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Summer Training Report




With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to

convey my thanks to complete the training here. I do extend my
heartfelt thanks to Mr. GD Sharma for providing me this
opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organization.
I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff of BTPS
NTPC for their co- operation and guidance that has helped me a
lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working under
them and I will always be indebted of them for this value addition
in me.
I would also like to thank the training in charge of NORTHCAP
University and all the faculty members of Mechanical Engineering
Department for their effort of constant co- operation, which have
been a significant factor in the accomplishment of my industrial



This is to certify that UMANG GULATI, student of 2rd

B.Tech Mechanical Engineering, NORTHCAP UNIVERSITY.,
GURGAON, has successfully completed his Industrial Training
at National Thermal Power Corporation, New Delhi for 8 week
from 30th MAY to 23rd July 2016. He has completed the whole
training as per the training report submitted by him.

Badarpur,New Delhi




NTPC is Indias largest energy conglomerate with roots planted way back in 1975 to
accelerate power development in India. Since then it has established itself as the
dominant power major with presence in the entire value chain of the power generation
business. From fossil fuels it has forayed into generating electricity via hydro, nuclear
and renewable energy sources. This foray will play a major role in lowering its carbon
footprint by reducing green house gas emissions. To strengthen its core business, the
corporation has diversified into the fields of consultancy, power trading, training of
power professionals, rural electrification, ash utilisation and coal mining as well.
NTPC became a Maharatna company in May 2010, one of the only four companies to
be awarded this status. NTPC was ranked 400th in the 2016, Forbes Global 2000
ranking of the Worlds biggest companies.

Growth of NTPC installed capacity and generation

The total installed capacity of the company is 47,178 MW (including JVs) with 18 coal
based, 7 gas based stations and 1 Hydro based station. 9 Joint Venture stations are coal
based and 9 renewable energy projects. The capacity will have a diversified fuel mix
and by 2032, non fossil fuel based generation capacity shall make up nearly 28% of
NTPCs portfolio.
NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. Although the company has
17.73% of the total national capacity, it contributes 24% of total power generation due
to its focus on high efficiency.
In October 2004, NTPC launched its Initial Public Offering (IPO) consisting of 5.25%
as fresh issue and 5.25% as offer for sale by the Government of India. NTPC thus
became a listed company in November 2004 with the Government holding 89.5% of the
equity share capital. In February 2010, the Shareholding of Government of India was
reduced from 89.5% to 84.5% through a further public offer. Government of India has
further divested 9.5% shares through OFS route in February 2013. With this, GOI's
holding in NTPC has reduced from 84.5% to 75%. The rest is held by Institutional
Investors, banks and Public.

NTPC is not only the foremost power generator; it is also among the great places to
work. The company is guided by the People before Plant Load Factor mantra which
is the template for all its human resource related policies. NTPC has been ranked as
6th Best Company to work for in India among the Public Sector Undertakings and
Large Enterprises for the year 2014, by the Great Places to Work Institute, India
Chapter in collaboration with The Economic Times.
Installed Capacity
Present installed capacity of NTPC is 47,178 MW (including 6,966 MW through
JVs/Subsidiaries) comprising of 43 NTPC Stations (18 Coal based stations, 7 combined
cycle gas/liquid fuel based stations, 1 Hydro based station), 9 Joint Venture stations (8
coal based and one gas based) and 9 renewable energy projects.





Gas/Liquid Fuel




Renewable energy projects (Solar PV)





Coal & Gas





NTPC Owned

Owned By JVs/Subsidiaries



Badarpur thermal power station started working in 1973 with a single 95 mw unit.
There were 2 more units (95 MW each) installed in next 2 consecutive years. Now it
has total five units with total capacity of 720 MW. Ownership of BTPS was
transferred to NTPC with effect from 01.06.2006 through GOI s Gazette
Notification .Given below are the details of unit with the year they are installed.

Badarpur, New Delhi - 110 044


(STD-011) 26949523



Installed Capacity

720 MW

Derated Capacity

705 MW


New Delhi

Coal Source

Jharia Coal Fields

Water Source

Agra Canal

Beneficiary States


unit Sizes

3X95 MW

units Commissioned

unit I- 95 MW - July 1973

unit II- 95 MW August1974
unit III- 95 MW March1975

Transfer of BTPS to NTPC

unit IV - 210 MW December1978

was transferred to NTPC with
unitV - 210 of
- December
effect from 01.06.2006 through GOI s Gazette


The basic steps in the generation of electricity from coal involves following steps:
Coal to steam
Steam to mechanical power
Mechanical power to electrical power
Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling plant. This Coal is

up to the raw coal bunkers with the help of belt conveyors. Coal is

transported to Bowl mills by Coal Feeders. The coal is pulveri ed in the Bowl
Mill, where it is ground to powder form. The mill consists of a round metallic
table on which coal particles fall. This table is rotated with the help of a motor.
There are three large steel rollers, which are spaced 120 apart. When there is no
coal, these rollers do not rotate but when the coal is fed to the table it packs up
between roller and the table and these forces the rollers to rotate. Coal is
crushed by the crushing action between the rollers and the rotating table. This
crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot
and cold air mixture from P.A. Fan.
P.A. Fan takes atmospheric air, a part of which is sent to Air-Preheaters for
heating while a part goes directly to the mill for temperature control. Atmospheric
air from F.D. Fan is heated in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion
Water from the boiler feed pump passes through economizer and reaches the
boiler drum. Water from the drum passes through down comers and goes to the
bottom ring header. Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four

sides of the furnace. Due to heat and density difference, the water rises up in the
water wall tubes. Water is partly converted to steam as it rises up in the furnace.
This steam and water mixture is again taken to thee boiler drum where the steam is
separated from


Water follows the same path while the steam is sent to superheaters for
superheating. The superheaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is
superheated (540C) and finally it goes to the turbine.
Flue gases from the furnace are extracted by induced draft fan, which maintains
balance draft in the furnace (-5 to -10 mm of wcl) with forced draft fan. These
flue gases emit their heat energy to various super heaters in the pent house and
finally pass through air-preheaters an goes to electrostatic precipitators where
the ash particles

are extracted.

Electrostatic Precipitator consists of metal

plates, which are electrically charged. Ash particles are attracted on to these
plates, so that they do not pass through the chimney to pollute the atmosphere.
Regular mechanical hammer blows cause the accumulation of ash to fall to the
bottom of the precipitator where they are collected in a hopper for disposal.


From the boiler, a steam pipe conveys steam to the turbine through a stop valve
(which can be used to shut-off the steam in case of emergency) and through control
valves that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. Stop valve and
control valves are located in a steam chest and a governor, driven from the main
turbine shaft, operates the control valves to regulate the amount of steam used.
(This depends upon the speed of the turbine and the amount of electricity required
from the generator).
Steam from the control valves enters the high pressure cylinder of the turbine, where
it passes through a ring of stationary blades fixed to the cylinder wall. These act as
nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on a disc
secured to the turbine shaft. The second ring turns the shafts as a result of the force
of steam. The stationary and moving blades together constitute a 'stage of turbine
and in practice many stages are necessary, so that the cylinder contains a number
of rings of stationary blades with rings of moving blades arranged between them.
The steam passes through each stage in turn until it reaches the end of the high-

pressure cylinder and in its passage some of its heat energy is changed into
mechanical energy.
The steam leaving the high pressure cylinder goes back to the boiler for reheating
and returns by a further pipe to the intermediate pressure cylinder. Here it passes
through another series of stationary and moving blades.
Finally, the steam is taken to the low-pressure cylinders, each of which enters at
the centre flowing outwards in opposite directions through the rows of turbine
blades through an arrangement called the 'double flow - to the extremities of the
cylinder. As the steam gives up its heat energy to drive the turbine, its
temperature and pressure fall and it expands. Because of this expansion the
blades are much larger and longer towards the low pressure ends of the turbine
As the blades of turbine rotate, the shaft of the generator, which is coupled to
that of the turbine, also rotates. It results in rotation of the coil of the generator,
which causes induced electricity to be produce.

The thermal (steam) power plant uses a dual (vapour+ liquid) phase cycle. It is a
close cycle to enable the working fluid (water) to be used again and again. The

cycle used is Rankine Cycle modified to include superheating of steam,

regenerative feed water heating and reheating of steam
On large turbines, it becomes economical to increase the cycle efficiency by
using reheat, which is a way of partially overcoming temperature limitations.
By returning partai lly expanded steam, to a reheat, the average temperature at
which the heat is added, is increased and, by expanding this reheated steam to the
remaining stages of the turbine, the exhaust wetness is considerably less than it
would otherwise be conversely, if the maximum tolerable wetness is allowed, the
initial pressure of the steam can be appreciably increased.
Bleed Steam Extraction: For regenerative system, nos. of non-regulated
extractions is taken from HP, IP turbine.
Regenerative heating of the boiler feed water is widely used in modern power
plants; the effect being to increase the average temperature at which heat is added to
the cycle, thus improving the cycle efficiency.
Thermal cycle efficiency is affected by following:

Initial Steam Pressure.

Initial Steam Temperature.

Whether reheat is used or not, and if used reheat pressure and temperature.

Condenser pressure.

Regenerative feed water heating.

The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat into work.
The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses water as
the working fluid. This cycle generates about 80% of all electric power used
throughout the world, including virtually all solar thermal, biomass, coal and
nuclear power plants. It is named after William John Macquorn Rankine, a Scottish

A Rankine cycle describes a model of the operation of steam heat engines most
commonly found in power generation plants. Common heat sources for power plants
using the Rankine cycle are coal, natural gas, oil, and nuclear.
The Rankine cycle is sometimes referred to as a practical Carnot cycle as, when an
efficient turbine is used, the TS diagram will begin to resemble the Carnot cycle.
The main difference is that a pump is used to pressurize liquid instead of gas. This
requires about 1/100th (1%) as much energy as that compressing a gas in a
compressor (as in the Carnot cycle).
The efficiency of a Rankine cycle is usually limited by the working fluid.

the pressure going super critical the temperature range the cycle can

operate over is quite small, turbine entry temperatures are typically 565C (the
creep limit of stainless steel) and condenser temperatures are around 30C. This
gives a theoretical Carnot efficiency of around 63% compared with an actual

efficiency of 42% for a modern coal-fired power station. This low turbine entry
temperature (compared with a gas turbine) is why the Rankine cycle is often
used as a bottoming cycle in combined cycle gas turbine power stations.
The working fluid in a Rankine cycle follows a closed loop and is re-used
constantly. The water vapor and entrained droplets often seen billowing from
power stations is generated by the cooling systems (not from the closed loop
Rankine power cycle) and represents the waste heat that could not be converted to
useful work.
Note that cooling towers operate using the latent heat of vaporization of the
cooling fluid. The white billowing clouds that form in cooling tower operation
are the result


water droplets which are entrained in the cooling tower

airflow; it is not, as commonly thought, steam. While many substances could be

used in the Rankine cycle, water is usually the fluid of choice due to its
favorable properties, such as nontoxic and unreactive chemistry, abundance, and
low cost, as well as its thermodynamic properties.
One of the principal advantages it holds over other cycles is that during the
compression stage relatively little work is required to drive the pump, due to the
working fluid being in its liquid phase at this point. By condensing the fluid to
liquid, the work required by the pump will only consume approximately 1% to 3%
of the turbine power and so give a much higher efficiency for a real cycle.
The benefit of this is lost somewhat due to the lower heat addition temperature.
Gas turbines, for







1500C. Nonetheless, the efficiencies of steam cycles and gas turbines are fairly
well matched.


Ts diagram of a typical Rankine cycle operating between pressures of 0.06bar and

50ba.r There are four processes in the Rankine cycle, each changing the state of the
working fluid. These states are identified by number in the diagram to the right

Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure, as the fluid is a
liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy.


Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant
pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapour.


Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine, generating power.This


decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation may occur.
Process 4-1: The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a
constant pressure and temperature to become a saturated liquid. The pressure and
temperature of the condenser is fixed by the temperature of the cooling coils as the fluid
is undergoing a phase-change.
In an ideal Rankine cycle the pump and turbine would be isentropic, i.e., the pump
and turbine would generate no entropy and hence maximize the net work output.
Processes 1-2 and 3-4 would be represented by vertical lines on the Ts diagram and
more closely resemble that of the Carnot cycle.

The Rankine cycle shown here prevents the vapor ending up in the superheat region
after the expansion in the turbine, which reduces the energy removed by the condensers.

In a real Rankine cycle, the compression by the pump and the expansion in the
turbine are not isentropic. In other words, these processes are non-reversible and
entropy is increased during the two processes. This somewhat increases the power
required by the pump and decreases the power generated by the turbine.
In particular the efficiency of the steam turbine will be limited by water droplet
formation. As the water condenses, water droplets hit the turbine blades at high
speed causing pitting and erosion, gradually decreasing the life of turbine blades
and efficiency of the turbine. The easiest way to overcome this problem is by
superheating the steam. On the Ts diagram above, state 3 is above a two phase
region of steam and water so after expansion the steam will be very wet. By
superheating, state 3 will move to the right of the diagram and hence produce a
dryer steam after expansion.


In this variation, two turbines work in series. The first accepts vapor from the boiler at
high pressure. After the vapor has passed through the first turbine, it re-enters the
boiler and is reheated before passing through a second, lower pressure turbine. Among
other advantages, this prevents the vapor from condensing during its expansion which
can seriously damage the turbine blades, and improves the efficiency of the cycle.

The regenerative Rankine cycle is so named because after emerging from

thecondenser (possibly as a subcooled liquid) the working fluid is heated by steam
tapped from the hot portion of the cycle. On the diagram shown, the fluid at 2 is mixed
with the fluid at 4 (both at the same pressure) to end up with the saturated liquid at 7.
The Regenerative Rankine cycle (with minor variants) is commonly used in real power
Another variation is where 'bleed steam' from between turbine stages is sent
tofeedwater heaters to preheat the water on its way from the condenser to the boiler.


The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft (15 m) on a side and 130 ft (40 m) tall. Its
walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches (60 mm) in
diameter. Pulveri ed coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four
corners and it rapidly burns, forming a large fireball at the centre. The thermal radiation
of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler
perimeter. The water circulation is typically driven by pumps. As the water in the boiler
circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 370 C and 22.1MPa. It is separated
from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace.

Boiler side of badarpur thermal power station new delhi

The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest
part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace. Here the steam is superheated to
1,000 F (540C) to prepare it for the turbine. The steam generating boiler has to

Furnace is primary part of boiler where the chemical energy of the fuel is converted to
thermal energy by combustion.
Steam and water Drum : The boiler drum forms a part of the circulation system of the
boiler. The drum serves two functions, the first and primary one being that of separating
steam from the mixture of water and steam discharged into it. Secondly, the drum
houses all equipments used for purification of steam after being separated from water.
This purification equipment is commonly referred to as the Drum Internals
The function of steam drum internals is to separate the water from the steam generated in
the furnace walls and to reduce the dissolved solid contents of the steam below the
prescribed limit of 1 ppm and also take care of the sudden change of steam demand for
The secondary stage of two opposite banks of closely spaced thin corrugated sheets,
which direct the steam and force the remaining entertained water against the
corrugated plates. Since the velocity is relatively low this water does not get picked up
again but runs down the plates and off the second stage of the two steam outlets.
From the secondary separators the steam flows upwards to the series of screen dryers,
extending in layers across the length of the drum. These screens perform the final stage
of the separation.
Once water inside the boiler or steam generator, the process of adding the latent heat of
vaporization or enthalpy is underway. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the
chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel.
The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the
economizer. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. Once the water enters the
steam drum it goes down the down comers to the lower inlet water wall headers. From

the inlet headers the water rises through the water walls and is eventually turned into
steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear water
walls (typically). As the water is turned into steam/vapour in the water walls, the
steam/vapour once again enters the steam drum.

The steam/vapour is passed through turbo seperators which consist of spinner blade
and then through secondary seperators also known as corrugated plates.From the
corrugated plates it passes through the driying screen .The steam separators and
dryers remo ve the water droplets from the steam and the cycle through the
water walls is repeated.
In large boilers, water walls completely cover the interior surfaces of the furnace
providing practically complete elimination of exposed refractory surface. Water walls

serve as the only means of heating and evaporating the feed water supplied to the boiler
from the economisers.
Water walls usually consist of tangential vertical tubes and are connected at the top and
the bottom to headers. These tubes receive water from the boiler drum by means of
downcomers connected between drum and water walls lower header. In a boiler
approximately 50 percent of the heat released by the combustion of fuel in the furnace is
absorbed by the water walls. Heat so absorbed by the water walls is used in evaporation
of water supplied to the boiler. The mixture of steam and water is discharged from the top
of the water walls tubes into the upper wall header and than passes through riser tubes to
the steam drum.
Here the steam is separated and the accompanying water together with the incoming feed
water is returned to the water walls through the down comers.
Reheater is used to raise the temperature of steam from which a part of energy has been
extracted in high-pressure turbine. This is another method of increasing the cycle
efficiency. Reheating requires additional equipment i.e. heating surface
connecting boiler and turbine pipe safety equipment like safety valve, non return
valves, isolating valves, high pressure feed pump, etc.


Reheater is composed of two sections namely the front and the rear pendant section,
which is located above the furnace arc between water-cooled, screen wall tubes and rear
wall tubes.
The cold reheat is not cold to the sense of touch, but is the line from turbine to the
boiler and is at a temperature lower than the reheat line from boiler to the turbine called
hot reheat steam. Due to resistance of flow through the reheat section, the hot reheat
steam is at lower pressure compared to the cold reheat steam.
This is simply a heat exchanger where additional heat is added to the steam. There are
three stages of superheater. The first stage consists of horizontal superheater of
convection mixed flow type located above economiser assembly in
the rear pass
There are three stages of superheaterThe first stage consists of horizontal superheater of
convection mixed flow type with upper and lower banks located above economiser
assembly. The upper bank terminates into hanger tubes. The second stage superheater
consists of pendant platen which is of radiant parallel flow type. The third stage
supherheater pendant spaced is of convection parallel flow type.


Economiser: The purpose of economiser is to preheat the boiler feed water before it is
introduced into the steam drum by recovering heat from the flue gases leaving the
boiler. The economiser is located in the boiler rear gas pass below the rear horizontal
superheater. The economiser is continuous unfinned loop type and water flows in
upward direction and gas in the downward direction
A riser is a tube through which water and steam pass from an upper waterwall header
to a steam drum.
Desuperheating or attemperation is the reduction or removal of superheat from steam
to the extent required.
The preferred location of desuperheater, especially for temperature above 450 deg C is
between sections of superheater. In such installations, the steam is first passed through
a primary superheater where it is raised to some intermediate temperature. It is then
passed through the desuperheater and its temperature reduction is controlled so that,
after continuing through the secondary or final stage of the superheater, the required
constant conditions are maintained at the outlet



Coal Bunker : These are in'process storage silos used for storing crushed coal from the
coal handling system. Generally, these are made up of welded steel plates.' Normally,
there are six such bunkers supplying coal of the corresponding mills. These are located
on top of the mills so as to aid in gravity feeding of coal.
Coal Feeders : Each mill is provided with a drag link chain/rotary/gravametric feeder to
transport raw coal from the bunker to the inlet chute, leading to mill at a desired rate.
Mills : There are six mill (25% capacity each), for every 200 MW unit, located adjacent
to the furnace at '0' M level. These mills pulverise coal to the desired fineness to be fed
to the furnace for combustion.
P.A. Fan : The primary air fans (2 per unit - 50% capacity each) are designed for
handling atmospheric air upto a temperature of 50 deg C. These fans are located at *0'
M level near the boiler.
Air Pre-heater : Air pre-heater transfer heat from flue gases to cold primary and/ or
secondary air by means of rotating heating surface elements. Beneath this regenerative
type air pre-heaters, there exists a steam coil air pre-heater. These are located in the
secondary pass of the furnace at a height of around '16' M level. Each 200 MW unit is

provided with two such air pre-heaters.

Burners : As evident from the name itself, these are used for burning pulverised coal or
oil. Every unit has a set of such burners located at different elevations of the furnace.

F.D.Fan : The forced draft fans (2 per unit - 50% capacity each) are designed for
handling secondary air for the boiler. These fans are located at '0' M level near the PA
Wind Box : These act as distributing media for supplying secondary/excess air to the
furnace for combustion. These are generally located on the left and right sides of the
furnace while facing the chimney.
Scanner Fan : These fans, two per boiler, supply requisite air for scanner cooling.
Ignitor Fan : These fans, again two per boiler, are used to supply air for cooling ignitors
and combustion of ignitor air fuel mixture.
Electrostatic precipitator : These are generally two plate type located between boiler
and the chimney. The precipitator is arranged for horizontal gas flow and is constructed
with welded steel castings.
ID Fans : There are two induced Draft fans per boiler located between the Electrostatic

precipitator and the chimney. These fans are used for sucking flue gas from furnace.
Chimney : These are tall RCC structures with single/multiple flues (one flue per 200
MW Unit). The height of these chimneys vary depending on the locationa
considerations; anywhere between 150 m. to 220 m.
Seal Air Fan : These are used for supplying seal air to the mills to prevent ingress ofcoal
dust into gear box lubrication oil. There are two fans per boiler for 200MW units.
Soot Blowers : Following three types of soot blowers, in requisite numbers, are
provided :
i. Long retractable soot blowers
ii. Wall blower
iii. Air heater blower Superheated steam is tapped from superheater
for the purpose of soot blowing.
The pressure is reduced to 31 Kg/cm2 at 330 deg C by means of pressure reducing
valve. The soot blowers are used for efficient on-load cleaning of furnace,
superheaters, reheaters and regenerative air heaters.
Corner or tangential firing : In this system, burners are set at each corner of the
furnace and are directed to strike the outside of an imaginary circle in the centre of the
furnace. Because the streams of fuel so strike each other, extremely good mixing is
obtained. Since the body of the flame produced is given a rotary motion it leads to a
longer flame travel and the gases spread out-and flows through combustion chamber.
Heavy oil is used in the firing.



In a 200MW boiler, we will be .burning about 110 tons of coal per hour roughly and if
the coal contains 30% ash, the ashes carried along with the flue gas will be of the order of
27 tons/hr.
Constructional Details of E.P.: The electrostatic precipitator consists of a large
chamber in which collecting and discharge electrodes are suspended. The collecting
electrodes are made out of steel plates with a special profile and discharge
electrodes are made of thin wire (2.5mm dia) wound to a helical form. The
discharge electrodes are kept in between collecting electrodes are arranged
alternatively. A typical cross-sectional arrangement is shown in figure 29.
At the inlet of the chambers, gas distributor screens are provided which are nothing
but perforated steel plate. These are for uniform gas distribution across the section of
the chamber.
The collecting plates at its power portion contains shock bars over which rapping is
provided for discharge or emitting electrodes to dislodge ash from the wire.
1) reduces air pollution
2) reduces wear of ID fans



As we have discussed earlier that, air is the main component for the burning of fuel
(coal). So for this, FD fan provides air to furnace for proper combustion of coal. The
amount of air required for the complete combustion is called Schiochemetric Ratio
with respect to the fuel input. But in actual practice apart from the air, we have to give
some amount of excess air for ensuring that the whole surface area of the coal gets the
proper amount of air.
If we give lesser amount of air for combustion then there is a chance of incomplete
combustion which results in unburnt coal particles in bottom ash hopper and generation
of CO instead of CO2.Similarly if we give excess amount of air then there is a chance of
heat loss
After the FD fan, the secondary air goes to the APH (air preheater), this air preheater as
the name signifies it heats the air before going to the boiler furnace which increases the
combustion efficiency of boiler and another perspective is that lesser fuel is required for
the burning which contribute in the productivity of the plant and this also increase the
steam generation capacity. In some plants,SCAPH(steam coil air preheater ) is provided
to preheat the air before going to air preheater, this prevent the cold end corrosion and
increase the life of air preheater during Start-up condition. When the atmospheric air is
passing through the lower end side of air preheater then there is a chance of corrosion of
lower end of APH (air preheater), this we call Cold End Corrosion.
After passing the APH, the air goes directly to the wind box. In PF (Pulverised Fire)
boiler there are 2 numbers of wind boxes. Through these wind boxes air enters into the
furnace. We also maintain the air between the wind box and furnace for proper flow of air
into the furnace. We maintain slightly negative draft in the furnace to avoid flame
outgoing from the furnace for this reason we start firstly ID fan and then FD fan for
balancing draft. Normally in power plant the ID fan is of bigger capacity than the FD fan

because ID fan sustain hot flue gases and it is also responsible for creating a negative
pressure in the furnace with the help of FD fan. The flue gas generated in the furnace, its
velocity also should be optimum. If the velocity of the flue gases is much more than there
is chance of erosion of the material in the boiler and if flue gas velocity is too low than
there is no proper evacuation of flue gases from the furnace.
Scanner Air Fan is used for cooling of flame scanners which are placed in the furnace for
monitoring the flame. Ignitor air fan is used for cooling of ignitor which is used to give
ignition energy for burning of fuel and another one is PA fan which is used for coal
conveying from coal mill to boiler furnace and for drying purpose of coal in the mill.
In Cold PA system, PA fan takes air suction from atmosphere and some amount of this
air goes to APH(Air Pre Heater) and other half of the air directly goes to a header called
Cold PA Header. After the APH(Air Pre Heater), Hot air is sent to a Header called Hot PA
Header; from there two headers separate taping are taken for mixing of Hot and Cold
Primary Air for each Coal Mill and before the mill they are mixed to achieve the desired
temperature, which is 80 degree Celsius. Where in case of Hot PA System, PA fans dont
take suction from atmosphere but it takes suction from two separate headers; Hot Primary
Air Header and Cold Primary Air Header. Hot Primary Air header receives Air from the
APH outlet of secondary Air .


I.D. Fan : The induced Draft Fans are generally of Axial-Impulse Type. Impeller nominal
diameter is of the order of 2500 mm. The fan consists of the following sub-assemblies
a) Suction Chamber
b) Inlet Vane Control It consists of a number of aerofoil fixed to individual shaft,
which are connected by means of angular joints to a central controls the
rate of air.
c) Impeller : An impeller is a rotating iron or steel disc with vanes in a centrifugal
pump. Impellers transfer energy from the motor that drives the pump to the fluid
being pumped by accelerating the fluid radially outwards from the centre of
d) Outlet Guide Vane Assembly
There are two induced Draft fans per boiler located between the Electrostatic
precipitator and the chimney. These fans are used for sucking flue gas from furnace
F D FAN: The forced draft fans (2 per unit - 50% capacity each) are designed for
handling secondary air for the boiler. These fans are located at '0' M level near the PA

Inlet bend
Fan housing
guide vanes

P.A. FAN: The primary air fans (2 per unit - 50% capacity each) are designed for
handling atmospheric air upto a temperature of 50 deg C. These fans are located at *0'
M level near the boiler
It consist of

Suction chamber
Inlet vane control


Ignitor fan provides necessary combustion air to all the igniters. Fan makes the suction
from atmosphere directly and supplies air to the wind boxes of individual igniters at a
fixed constant uncontrolled rate at ambient temperature
Scanner fans are installed in the boiler for supplying continuously cooling air to the
flame scanner provided for flame supervision. Normally one fan remains in service
while the other one remains available as stand-by.
Scanner air fan is centrifugal type and impeller is directly on the motor shaft. Sets of
dampers are mounted at inlet and outlet of the fan.
Air preheater is a heat transfer surface in which air temperature is raised by transfering
heat from other media such as Hue gas. Since air heater can be successfully employed to
reclaim heat from flue gas at low temperature levels than is possible with economiser, the
heat rejected to chimney can be reduced to higher extent thus increasing the efficiency of
the boiler. For every 20 deg.C drop in flue gas exist temperature, the boiler efficiency
increases by about 1%.
Regenerative type air preheater is used in BTPS in this the heating medium flows through
a closely packed matrix toraise its temperature and then air is passed through the matrix
to pick-up the heat Either the matrix or the hoods are rotated to achieve this and hence
,leakage through sealing arrangements at the moving surfaces is high
This is a specific type of regenerative preheater used in NTPC



As the name implies, the new preheater (Tri sector) design has three sectors. One for
flue gas, one for primary; air used for drying and transport of coal through mill to the
burner) one for secondary air (additional air for combustion around the burners). This
helps in avoiding wastage of heat pick up by air due to primary air flow and also helps in
selecting different temperatures for primary air and secondary air. Whatever heat is not
utilized in primary air can be picked by secondary air stream.
As the rotor revolves slowly through the three streams, the surfaces continuously
absorb heat from the flue gas and release it to the incoming primary and secondary


The bowl mill is one of the most advanced designs of coal pulverizer presently
manufactured. The advantages of this mill are:
a) Lower power consumption.
b) Reliability.
c) Minimum maintenance.
d) Wide capacity


As pulverized coal enters from the feeder it gets crushed by the three grinders present
inside the mill at an angle of 120 deg each.The bowl or the table rotate due to which these
grinder rotate.There is also provision to change the angle of the grinders.
Coal enters through the centre feed pipe.warm air enters the mill through the airport
assembly.As the air enters it is rotated and a cyclone is formed but it is tried to maintain a
steady air .As this air from the airport assembly goes up the pulverized coal particles go
with it.There are 28 blades in there classifier which are set at an angle depending upon
the fineness required.If the particle size is more than that required the pulverized coal
particle will try to rotate the blade as they couldnt enter and will loose inertia and fell
down .The required size coal then goes to the coal feeder or multiport outlet assembly
from where it is taken to the boiler with the help of hot air from primary air fan.



PAM stands for plant auxiliary maintenance.Although name include auxiliary, despite of
name it is an integral department of plant and known for many crucial and variety of jobs.
It is not heart of plant but responsible for working of plant heart systems like boiler and
turbine by providing water for steam generation which is blood of thermal power plants.
PAM consists of

CSPH- control structure pump house

WTP- water treatment plant
Dry Ash Handling System
Compressor house
Central Repair House

6. Cooling Tower
It stands for control structure pump house.From CSPH there is overall control of water
system not only for steam generation but also for fire protection system, service water for
cleaning etc. CSPH is structured on inlet canal.
CSPH consists of
a. CRW Pump- 3 Clarified water pump, 3500m/h, Provide raw water to
1. Geomiller for clarified water and DM Water .
b. HP Pump 6 high pressure pumps HP-1 to 4 -500 m/h HP 5&6- 400 m/h
i. HP 1&2 Water supply to Ash trench Flushing
ii. HP 3,5&6 Water supply to Stage 1 ESP de-ashing
iii. HP4- Pressure boost up of U#4, LP header at ESP side
c. LP Pump- 3 Low Pressure pump for s upply water for ash slurry preparation
d. TWS Pump- 3 travelling water pumps
i. Pumps used for boosting pressure of DEDS pumps discharge
ii. Discharge water used for cleaning of TWS
e. FS Pump - 2 Fire Screen pump
i. Pumps used to supply water for fire fighting system, as service
water in boiler area and for cleaning of vertical screens.
f. TWS- 7 travelling water screen
i. Travelling screen used for removing unwanted material like
polythene,pieces of cloth, debris from water by filtration method
g. VWS- Vertical water screens are used as 2nd filtration system after travelling
water screens
h. DEDS Pump - Dust Extraction And Dust Suspension System
i. Clarified water is supplied by 3 vertical pump and 1 centrifugal
pump for spraying water in coal yard form preventing auto ignition
of coal and to TWS pumps for TWS cleaning.
The treatment is done in two parts
a. Pretreatment section
b. Demineralization section
Pretreatment plant removes the suspended solids such as clay, silt, organic and

inorganic matter, plants and other microscopic organism. The turbidity may be taken
as of two types of suspended solids in water. Firstly the separable solids and
secondly the non-separable solids (colloids). The coarse components, such as sand, silt
etc. can be removed from the water by simple sedimentation. Finer particles however,
will not settle in any reasonable time and must be floculated to produce the large particles
which are settleable. Long term ability to remain suspended in water is basically a
function of both size and specific gravity. The settling rate of the colloidal and finely
devided (approximately 001 to 1 micron ) suspended matter is so slow that removing
them from water by plain sedimentation in tanks having ordinary dimensions is
impossible. Settling velocity of finely divided and collidal particles under gravity also is
so small that ordinary sedimentation is not possible. It is necessary, therefore, to use
procedure which agglomerate the small particles into larger aggregates, which have
practical settling velocities.
The term " Coagulation" and "flocculation" have been used indiscriminately to describe
process of turbidity removal. "Coagulation" means to bring together the suspended
particles. The process describes the effect produced by the addition of a chemical to a
colloidal dispersion resulting in particle destablization by a reduction of force tending to
keep particles apart. Rapid mixing is important at this stage to obtain
uniform dispersion of the chemical and to increase opportunity for particles to particle
contact. This operation is done by flash mixer in the clarifloculator. Second stage of
formation of settleable particles from destablised collidal sized particles is termed a
"flocculation". Here coagulated particles grow in size by attaching to each other. In
contrast to coagulation where the primary force is electrostatic or interionic,
"floculation" occurs by chemical bridging. Floculation is obtained by gentle and
prolonged mixing which converts the subm icroscopic coagulated particle into discrete,
visible & suspended particles. At this stage particles are large enough to settle rapidly
under the influence of gravity and may be removed.


This filter water is now used for demineralizing purpose and is fed to cationexchanger
bed, but enroute being first dechlorinated, which is either done by passing through
activated carbon filter or injecting along the flow of water, an equivalent amount of
sodium sulphite through some stroke pumps. The residual chlorine, which is maintained
in clarification plant to remove organic matter from raw water, is now detrimental to
action resin and must be eliminated before its entry to this bed.
A DM plant generally consists of cation, anion and mixed bed exchangers. The final
water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions
which is the chemical composition of pure water. The DM water, being very pure,
becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of this
very high affinity for oxygen absorption. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the
type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. However, some storage is essential as
the DM plant may be down for maintenance. For this purpose, a storage tank is
installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up. The
storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water, such
as PVC. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. Sometimes, a steam
blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water
in the tank to avoid contact with atmospheric air. DM
Cation Resin RH + Na > R Na + H2 SO,







Anion Resin ROH + H2 SO4> RSO4 + H2O




Recharging the exhausted form of resin i.e. regeneration employing 5% of acid/

alkali as below :
Cation Resin
R Na + HCP > RH + NaCl






Anion Resin : R SO4 + NaOH--------> R OH + Na2 SO4






DM Water


In coal based power plants two type of ash generated wet ash and dry ash. Ratio of wet
ash to dry ash is 30:70. Wet ash is only money consuming by product of coal plant
because it require a lot of money for handling of wet ash. Although, dry ash is by
product, unlike wet ash it is a money making by product and utilized in many fields like
in cement industries and for brick making.


Silo A,B,C

Fly Ash Collection

Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric
bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced
draft fan. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the
precipitators or bag filters. Generally, the fly ash is pneumatically transported to
storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars.
The dry ash from the ESP hopper goes to the buffer hopper as there is vacuum in buffer
hopper from buffer hopper the ash goes to the silo.


Ash Pond

Hydraulic Ash Handling System

The hydraulic system carried the ash with the flow of water with high velocity through a
channel and finally dumps into a sump. The hydraulic system is divided into a low
velocity and high velocity system. In the low velocity system the ash from the boilers
falls into a stream of water flowing into the sump. The ash is carried along with the water
and they are separated at the sump. In the high velocity system a jet of water is sprayed to
quench the hot ash. Two other jets force the ash into a trough in which they are washed
away by the water into the sump, where they are separated. The advantages of this
system are that its clean, large ash handling capacity, considerable distance can be
traversed, absence of working parts in contact with ash. The sludge from the classifier is
also introduced in this wet ash that is being carried away by water.


Bottom Ash Collection and Disposal

At the bottom of every boiler, a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash
from the bottom of the furnace. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash
and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the
clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site.
Compressor house is source of compressed air for plant. Compressed air as name implies
having pressure above atmospheric pressure and used to operate many crucial functions
Compressed air in plant used in two form.
1 Plant Air It also known as service air and used as service air for cleaning air at
different locations.
2 Instrument Air - It is used to operate pneumatic valve at different areas and
source of energy for air pre heater motor in all five units.


a) Station Air Compressor
All three station air compressors are reciprocating type.
Compressed air is used mainly in stage 1.
b) Instrument Air Compressor
There are two instrument air compressor B&C.
Compressed air after compressor is goes through air drying Unit A&B.
Air Drying Unit Consist of heaters and Silica gel and perform the
function of air drying.
c. Plant Air Compressor
There are three plant air compressor A,B,C.

Compressed air of plant air compressor is used mainly as service air and used for

cleaning purpose.
d. Denso Air Compressor
There are four denso air compressor A,B,C&D.
Denso air compressor air is used mainly in Bowl mills of Unit 4&5.
In Central Repair Shop repairing related job performed. In CRS not only repairing jobs
are done but also production jobs are done according to contingency plans. CRS is a
wonderful tool for emergency and many times, during exigencies had worked as only tool
CRS consist of the following machines

Lathe Machines

Shaper Machine

Drilling Machine

Milling Machine

Shearing Machine

Balancing Machine

Hydraulic Press

Sheet Rolling Machine

There are three cooling towers in BTPS. Cooling Towers Fulfill the scarcity of water and
is that component which transform open cycle power plant to closed cycle. Cooling
Towers are nothing more then heat exchanger. In cooling towers, heat exchange process
take place where cooling medium is environmental air and interaction of hot water with
environmental air brings down temperature of hot water to environmental temperature.
Induced draft cooling towers are used at BTPS


Induced Draft Cooling Towers: These days, it is preferred to use induced draft
cooling towers where the fan is located at the top and air enters from the openings
located at ground level. Air, mixed with vapours, is discharged through a fan stack
located at the top of the tower. In this case, moist air is discharged higher in the
atmosphere thereby dispersing to a greater distance from the tower. There is a
cylindrical RCC structure supported on RCC columns. Hot water is taken to the top of
the tower by steel pipes and discharged on the packing with distribution system of
precast RCC trough and tubes.The fan is located at the top to draw air from the cylinder
for dispersion. Hot water is cooled by the induced air travelling up. Cold water is
collected in the pond located below the cooling tower where make-up water is also



The 210 MW turbine is a tandem compounded type machine comprising of H.P.

and I.P. cylinders. The H.P. turbines comprise of 12 stages, I.P. turbine has 11
stages and the L.P. turbine has 8 stages of double flow. All the 3 rotors are aligned
on five bearings of which the bearing number is combined with thrust bearing.
The main superheated steam branches off into two streams from the boiler and passes
through the emergency stop valve and control valve before entering the governing
wheel chamber of the H.P. Turbine. After expanding in the 12 stages in the H.P.
turbine then steam is returned in the boiler for reheating.
The reheated steam from boiler enters I.P. turbine via the interceptor valves and
control valves and after expanding enters the L.P stage
In the L.P. stage the steam expands in axially opposed direction to counteract the thrust
and enters the condenser placed directly below the L.P. turbine.

The cooling

water flowing through the condenser tubes condenses the steam and the condensate
the collected in the hot well of the condenser.
The condensate collected the pumped by means of 3x50% duty condensate pumps
through L.P heaters to deaerator from where the boiler feed pump delivers the
water to the boiler through H.P. heaters thus forming a closed cycle.
A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from
pressurized steam and converts it into useful mechanical work.
From a mechanical point of view, the turbine is ideal, because the propelling force is
applied directly to the rotating element of the machine and has not as in the
reciprocating engine to be transmitted through a system of connecting links, which are
necessary to transform a reciprocating motion into rotary motion. Hence since the
steam turbine



its moving parts rotating elements only if the

manufacture is good and the machine is correctly designed, it ought to be free from
out of balance forces.


If the load on a turbine is kept constant the torque developed at the coupling is also
constant. A generator at a steady load offers a constant torque. Therefore, a
turbine is suitable for driving a generator, particularly as they are both high-speed
A further advantage of the turbine is the absence of internal lubrication. This means
that the exhaust steam is not contaminated with oil vapour and can be condensed and
fed back to the boilers without passing through the filters. It also means that turbine is
considerable saving in lubricating oil when compared with a reciprocating steam
engine of equal power.
A final advantage of the steam turbine and a very important one is the fact that a
turbine can develop many time the power compared to a reciprocating engine whether
steam or oil.
A steam turbines two main parts are the cylinder and the rotor. The cylinder (stator) is a
steel or cast iron housing usually divided at the horizontal centerline. Its halves are
bolted together for easy access. The cylinder contains fixed blades, vanes and nozzles
that direct steam into the moving blades carried by the rotor. Each fixed blade set is
mounted on diaphragms located in front of each disc on the rotor, or directly in the
casing. A disc and diaphragm pair a turbine stage. Steam turbines can have many
stages. A rotor is a rotating shaft that carries the moving blades on the outer edges of
either discs or drums. The blades rotate as the rotor
In a multiple-stage turbine, steam at a high pressure and high temperature enters the first
row of fixed blades or nozzles through an inlet valve/valves. As the steam passes
through the fixed blades or nozzles, it expands and its velocity increases. The high
velocity jet of stream strikes the first set of moving blades. The kinetic energy of
the steam changes into mechanical energy, causing the shaft to rotate. The steam that
enters the next set of fixed blades strikes the next row of moving blades.


As the steam flows through the turbine, its pressure and temperature decreases
while its volume increases. The decrease in pressure and temperature occurs as
the steam transmits energy to the shaft and performs work. After passing throughthe
last turbine stage, the steam exhausts into the condenser or process steam system.
The kinetic energy of the steam changes into mechanical energy through the impact
(impulse) or reaction of the steam against the blades. An impulse turbine uses the
impact force of the steam jet on the blades to turn the shaft. Steam expands as it
passes through thee nozzles, where its pressure drops and its velocity increases. As
the steam flows through the moving blades, its pressure remains the same, but its
velocity decreases. The steam does not expand as it flows through the moving blades.


Fresh steam from the boiler is supplied to the turbine through the emergency stop
valve. From the stop valves steam is supplied to control valves situated in H.P.
cylinders on the front bearing end. After expansion through 12 stages at the H.P.
cylinder, steam flows back to the boiler for reheating steam and reheated steam
from the boiler cover to the intermediate pressure turbine through two interceptor
valves and four control valves mounted on I.P. turbine.
After flowing through I.P. turbine steam enters the middle part of the L.P. turbine
through cross-over pipes. In L.P. turbine the exhaust steam condenses in the
surface condensers welded directly to the exhaust part of L.P. turbine.
HP turbine is impulse turbine and steam is extracted from it for high pressure heater.The
intermediate turbine is also impulse turbine and steam is extracted from it for low
pressure heater and ejector. Low pressure turbine is impulse reaction turbine. While for
deaerator steam is extracted from HP, IP turbine and boiler drum.
From the condenser, condensate is pumped with the help of 3*50% capacity
condensate pumps to deaerator through the low-pressure regenerative equipments.
Feed water is pumped from deaerator to the boiler through the H.P. heaters by
means of

3*50% capacity feed pumps connected before the H.P. heaters





Sealing system.

Stop & control valves.

Couplings and bearings.

Barring gear.

Casing is made of creep resisting Chromium -Molybdenum-vanadium (Cr-Mo-V) steel
casting. The top and bottom halves of the casing are secured together at the flange joint
by heat tightened studs to ensure an effective seal against steam leakage. Four steam
chests, two on top and two on sides are welded to the nozzle boxes, which in turn are
welded to the casing at the middle bearing end. The steam chests accommodate four
control valves to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine according to the load
requirement. Nozzle boxes and steam chests are also made of creep resisting Cr-Mo-V
steel castings.

The casing of the IP turbine is split horizontally and is of double-shell
construction.Both are axially split and a double flow inner casing is supported in the
outer casing and carries the guide blades.Provides opposed double flow in the two
blade sections and compensates axial thrust.Steam after reheating enters the inner
casing from Top & Bottom.
The L.P.casing consists of three parts i.e one middle part and
two exhaust parts. The three parts are fabricated from weldable mild steel The exhaust
casings are bolted to the middle casings by a vertical flange. The casings are divided in
the horizontal plane through the turbine centre line.
The HP rotor is machined from a single Cr-Mo-V steel forging with integral discs.In
all the moving wheels, balancing holes are machined to reduce the pressure
difference across them, which results in reduction of axial thrust. First stage has
integral shrouds while other rows have shroudings, riveted to the blades are



The IP rotor has seven discs integrally forged with rotor while last four discs are
shrunk fit.The shaft is made of high creep resisting Cr-Mo-V steel forging while the
shrunk fit discs are machined from high strength nickel steel forgings.Except the last
two wheels, all other wheels have shrouding riveted at the tip of the blades.
The LP rotor consists of shrunk fit discs in a shaft.The shaft is a forging of Cr-Mo-V
steel while the discs are of high strength nickel steel forgings.

Most costly element of the turbine.Blades fixed in stationary part are called guide
blades/ nozzles and those fitted in moving part are called rotating/working blades.
Blades have three main parts:
o Aerofoil: working part.
o Root.
o Shrouds.
Shroud are used to prevent

steam leakage and guide steam to next set of

moving blades.


This comprises of:

Condenser: 2 for 200 MW unit at the exhaust of LP turbine.

Ejectors: One starting and two main ejectors connected to the condenser locared
near the turbine

C.W. Pumps: Normally two per unit of 50% capacity.

There are two condensers entered to the two exhausters of the L.P. turbine. These are
surface- type condensers with two pass arrangement. Cooling water pumped into
each condenser by a vertical C.W. pump through the inlet pipe.
Water enters the inlet chamber of the front water box, passes horizontally through
brass tubes to the water tubes to the water box at the other end, takes a turn,
passes through the upper cluster of tubes and reaches the outlet chamber in the
front water box. From these, cooling water leaves the condenser through the outlet
pipe and discharge into the discharge duct. Steam exhausted from the LP turbine
washes the outside of the condenser tubes, losing its latent heat to the cooling
water and is connected with water in the steam side of the condenser. This
condensate collects in the hot well, welded to the bottom of the condensers.


A typical water cooled condensor

There are two 100% capacity ejectors of the steam eject type. The purpose of the ejector is to
evacuate air and other non-condensating gases from the condensers and thus maintain the
vacuum in the condensers.The ejector has three compartments. Steam is supplied generally at a
pressure of 4.5 to 5 kg/cm2 to the three nozzles in the three compartments. Steam expands in the
nozzle thus giving a high-velocity eject which creates a low-pressure zone in the throat of the
eject. Since the nozzle box of the ejector is connected to the air pipe from the condenser. The
working steam which has expanded in volume comes into contact with the cluster of tube
bundles through which condensate is flowing and gets condensed thus after aiding the formation
of vacuum. The non-condensing gases of air are further sucked with the next stage of the ejector
by the second nozzle. The process repeats itself in the third stage also and finally the steam-air
mixture is exhausted into the atmosphere through the outlet.


This contains the following
a. Condensate Pumps: 3 per unit of 50% capacity each located near condenser
hot well.
b. LP Heater: Normally 4 in number with no.1 located at the upper part
of the condenser and nos. 2,3 & 4 around 4m level.
c. Deaerator; one per unit located around 18 M level in CD
The function of these pumps is to pump out the condensate to the desecrator through
ejectors, gland steam cooler and LP heaters. These pumps have four stages and since
the suction is at a negative pressure, special arrangements have been made for
providing sealing.
Turbine has been provided with non-controlled extractions which are utilised for
heating the condensate, from turbine bleed steam. There are 4 low pressure heaters in
which the last four extractions are used.
L.P. Heater-1 has two parts LPH-1A and LPH-1B located in the upper parts of
condenser A and condenser B respectively. These are of horizontal type with shell and
tube construction. L.P.H. 2,3 and 4 are of similar construction and they are mounted in a
row at 5M level. They are of vertical construction with brass tubes the ends of which are
expanded into tube plate . The condensate flows in the "U" tubes in four passes and
extraction steam washes the outside of the tubes.Condensate passes thru' these four L.P.
heaters in succession.


The presence of certain gases, principally oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia,
dissolved in water is generally considered harmful because of their corrosive attack
on metals, particularly at elevated temperatures. One of the most important factors
in the prevention of internal corrosion in modern boilers and associated plant
therefore, is that the boiler feed water should be free as far as possible from all
dissolved gases especially oxygen. This is achieved by embodying into the boiler
feed system a deaerating unit, whose function is to remove the dissolved gases
from the feed water by mechanical means. Particularly the unit must reduce the
oxygen content of the feed water to a lower value as far as possible, depending upon
the individual circumstances
It is based on following two laws.

Henry s Law


The Deaerator comprises of two chambers:

Deaerating column

Feed storage tank

Deaerating column is a spray cum tray type cylindrical vessel of horizontal

construction with dished ends welded to it. The tray stack is designed to ensure
maximum contact time as well as optimum scrubbing of condensate to achieve
efficient deaeration. The deaeration column is mounted on the feed storage tank,

which in turn is supported on rollers at the two ends and a fixed support at the centre.
The feed storage tank is fabricated from boiler quality steel plates. Manholes are
provided on deaerating column as well as on feed storage tank for inspection and
The condensate is admitted at the top of the deaerating column flows downwards
through the
spray valves and trays. The trays are designed to expose to the maximum water
surfaces for efficient scrubbing to affect the liberation of the associated gases
steam enters from the underneath of the trays and flows in counter direction of
condensate. While flowing upwards through the trays, scrubbing and heating is
done. Thus the liberated gases move upwards alongwith the steam. Steam gets
condensed above the trays and in turn heats the condensate. Liberated gases escapes
to atmosphere from the orifice opening meant for it. This opening is provided with a
number of dlflectors to minimize the loss of steam.
The main equipments coming under this system

Boiler feed Pump: Three per unit of 50% capacity each located in the '0
meter level.

High Pressure Heaters: Normally three in number.

Drip Pumps: generally two in number of 100% capacity each situated beneath
the LP heaters.

Turbine Lubricating Oil System: This consists of the Main Oil Pump
(MOP), Starting Oil Pump (SOP), AC standby oil pumps and emergency DC
Oil Pump and Jacking Oil Pump (JOP). (one each per unit)


This pump is horizontal and of barrel design driven by an Electric Motor through a
hydraulic coupling. All the bearings of pump and motor are forced lubricated
by a suitable oil lubricating system with adequate protection to trip the pump if
the lubrication oil pressure falls below a preset value.
The high pressure boiler feed pump is a very expensive machine which calls
for a very careful operation and skilled maintenance. Operating staff must be able to
find out the causes of defect at the very beginning, which can be easily removed
without endangering the operator of the power plant and also without the expensive
dismantling of the high pressure feed pump.
The water with the given operating temperature should flow continuously to the
pump under a certain minimum pressure. It passes through the suction branch into
the intake spiral and from there; it is directed to the first impeller. After leaving the
impeller it passes through the distributing passages of the diffuser and thereby gets a
certain pressure rise and at the same time it flows over to the guide vanes to the
inlet of the next impeller. This will repeat from one stage to the other till it passes
through the last impeller and the end diffuser. Thus the feed water reaching into the
discharge space develops the necessary operating pressure.


Each boiler feed pump is provided with a booster pump in its suction line which is
driven by the main motor of the boiler feed pump. One of the major damages
which may occur to a boiler feed pump is from cavitation or vapor bounding at the
pump suction due to suction failure. Cavitation will occur when the suction
pressure of the pump at the pump section is equal or very near to the vapor pressure
of the liquid to be pumped at a particular feed water temperature. By the use of
booster pump in the main pump suction line, always there will be positive suction
pressure which will remove the possibility of cavitation. Therefore all the feed
pumps are provided with a main shaft driven booster pump in its suction line
for obtaining a definite positive suction pressure
All the bearings of boiler feed pump, pump motor and hydraulic coupling are
force lubricated. The feed pump consists of two radial sleeve bearings and one thrust
bearing. The thrust bearing is located at the free end of the pump.


These are regenerative feed waters heaters operating at high pressure and located by
the side of turbine. These are generally vertical type and turbine based steam pipes are
connected to them.
HP heaters are connected in series on feed waterside and by sucharrangement,
the feed water, after feed pump enters the HP heaters. The steam is supplied to
these heaters to for m the bleed point of the turbine through motor operated
valves. These heaters have a group bypass protection on the feed waterside.


In the event of tube rupture in any of the HPH and the level of condensate rising to
dangerous level, the group protection devices divert automatically the feed water
directly to boiler, thus bypassing all the 3 H.P. heaters.
This consists of main oil pump, starting oil pump, emergency oil pump and each per



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