; few
errors or
omissions in:
estimating,
measuring

limited accuracy;
major errors or
omissions in:
estimating,
measuring
and

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relatively
accurate;
occasional minor
errors or
omissions in:
estimating,

partially
accurate;
frequent minor
errors or
omissions in:
estimating,

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Processes in Designing Learning

calculates and
records the
perimeter and
area of each
section using
the
appropriate
units of
measurement.

Problem
solving
strategies
uses
appropriate
strategies,
including
estimating, to
design a zoo
that provides
accurately
scaled
enclosures and

recording
dimensions
calculating
and
recording
perimeter
and area
using the
correct
formula
representin
g the
design on
an
accurately
scaled
map

and
recording
dimensions
calculating
and
recording
perimeter
and area
using the
correct
formula
representin
g the
design on
an
accurately
scaled map

measuring
and
recording
dimensions
calculating
and
recording
perimeter
and area
using
appropriate
formulas
representin
g the
design on a
scaled map

measuring
and
recording
dimensions
calculating
and
recording
perimeter
and area
using a
formula
representin
g the
design on a
scaled map

designs a
creative zoo that
demonstrates
innovation;
includes required
features (realistic
size); fits within
required
dimensions; may
introduce some
additional

designs an
imaginative zoo
that includes the
required features
and fits within
the required
dimensions;
generally
consistent and of
realistic size

designs an
appropriate zoo
that includes
most of the
required features
and fits within
the required
dimensions;
sections may be
of unrealistic size
for the animals

designs a zoo
that includes
most of the
required features
and is close to
fitting within the
required scaled
dimensions;
several sections
are of unrealistic
size for the

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recording
dimensions
calculating
and
recording
perimeter
and area
using
formulas
representin
g the
design on a
scaled map

Unable to create
a scaled map;
may omit
features, exceed
given size, or be
unrealistic

EMM410 Mathematics in the Primary Years


Processes in Designing Learning
areas, varied
by shape and
size, for each
animal within
the given
dimensions (1
hectare)
Communicating
explains
reasoning and
procedures
clearly, using
appropriate
mathematical
terminology
presents work
clearly,
including
appropriate
symbols (for
example m,
m2 )

complexity

explains
reasoning and
procedures
clearly, precisely,
and confidently

presents work
clearly and
precisely, using
appropriate
symbols

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explains
reasoning and
procedures
clearly

presents work
clearly; includes
appropriate
symbols

concerned

animals
concerned

explains
reasoning and
procedures

partially explains
reasoning and
procedures

presents work
with clarity;
mostly using and
including
appropriate
symbols

presents work
with some
clarity; uses
some appropriate
symbols

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limited
understanding is
evident; unable
to explain
reasoning and
procedures
clearly
work is often
unclear; rarely
uses appropriate
symbols.

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References
Bauer, N., Harris, G., Toohey, A., & Walker, K. (2012). Upper primary:
Targeting maths: Measurement. Sydney: Blake Education
Board of Studies NSW (2012). Mathematics K-10 Syllabus. Sydney:
Board of Studies NSW.
Siemon, D., Beswick, K., Brady, K., Clark, J., Faragher, R., & Warren, E.
(2011). Teaching mathematics: Foundations to middle years.
Melbourne. Oxford University Press.

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