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Chapter 2

Methodology
Milagros Rabe,M.D., M.S., Ph.D.

Steps to doing the methodology


chapter
Determine the research design
Create your research gathering tool
validate

Write chapter 2 narrative

Chapter 2: Methodology
Research Locale
Identify the area where the research will be conducted

Research Subjects
Give the characteristics of your subjects
Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Research Tools
Describe your tool, give the index of reliability (if
questionnaire); how your tool is validated (if not a standard
tool)

Plan of Analysis
Describe how you will analyze the data;
If quantitative; give the confidence level at which you will consider if
significant
If 95% confidence only 5% error; alpha= 0.05; significant if p value< 0.05

If qualitative how will you ensure objectivity of the data analysis


Verification with interviewees about themes extracted
Bracketing self reflection

Research Design
Approach or strategy
Quantitative
Qualitative

Plan of action = design

Road map to a research proposal


theory

literature
Research
area

topic
context

Research
questions

hypotheses
What data
are required
to test
hypotheses

What data do I need


to answer questions

Design
Data
Collection

Data
Analysis

Empirical stage

Answer
questions
Modified from : Punch, K. (2006) Developing
Effective Research Proposals 2nd ed.

Variables
Dependent vs independent
Quantitative vs. categorical

Continuous vs. discrete


Confounding or intervening

Approaches to a research
problem:

Quantitative Research

Qualitative Research

Generation of models,
theories, hypothesis and
refinement/ testing of
hypothesis
establishes
relationship/causation
development of
instruments and
methods of
measurement
experimental control

Generation of theories
describes meaning
based on multiple
realities based on
subjects perceptions
less stringent control

Basic Quantitative Research


Designs
Descriptive
Characteristics of phenomenon or event
Knowledge of the nature of the subject of study
Infer findings from a sample to the reference
population

Analytic
Observational
Test relationship between study variables without
manipulation of the variables

Experimental
Artificial manipulation of the study variables to test a
hypothesis

Strategies: Observational
analytic studies

Cross sectional study

relate prevalence of the independent variable


(cause) to the dependent variable (effect)

Case control study


Compare frequencies of the independent
variable (cause) among those affected by
(have) and those who do are unaffected by (do
not have) the dependent variable

Cohort
Compare the occurrence of the dependent
variable or effect between those with and
those without the independent variable (cause)
under investigation

Choose the appropriate design


Objective of research to

Study design

know more about phenomenon

Descriptive study

Determine prevalence of outcomes in varies


groups; determine relationship between factor
and outcome based on prevalence

Cross sectional
study

Test hypothesis of relationship between


variables but not enough knowledge on
subject/ effect is rare

Case control study

Test hypothesis of relationship between


variables and enough evidence exists that
hypothesis is most likely true

Cohort study

Evaluate the efficacy and/or effectiveness of


an intervention; to strengthen the evidence on
the relationship between the variables under
study

Experimental study

Sample selection
Descrip
-tive

Cross
sectiona
l

Case
control

Cohort Experimental

Adequate sample
size

Representative

Control group

Similarity of
comparison groups

Requirements

Adequate sample size :

Counts
One population problem (descriptive)
n= k2pq/d2
Two different populations (analytic)
n=k22pq/d2
where:

n= sample size
k= reliability coefficient based on level of confidence
p= estimate frequency of event
q = 1-p
d= max amt of deviation of from true frequency or
Min difference between frequencies to be detected
(in 2 populations)

Adequate sample size:


measurements
One population study (descriptive)
n=k2SD2/d2
Two population study (analytic)
n=k2 2SD2/d2
n= sample size
k= reliability coefficient based on level of
confidence
SD = standard deviation
d= max amt of deviation of from true mean or
minimum difference between means to be
detected (in 2 populations)

Slovins formula for Sample size


determination

n= sample size
N= population size
e= margin of error

Sample size calculation

Survey of UAP students on their study habits


N = total number of UAP students = 2,000
e= 5%
N= (2000)/ [1+((2000)*(0.05)2))]
= 2000/[1+(2000*0.0025)]
=2000/1+5
=333 - divide this proportionately amongst
1 to 5th years so that each year is represented
to the same degree = proportionate

Types of data
Qualitative
Nominal- categories based on qualitative
classes; eg. Gender, race

Quantitative
Ordinal classes can be ranked; eg.
Nutritional status,
Interval zero point is arbitrary; eg. Temp,
exam score
Ratio- zero point is fixed; eg. Age, height

Data Analysis
Based on:
Objectives and research design
Scale of measurement/type of data

Approaches to data analysis:


Quantitative Research
Statistical; deductive approach

Qualitative Research
Inductive approach
Qualitative analysis techniques (eg. content analysis;
thematic analysis)

Qualitative Research Designs


1. Case Study: a single person, program, event,
process, institution, organization, social group or
phenomenon is investigated within a specified
time frame, using a combination of appropriate
data collection devices (Creswell, 1994, p. 12).

2. Ethnography: Rooted in anthropology, study of


an intact group, logically defined, in its natural
context for a sustained time interval. The
researcher is typically an observer or a participant
observer (Creswell, 1994, p. 11).

http://charlesdennishale.com/books/eets_ap/9_Qualita
tive_Research_Designs.pdf

Qualitative Research Designs


3. Phenomenology: investigates an individuals or groups
perception of reality as he or she constructs it; realities may
be expressed as an event, program, relationship, emotion,
etc; rooted in philosophy.
4. Focus Groups: Focus groups are panels, facilitated by a
moderator, who meet for a specified time period to exchange
perspectives, knowledge, and/or opinions on a particular
topic; rarely more than a dozen members.

5. Historical Research: relies on records, diaries, oral


histories, photographs, and other artifacts to describe,
analyze, and explain past events, philosophies, etc.
http://charlesdennishale.com/books/eets_ap/9_Qualitative_Res
earch_Designs.pdf

Qualitative Data Analysis


Interim analysis = collecting data and
analyzing in a single research
Memoing = recording what you are
learning from the data (reflect on what it
means)
Encoding transcribe data and code into
categories; segmenting the data into
categories of meanings;

Data gathering procedures


1. Survey Questionnaire
2. Observation checklist
3. Interview Questions

The Steps in a Survey Project


1.Establish the goals of the project - What you
want to learn?
2.Determine your sample - Who you will ask?
3.Choose interviewing methodology - How you
will ask?
4.Create your questionnaire - What you will ask?
5.Pre-test the questionnaire, - Test the questions.
6.Analyze the data - Produce the reports.

Guidelines for making


questionnaire

Use correct grammar


Make sure directions are unequivocal
Group questions related to each other by
topic
Group questions according to form
Make sure options are also unequivocal
Do not forget option: ____others- pls. specify
Make sure order of questions is logical
Keep it short and clear
Ask just enough questions to find answers
but not tire the respondent

Closed ended questions


The respondents are given a list of predetermined responses
from which to choose their answer

The list of responses should include every possible response


and the meaning of the responses should not overlap

An example of a close-ended survey question would be,


"Please rate how strongly you agree or disagree with the
following statement:
'I feel good about my work on the job.' Do you strongly agree,
somewhat agree, neither agree nor disagree, somewhat
disagree, or strongly disagree?"
A Likert scale, which is used in the example above, is a
commonly used set of responses for closed-ended questions

Closed-ended questions are usually preferred in survey


research because of the ease of counting the frequency of
each response

Rated Responses
A popular approach in the social sciences is to use Likert
scales such as the example below:
(Circle the number under the initials that applies. VI=Very
important; I=Important; N=Neutral; U=Unimportant;
VU=Very Unimportant).

Indicate your view of the following aspects of a camping


holiday

Community life
Low cost
Outdoor life
Ability to move around

VI

I N

U VU

1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2

4
4
4
4

3
3
3
3

5
5
5
5

Note that each of the four rows will form a separate variable
that contains the appropriate numeric code from 1 to 5.

Double-barreled questions
ask two questions in one, should never be
used in a survey.
An example of a double barreled question is,
"Please rate how strongly you agree or
disagree with the following statement:
'I feel good about my work on the job, and I get
along well with others at work.'"

This question is problematic because survey


respondents are asked to give one response
for two questions

Open ended questions


Usually used for interviews
Not suitable for survey--- cannot give
follow up questions; cannot clarify
questions

Whom to survey or interview


If quantitative study
determine target population;
compute sample size
create data gathering tool
pilot test tool revise if needed
Conduct survey; random sample
Response rate?

If Qualitative study
Determine key informants
Data saturation

How to interview
Letter of request for schedule
Interview questions

Use appropriate attire


Congenial demeanor
Use language level of respondent
Do not ask personal questions unless this is
the topic of research
May ask further clarificatory questions if needed

Show respect for the subjects


Thank subjects

Interview Questions: example


How well do you get along with people and
influence others?
How do you cope with stress and
disappointment?
Do you have the skills you say you bring to
the job?
Are you a self-starter and easy to manage?
Please describe specific instances.

Observations
Use of checklist
Use of narrative observations no
explanations; just write observations

Reminders
Review higher-order
concerns:
Clear communication of
ideas
Organization of paper
Paragraph structure
grammar
Unity & Cohesion
Modified from
Http:// owl.english.purdue.edu

References:
American Psychological Association. (2001).
Publication Manual 5th ed. Washington DC:
author.
Calderon, J.F. and Gonzales, E.C.(1993). Methods of
Research and Thesis Writing. Mandaluyong City:
National Bookstore, Inc.
Glatthorn, A. A. & Joyner, R. L. (2005). Writing the
Winning Thesis or Dissertation: A Step by Step
Guide. 2nd ed. California: Corwin Press
Marshall C. & Rossman G. B. (1999). Designing
Qualitative Research. 3rd ed. California: Sage
Publications

References:
Menasche, L. (1997). Writing a Research Paper,
Revised Edition. Michigan: University of
Michigan Press.
Sanchez, Jr., F.S., Morelos, S.I., Baltazar, J.C. &
Peralta, P.C.(1996). Research Methods inHealth
and Medicine, 3rd ed. Manila: PCHRD-DOST.
Thomas, S.J. (1999). Designing Surveys That Work.
California: Corwin Press
Zulueta, F.M. and Costales, Jr. N.E.B. (2003)
Methods of Research Thesis-Writing and Applied
Statistics. Mandaluyong City: National Bookstore,
Inc.

References

www.apa.org
www.aaa.org
http://owl.english.purdue.edu
The Writing Center. Cleveland State University
website
University of Wisconsin- Madison. Writing
Center Handbook
http://charlesdennishale.com/books/eets_ap/9_
Qualitative_Research_Designs.pdf(electronic
version)