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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol 367 (2013) pp 397-400

(2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland


doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.367.397

Online: 2013-08-16

An Optimal MPPT Algorithm for Wind Turbine Based on Fuzzy Control


Hongling Wang1, a, Wu Wang2, b
1

School of Electrical and information Engineering, Xu Chang University, Xuchang, China

School of Electrical and information Engineering, Xu Chang University, Xuchang, China


a

jhwlz@tom.com, bxcu_wangwu@sina.com

Keywords: maximum power point tracking (MPPT); fuzzy control; variable perturb step; wind
turbine; simulation

Abstract. Traditional MPPT control strategy for variable speed wind turbine was dependent on
turbines parameters, the algorithm was difficulty in realize system. A new MPPT based on fuzzy
control was presented to improve the efficiency of wind power generation system. This MPPT control
strategy adjusts the proportion coefficient of power curve according to the operation states and change
perturb step by power characteristic point slop, the power characteristic of wind turbine was analyzed
and the strategy of dynamic power curve tracking mode was described, with fuzzy controller designed
for this MPPT tracking, the tracking speed was improved, the oscillation around MPP was reduced,
the control performance confirmed by MATLAB simulation.
Introduction
The large consumption of conventional fossil energy brings about serious environmental issues such
as greenhouse gases, acid rain, air pollution; the exploitation of wind power will improve the energy
structure and ease the power shortage, which is an effective approach to solving the world energy
crisis, so the turbine unit capacity is increasing rapidly [1]. But because of the random of the wind and
the effect of pneumatic, fluctuation, intermittence and uncertain are the characteristics of wind energy
which cause wind energy output power fluctuation, besides, the effectiveness could be further
downgraded with wind energy conversion system (WECS) uncertainties [2]. A MPPT control is
required to achieve optimum wind energy utilization and maintain the maximal aerodynamic
efficiency. In order to capture the maximum wind energy, the MPPT control was adopted in variable
speed wind energy conversion system, MPPT was classified into three control method, one is tip
speed ratio (TSR), the main idea of TSR was calculating optimum speed by measure wind speed and
the characteristic of wind turbine with wind variable, adjusting the generator speed operate on
optimum speed, so the maximum energy captured. The disadvantages of this method was the wind
speed and rotor speed should be measured, which was hard in reality system, also the anemometer
was expensive and adds extra cost to the system with control complexity; the other method is power
signal feedback (PSF) control, in this method, the maximum power curve should be pre-calculated,
with an encoder or tachogenerator for speed measure, adjusting the power to tracking the maximum
power, as for the shortcomings of these two method, the hill climb searching (HSC) was proposed [3].
HCS control on the other hand does not require any prior knowledge about the system and is
absolutely independent of the turbine, generator and wind characteristics, however, tow serious
problems with the HCS method are the speed-efficiency tradeoff and the wrong directionality under
rapid wind change, also the algorithm and control procedure are commonly complex, which make it
difficult to execute [4].
Fuzzy control has many advantages such as control with mathematical models not needed, can use
expert information and knowledge, and with strong robustness, on the other hand, in practical control
equipment the controller parameters are hard to get and lack of systematic analytical method, the
fuzzy-control-based MPPT scheme is good, but somewhat complex to implement, the MPPT control
strategy based on fuzzy control was presented, in the control process, the power coefficient was
adjusted with the relative relation of operation point and maximum power point, the advantages of
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Mechanics, Simulation and Control III

this control strategy is less dependent on wind turbines parameters, the new algorithm could improve
the tracking speed, reduced the oscillation around the maximum power point and improve the
efficiency of WECS [5].
MPPT dynamic power curve tracking with fuzzy control
In the wind turbines mechanical power-rotor speed and maximum power curve, at different wind
speed, there was a optimal rotor speed for maximum power tracking, the connection of maximum
power point was maximum power curve, if the turbines rotor speed was controlled at optimal rotor
speed, then the maximum power tracking realized.
The mechanical power extracted by a wind turbine can be given by [6]:
P = 0.5 R 2C p ( , ) 3

(1)

Where, is the air density, R is the radius of turbine blades, is the wind velocity, C p ( , ) is the
power coefficient which is a nonlinear function of the tip speed ratio and the blade pitch angle, the tip
speed ration was defined as:
= R v

(2)

Then the maximum power output by wind turbine is given by:


3
3
3
P max = R5C p maxopt
/ 2opt
= koptopt

(3)

And kopt is a constant determined by the wind turbine characteristics.


As in (1), the coefficient kopt was an important parameter for mechanical power, so, by adjusting
kopt subtly, so the rotor speed was changing dynamically, the rules for kopt adjusting can be given as
follows.

dP
and d , if m
> 0 and d < 0 , the current operation point at the left
d
dt
d
dt
side of MPP, the rotor speed has the trend of decrease, so the rotor speed should be improved by kopt
Calculating

dPm

> 0 and d > 0 , the current operation point also at the left side of MPP, but the
d
dt
rotor speed has the trend of increase, the rotor speed should be improved by kopt reduced, but in these
reduced, if

dPm

two mode, the kopt can taken different values; if

dPm

< 0 , the current operation point at the right

side of MPP, which also can be analyzed [7].


Fuzzy control was widely used in nonlinear system and uncertain complex system, as for kopt
adjusting above mentioned, fuzzy control is a suitable adoption, here, a double input-one output fuzzy
dP
controller was designed, the input was selected as m
and d , the output selected as k for
d
dt
kopt subtle adjusting. The fuzzy set universe of discourse with five fuzzy subsets. The universe of
, d and k with [NB, NM, NS, Z, PS, PM, PB], as for input fuzzy set, the
d
dt
triangle membership function was adopted with discrete collection. k = {3, 2, 1, 0,1, 2,3} ,
dPm
= d = {6, 4, 2, 0, 2, 4, 6} , the membership function as shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2, the
d
dt
dP
is
fuzzy control rules as shown in Tab.1, which can described with fuzzy language such as, if m
d
NB and is d NB the is k PB.
dt
discourse for

dPm

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 367

399

membership of inputs
NM

NS

PS

PM

mermbership of output
NB
1

PB

0.8

Degree of membership

Degree of membership

NB
1

0.6

0.4

0
u

PS

PM

PB

-2

-1

0
e

0.4

0
-2

0.6

0.2

-4

NS

0.8

0.2

-6

NM

-3

Fig. 1 Membership design for inputs

Fig. 2 Membership design for output

Tab.1 Fuzzy control rules


d
dPm

NB
NM
NS
Z
PS
PM
PB

NB

NM

NS

PB
PB
PM
PM
PM
PS
PS

PB
PM
PS
PS
PS
PM
PM

PM
PM
PS
PS
PS
PM
PM

dt
Z
k
PS
PS
PS
Z
NS
NM
NB

PS

PM

PB

PM
PM
NM
NS
NS
NM
NB

PM
PM
NM
NM
NM
NM
NB

NS
NS
NB
NB
NB
NB
NB

Simulation of MPPT with fuzzy control


The simulation was taken under MATLAB platform [8], the fuzzy control rules was taken as Tab.1, a
squirrel cage induction generator was taken for simulation, the radius of the turbine R = 2.5m , air
density = 1.25kg/m 2 , the optimal tip speed ration opt = 7 and the power coefficient C p = 0.47 .
0.5

0.45

7
0.4

0.35
0.3

Cp

5
4

0.25
0.2

0.15
0.1

0.05

1
0

50

100

150
t/s

200

250

Fig. 3 Curve of tip speed ratio

300

50

100

150
t/s

200

250

300

Fig. 4 Curve of power coefficient changing

With the new MPPT control strategy, the tip speed ratio curve as shown in Fig.3 and the power
coeffiecient changing curve as shown in Fig.4, the tracking performance as shown in Fig.5 and the the
torque characteristic curve as shown in Fig.6, the simulation result shows that fuzzy control was a

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Mechanics, Simulation and Control III

suitable control strategy for MPPT, the oscillation at MPP was resolved and the conversion efficiency
of wind energy was enhanced.
35

300

Wind power tracking feature

30

250

25
200

w T (Nm)

20

15

150

100

10
50

50

100

150
t/s

200

250

300

Fig. 5 Wind power tracking performance

10

15

20

25

l (rad/s)

Fig. 6. Torque characteristic curve

Acknowledgment
It is a project supported by Foundation of office of education, He Nan Province (2011B470005,
12A470007) and Natural Science Foundation of He Nan Province (122102210416112102210339).

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Mechanics, Simulation and Control III


10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.367

An Optimal MPPT Algorithm for Wind Turbine Based on Fuzzy Control


10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.367.397