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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.!
,

^^.^...GrZA
^

UNITED STATES OP AMERICA.

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7^

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^'

THE

CAEBIAGE PAINTEES'

ILLUSTEATED MAITUAL.
CONTAININa

A TKEATISE ON THE

AET, SCIENCE,

COACH, CARRIAGE,

AND MYSTERT

01'

AND CAR PAINTIUa,

INCLUDINa THE LATEST IMPROVEMENTS


IN

FINE PAINTING, GILDING, BRONZING, STAINING, VASNISHING, POLISHING, COPYING, LETTERING,


SCROLLING, AND ORNAMENTING,
WITH

AN APPENDIX,
CONTAINING USEFUL SUGGESTIONS, RECEIPTS, ETC.
UST OP THE PRINCIPAL VARNISH MAKERS AND
DEALERS A CORRECT LIST OP CARRIAGE
AND VTAGON-MAKERS IN NEW

YORK

BY

F. B.

CITY.

GAKDNEE,

A FHAOTICAL NEW YORK COACH AND OBNAMENTAL PAINTEH,

3sr:H:v7"-"YOi^K:
S.

E.

^\rELLS, PUBLISHEE,
389 Beoadwat.
1871.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year

SAMUEL
In the

office of

E.

1871,

by

WELLS,

the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

^^f"''
BT.

JOHNLAND STEREOTYPE FOUNDRT, BUiTOLK

CO., N. T.

PREFACE
THIS

book

is

designed to present a clear

and concise statement


metliods employed in

Painting

and

Having been

great attention to the


fine

painting,

art,

met with many

careful

experiment

with the hope that

engaged

and having paid

science and mystery


in

common

difficulties,

with

which

and perseverance

Therefore,

readers the results of

Manual

reliable

practically

I have,

others,

overcome.

principal

workman, as well as the

in the business since 1850,

of

tlie

Fancy and Carriage

form a

to

for the experienced

apprentice.

of

in

laying

before

have

my

my own experience, it is
my endeavors to aid my

fellow craftsmen will not fail of appreciation.

Preface.
I will detail the methods usually employed

by

others,

and the various processes which

have appeared to
of their

and I

to answer best, because

simplicity, certainty,

will

himself

me

and economy,

then leave the reader to judge for

which

method

is

most

deserving
}

of his practical consideration.

The Author.

PAI:NTEES^ MAl^fUAL.

THE

PAUT

I.

THE TOOLS USED.

IT

is

unnecessary for

is

constituted according to circumstances

suffice it

then to say, a paint shop should he

clean, tidy,

The

to enter into details

equipment of the shop, for

as regards the

that

me

and well

tools,

with which

lighted.

colors,

varnishes

we do our

and liquids

w^ork are of the

first

importance, and I will describe those generally


used in first-class shops, and those which
experience has taught

The
paint

first

miU.

tool

me

to be the best.

which claims attention

The

best,

used by carriage painters,

is

the

and one commonly


is Harris' mill, manu-

The Painters' Manual.

New

factured at Waterville,

made

different

of

filed

when

worn by long

surfaces are

round-file,

and so made

The next

tool in order,

" stone,"

with

Besides,

we have

knife,

its

saw-file

be

and a

as

good

is

a marble slab, or

as new."

accompanying

also a

an

the grinding

use, they can

by any handy man with a


^'

Tliis is

and possesses

sizes,

excellent feature in that

York.

''

muller."

medium-sized palette

and one or two good putty knives, cups

for colors

and varnishes,

pails,

sponges, cha-

mois skin or ''shammy," dusting - brushes,


water-brush or

tool,

scraping

''burning off" furnace.


" rough " tools,

and

will

irons,

and a

These comprise the


be found indispensable

adjuncts to a well-arranged paint shop.

BRUSHES.
For painting carriage parts, and for first coats
on bodies, we require bristle brushes. The
best for the

purpose are medium-sized oval

The Painters' Manual.


brushes,

varnish

and

better,

on

vv^ill

call

*^

than

wear

low-priced

The small or one-inch ones

tools," to

carriage

invariably

also require flat bristle-brushes

of various sizes.

we

cheaper

are

We

brushes.

they

as

parts.

be used in cleaning up

The same

quality

and

kind of brushes are used in varnishing, and


reference will

be

made

to

these in other

pages.
All bristle brushes should be kept suspended
in

water

shown

and the most convenient way

in the engraving,

much

is

better than by

any written description I might

give.

The Painters' Manual,

10

Nails are driven through the staves of a tub,

such a distance from the bottom that the


water never should be allowed to reach above
at

the binding of

the

The brushes,

brushes.

when suspended by them, should

barely touch

the bottom.

For

fine colors, or last coats, fiat camels'-

hair brushes or blenders are used

bound

in

these are

and when new, care should

tin,

be taken to

tighten

the

hair

by an easy

squeeze in a vice, of the lower part of the tin


binding.

Several of these brushes are required for


different colors

them from

it

being a bad plan to change

color to color,

and

different sizes

are needed, from one inch to three or three

and a

half inches,

wide enough for the quarter

or back panels of a coach.

These should

be

kept

clean

by rinsing

lightly in tui^pentine, wiping with a rag,

then

being

suspended

as bristle brushes.

Some

in water,

painters

and

the same

hang

their

11

The Painters' Manual.


brashes in turpentine, bat this practice

found to be
hair,

is

injurious, as it soffcens or rots the

which breaks

off in

minute pieces when

causes
coloring a panel or other work, and

more or

less trouble.

VARNISH BRUSHES.
There

exists

among

painters various opin-

some
ions with regard to Tarnish brushes,
contending that bristle brushes are best for
work, others, that fitch hair brushes are
" Philadelbest and others will use none but
all

phia brushes."

The

latter are bristle,

ground

to a chisel edge.

I will

simply offer

matter, and leave the

by the

my

'ideas'' in

"pudding

this

to be proved

eating."

I find the best and

most

reliable varnish

fitch-hair.
brushes to be both bristle and
panels on
For heavy work, such as large

clarences, coaches,

etc.,

I use the best quality

The Painters^ Manual.

12

made with a chisel


The brushmaker takes

of elastic bristle brushes,

edge, but not ground.

the required quantity of bristles for a brush,

and draws back the outside


side

of

a centre line,

forming a

chisel

leaving the

split

brush
is,

not

on each

equally and

evenly,

beveled edge, thereby

or

end of the bristle on the

ground

that the brush

bristles

and the consequence

off ;
is

softer

and more

than the other description of brushes.


procured at

brushes can

be

brush

and you should be

stores,

selecting thorn; for a

two

of those

*^

careful

which are "ground.''

from one inch up to three inches


finishing coats,

and another

in

set for

or rubbing varnish are needed

These

the principal

"brush

laid

elastic

is

worth

set

width for

American

for it will

found that a good job cannot be so

in

be

certain, if

the varnish brushes are used for every kind

and

class

of work.

suspend them

in,

Have

can made to

as represented in the ac-

companying engraving,

-svith

a tight division

The Painters' Manual,

in

it,

one side being for

tlie

13

finishing brushes,

which should be hung in Enghsh varnish, and


the other for rubbing varnish brushes, which
should be hung in American varnish

care

being taken to keep them always clean, and

never allowing a change to be made.

FITCH-HAIR YAHNISH BRUSHES.


I DO not wish

it

to be understood that but

one variety of brush

is

required

brushes are indispensable.

We

for fitch-hair

do not always

The Painters' Manual.

14

have large

jobs,

on heavy varnish,

or put

therefore for buggies, small panels, or parts of

heavy work, as coaches, landaus,


it

is

bretts,

etc.,

necessary to use those small soft tools

which lay the varnish so evenly.

The

best

quality sell for $1.00 per inch, while a poor

imitation

and

one perfectly worthless

be had for sixty cents.

-can

Always purchase

this

kind of brush from a well-known dealer.

In varnishing carriage parts, the kind described for painting, will be found excellent.

These may be kept in the can with the rubbing-varnish

brushes.

It

is

well to

have

always at hand an old brush to be used on

touching up or repaired work.


also,

should be bound ; thai

These brushes

is,

have an extra

binding, extending over at least one-third the

length of the hair,

come

" flabby "

scription of

further

'^

when new,

or they will be-

and not work so

how

to bind a brush "

on in these pages.

well.
is

de

given

15

The Painters' Manual.


STRIPma PENCILS.
These can be found
ready made, in
ity.

But I

enough

any supply

store,

quills of various sizes

and qual-

making them

if

prefer

fine lines, as they will


better.

at

myself,

for

be cheaper and work

Camel-hair striping pencils are good


but
for ordinary work, or broad Imes,

one should be particular to

select those

with

a
dark-colored, straight hair about one and
to
quarter inches long. These you can cut
for
fine liners, or put two together

make

broader Unes.

Sable-hair striping pencils are

considered best by some painters, but I use

them only

for fine Uners.

are preferable, as you can

The

flat

pencils

draw a longer

line

thereby
before refilling the pencil with color,
saving time in striping.

TO MAKE A FLAT STRIPING PENCIL.


Take a piece

of hickory

and cut

shape shown in the engraving at

it

in the

split the

The Painters' Manual.

16

end
at

carefully, as at A.

cut two notclies,

then take from a large sable-hair pencil

the desired quantity of hair, and

ends evenly, and thinly in the

way

insert

the

The

best

split.

to stick a pin into the split to hold

is

open, and
pin.

shown

when

the hair

is

put

The wood when released

gether,

and a piece

in,

pull out the

will spring to-

of thread tied

the notches will hold

all

it

around in

together firmly

cut

the extreme point carefully Y;ith a sharp knife,

and the work

These pencils are

is finished.

used by holding them edgewise to the work

and allowing but one half the length


hair to touch

of the

a knack easily acquired.

Ox-hair pencils have been introduced

and are found excellent


lines,

where heavy color

for fine or
is

used.

lately,

medium

They are

made from the hair which grov/s in the ear of


an ox. They are not expensive, and I advise

The Painters' Manual.


a

trial of

They can be found

them.

any carriage-painter's supply

17

at almost

store.

ORNAMENTING PENCILS.
ORNAMENTiNa pcucils are bound in

tin or

brass, with long cedar handles.

The best

are

costing from ten to

fifty cents,

ac-

sable-hair,

cording

made

to

Some

size.

very fine ones are

expressly for painting ornaments, crests,

monograms,

on

etc.,

many purposes on

carriages,

fine

and

will serve

work.

LETTERING PENCILS.
The

best lettering pencils are of sable-hair,

and are

in quills, the

but the hair

not apt to

*'

shorter.

is

sable pencils "

same

will

as striping-pencils,
*'

Wagner's

black

be found excellent and

crinkle" in heavy lead colors.

Camels'-hair lettering pencils are well enough


for

some work or

for light-bodied colors,

but

The Painters' Manual.

18

I do not advise their use, as the sables are so


I have used one of

far superior.

''

Wagner's

pencils seven months, constantly, every day,

"

on

soda and sarsaparilla wagons, milk and pedlar

There

wagons.

market bound in

is

a lettering pencil

tin,

now

in

but I beheve they are no

better than the quill pencil.

Striping pencils should be well rinsed after


use,

and well greased with

tallow, (from a two-

cent candle,) then spread evenly on a piece of


glass

tering

and kept
and

in a

of the dust.

ornamenting

greased and laid

when

box out

Ccarefully

may

be

in a box,

and

pencils

away

Let-

well rinsed in turpentine they will be

ready for use.

Another tool

for striping,

one which deserves particular


" mathematical " pen.
to a pair of dividers

made by

it

notice,

and
is

It is generally adjusted

a beautiful stripe can be

on panels, or on any part where

the dividers will work.

The

colors used with

the pen must be mixed in beer, or vinegar to

which a

little

sugar

is

added.

Fill the

pen

The Painters' Manual.


Do

with a short-liair camel brush.

the pen in the paint.

19
not dip

httle practice will

enable you to master the art of using this tool,

and no painter
has proved

There

is

will

be without one when he

its efficacy.

a patent striping machine for panel

a very good purpose,

work, which answers

which was 'invented by George Crossingham,


Croton

Falls,

New

York, but

it is

not yet in

general use.

PALETTES.
For

lettering or

ornamenting,

we

usual artists' palette, which can

use the

be

almost anywhere in the paint stores.


striping, I use a palette

made

of

found

For

zinc, that

metal being very easily cleaned, and always


presenting a smooth surface.
five

piece four or

inches long and two inches wide,

that will be required

is all

and you must never

The Painters' Manual,

20
lieat it to

remove dried

after use, with a rag

paint,

but wipe

it

off

and turpentine.

TUBE COLORS.
Tube

colors, for

ornamenting and

are decidedly the best.

those most frequently used.

twenty-four hours, but

if

They wiU dry

also in tubes)

not

affect

may

the colors,

in

a quicker drying be

desired, a httle sugar of lead


(which

bad

striping,

I give below a Hst of

is

to be

be added, which will

hke most other

driers.

mixture of these colors can be made


to
secure any desired shade.

LIST OF TUBE COLORS.

Asphaltum,

Carmine,

Antwerp Blue,

Vermilion,

Blue Black,

Light Eed,

Bone Brown,

Indian Eed,

Bitumen,

Venetian Eed,

The

Painters' Manual.
Yellow Ochre,

Brown Ochre,
Burnt Eonian

21

Burnt Sienna,

Oclire,

Burnt Terraverde,

Eaw

Chrome Yellow,

Burnt Umber,

Chrome Green,

Eaw Umber,

China White,

Madder Lake,

Chinese Vermilion,

Ivory Black,

Flake White,

Verdigris,

Cremnitz White,

Snow-White,
Indigo,

Sienna,

Vandyke Brown,
Emerald Green,
Ultramarine,

Italian Pink,

Prussian Blue,

Kings Yellow,

Chinese Blue,

Naples Yellow,

Terraverde,

Olive Lake,

Yellow Lake,

Munich Lake,

Sugar

of

Lead,

Drop Lake,
,and
'the

found in
other colors, which can be
the above
catalogues of supply stores ; but
fifty

are those principalhj desired.

The Painters' Manual.

22

ORDINARY COLORS.
First on the

from the

of colors, is "White Lead,

list

fact that it

dation of

forms the base or foun-

There are but two

our work.

all

brands which I can recommend with confidence.

(Am.) and

Jewett's

These brands

will

Atlantic (Am.).

be found of uniform quality,

and as good lead goes farther than common


or low-priced lead,

it

cheaper in the end.

is

when

I shall use the term " keg lead,"

speak-

iug of this color in these pages, to distinguish


it

from dry white

and

is

lead,

an excellent

article for

where we do not desire

Keg

lead

priming on

raw linseed
thin, as

it is

used often,

many purposes

oil.

used pure for

first

all

our work, and

is

oil only.

We

our desire to

on the

as a color

is

is

wood, rather
of paint

which

as

than

on

mixed with

mix the paint quite


fill

plaster

surface.

coats or

the grain of the*

a thick coating

When

white

is

used

stages, express, or pedlers'

The Painters' Manual.


wagons,

mix the

adding a

little

keg lead with turpentine,

rubbing varnish to bind the

paint and assist in drying


also

23

little oil

added when great durability

may be

is

aimed

at.

OTHER PRIMARY COLORS.


Crimson Lake,

Lampblack,

Drop, or Ivory Black, Yellow Lake,


Scarlet Lake,

Prussian Blue,
Paris, or

French Green, Carmine,

Ultramarine,

Dutch Pink,

Rose Pink,

Turkey Umber,

Chrome Green,

and Burnt.

Indian Red,

Emerald

Eaw

Italian

dark Green,

Red Lead,
Chrome Yellow,

Sienna,

Raw

and Burnt.
Trieste,

Chinese Blue,

Engl. Vermilion, deep, Chinese Vermilion,


light,

Orange yellow,

Venetian Red,
English Filling,

The Painters' Manual.

24

American Vermilion,

Red Lead

Munich Lake,
Drop Lake,

Metallic Paint,

Yellow Ockre,

riorentme Lake,

Vandyke Brown,

&c.,

&c.,

(Eng.)

&c.,

&c.,

GRINDING BLACK.
It

the usual i)lan to grind drop or ivory

is

black,

when mixed with Japan

varnish, but I frequently

I wish to hav^

Mash up

it

little

that color

extra fine, as follows

put

it

to

the

consistency of

in the mill,

add a very

Japan, and grind the mixture as fine as

the mill will work.

Then add

little

varnish to bind the color well, and

found a very excellent v/orking

My
is,

when

the lumps on the ''stone," and

mix with turpentine


thick paste

mix

or rubbing

it

rubbing
will

be

color.

theory for this method of mixing black

that

turpentine

being very

absorbed by every small

volatile,

is

grain of black, and

The Painters' Manual.

25

consequently softens the same, so that


to an " impalpable " liquid

ynth Japan or varnish


material

slimy

is

grinds

while color mixed

not softened, but a

produced,

is

it

which

merely

covers the fine grains, and they are not dissolved, as

by turpentine.

you do not agree with

tried,

and

much

mistake.

if

This plan

Always bear

mind

in

that colors

mixed with Japan, varnish or


paint

while turpentine

is

oil,

is easily

me

I very

must be

to bind the

used chiefly as a

vehicle to enable the color to be spread evenly

and smoothly.
In mixing ultramarine blue with
freque;itly

drops of water or
it

will

be found to "crawl" or "run;"

this can be obviated entirely

causes

oil, it

by adding a few

spittle to the mixture,

to take the

which

form of a paste, and pre-

vents any further "running" or "crawling."

Ultramarine
affected,

and

is,

it is

notwithstanding

I believe, the only color so


also the worst color to "run,"
it

is

one of the " trio "

red.

The Painters' Manual.

26
white,

and

which

blue,

said to

are

never

"run."

TO PREVENT VERMILION FROM FADING.


English Vermilion should be mixed with
rubbing varnish and

oil,

instead of Japan, as

the latter has a tendency to injure the color.

Light English Vermilion

and ornamenting or

is

used for striping

lettering

the deep ver-

milion having less body, will not cover good.

Vermilion
blackish

is

brown

well
;

known

this can

to fade or turn a

be obviated, and the

color preserved for a long time,

by adding

to

the dry color before mixing, one- eighth part


of flowers of sulphur,
at

any drug-store.

which can be obtained

The old masters used

secret in their paintings,

and

known

of years.

to stand the

wear

this

their colors are

American Vermilion should never be ground,


as the

color

process would change

it

to an orange

while green, Indian red, chrome-yellow,

The Painters^ Manual.


nnd

heavy body colors are better,

all

Raw

as fine as possible.

boiled

pores of

it

being more

wood

more durable

better,

if

27
ground

is

preferable to

volatile,

penetrates the

oil

and forms a harder and

surface for the succeeding coats.

PREPARED COLORS.
I WOULD here

call

the attention of the reader

to the prepared colors of

Globe Lead Works, of


colors

are

mixed

ground very
"dead."

fine

in

Masury and Whit on,

New

York.

These

Japan or varnish, and

they dry very quickly and

Having used the ivory

black, pre-

pared by the above firm, I can recommend


it

as superior to anything else of the

ever tried.

kind I

These colors are prepared ex-

pressly for carriage painters,

and every color

desired can be obtained at the principal stores,


in cans or pails,

who have no
mixing

colors,

ready for use.

For painters

conveniences for grinding or


they will prove of great value.

The Painters^ Manual.

28

COMBINATION OF COLORS.

The

various shades a^d tints which can be

produced bj mixing
numerous, that I

colors are

different

my

will curtail

so

remarks on

this subject, preferring to leave the reader to

discover by experiment desired shades, as the

knowledge thus obtained

will

be of greater

The

use and value than any written rule.


'*

" of colors, also, varies, so

strength

quantity of

particular
advised.

each can

that

be

no

safely

However, to aid the amateur, tho

following suggestions

may be

of service.

Keg Lead and Lampblack.

Lead

color,

Fearl

"

((

Prussian Blue and Ked..

Salmon

**

((

Blue, Yellow and Red.

Drah

**

tc

Yellow Ochre and Black

French Gray,

Pea

Green,

a
It

Black, Blue, and Red.

Chrome, or Paris Green.

Black,

**

l^'ellow

Straw

**

It

YeUow.

Fawn

'*

tt

Ochre and Vermilion.

Slate

Cream

color.

Red and

Blue.

and Red.

The Painters' Manual.


Peach-blossom,

Purple

color,
'*

Rose

Silver Gray,

The above
base,

Keg Lead, & American

Vermilion.

Blue and Eed.

*'

*'

Carmine or Lake.

"
are all

29

Blue and Black.

mixed with keg lead for a

and the colors added to

suit the taste of

the painter.
Brown,
it

Bark

green,

Ked and Black or Blue.


Venetian Ked and Lampblack.
Lampblack and Chrome Green.
Lidian

Orange,

Ked and

Grass green,

Green and Blue.

Olive,

Ked, Green, or Black, Yellow and Ked.

Snuff-color^

Yellow, Sienna and Ked.

Yellow.

PART

II.

CAERIAGE PAINTINa.

FOUNDATION.

a
it

To

illustrate clearly the

new

carriage,

through

we

method

will take a

buggy and carry

various stages from the smith-

its

shop to the trimming-shop, and


the repository

of painting

finish

it

for

and here I would remark that

the process will be the same for heavy work,

such as coaches, clarences, broughams, bretts,


rockaways,

etc.,

latter class of

with the exception that on the

work we must,

to insure

good

work, put on, perhaps, more paint in the foundation, as the style

the work in general

and
is

finish are superior

and

expected to wear longer

than light buggy work.

The body, having been

finished

by the body-

The Painters' Manual.


maker,
it

is

and proceed

filled,

grain

We dust

brought to the paint shop.

thoroughly to remove

page

31

to

coat

all

it

saw-dust and

with priming.

Every nail-hole and crack

34.

and the priming well rubbed


the

of

For

wood.

bound brush, or a brush


Clean out

all

dirt,

this

is

well

into the

work a

partly worn,

corners with a small

See

well-

is best.

stiff

brush,

leaving no patches of paint on any part of the


job.

The wheels,

beds, bars, shafts,

the carriage part being at hand,

a coat of the priming

also,

ready for the blacksmith.


quire

more

paint,

we

give

The body

we

of

them

and they are then

and while the smith

ing " the running part

etc.,

will "

fill

will reis

'dron-

up " the

body.

Three or four days having passed since we


" primed " the body,
to

we sandpaper

it

lightly

smooth the grain and remove any lumps

of

No. 2J sandpaper then put on a


smooth, even coat of No. 1 lead (See Page 22),
lead, with

set aside to

dry hard, and

perhaps in two

The Painters^ Manual.

32

days this coat will be hard enough to " putty


up."
is

When

(See Putty, page 35).

dry,

sandpaper again

then putty up

all

dust well and apply

Allow

paint No. 2 (page 65).

the putty

this to dry,

the small holes, cracks and

imperfections, plastering over with soft putty

every part where the grain


open.

is

coiu^se

or very

After the body has stood long cjiough

to dry, paint No. 3 is then next in order.

great deal depends on the paint being

perfectly dry before another coat is put on,

and therefore give


tween each

coat.

of lead having

all

the time possible be-

The

third and fourth coat

been put on, everything puttied

up smooth, and

all

dry,

ROUGH

we

are ready for the

STUFF.

Some painters use yellow ochre for a rough


stuff; others, mineral or fire-proof paint,

others stiD, English


prefer the latter,

filling

(ground

mixed as follows

and

slate).

The Painters' Manual.


Take three parts

of filling,

two parts dry

part keg lead

white lead,

one

Japan two

parts,

33

mix with

rubbing varnish one part

dilute with turpentine

and run these compo-

nents through the mill to crush the lumps and

thoroughly mix them.

Three coats of

this is

now put on

the princi-

pal parts of the body, each coat being allowed

(For heavy work I advise

time to dry hard.

more)

when rubwe " stain

then, to enable us to see,

surface

bing^ that the

is

level,

the whole with lampblack mixed

in

Japan

and turpentine.
Yellow ochre rough

stuff,

when looked

at

with a microscope, after being rubbed, presents a porous appearance like the

piece

of rattan,

which shows

th<3

end

cause of

varnish "flattening" or striking in on


jobs

yet,

there

are

pigment used as a

jobs

filling

done with

forms

many
this

where no imperfec-

tions can be found in the finish.


filling

of a

slate-like

surface,

English
perfectly

The Painters^ Manual,

34

and years

solid,

about the best

of use

have proved

it

to be

filling.

The body being now ready


will look at the

for ironing,

we

how

foundation coats, and see

they are mixed.

PRIMlNa.

Mix keg

lead to the consistency of mill:

country milk

No.
lead
to

1,

with pure raw

OB First Coat of Lead.

mth raw

make

very

it

oil

two

parts,

Mix keg

Japan one

part,

proper for a thick coat, adding a


turpentine to allow

little

For

easily.

oil.

carriage parts

add a

to

work

little

lamp-

it

black, but not for bodies.

No.

2,

OR Second Coat of Lead.

Mix

keg

lead with one part raw oil and two parts

Japan, and

little

turpentine,

as

before,

adding lampblack for carriage part, but none


for the bodv.
/

Nos. 3 and

4,

OR Third and Fourth Coats.

Mix beg
tine,

The Painters^ Manual.

35

mth

turpen-

lead into a thick paste

add a

Japan and rubbing var-

little oil,

nish to bind the paint well


carriage part, a

little

add,

lampblack, and

red lead, which will make

little

it

for
if

the

handy,

sandpaper

nicely.

HARD DRYING PUTTY.


Mix

dry white lead with Japan and rubbing

varnish equal parts, to the proper consistency,


beating

mash

it

well with a mallet to thoroughly

the lumps.

Keep

in water, to prevent it
If it

it,

when not

from drying.

be necessary to put on more paint to

properly

fill

the grain of the carriage part,

the Nos. 3 and 4 will answer

These lead colors should


as possible

better
less

in use,

all

they will then

and go

farther,

all

purposes.

be ground as
fill

fine

up the wood

besides necessitating

sandpapering.

The buggy having now

arrived from the

The Painters' Manual.

36

smith-sliop,
off the

and

we

will "strip the job,"

i.

take

e.,

body, remove the loops, dash, steps,

foot-rail,

and prepare

to

rub the body

OUT OF ROUGH STUFF.


This

done by rubbing the surface with

is

lump pumice stone and

water.

call the reader's attention to

for rubbing
size

"

it

degrees of

of various

and find

it

an excel-

The maker's name

is

forgotten,

I have used

lent article.

a prejDared stone

cakes of convenient

into

and shape, and

grit.''

but

made

Here I would

it

can be found at the principal stores.

The pumice stone having been


old saw and filed

or into various shapes,

level,

we proceed with

cut with an

rubbing, keeping the

the

surface well wet with water, as the stone cuts


faster

and

of water

is

is less liable

to scratch,

when plenty

used.

Take care not

to rub

to take off all the stain

more than
;

wash

is sufficient

off clean

vdth

The Painters' Manual.


cold watsr, and dry thorouglilj.

It

37
is

very

probable that small dents or scratches will be

found in the

surface,

and

to

make

perfect foundation for the color,

sure of a

we

will pre-

pare some

FACING LEAD.

Mix dry

white lead with

tvv'^o

parts Japan,

one part rubbing varnish, and thin with turpentine, adding a

little

lampblack to make a

Grind as

clean-looking lead color.


possible,

rub the body

fine

off lightly vvith

as

No. 1

sandpaper, dust well, and apply the facing


lead with a camels'-hair
paint

on evenly and

which

will

be in

five

or

When

quickly.
si:x

over with soft putty and


imperfections perfectly.

brush, laying the


dry,

hours, go carefully

fill

all

Allow

scratches or

all

to harden

then with the finest pieces of pumice stone


gently rub or "face

it

down

;"

wash

out the corners, and the body


coloring.

is

off; clean

ready for

The Painters' Manual,

38
The

irons of the body, such as steps, loops,

ready for color, having been pre-

&c., are also

viously leaded.

THE CARRIAGE OR RUNNING PARTS.


Take No.

2 J sandpaper

and cut down every

part of the carriage, until there appears to be

nothing but the

new wood and

iron

left,

taking

care not to cut the corners of the spokes, bars,

By

etc.

means you remove every

this

particle

smoke, dirt and grease, and will

of blacksmith

provide against trouble in future o^^erations.

The lead

color No. 1

is

the oval brushes and *Hool

now put
;"

on, using

the latter being

used to wipe around nuts, between

and

Allow time for drying, and then

springs.

putty up

all

the large holes

.apply No. 2 (page 65).


until the third

dry

pare

spokes

sandpaper and

Eepeat

this process

and fourth coats are hard and

then with partly worn sandpaper preit

for the color.

The Painters' Manual.

39

COLORING CARRIAGE PART.


Let us suppose carmine
desired.

to

be the color

"We mix a preparation or ground

color for vermilion,

i. e.,

keg-lead and American

vermilion to a light pink color, with Japan,

varnish and turpentine, grinding very fine and


laying on with a camels'-hair brush.

When

we put on deep English vermilion, and


when that coat of " dead color " is dry, add
sufficient rubbing varnish to make coloring
This, when
varnish, and apply a heavy coat.
dry

dry, is to be

rubbed with pulverized pumice

stone and water, using a thick woolen cloth


a

for

Wash

rubber.

off,

dry well with a

" shammy,'' and

if

we

before putting on

will stripe

it

it

is

to be striped black,

the car-

mine.

The

striping being finished (a double fine

line of black),
Avith

mix French carmine. No.

40,

English hard drying varnish, and grind

as fine as possible.

Then add more

varnish.

The Painters' Manual.

40

that the color be not too strong

and apply

The English varnish

-with a fitch-hair brush.

will require at least forty-eight

unless a

hours to dry,

gold size has been added, and as

little

we have already gone ahead a little


we will look at the body. This we

too

fast,

will sup-

pose to have had a good coat of preparation,


?.

e.

lampblack, a good coat of ivory black, and

a coat of black coloring varnish.

Black

adding

coloring varnish can be

'^

dead

color "

made by

to rubbing varnish, but

a far superior article can be obtained from


Messrs. Smith, Baldwin and Company, of

York.
vaiTiish,

This firm furnishes a black coloring

made with English

their rubbing varnish

conveniently, and

is

Use a

the market.

now

riage part

now

is

give the

by

it

ivory black,

and

dries quickly, sets

far the best article in

fitch-hair

the coloring varnish.

part are

New

brush to put on

The body and

in coloring varnish,

and the

car-

We

will

glazed with carmine.

body two coats

of

carriage

rubbing var-

The Painters' Manual.


nish, rubbing with fine

41

pumice stone between

each coat, and the trimmer can then put in the


seat linings, etc.

VARNISHING.

The varnish-room should be


walls dusted, floor well wet, and

well cleaned,
if

the weather

a temperature of seventy-five or eighty

is cold,

degrees maintained by a clean tight stove, or

what

is

better,

The

steam-pipes.

carriage

now been nicely rubbed


cleaned, we begin with the

part and body having

down and

well

carriage part.
floor

Eaising

all

the wheels from the

by two boxes or barrels placed under the

axles,

we prepare

the varnish and brushes.

American finishing varnish


for this part,

and

flat

it

good enough

and with our oval varnish brush

" tool "

we

take our position in front

of the wheel with our left

turn

^s

with the " tool "

hand on the rim

we spread

to

the varnish

heavily between the spokes, and up the front

The Painters' Manual,

42

as far as the

V shape

with the large brush


of varnish

our

left

of spolies extend

we

lay

then

on an abundance

on the side of the spoke nearest

hand, then opposite, and then reach

over and cover the back.

Now

wiping out

on the edge
tion

all

the varnish in the brush

of the cup,

we

repeat the opera-

with the dried brush, laying

off

the

varnish smoothly and removing the bubbles.

Next we varnish the hub, and wipe with the


"tool''

around the "butt"

of the

spokes;

then varnish the inside of the rim between the


spokes, finishing the back

and front

sides last.

"We keep the wheel turning for a moment


or two until the varnish flows evenly, and

proceed with the other wheels in the same

manner, finishing the springs,

The body
body

i^

next looked

axles, etc., lastly.

after.

Taking our

finishing brushes (the fitch hair brushes

are best for the buggy),

bodies I prefer Noble

&

and

for finishing

Hoare's hard-drying

varnish and Harland's wearing body-varnish.

The Painters' Manual.


mixed
inside

in

equal

for

parts,

we begin with

coat,

tlie

which we should have a pair of

brushes and a cup expressly.

heavy

43

we

brush marks

level

it

In laying on a

off nicely, leaving

faintly perceptible

the

up and down

the panels, always leaving the work before


it

begins to

set.

The outside we next look

after,

and flow

the varnish on very heavily, but as evenly


as possible.

We

lay off

from end to end, then

across from bottom to top,

and repeat wiping


;

out the brush on the cup, and leave the panel

with the last movement up and down.

We

clean out under the mouldings with a small

brush, and bear in

mind

that a heavy flow

must be wiped upward, never down.


been

all

Having

over the body, with a piece of whale-

which should be at hand, one end being


sharpened to a poiut
go over the work,

bone

vv^e

picking out any hairs, dust,


close

etc.,

up or darken the room and

to drv.

and then

leave the job

The Painters' Manual.

44

In cleaning a body preparatory to

varnisli-

an excellent plan to use, after

ing, I find it

dusting with the dusting-brush, a piece of

silk

(an old sun curtain for instance,) dampened

with sweet

oil.

it

removes every

lint left

this I gently

enough

over, but not

and

With

to grease
little

wipe the job


the surface,

particle of dust or

by the shammy and

duster.

YARNISHES.
There

is

no

with peddlers,

more pestered

class of people
if

carriage-makers

may

are

so term them, than

with

Every few days an agent

varnish agents.

of this sort

makes his

appearance, and sometimes proves an intolerable bore.


prise

I do not frown upon the enter-

and go-a-head-a-tive-ness

his employers, for such a spirit

of the agent or
is

well

enough

but I have frequently had occasion to object to


the perseverance of such

men

in seeking the

foreman, after a denial from the " boss," and

The Painters^ Manual.


trying sometimes by bribery, to get
assist

45
him

to

with his influence in introducing the

Some

vaunted varnish.

bosses, to get rid of

the agent, order varnish '^for trial," and the

workman then has


his job

nish

to

run the risk of spoiling

for being unacquainted with the var-

and

all

varnishes manufactured by dif-

ferent makers have their respective peculiarities

he goes at

the

work with more or

nervousness and hesitancy, and

less

almost cer-

is

tain to turn out a poor job.

Always

*'let

enough alone,"

well

good varnish and know

new man, with

his

new

'low to use

if

you have

it

let the

varnish, negotiate with

some new shop, where new work

is

done, by new

hands.
I do not wish to be understood as taking a

stand against improvement, but as a general

many changes with regard


made in many shops. Neither

thing, there are too

to varnish

would I speak disparagingly


facturers,

but would give

all

of varnish

manu-

a fair show.

Let

The Painters' Manual.

46

those, however,

patronize him.

who prefer one maker's goods


"Each one to his taste." I

echo the sentiments of a score of painters, and


should not be judged harshly therefor.
I have a preference for varnishes, and will
'without fear or favor state that in the twenty
years' experience

which I have had, I have

never used varnish on which I could place so

much
win

made by Smith, Bald-

reliance as that

&

Co.

This

is

no advertisement para-

graph, but the honest conviction of the author,

and should there be those

in the fraternity

dissatisfied with the varnish

which they have

been using, I ask them

to

prove for themselves

my words.
There are

different opinions existing as re-

gards the necessary qualities of varnishes

some preferring a quick-setting


others, a slow-setting

"lay off" well


himself.

varnish,

and

one to enable them to

consequently each must try for

The rubbing varnish made by the

house just mentioned dries hard and quickly.

The Painters^ Manual,


leaving an excellent surface to rub on

while

their finishing varnish has a brilliant gloss,

and

can be laid on aa easily as one could desire.

Messrs

S.

&

B.

Co.'s

coloring varnish I

have already mentioned, though, I repeat, that


I have never seen

its equal.

In re-varnishing old work

it

is

net well to

put English on the old surface,

it

being apt to

"crawl" or "pit," therefore I invariably use


the above American varnish

and

first,

finish

with "Wearing English.

newly finished job

washed with

should always

clear cold water,

and dried witb

a clean shammy, before allowing


paint shop

this

surface with a

cup on a

to leave the

it.

found to "crawl," wipe the

damp shammy.

varnish with turpentine, as

warm it by
warm iron.

If too thick,

it

hardens the surface and pre-

vents the dust from sticking to


If varnish is

be

Never

it kills

dilute

the gloss.

the stove or place the

The Painters' Manual.

48

POLISHING.
PoLisHixa on carriages
things of the past
will

now among

is

the

but to describe the metho'd

not be amiss, perhaps.

Finish your job as smoothly and cleanly as


possible with

American finishing yarnish, and

stand at least ten days

let it

then rub

with pumice-stone the same as


coat

clean

stone ground

if

down

a rubbing

and rub again with rotten

off,

fine, until

the

marks

ice-stone are all obliterated

rotten stone and

oil

until

of the

pum-

next rub with

a gloss appears.

Then

substitute Spanish* whiting for the rotten

stone

this

Mix
milk

should be washed,

e. :

the whiting in a pail of water, until like


let it settle a

dirt or

lumps out

into a clean pan,

moment
pour

and

to get the stones,

off the

let it settle

poiu- off the clear water


it will

i,

milky liquid
thoroughly

and dry the sediment

be an impalpable powder, and mixed with

the sweet

oil will

produce a good polish on the

The Painters' Manual.


Clean

panel.

have a glossy
point of wear

all off

with soft

silk,

and you

surface, superior to varnish in

but not in looks.

Fancy boxes may be polished


and are better than varnished
niture, pianos

polished,

49

and fancy

in this way,

surfaces.

Fur-

articles are generally

and there are preparations to be had

at furniture stores for re-polishing,

which an-

swer a very good purpose.

PAINTING COACHES, ETC.

The modus operandi


differs

work

light
tails

but

the foundation coats from

little in
:

therefore I will not enter into de-

with regard to

more

of painting heavy jobs

it.

The workman must be

particular with this work, but one

can paint a buggy

well

should be able to get up

a good job on heavy work.

your

abilities is

who

one half the

Confidence in

battle.

The panels of such work are generally painted


in colors, while the pillars, top-strip, quarters,

The Painters' Manual.

50
deck,

etc.,

lakes, greens,

and blues are some

colors used on this work.


for

any of these

ground color

Umber

always black.

are

colors,

of the best

To prepare the body

colors,

in the iplace of

we should use

lampblack on black

work.

The

following are a few of the grounds mosb

approved.

Lake.

Indian red and vermilion mixed to a

dark brown, though some

ground

prefer

black

for lake.

Lake should never be mixed

to dry

dead,'

but with a subdued appearance, by putting in

The best way

varnish enough.

a board before laying on.


one-half

its brilliancy,

and

If

^'

will

is

to try

deal,"

it

it

on

loses

be apt to be

cloudy.

Ultramarine.

Mix a medium blue with keg

lead and Prussian blue.

Vermilion.

light pink color is generally

used as a ground for vermilion, but


white ground

is

if

a pure

gotten up from the beginning,

Manual.

This Painters'

you

will find the color to cover well,

none

on

^d

age 26, to preserve the color.

Green and

will cover well

ground

lose

sulphur into your vermilion,

put flower of

Geeex.

and

Don't forget to

of its pristine beauty.

as spoken of

51

all

heavy-bodied colors

on the lead color without any

color.

TO PAINT PANELS CARMINE.

To make
get up an
coloring

good job with carmine,


English

varnish,

pumice stone

rubbed down

we cannot rub

Some

after the job is glazed.

their carmine glazing

and
'^

oil,

but you

spotted

;"

should

vermilion ground, into

vrell

for

W'e

with

a great deal

painters

mix

with rubbing varnish

will find

the best v/ay

such jobs frequently


is

to

mix

in

English

varnish, adding a little gold size for a dryer


this flows evenly

properly put on.


carefully

and does not cloud or spot

"When a job

and apply a coat

of

is

glazed, rub

American

if

it

finish-

The Painters' Manual.

52

ing and rubbing, mixed in equal parts.

can be rubbed for finishing


if
it

coats,

This

whereas

rubbing varnish be put on over the glazing

might crack,

but

the mixture will stand

the wear of years.

Ultramarine blue panels can be made the

same way, the ground being gotten up vnih


Prussian blue.

A beautiful

wine color or lake may be made

by glazing Indian red or brown with carmine.

brilliant

light

green

may be produced by

pea green glazed

mth

verdigris or with

Paris green.
Striping

may be

glazed in the saDie manner,

but of course on dead striping

Some
and

painters put on glazing the

in the place of coloring varnish.

this a very

it,

same

as,

I think

poor plan, as you have no chance to

rub the surface imtil there


over

color.

that the color

is

is

so

much

varnish

injured.

The workman by experiment can discover


many splendid variations of shades and tints

The Painters' Manual.


by the glazing

process,

better rewarded

manner than

if

and

53

his labors

by knowledge acquired

v/ill

be

in that

I were to extend this article to

greater length with

more

precepts.

STRIPING.

"When tube colors are used for

striping,

there will be no trouble experienced in mixing,


as they only require thinning with turpentine,

and the addition

We

must use our own

though governed a
It

would be

folly

particular style.

ing

is

sugar of lead.

of a little

little

for

taste

in

striping

by prevailing

me

to

The manner

in

styles.

dictate

which

any
strip-

done can be learned in three minutes

by looking

at a

workman

long experience

is

operation well

suffice it

while at work, but

required to perform the

then for

me

to say,

get good tools and colors and practice on


a wheel or board painted for the purpose,

The Painters' Manual.

54
until

you can master the

only practice,

art, for

patience and perseverance can accomplish

When
of the

striping

stripes

on

solid

dead "

ends

the

color,

or any imperfections can be

"cut off" or improved with a


''

it.

little

of the

but on a glazed or light color

color,

the "cutting off" would show, therefore,

when

thus employed on these colors we have a

little

oil ready,

and before the

draw a pencil

filled

Then the

ends.

stripes are dry,

wdth the

strijoes will

but in those places where the

oil

we

across the

dry everywhere
oil is,

and then

they can be washed off with soap and water


after all the rest is

dry

and thus leave

Bronze striping

stripes with a square end.

fashionable, while glazed

considered beautiful.

the
is

stripes are always

(See Bronzing and Gild-

ing-)

Striping with a mathematical or drawing

pen

will

be

found

excellent

on panels or

sleighs.

Scotch plaid work

is

now

out of fashion, as

The Painters^ Manual.


The

latter

did not

know

well as cane work, or raised cane.


" raised Cain " with

many who

55

and although an extended article


could be written on that kind of work alone,
and would be considered interesting by some,
secret,

its

antiquity will not warrant

its

more than

this

brief notice.

ORNAMENTING.
This art requires practice, and the orna-

menter should be able to draw


there will

for copying,

However

these pages rules

found in

be

well.

by which a medium workman

may

execute fine ornamental work, with but

little

knowledge

of drawing.

Monograms being more


far

more appropriate

for

fashionable and
this

by

country than

Coats of Arms, I will endeavor to aid the


workman in executing these "tangled up"
letters.

The

letters of

monograms

confined to any particular style or

are not
size,

yet

The Painters' Manual.

56
there
in

is

a peculiarity about

other places.

letters suitable for

to twist

them up,

hereafter),

them not found

show on another page

monograms
will

the workman,

copy them (as shown

and laying the two or three

as desired, against the

letters,

window, can "lay them

out " to suit his taste.


It

may be

make some letters


monogram of the author

necessary to

larger, as seen in the

The Painters' Manual.


on the

This, a

frontispiece.

little

57

practice will

render easy.

The form

made

monograms may be sometimes

of

to represent the vocation or business of

shown

the owner, as

The

engraving.

in

the accompanying

initials are T.

M.,

made with

a broken anchor and a rope, while the flukes,

or broken

parts

Thomas Moore,
ornaments

are

services of

an

the

anchor, form the

monogram

This

ground.

of

may

represent

Such

a sea captain, or sailor.


generally

artist

expensive,

if

the

are called into requisi-

tion.

The "prominent

letter" is generally the one

covering the greatest part of the outside space,


or, to define it

composed

of

more

clearly, in a

monogram

H. D. C, the C, which should be

the "prominent letter,"

is

made

largest

and

almost encircles the whole monogram.

*()

68

The Painters' Manual.

The Painters' Manual.

69

GILDING.
This

attention, for

it

requires

art

beautiful

appears to

many

our

to be a very

troublesome operation to execute


it

my

easily done, as

is

and a

little

remarks

But

"well.

will

show,

It is best wlien

experience prove.

gilding on carriage or

special

wagon work, where the

gold will be protected with varnish, to procure

"gold size" ready prepared


size

being the best.

make
and
is

a substitute

If

yellow with
.

better

not to be had, you can

parts.

little

to be able to see

Havrfig

your

job

the lines

little

re-

is

down

rubbed

up

in

whitening to form a "pounce bag

smoothly, take a piece of muslin and


a

chrome

but in lettering no coloring

quired.

it

gilding

If the

you should mix a

it,

gold

by using English varnish

Japan in equal

for striping,

English

tie

with this you pounce or dust over every part


of the

to

work where the gold

prevent

the

leaf

from

leaf is to

be put,

sticking to

the

60

The Painters' Manual.

surface

not covered

method
water

is

or starch

still

not

is

another plan

half,

is

where dust

on account of

apiolicable

newly varnished work


potato in

Another

size.

wash the job over with starch

to

while

by the

near

by,

to

cut a

and with the raw surface rub

the place desired, leaving the juice of the

potato on; this soon dries and forms a thin

film,

Any one

to which the gold will not adhere.

of

the above methods will be found to answer


the purpose, and the coating will wash off
clean

when

the gilding

is

The

dry.

surface

prepared, take the size and put on the stripes,

ornaments, or whatnot, and allow

enough
it

is

to enable

without

it

it

you to pass your

sticking

but

placed directly upon

if

it, it

when

to diy just

finger over

the finger

is " tacky,"

it is

ready to receive the gold.

For

signs,

or

work which

covered with varnish,

which
is

is

made with

is

not to be

we should use

old boiled

oil.

oil size,

The best

that taken from a paint cup in which the

The Painters^ Manual.

61

paint has settled and left the oil on top.

Pour

this off carefully

chrome

and grind into

it

little

yellow.

TO LAY GOLD LEAF.


If for

scrolls, letters,

book of gold

or large work, take the

leaf in the left

hand, and with

the forefinger of the right hand

paper
leaf

leaf,

smooth

the

first

leaving the gold on the opposite


;

then holding the book close to

the work, with the front pointed

toward the bottom of the


lightly

lift

touch

it,

rolling

letters or scroll

the

all

any missed spot

the size

"svith

is

and

book up and

leaving the gold on the letters.

operation until

downward

Repeat this

covered.

Touch

the finger tipped vrith

the superfluous gold, and wipe

all off

nicely

with a bunch of cotton.

For

striping

it

is

better to use a 'Hip,"

(which can be found at any supply store).


Place the book on a piece of board covered

The Painters' Manual.

62

mth

and raising the paper, cut the

clotli,

leaf the desired size with

edge of which

Then draw

lift

Some

and

lay

it

and carry

it

it,

you can proceed

on the cut gold

Thus

to the size.

and lay the

book

of gold

from the

practice with either method,

and you

will find it easy

enough.

Gold may be shaded with transparent


such

com-

until the striping is

painters cut the

leaf directly

leaf in strips,
:

and smooth.

the tip across your face or head, to

you can then

strips

straight

is j)erfectly

slightly grease

pleted.

a table-knife, the

as

asphaltum, ultramarine,

mine, verdigris, Paris green,

etc.,

colors,

lake,

car-

to suit the

taste of the painter.

BRONZING.

Gold Bronze
for striping

done with

i^

used on carriage parts

and many

this

powder.

fine fancy jobs

can be

The Painters' Manual.


The

size

used for bronze

described for gold

To put on

the bronze,

up a

bag, by tying

is

but

little

much

"pounce"

ball of cotton.

This will

and

cheaper than gold

with

bronze,

in paper,

as

cut

at

is

it

gently rubbed

quality

gold

to

inferior

time,

a piece of

a small

The best

size.

striping is better,

so

make

take

up the bronze, which

over the

the same as that

leaf.

plush or velvet, and

take

is

63

of

leaf,

bronze

and

for

does not consume

the same time

it

is

leaf.

To make fancy work

out

any desired pattern

and laying

it

over a nearly dry

varnished surface, rub the bronze on through


the holes of the pattern.

The

fronts of the

spokes and the ribs of express wagons


nicely

ornamented

Copper and
in this way,
in

in this

silver

may be

manner.

bronze can also be used

and when the three are mixed up

ornaments they look

well.

The Painters' Manual,

64

TO PAINT A BUSINESS WAGON.


In painting a business wagon we do not in
all

cases rough-stuff the bodies, as

too expensive and troublesome

it

would be

therefore

we

must get up the surface with lead and sand-

We

paper.

use the same j)aint as used on

carriages, sandpapering, puttying, etc.,

each coat.

Facing lead

will

be found excellent

for the last coat of lead, as

und

easily

The

between

it

cuts smoothly

with No. 1| sandpaper.

wagons are generally

colors of business

decided by the owner, but I will add hereto a

few of the colors w^hich look well together.


No.

Body.

Chrome green

1.

frame or

ribs, black,

striped with white or cream color.


KuxNiiv^a Geae.

Cream

color, striped

red, blue or dark green or black,


line.

and red

with
fine

The Painters^ Manual.


No.

Body.

Yellow

65

2.

frame black, striped with

white or blue.

EuNNiNa Geak.

Light

vermilion^

striped

with black and white.


No.

Body.

3.

Carmine glaze over Indian red.

EuNNiNG Gear.

Vermilion.
No. 4.

Deep vermilion.
EuNNiNa Gear. Light vermilion.

Body.

SLEIGHS,

There

is

so

much

variety in the styles

and

colors of this class of work, that I dare not say

much

in regard to

same as
most

it.

for buggies.

frequently

The foundation

is

the

Glazed colors are the

used.

Ornamental

work,

The Painters' Manual.

66
such as
in

scrolls, birds,

good

Gold

price.

and

taste,

if

striping

lines of colors are in

and

vines

flowers, are

done, add to the

v.ell

worked up with

demand

great

fine

and

it

seems almost impossible to get on too much

The

fancy work.

sleigh is

presumed

to

form

a part and parcel of the joy and mirth of


a sleigh-ride.

The following

pos here, I venture to add


*'The snow, the snow,

And

tlie

lines

them

being apro-

fleecy snow,

the bells so full of glee,

Bring out the bay and the dapple gray,

And

a sleighing go with me.

For

it's jingle, jingle,

jing

Let the sleigh-bells ring.


**

As

swiftly

Our

To

we

glide along

hearts keep time

the merry chime,

While our voices swell the song."

The Painters' Manual,

67

TO REMOVE OLD PAINT.


There are various metliods employed
removing old paint, and I
describe them.

This

process.

First

there

will

endeavor to

is

the hot-iron

done by taking a heavy

is

piece of iron and heating

and then holding

for

it

it

in a stove or forge,

The

close to the work.

paint will blister or soften, and can be scraped


off

with a putty knife or

plan

made
eral

the furnace process.

is

of sheet-iron

form

is

shown

chisel.

The furnace

and heavy wire


in the

better

its

is

gen-

accompanying en-

graving.

The

triangular shape allows

closely to

the

work on

it

to be held

cither side.

Being

The Painters^ Manual.

68
filled

with ignited charcoal, and a good

kept up bj holding

one can with

it

in a draft, frequently,

"burn

this

fii-e

off" a

body very

quickly and well.

There
purpose.

is

also

a patent lamp used for the

I have used one, and found

it

an

excellent tool.

It is

and makes

the same time alcoholic gas,

which

at

while the flame


of

is

blown out

This lamp

fire.

man

upon the flame by a

directed

is

designed to burn alcohol,

in a long

is self-acting,

pipe,

tongue

and the work-

merely holds the lamp in his left-hand,

directing the tongue of fiame

upon the de-

sired spot, scraping the paint off as he goes

along with the right hand.


Still

another process

Dissolve one

pound

water over the

stuff.

then add yellow ochre or

fire,

Smear

an old brush, and

the potash plan.

of potash in three pints of

some common dry paint


rough

is

until

it is

as thick as

this over the panel with

in

little

while you can

scrape off the paint like old cheese.

Some

The Painters^ Manual.

69

years ago I was induced to use a preparation


(Ostrander's) to take

tlie

place of potash

but

it

was a

failure.

off

by

potash process, wash the w^ood well

tlie

After the paint

is

taken

with soap and water to remove any residual


potash, dry off

a coat of clean

and sandpaper, and then give

raw

oil.

"With the furnace or hot iron process, sand-

paper smoothly and apply a coat of the usual


priming, and proceed as

if

on new work.

Carriage parts must be scraped, and for


this purpose I use

engraving.

It is

for instance), the

a tool, as shoT^Ti in the

made

of steel

(an old

file

square centre part being

ground, and the four square edges are excellent to scrape the spokes, while the ends will

be found useful on the carriage part.


only where an extra job

be necessary to scrape

is

wanted that

off the

caniage

It is
it

will

jDart,

The Painters' Manual.

70
for

we can

generally

fill

them up with lead and

get a good substantial surface.

RE-VARNISHING.

Old

jobs should be rubbed well with pumice

stone and water, the bare

with lead color (No.

1).

wood being covered


All spots not hare

can be touched up with dead color

on a coat of rubbing varnish.

then put

If there

be spots

yet not colored properly, they can be fixed for


the next or finishing coat.

It is generally the

cheapest plan to color the carriage part over

and

stripe anew, as it is a long, tedious job to

touch

it

up, and never looks well.

AN EASY WAY TO CLEAN THE


"When the paint

is all

out of the

MiLL.
mill, it is

best to clean the same, before the grinding


surfaces

The

become gummed up with dried

easiest

way

is

to have a

box

color.

of sawdust.

The Painters' Mancjal.


in

71

which the parts of the mill may be placed

and rubbed

clean.

TO BIND A BRUSH.
BRUSHES, -when new, should be bound at least
one-third the length of the hair, to preserve

them and render them better

for use.

Some

bind a strong cord round and round

loainters

to the proper distance,

and secure each end

to

the handle.

But a

better

way

is,

to take

a piece of

strong muslin and wrap one thickness around


the hair, then tie a cord firmly around the

same

as

low as you desire the binding to come:

then fold the muslin back toward the handle,

and fasten

it

by tacking the margin around

che border of the origmal binding.

This method makes a very neat binding


especially for varnish brushes.

The Painters' Manual.

72

BLEACHING
Pour about

much

as

low earthen vessel as


in depth

OIL.

linseed oil into a shal-

stand one inch

will

then pour in six inches of water,

cover with a fine cloth, and let the whole stand

weeks until the liquid

in the sun for a few

becomes

when

thick,

in a phial

be poured

should

and submitted

which the

after

it

to a gentle heat,

clear is to be

poured

off

and

strained through a flannel cloth.

ABOUT
The longer

oil

is

OILS.

kept,

it

always the

is

better both in regard to its drying

sparent qualities.

and tran-

To make good nut

oil,

skins of ripe walnuts should be peeled

as

it

contains an acid whicli turns

Poppy

oil

poppies.
spike,

is

made from
is

off,

brown.

the ripe seed of

It is the best drying

or lavender,

it

the

oil.

ol)tained

by

The

oil of

distilling

The Painters' Manual.


spike with water
for

it is

working vdih the

To make

ing, take

of

gum

of

poppy

yeiy volatile and fine

pencil,,

drying

fiiie

or for enamelling.

oil for

oil

73

extra fine paint-

or nut

one

oil

sandarac two ounces, of white

one ounce.

pint,

vitriol

and sugar

of lead^ each

whole

the solid ingredients are dissolved,

till

and the mixture


This

oil will

is

dry

Boil the

the color of linseed


fast,

and a portion

turpentine added makes a fine

where the purest white

oil

oil.

of pliro

for use

tint is required.

It

may be mixed with other oils as a diying,


where common drying oil woidd be injurious
to the color.

Eaw

lioseed oil for carriage

work

being more volatile than boiled


into the wood,

is best,

oil, it

as

strikes

and forms a hard, resinous

fiUinof.

TO TRANSFER A PICTURE.
Pictures

are

frequently

painted surfaces or wood, and

transferred

may be

to

seen on

The Painters' Manual.

74

To

stages, fancy boxes, etc.

transfer a picture,

down

prepare a white ground well rubbed

with pumice stone and water.

Then apply a
(Eng-

thin coat of very light-colored varnish.


lish

hard drying

quite dry

^"

is

good.)

When

this is not

tacky," like gold size

dampen

the picture on the back with clean water, and


lay

it

between some newspapers to remove any

water that might be on the face of the picture

then lay

rt

pressing

it

carefully

on the varnished

down with

finger, until there are

neath

damp

surface,

cloth, or the

no bubbles or

air

under-

there should be bubbles not easily

if

pressed out, prick them with a pin to let the

Then stand the work

air escape.

and

be

when

rolled

hard,

oflf

the picture
A-fter fhis

dampen

the paper, and

by the finger
is left

aside to dry,
it

in small rolls, until

quite perfect on the paint.

has dried well, a coat of clear

varnish

wrill

process

is

can

finish the operation.

liGfht

The same

used to transfer pictures to

glass,

and when colored on the back they look

The Painters' Manual.


beautifully.

Almost any one can do

Try

of ornamentation nicely.

it

75
this

kind

on a small

scale.

Another method

is to

use Grecian varnish

Canada balsam and turpentine


varnish

is

better where

you

but

Copal

desire durability

and, besides, every carriage painter has the


material always at hand.

VARNISH FOR MAPS AND PICTURES.

GOOD varnish for maps and pictures

made

of

Canada balsam and

is

rectified oil of

turpentine in equal parts, mixed. Set the bottle

containing the mixture in

warm water and

agitate until the solution is perfect


in a

warm

settled

place a

pour off the

week

to settle,

then set

and when

clear varnish for use.

The Painters^ Manual.

76

ANOTHER,
Take two ounces
ounce of

gum

of

gum

mastic and one

sandarac, reduce

them

to a

powder, then put them in a

flask or bottle

add a pint

shake

together

till

of

the

alcohol

gums have

and

the whole

dissolved, strain

the solution through a fine flannel, and put


it

in a clean bottle, corked tight,

for use.

till

w^anted

This varnish will dry in one minute,

and on fancy boxes,

pictures, etc., will

form

a good water-proof coating.

TO PRESERVE PENCIL DRAWINGS.


"Wash lead-pencil drawmgs, such as patterns,
etc.,

wdth gun cotton in ether, (collodion,)

and you
will

will firmly fix

them

so that rubber

not rub them out.

TO COPY AN ORNAMENT FROM PAPER.


Place the paper containing the ornament
against a

window pane, and then

laying a sheet

The Painters* Manual.


of thin paper over

it

you can copy

it

77
exactly

with a lead pencil.

COPYING PAPER.

Mix

by weight

six parts

of turpentine,

one

part of rosin, and one part of boiled nut

oil,

the paper with a sponge.

and apply

to

small quantity of plumbago (black lead) added


to the mixture

makes a very good paper

lay under an ornament which

to

you wish to

transfer.

TRACING PAPER.
Take thin
varnish,

tissue paper

and apply a coat

and when dry you can trace any

ornament you wish with a pencil upon

When

of

it.

an ornament has been traced upon this

paper, rub over

the back some dry color,

and then by laying


to paint,

and you

it

on the place you desire

you can follow the


will

find

lines with a pencil,

the counterpart on the

The Painters' Manual.

*J8

panel
pin,

then

scratch these lines v/ith

liglitly

and wipe

dry color.

off the

TO PRESERVE ORNAMENTS.
Ornaments on work to be repainted may bo
saved,

the paint

if

taking a

little

is

not to be burnt

off,

by

glue and whiting, while warm,

and applying a thin coat with an ornamenting


pencil.

soon

This will

when another

dry,

coat should be put on, and you can then paint

over the ornament, being careful not to touch


the spot with sandpaper or pumice stone and

water until the job


in

coloring varnish,

soaked

off

can

be

a thick
pencil

when

from the

the glue can be


will

be

surface,

found a
but this

remedied by giving the ornament


coat of

rubbing varnish with the

and when the succeeding coats

varnish are rubbed


level.

ready to rub down

There

clean.

slight depression

is

down

it

will

of

be found

The Painters' Manual.

79

LETTERING,

There

lettering of

fore

it

a vast

is

difference

wagons and that

becomes

my

between

of signs

the

there-

duty to lay before the

readers of this book the peculiarities attending


this beautiful

The
is

and useful

principle

aimed

at in

which may be seen and


is

wagon

lettering

or ornamentally arranged

plain,

wagon

art.

in motion

letters,

easily read while the

while signs are expected

to be read while the reader is moving.

solid bodied letter therefore is necessary for

wagon work,
greater

as that can

distance

one having

than

Roman

letter,

or

fine lines.

There are several

wagon

be seen and read at a

lettering,

varieties of letters

but the principal

used in

styles,

and

those most frequently used, will be shown in


these pages.

from

There

printers' type,

is

a difference in outline

and consequently

it is

not

always best to follow after or copy print, when

80

The Painters' Manual,

making

letters.

The names

styles of letters are

of tlie principal

Octagon Full Block, Eound Full Block,


Octagon

Half

Block,

Antique Block, Eoman,

Round Half
Italic,

CJ

Italian

Block,

Back

The Painters' Manual,


slope,

The

Front

latter

slope,

names

and mean the

81

and Lower-case

Capitals

are taken from the printers,

capitals or large letters,

and

the lower case, or the small ones of same style.

The
which

first style
is

shown

is

Octagon Full Block,

a beautiful letter on almost any kind

of work,

and

desired to

fill

it

can be greatly extended

a certain space.

When

nicely this style presents a bold front,

be read distinctly

The

letter

at

if

shaded

and can

a considerable distance.

S shown on page 82 represents a

Uoch shade, which may be executed very

by glazing the dark shade

as, for

easily

instance,

The Painters' Manual.

82

the letter having been shaded with vermilion, the

dark shaded part

and the

mine,

light

is

glazed with car-

part

left

vermilion.

Another very good way by which you can

make

three shades, or what

shade blocked"
light blue,

is

is

termed " Double

to shade the letter with

block shade with

medium

and then double shade with ultramarine

The next
block

letter in order

is

the

blue,

blue.

Eound

fall

these are similar to the Octagon, with

the exception that the corners are rounded.

The Painters^ Manual.

83

OCTAGON HAIiF BLOCK.

This

is

a very easy letter to

draw and

paint,

and when shaded nicely, has a very neat appear-

may be condensed

or extended to

suit the taste of the letterer,

and where speed

ance.

is

It

desired in lettering, this style will be found

84

The Painters' Manual.

to answer well.

I show three styles of shade-

ing herewith.

SINGLE SHADE.

DOUBLE SHADE.

The Painters' Manual.

85

BLOCK SHADE.

This style of letter, when in gold, and


all

around "

as

hereafter described,

'^

edged

will

be

found excellent for the fronts of trucks, panels


of express wagons,

on

and as a feature

of variety

top-sides.

Such

letters

desired, as

may be ornamented when

shown

in the engraving, the letter

being made with a light color, say, light blue,

and then the dark blue put on, as already


mentioned.
letters,

The

and

This makes a splendid line of


is

very fashionable.

style of letters

used

is

generally decided

The Painters' Manual,

86

by the length

of space,

and the number

No two

letters desired in that space.

the same style should be placed


if

possible to prevent

of one

style will

a difference be
it is

it,

lines of

together,

but an alternate use

not look out of place,

made

in shading.

if

that style has to be

extended

to

fill

the space

if

Sometimes

necessary to use a certain style of

even

of

letter,

condensed or
but this must

be determined by the workman, and experience


will teach the requisite

To
size,

good

taste.

lay out a line of letters, decide

upon the

then draw a line for the top and another

for the

bottom

then with a pair of dividers

The Painters' Manual.


a chosen

to

set

of space to see

you

to put in the desired

Bear

in

will

have room enough

number of

letters

mind

W.

letters as A. F. J. L. T. V.

but one-half that which

letters like

H. D.

to a v., with the

not,

where such

Y. are used, the

them and the other

space between

if

that the space between

letters is not always the same, for

is

and measure the space

set the dividers again

again.

run over the length

size,

if

87

is

An

B., etc.

left

letters

between

L. placed next

same space as given

to

H.

B.,

would look very badly, owing to the open


character of the L.

The

considerable space, that

with the other


letters can

as

it is

it

should have

be not confused

The arrangement

letters.

of

be well studied by paying close

attention to the

and

letter I.

work

of

difficult

some good

letterer

task to describe fully

the " laying out " without numerous diagrams,

I will " rest

would

here,**

on that

point, as a lawyer

say.

The Antique block

letter

will

be found

The Painters' Manual.

88

very useful as well as the Italian, botii of

which are used extensively on milk-wagons in


our

city.

ANTIQUE BLOCK LETTEB.

"Wagon

lettering is invariably

shaded on the

right side, a rule w^hich custom has created

among
work

first-class

wagon

to be shaded

notice

is

Gold
always

letterers, leaving sign

on the

left side,

as

you

will

more frequently done.

lettering

on any ground color should

be shaded and "edged," the

latter

The Painters^ Manual.

89

ITALIAN BLOCK LETTER.

being a fine white or cream-colored line on


the edge of the
it

may

be-

put

be in good

letter,

all

opposite the shade

around the

taste.

Gold

letter

letters

and

or

still

on a red

ground are generally shaded with black and


double

shaded with carmine or asphaltum.

edged with white.


is

edged with

black.

Gold on a white ground

The Painters' Manual,

90

SCROLLS.

work requires the good

This

perfect outline

of a

insight into this art

the

work

of others,

taste

and

But an

drauglitsman.

may be gained by copying


by processes described

in

this book.

When

a copy has been

made on

the copy-

ing paper, take a piece of stout wrapping-

and laying

paper,

the copy over

it,

it

on a smooth board, place

and fasten

all

board with a few tacks or pins

down

to the

then with a pin

prick the outlines with small holes through


the copy and wrapping-paper.
this, lift all

Having done

from the board, and by placing the

wrapping-paper copy on the panel, and dusting

on

fine

whiting with a pounce-bag, you will

transfer the copy to the panel.

to

fill

Next proceed

in the outlines with gold size

the gold, and then clean

all

lay

on

off nicely for

shading.

This

is

done with asphaltum, but a veiy

The Painters' Manual.


fine effect

with

can be made by glazing some parts

carmine

or

Copy the shading

blue.

of the original as near as possible

Hghts or white
practice

91

fine

lines,

and the use

put in the

and with a

little

you

soon

of pattern,

will

gain a Imowledge of scrolling sufficient to


enable you to perform ordinary work.
Scrolling in colors can be learned in the

same way, but


requkes
colors

it is

good

a more difficult

taste

harmony

in

art,

as

application

the

it

of

of colors being the greatest

desideratum in good scrolling.

STENCILING.
Stencilinq

is

an art by which the painter

can execute ornamental work quickly, and

when thoroughly understood


called

into

requisition

it will

in the

often be

wagon paint

shop.

The

articles required in

making

a stencil,

92

The Painters' Manual.

are a sheet of

well-sized

writLng paper, a

lead pencil, and a sharp penknife.

Fold the paper, allowing the edge of the

^A^*

The Painters' Manual.


fold to

form

tlie

centre of the pattern

draw any design you wish,


to hold the

93

leaving

then
bars

parts together, as seen in the

engraving herewith

then lay the paper upon

a piece of glass and cut out the figures with the


penknife.

Fac

simile copies of these engravings

may

be made by copying, (as already described,)

and they

be found useful on the panels,

will

springs, bars

and 2 are

and spokes

illustrations

of a

wagon.

of neat

Figs. 1

and simple

patterns in stenciling, and such as

may be

used for the ends of small panels, or parts of


the figures on springs, etc.

The

tool used for this

work

is

a camels'-hair

brush or pencil, with hair not over one-half an


inch long, bound with quill and wire on a

roimd wooden handle.


rates

from 25 cents to

Price at supply stores,


$1.00.

The small

sizes

are preferable.

The

color

may be mixed

in

turpentine, as for striping, but

Japan and
color

mixed

The Painters^ Manual.

94

with vinegar and sugar will be found best.

The

paint must be quite thick, and a small

quantity only must be taken

the brush,

oil

and then well rubbed out on a dry place


before applying

it

to the work.

Laying the

stencil

on the panel as desired,

down

firmly,

and rub over with the

hold

it

brush carefully until the cut portions of the

Then

figure are well coated.

and the work

Many

of

beautiful

is

my

readers

may have

it

was done

noticed the

painters,

so correctly

and

and

with the ideas here shown, the ordinary

painter

men

the stencil

completed.

work executed by fresco

wondered how

now

lift off

may compete

in the

with that class of work-

ornamentation of his special

combining beauty, economy and dispatch.

line,

The Painters' Manual

95

TO TRANSFER ORNAMENTS FOR CARRIAGES,

WAGONS, ETC.
This beautiful art
painters,

who

is

now

practiced by

many

are either in a hurry with their

work, or for economy's sake.


Pictures expressly designed
are

now

for carriages

sold at the leading periodical stores,

and the amateur painter

is

enabled thereby to

finish a job of carriage painting in fine style.

These pictures may be stuck on, and the

dampened paper

carefully removed, leaving

the picture intact upon the panel, requiring

no touching with the

way

to

put

pencil.

The proper

on decalcomine pictures

is

to

varnish the picture carefully with the prepared

varnish

(which can

pictures,) with

be

obtained with

the

an ornamenting pencil, being

sure not to get the varnish on the white


paper.

In a few minutes the picture

will

be

ready to lay on the panel, and the paper can

be removed by wetting

it,

as already described

The Painters^ Manual,

96

and when thoroughly


nished hke an

oil

should be var-

ch-y it

Be particular

painting.

to

purchase none of these transfer pictures, except


those covered vvith gold leaf on the back, for

they will show plainly on any colored surface,


while the plain pictures are used only on white
or light grounds.

any stationery

store,

They may be
and the

procui^ed at

cost is trifling.

STAINING WOOD.
Take
water,

nitric acid

and

dilute with ten parts

wash the wood with

it,

and a mahogany

color will be obtained.

To produce

a rosewood finish, glaze

same with carmine or Munich


Asphaltum,

thinned

with

lake.

tui'pentine,

another excellent mahogany color, on

wood.

the

is

new

APPENDIX.
The

following pages I will devote to items

of interest,

and should there be anything

left

" out in the cold," I beg the reader's pardon.

To keep

striping pencils in

ever ready for use, grease

good shape and

them with tallow

from a candle, and spread the hair straight on


apiece of

made

glass,

keeping the same in a box

for the purpose, so that they

may be

preserved from dust.

Why do striping pencils curl up or


when used

in white (keg-lead) color?

the acid with which the lead


the hau%

To

''

is

made

crinkle

Because
acts

heatmg and contracting ihe

straighten

"

on

fibre.

them when thus crooked, I

The Painters' Manual.

98
draw

pencil across or between a

tlie

iron and the finger.

Dry white

Tarnish and turpentine


ing,

is

warm

lead mixed in

preferable for strip-

but tube colors are best.

When
carmine,
to get

it

is

desirable to glaze a job with

why do you

advise

up a coloring varnish

some painteA

the

workman

surface, while

are in the habit of putting

glazing the same as

if it

on

were coloring varnisk?

Because I have then a chance to rub the


job smooth, which I could not do so well over
the glazing.

Besides, the glazing being

mixed

with flowing varnish, will flow level and free

from clouds,

if

put on a smooth surface.

PAPER CUPS FOR STRIPING COLORS.


Although I do not recommend the use
paper cups for holding striping

colors, I

of

am

aware that many prefer them, as they are

The Painters^ MxVNUal.


easily disposed of

when no longer

99

desired for

use.

The economical painter would have small


cups to use for striping colors, as the

tin

paper cups cause a waste of sandpaper.

BRONZE PAINT FOR IRON.


Ivory black one ounce, chrome yellow one
ounce, chrome green two pounds

raw
it,

linseed

oil,

adding a

little

mix with

Japan to dry

and you have a very nice bronze green.

If desired, gold bronze

prominent

parts, as

iron railing,

when

may be put on

on the

tips or

the paint

is

the

edges of an

not quite dry,

using a piece of velvet or plush with which


to rub

on the bronze.

TO BRONZE STATUARY.
Plaster casts or castings may be bronzed as
follows

Wash

the plaster over with thin glue

The Painters' Manual.

100

or starch water.

mixture
little

above

"When dry apply the bronze


described,

adding to

powder, or some

gold bronze

it

Dutch

metal, powdered on the stone.

TO PAINT MAGIC LANTERN SLIDES.


Transparent colors only are used for this
work, such as lakes, sap-green, ultramarine,
verdigris,
oil

gamboge, asphaltum,

etc.,

mixed in

and tempered with Hght-colored varnish,

(white Demar).

Draw on paper

the design desired, and

stick it to the glass with water or

mth

gum

then

a fine pencil put the outlines on the

opposite side of the glass with the proper


colors

then

fill

up and shade with black

or Vandyke brown, as you find best.

YARNISH FOR VIOLINS.


Heat together

at a

low temperature two

quarts of alcohol, half a pint of turpentine-

The Painters^ Manual.


Tarnish,

When

and one pound


the

latter

is

of clean

gum

thoroughly

101
mastic.

dissolved,

strain through a fine cloth.

ANOTHER.
Dissolve gum-shellac in alcohol by a gentle
heat,

and

This varnish will

strain for use.

dry in a few minutes, and


of there being

no

oil

is

best on account

in its composition, oil

being detrimental to musical instruments like


the violin.

ANOTHER.

Gum

mastic dissolved in spirits of wine.

TO STAIN VIOLINS.
Take one pound
in

of Brazil

a half-gallon of water,

the liquor and add one

wood and
an hour;

half

boil

it

sti^ain

an ounce of

The Painters' Manual.

102

cochineal

boil again gently,

and

it

will

be

ready for use. This will produce a crimson tint.


If

you wish

it

darker, boil a small quantity of

saffron in a quart of water,

and apply

putting on the crimson stain.

pound

a purple color, boil one

before

you desire

If

of

it

logwood in

three quarts of water, then add four ounces of

pearlash and two ounces of powdered indigo.

LETTERING ON GLASS.
Sign painting on glass
ful

branches of our

art,

is

and

few who can make a good


to explain the

one of the beautias there are but

job, I will

endeavor

method which has always been

found to answer the purpose admirably.

The
and

glass should first

be thoroughly cleaned

dried, then lay out the lines for the letters

with soap, a piece of hard scented soap being


best,

then proceed to paint the letters on the

right side of the glass ^Yith

with

oil

this

is

to

lampblack mixed

form a guide

for the

work

ri^

The Painters' Manual.

103

then on the inside, lay on a thin coat of

made

Avith the

size

white of an egg and water; or

isinglass dissolved in water

with

a camels'-

hair l)rush, covering over the whole line of

Then

letters.

lay

on the gold

leaf

with a

tip,

until every part of the letters is covered well.

Allow the

and you

leaf to

remain until the

will find that the letters

and

size is dry,

on the front
This

is

done with quick drying black, to which

is

side can be easily seen

added a

little

varnish.

of the letter directly


to dry; then

wipe

traced.

Paint over every part

on the gold and allow


off

it

with soap and water

the lampblack letters from the front side,

and

with clean cold water and a soft sponge, wash


the superfluous gold leaf

and

size

from the

back, and you will have a perfect gold letter

on the

glass.

Proceed now to shade the

may be done

letters,

which

in colors to suit the taste of the

painter.

Always shade to the edge of the

gold, for

by that means you have only one

The Painters^ Manual.

104

edge to make
rough on

its

straight.

The shade may be

left

extreme edge, and when dry

a neat straight edge

can

by

be obtained

merely scraping with a knife.

ORNAMENTAL DESIGNS ON GLASS.


In making

some

i)ainters

scrolls,

is

into the gold leaf af fcer

on the back

Silver leaf
as gold, but

very

glass,

put on the outlines and shades

Another good way

colors

on

etc.,

and then lay the gold

first,

eagles,

pretty

over

all.

to scratch the shades


it

is

dry,

and put the

of the gold.

may be used

in the

not wear as

it will

leaf

letter

same manner

well.

may be made by

incorporating silver with gold.

Take paper and cut any fancy design


the parts of the letter, stick
leaf,

allowing

and wash off

to dry,

on

as before

with a penknife raise the paper

fit

to the size

and then lay the

before laying the


it

it

to

figure,

leaf,

then

and

The Painters^ Manual.

105

the exact shape or form of the figure will be

found cut out of the gold


nicely,

apply more

size,

cover the vacant spots.

and lay
"Wash

off

silver leaf to

off

and a very handsome ornamented


be the

Clean

letter.

when

dry,

letter will

result.

Colors

may be used

sired, or a silver letter,

instead of

silver, if

de-

edged or " cut up " with

gold, will look well.

PERMANENT WOOD FILLING.

A PREPARATION designed to supercede the lead


color filling of carriage bodies

was some time

ago put in the market and

tried

by almost

every carriage-maker in the country

have yet to learn of

its efficacy,

windy advertisements

but I

outside of the

in its favor.

I can point

to several large cans which have been " weighed


in the balance

usefulness

is

and found wanting,"

concerned, which are

refuse of the paint shop.

as far as

among

the

The Painters' Manual.

106

TO IMITATE TORTOISE-SHELL.
Paint a ground of salmon color
dry and smoothed
pink,

mixed

with a

it

thefn, wlioii

over with rose-

and turpentine

then

piece of glass press on the surface,

flat

it

coat

in varnish

and remove the


to slip

off,

glass quickly, being careful not

over the paints so as to disturb the

curious figures which the pressure will form


thereon, after the paint has dried and been

varnished,

made

and you

a very

will find that

good imitation

you have

of the tortoise-

shell.

KEEPING ENGLISH VARNISH.


I PREFER to keep English or finishing varnish
cans covered with a piece of

silk,

which should

be tied over the mouth of the can, instead of a


tight

nishes
''

cork

work

for the reason,


better,

crawl " or " pit,''

if

that extra var-

and are not so apt to


allowed to be in a can

from which the gases may escape.

This plan

The Painters' Manual.


is

107

only used on cans that are in frequent use;

for

be allowed to get to the varnish for

air

if

any great length of time,


varnish and injure

it

Great care should

it.

al-

be taken with varnish cans, for the least

Vv^ays

dust will be found to show

panel
loss

will thicken the

is

varnished, and

accoimt for

to

it.

itself,

when

a large

many would be at a
Look out for your

cans!

VARNISH BRUSHES.
Thebe

will

be but seldom any occasion to

wash out a varnish brush


care

is

it

turpentine.

it

It is injurious to the

in turpentine, therefore

deavor to use

brush,

where

taken to clean the work before applying

the varnish.

put

in turpentine,

if

best

by accident

on a clean panel

we should en-

cleaning out, rather than

oil in

The

brush to

to clean a finishing

becomes

dirty, is to

use

rubbing varnish and

oil,

it

in

way

The Painters' Manual.

108

wi2:)ing off tlie

panel and repeating the operf

tion until the brusli is clean.

PAINTING ON CANVAS.
Banner work, or painting on canvas and
muslin,

is

a particular job, for the least mis-

stroke vdll spoil the work.

It is always best to

lay out the letters very accurately with charcoal or crayon,

and then saturate the cloth with

water to render the painting easy.


large

work that a

a piece of

tin,

I find on

stencil is very useful,

I take

and laying the straight edge to

the mark, brush over with a sash tool, and


that

means make

by

a very clean-edged letter.

Stiff bristle pencils, called " fitches "

by house-

painters, are best for canvas work.

OIL-CLOTH.

When

it is

desired to paint canvas for

flooi^s,

the canvas should be saturated with glue water,

The Painters' Manual.


or flour paste, and allowed to dry
paint

with any color desired.

it

figures, cut out designs in stiff


cil

them

109

first.

To put

Then
in the

paper and ste-

on, in various colors.

TO IMITATE MARBLE.
In painting to imitate white marble, get up
a smooth white ground, as shown in previous

Then hold

pages.
surface

a lighted candle near the

and allow the smoke to form the various

shades and tints desired.


very

handsome

This will make a

and

imitation,

cannot

be

equalled with the pencil.

Black marble

is

made by

streaking a black

surface with colors, using a feather

Another plan
face,

is

to get

and

pencil.

up a smooth black

sur-

then take the colors, yellow, green, red,

white, &c.,

ground thick

in

gold

size,

and

'^streak" the surface with a stick or pencil.

Allow it to dry, and apply a heavy coat of lampblack and yellow' ochre, mixed like rough

stuff.

The Painters^ Manual.

110

When all is hard, rub down to a level surface


mth lump pumice-stone, varnish, and a beautiful

variegated marble

vidll

be the

result.

OILING OR CLEANING OLD CARRIAGE


TOPS.

Enamel leather tops should be


with Castile soap and

vdth neatsfoot

or sweet

oil,

enamel varnish put


like

warm

on.

v;'ashed

water, then oiled

oil,

The

first

and a coat

of

leather will look

new.

Dashes may be cleaned in the same manner,


but varnish color
tent leather.
cracked,

it

is

not very beneficial to pa-

However, when very old and

may be

colored to improve the ap-

pearance.

OLD SILVER PLAITING.


Silvered work on carriages

by the following mixture

may be improved

The Painters' Manual.


Take one ounce
solve

it

in

of nitrate of silver,

Ill
and

dis-

When

one quart of rain water.

thoroughly dissolved, throw in a few crystals


of hyposulphite of soda,

brown
solved

precipitate,
if suflSycient

ployed.

added.

The

rubbed over

A
lar

w^hich will form a

but which will be re-dishyposulphite has been em-

slight excess of this salt

solation thus

tlie

must be

formed may be

parts to be silvered.

solution of gold,

may be made

in a simi-

way.
t/

This silvering solution

is

not like the com-

mon

silvering fluids w^hich evaporate in a

daj^s

and leave the parts worse than

few

before.

VALUE OF THE SLUSH TUB.


Tee

'^

slush

''

or scrapings of the cups in a

paint shop are valuable, and should be saved.

No better mixture can be had for


And if mixed with oil and run

leaky roofs.

through the

The Paixters^ Manual,

112
mill, it

mates

excellent paint for floors or bot-

toms of bodies.

TRANSPARENT PAINTING ON MUSLIN WINDOW-SHADES.


This art

is

screens and

extensively practiced in painting

window

shades.

The muslin

is

stretched on a frame and secured by tacks,

then sized wdth a mixture of fine flour-paste,


white glue, and white bar-soap
renders the muslin pUable and
coat

is

applied, which

is

the soap

soft.

nearly invisible

thin

when

dry.

coat of pure linseed

spirits of turpentine,

whole, or

a part,

quickly and

is

as

oil,

then applied to the

desired,

smoothly

diluted with

to

laying

ensure

an

it

on

even

transparent surface.

The

colors

used

are,

ivory black,

ultra-

marine, Paris green, verdigris, umber, sienna,

asphaltum, and

all

other transparent colors.

The Painters' Manual.


An

pencil

a small

the design

of

outline

is

113

drawn with

with black or umber, after

which the colors may be applied, more or


less
is

diluted, as

more or

transparency

less

In general, the brightest colors

desired.

should be applied

and the darker shades

first

over them.

These

colors

smoothly
part be

must be

laid

soft brushes,

v/ith

made

and

evenly

and should

too dark, the best

way

anj^

is

to

scrape off with a stick before the color gets


too dry.

The

best designs for shades consists

of landscape views,

and should always bo de-

signed to accommodate the form and position


of the

ground on which they are drawn.

Stencils will be found useful on this work,


in

making corners or

stripes for borders.

SMALTS.
Smalts
substance,

is

a finely

v/ell

powdered

known
8

glass, or other

in supply stores,

and

The Painters^ Manual.

114

of various colors.

The method

pally.

For a

used on signs

It is

princi-

of use is as follows.

gold-lettered sign, lay out

on a

leac^

color or white surface the line of letters, ant

roughly
oil

fat

size
size.

the shape of each letter

witt

This must be allowed at least

twelve hours to get tacky and ready for gildAfter the gold leaf

ing.

dry,

mix up

fill

up

carefully
all

oil,

and perfectly

laid

Prussian blue

(for blue smalts)

and keg-lead with


Outline

is

adding a

around

the

little

dryer.

letters,

and

the outside with the blue paint

then with a small sieve

siffc

on the smalts

allowing the sign to lay horizontally.

Cover

every part with plenty of smalts, and allow


to remain in the
is

dry.

Then

same position

it

until the paint

carefully shake of the super-

abundant smalts and the work

is

completed.

The Painters' Manual.

115

FLOCKINGS.

A
ill

FINE powder

from cloth

is

also

used

the same manner, and makes a beautiful

sign.

may be shaded

Blue or light colored smalts

upon with black

color,

using a

stiff bristle

pencil.

PEARL INLAYING, OR PAPIER MACHIE.

VERY handsome

given to orna-

effect is

mental work by inlaying.

Prepare the job

with a heavy coat of black Japan


it is

dry, procure

some

supply store, then


surface,

lay

pressing them

then before

flakes of pearl at the

them on the black


also

into

the paint

until they are level with the surface

then,

with colors, form vines and flowers, allowing


the pearl to form
leaf,

and shade

all

the

body

up

nicely.

of

the flower

The Painters' Manual.

116

LIST OF CARRIAGE

MAKERS IN NEW

YOriK CITY.

To

aid the painter, wlien in searcli of

ployment, I add a
witli the

list

em-

of carriage-makers,

firm conviction that

my

efforts in

their behalf will be fully appreciated.

Adams, Levi, 2293 Third Avenue.


Ashe, Frank, 163 Crosby Street.

Baldwin, T. E., 78G Broadway.

Barton

&

Boyle, 6 Seventh Avenue.

Bates, S. E., 1505 Broadway.

Beardsley

&

Co., 110

W.

Thirty-seventh.

Becker, F., 207 Green.

BeU, Arthur, 142 E. Forty-first.

Benson, Bros., 155 E. Twenty-third.


Brewster,

Brewster

J. B.,

&

Co.,

&

Co., 65 E. Twenty-fifth.

374 Broome.

Brown & Goodwin, 1404 Broadway.


Campbell & McPherson, 100 W. Thirty-third.
Gary, George, 128 W. Forty-sixth.
Corbett & Scharch, 126 W. Twenty-fifth.

The Painters' Manual.


&

Demarest

Woodruff, 628 Broadway.

Dubois, A.

J.,

Dusenbury

&

202 Greene.
Nelson,

Jr.,

98 Laurens.

Engle, Henry, 114 Elizabeth.

Flandrau, A.

S.,

18 E. Eighteenth.

Wm., 280 Ninth Avenue.

Flandrau,

Gedney, E. M., 1413 Broadway.


Geiger, L., 198 Henry.

German,

Philip, 180 Chrystie.

Glueck, Marcus, 23 Third.

W.

Gray,

H., 27 Wooster.

Henry, "Wm., 158 E. Fifty-seyenth.


Hicks,

I.

E., 32 Barclay.

W. Thirty-first.
Johnson & Van Tassell, 58 Liberty.
Lawrence, Jno. K, 558 Broadway.
Jager, 255

Lippe, Jos., 85 Crosby.

Lockwood,

&

Isaac, 2343

Third Avenue.

W, Nineteenth.
McCready, Jas., 437 W. Thirty-fifth.
Miller, Phil., 337 W, Fifty-second.

Loos

Williams, 155

Miner, Stevens

&

Co., 113 E. Thirteenth.

117

The Painters' Manual.

118

Mix, Eugene, 1402 Broadway.


Mix, Isaac, 598 Broadway.

Monk, Irvmg, 102 Laurens.


Moore, Geo.

J.,

376 Bowery.

Murphy, Edward, 225 Greene.


Pitney, Jas. W., 460 Third Avenue.

Pomeroy,
Rose,

W.

Jos. H., Jr., 156 Twenty-seventh.

H., 21 E. Twelfth.

Smith, Edward, 28 E. Twenty-ninth.


Smith, John

103

I.,

W.

Fortieth.

Smith, Jos. L., 28 E. Twenty-ninth.


Stevenson, Thomas, 124 E. Thirty-second.
Stevens, E. M., 148 E. Thirty-first.

Sweeney, Edward, 237 E. Fortieth.


Swift, Charles,

& Son,

123

W.

Thirtieth.

Taylor, Josiah, 59 Cedai.


Tilton, B. ^Y.,
Tuttle,

John

47 Broadway.

H., 205 Pearl.

Voorhis, Jno. D., Broadway, cor.

Waldron,

J. Q.,

&

Bro., 46

Winans, W. H., 30 Clarke.


Weiser, H., 77 Greene.

W.

Beekman.

58th.

rp

The Painters^ Manual.

119

Witty, Calvin, 168 Crosby.

Wood,

F. E., 221 W.- Nineteenth.

Wood,

Bros.

Bach,

F.,

73

&

Co., 710

W.

Broadway.

Thirty-third.

Bauer, John, 31 Sullivan.


Becker, Frederic, 207 Greene.
Briling, Kobert, 123

Broome.

Buyer, Edward, 75 First Avenue.


Coe, Jonas L., 119

Conover
Denny,

&

W.

Co., J. A.,

J. T.,

Twenty-eighth.

130 Horatio.

551 Seventh Avenue.

Fagin

&

Fay &

Bro., 513

Kirk, 608 E. Sixteenth.

W. Twenty-seventh.

Fielding Bros., 203 E. Forty-first.

Friedgen, MatLhev/, 403

W.

Twenty-seventh.

Gelshon, Thomas, 13 Downing.

Haith and Becker, 205 E. Twenty-thhrd.

Hayman, Louis, 210

E. Twenty-fourth.

Hunt, W., 1558 Third Avenue.


Jeremiah, G. A., 461 Tenth Avenue.
Kettered, Philip, 90 Thompson.
Kelly, John, 205 E. Twenty-fifth.

The Painters^ Manual.

120

Kennedy,

126 Seventh Avenue.

E.,

KumiDf, Mieli.,

&

Son, 308 E. Thirty-fifth.

Monk & Green, 510 E. Twenty-fourth.


Moore & Manee, 3 Macdougal.
Prial,

Edward, 18 Ninth Avenue.

Eose, Walton, 164

W.

Eighteenth.

Schmidt, John, 43 Leonard.

&

Sebastian

Trautman,

Saal,

P.,

Uhl, John, 505

768 Third Avenue.

138

W.

W. Twenty -ninth.
Thirty-seventh.

Van Zandt, J. L., 197 Wooster.


Weimer & Mnhler, 31 Eidge.
Westerfield, "WiUiam, 77 Prince.

WnUams, James, 242


Williams,

W.

E. Fifty-sixth.

H., 226 Spring.

Wolframbe & EUereni, 749

Sixth.

White, David, 243 E. Fifty-sixth.


F. B. Gardner, Ornamental Painter, 339 E,

Forty-eighth.

The Painters' Manual.


MANUFACTUREr^S AND
NISHES IN

121

DEALERS IN VAR-

NEW

YORK.

William A. Andoe, 181 Pearl.


Bell Brothers

Brooks

&

159 Front.

Co.,

& Fitzgerald, West street,

cor.

Twenty-

fifth.

Carey

&

Philips, 427 E. Twenty-fifth.

William Tilden Blodget, 252 Pearl.

Thomas

B. Brooks, 73 Gold.

John Juhus &


J.

207 Pearl.

Co.,

D. Gilmore, 260 Pearl.

M. W. Griswold &
William Harland

Hotopp &
F. S.

Co.,

Co., 249 Pearl.

&

Son, 57 Cedar.

462 Canal.

LearnM, 142 Maiden Lane.

Smith, Baldwin

&

Co.,

110 John

&

425 E.^5.

Woodbury & Co., 129 Maiden Lane.


John W. Masury, 111 Fulton.
A. G.

Mandel &

Co.,

Henry Louis, 378


A. H. Louis

&

179 WilHam.

Pearl.

Co., 143

Maiden Lane.

The Painters' Manual,

122

George L. Wood, 214

Edward Smith &


Kissam

&

Valentine

Pearl..

Co., 161 William.

Gundaken, 221 Pearl.

&

Co.,

88 Chamber.

WAGES,

To

enable the

due him

for

workman

to find the

work from one hour up

amount

to six days,

I append the following tabular statement.

METHOD OF USING THE TABLE.


Place a finger of the

left

hand on the

price

per day, say $3.00, and a finger of the right

hand, say 5 days.

down and

Then moving

right

the left hand to the right,

the angle, and on that space


exact

tlie

amount

for 5 days.

we

we

hand

strike

find $15.00 the

If the

amount be

required for 4 hours extra time, at the same


rate of wages,

we examine

the columns in the

The Painters^ Manual.


table headed "

and find

Amount

of AVages per hour/*

at the angle 1.20

the 5 days wages

easy method,

make

123

which

$16.20.

added to

This

when once understood.

is

a very

t>
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INDEX
PAGB

PAGE

The Tools Used


Brushes

Foundation Coats

30

Bough

32

Stuff

Varnish Brushes

11

Priming

34

Fitch-hair Brushes ...

13

Putty

35

Striping Pencils

15

Eubbing

36

To make

15

Facing Lead

37

Ox-hair Pencils

16

Coloring Carriage Part

38

Ornamenting Pencils.

17

Coloring

Lettering Pencils.

17

Varnishing

Flat Pencils.

...

Body

39
41

Drawing Pen

18

Varnishes

44

Palettes

19

Polishing

48

Tube Colors

20

Painting Coaches, &c.

49

Ordinary Colors

22

Carmine

51
52

Primary Colors
Grinding Black
Vermilion

Prepared Colors

23

Glazing

24

Striping

26

Scotch Plaid Work.

27

53

54

Ornamenting

Combination of Colors

28

Monograms

Carriage Painting ....

30

Gilding

55
56,

58

59

Index.

126

PAGE
Gl

PAGB

Preserving Ornaments

78

62

Lettering

79

ScroUmg

90

6i

Stenciling

91

Sleighs

65

Transferring

95

Bemoving Old Paint.

67

Staining

96

Be-varnisliing

70

Laying Gold Lead.


Bronzing.

Painting

.r

Business

Wagon

The

70

Appendix

97

Binding Brushes

71

Keceipts, etc

99

Oils

72

List of Carriage

Bleaching Oil

72

Mill

kers in

Ma-

New York

To Copy an Ornament

76

Varnish for Pictures..

75

Dealers in Varnish

Paper

77

in

for

Tracing

Copying Paper

77

Manufacturers

New York

Beady Beckoner

116

and

121

124

VAIillflll
mm

NE"\Ar

YORK.

VARNISH

TRANSFER ORNAMENTS.
CHARLES PALM & CO.,
118

MAIN STBEET, CINCINNATI, O.

Is the only firm who keep constantly on hand a yery


large assortment of Ornaments (all Original Designs), foV
Coaches, Carriages, Buggies, Sleighs, Cutters, Spring

Wagons,

etc.

FOE EVERY STYLE OF WORE,


Borders, Spoke Facings, Gearing Scrolls in Gold and
Colors, Plaid Work, etc. They also keep a large assortment suitable for Safes, Furniture, Melodeons, Drums, etc.,
and everything in the ornamental line to suit the wants of

our Customers.

THE LATEST DESIGNS


Of the best Ornamental Painters of America and Europe,
are published regularly, executed in the highest style of
Art. They are in constant use in over 5,000 Sliops,
and give satisfaction in every instance. To guard our Customers against worthless imitations we have affixed our

TRADE m^S^^m^

3IA]iK,

On

all our sheets, none genuine without it.


Sample Books of Carriage, Buggy and Sleigh Ornaments,
containing over 200 Designs, with one colored plate, sent
by mail on receipt of 50 cents. Respectfully,

CHARLES

PAIiin

&

CO.

SMITH,

BALDWIN &

Manufacturers of

all

CO.,

kinds of

Coacli Vernishes

k Japans,

Tactory 406 East 26tli St., near 1st Are.

OHice,
Bet.

^XI^EET,

JOHIN"
1 1
Pearl & Cliff Sts., New York.

We respectfully call the attention of Carriage Makers to on?

RUBBIN(J COLORING,
OR

BLACK RUBBING VAENISH.


Colorino^ Varnish is the best Rubbini? Body Varnish,
black with the best EnglUli Drop Black ; is used for first
and second coats on Bodies and Carriages produces a good black,
works jree, jiows level, and i^ fi^ee frora g7i,t.
Knowing the difficulty of grinding the Patent Black sufficiently
fine, we have adopted a method of dissolving the Black and boiljn(? it in the Varnish, which renders it free from grit, drying
with a rich brill iancj% hard enough to rub in twenty-four hours
without sweating, and flovv'ing free from brush marks (which
saves time in rubbing). Its several other advantages are Durability, Brilliancy, Cheapness and Labor Saving.

Eubbing

made

OTHER COACH VARNISHES.


BODY FIWISHINa,
"

^'

''

Imitation English,

Medium
Hard

Drying-.

"

FINISHING, for Light Colors,


CARBIAGE FINISHING, BODY RTJBBINa,
BUBBING COLORING, CARRIAGE RUBBING,
IMITATION ENGLISH BLACK JAPAN,
GOLD SIZE JAPAN, BROWN JAPAN DRYER,

ENAMEL LEATHER.

COACH-MAKERS'

PUBLISHED MONTHLY.
Containing Plates of the Latest Styles of
Light and Heavy Carriages.
Prices Current of Carriage Materials
Corrected Monthly.

TERMS:

$3

PER YEAR,

IN

ADVANCE.

SINGLE COPIES, 35 CENTS.

I.

D.

WARE,

Publisher,

r. O. Box, 2709, rhila.


Office, No. 411

CHESTNUT STREET.

SUBSCRIBE

Hagame

|j0ntlil|

DEVOTED TO

Carriage Building.

Address, 88

CHAMBERS St.,N.T.

This is now the most elegant and the most eminently practical
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in every branch. It includes the following departments
1. ''Wood-shop."
2. "Smith-shop."
:

3.

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4.

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" Office," including the Repository.


6. " Correspondence," including Home and Foreign Correspondence, and Answers to Correspondents.
7. " Trade News."
5.

Edited by GEO. IF. W. HOUGHTON.


EiiUished by VALENTINES Co.
o

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Phrenology and the

Chart of Physiognomy, 25c.

Sent by mail, post-paid,- on receipt of price, by S. K.


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A New

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OF THE Sexes Disclosing the Laws of
Conjugal Selection, and showing Who May and

nr-rT"EDLOCK

VV

Not Marry. A
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Who May
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Matrimony The Right Age to Marry Motives
for Marrying; Marriages of Consanguinity
of
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Duty of
Parents Marriage Customs and Ceremonies of alNations Ethics of Marriage Second Marriages,
are they Admissible? Jealousy Its Cause and
Cure Causes of Separation and Divorce Celibacy
Ancient and Modem; Polygamy and Pantagamy
Love Signs in the Features, and How to Read
;

Them; Physiognomy;

Sensible Love Letters Examples; The Poet's Wife; The Model Husband
the Mutual Obligations,
and the Model Wife
The Poetry of Love, Court
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ship, and Marriage Being a Practical Guide to all

the Relations of

Happy Wedlock.

The book is handsomely printed and beautifully


It was intended more especially for young

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may be read with interest and with


by those of every age. Copies will be sent
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people, but
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An

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Indispensable Hand-Booli*

Write-How

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to Behave,

and

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Talk-How

How to do Business.

COMPLETE IN ONE VOLUME.


This

new work embraces

just that practical matter of

fact information which every one, old and young, ought


to have. It will aid in attaining, if it does not insure.
life."
It contains some 600 pages well
*' success in

bound, and

Ho^v

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divided as follows

Write.A

Manual of Letter-Writing and


Composition, teaches the inexperienced how to write
Business Letters, Family Letters. Friendly Letters, Love
Letters, Notes, Cards, and Newspaper Articles, and how
to Correct Proof for the Press. Indispensable.

to

Hour

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Contains useful instruction on


to
to speak Correctly, Clearly, Fluently, Forcibly, Eloquently, and Effectively ; also a Chairman's Guido, to
conduct Debating Societies and Public Meetings. The
chapter on " Errors Corrected " is worth the price of the

how

volume or

How

*'a

to

dozen grammars.'"

BehaveIs the

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IFow

Do

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Business-In the Counting-Room,
the Store, Shop, on the Farm, for the Clerk, Apprentice,
Book Agent, and for Business Men. It Teaches how to
choose a pursuit, and how to follow it with success. *' It
teaches how to get nch honestly," and how to use your
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How

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A NEW ILLUSTEATED OKK ON

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other Defects are to be Prevented or Corrected


with Directions for Dressing them elegantly,
^Tith numerous Illustraand comfortably.
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A handsome

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HOW

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GHARAGTBRs
A New Illustrated Hand-Book

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Phrenology

and Physiognomy, for the use of Students and


Examiners with a Descriptive Chart for marking,
and upwards of 170 Engravings. Price, post-paid,
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in muslin, $1.25

in paper, $1.

One who wishes to get a practical knowledge ol


Phrenology and Physiognomy in the shortest posbible time, and without burdening his mind with
theoretical speculations, will find this just the work
he needs.

It

begins at the beginning

describes

Uie brain and the skull; illustrates the tempera-

ments

shows how the organs

gether in the cranium

are

grouped

to-

points out the location and

function of each organ, with the corresponding

physiognomical signs

gives practical direction for

may be necessaiy, of
each organ explains fully the " Art of Character
Reading," showing how to proceed in an examinatlie

cultivation or restraint, as
;

tion,

how

to find the organs,

how

to distinguish

temperaments and other physiological conditions.

The work is thorough, methodical, carefully


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simple, concise, popular in style, and adapted to
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exhaustive ; but we can confidently assert that sc
much truly useful matter on the subject treated,
with so many fine illustrations, can nowhere else
be found in the same compass or for so small a price
For

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Wells, Publisher, 389 B'way, N, Y.

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Author's Preface,
life,

It is

seldom a book,

is

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Press religious and secular and from all denominations, as this. In these times of domestic discord and marital incompatibility, the

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The

Illustrated

Annuals

For Eight Tears Combined in One Voluma


From th2 Contents.
1 8 G5,Physiognomy Ulas. Debate in Orania.
f^glitin^ Physiognomies Ulus. Palmer, the English Poisoner. Character in the Eyes. Where to find a Wife.
9

6 6 .Character

in the Walk.

Uties of Phrenology.

Stammering; and StutteringA Cure. Two


Qualities of Men. Home Courtesies. "Vanderbilt. Language of ilyes. Phrenology and Physiology. Brigham Young.
> 6 7. Names of the Faculties.
About Fat and
liean Folks, Thomas Carlyle. How to Study Phren-

ology.

Matrimonial Mistakes.

Handwriting.

How

to

Conduct Public Meetings. Significance of Shaking Hands.

BasbfulnessDiffidence Timidity*

How

to Change our Temperaments.

'68. A Brief Glossary


JealousyIts Cause and

of Phrenological Terms.
Cure. Marriage of
Cousins. Bad Heads and Good Characters. How to
Become a Phrenologist. The two Paths of Womanhood.
'69.-TrueBasisofEducatioB. Blind Tom. What
Can I Do Best? Mirtlifulness
Weight of Brains. Temperament of Cattle. How to Study
Faces. Convention of the Faculties.

Wit Humor.

'TO. Our Editors Bryant, Greeley, Bennett,


Brooks, Marble, Dana, Raymond, with portraits. Why
Children Resemble Parents. Science of Conjugal Srelection; Happy Marriages; Temperament in Wedlock;
'71.National Types of Female Beautv. PhrenologyIts History, Principles, Proofs and Uses. The
Perceptives. Personal Beauty. West Point How to
Enter. How to Study Men. Definitions of the Organs.
'72.Man's Place in Nature. Science of Man.
Phrenology Defined. Science and Religion. Government
of Children, Criminals, Insane, and Idiots.
Physiognomy. Phrenologj^ as a Profession. Dr. iMilman, Sumner,
Howard, Du Chaillu, Roeblin^, Ann Lee. Emp. of Germany, and his aids. Twelve American Clergymen.
Upwards of 400 pa^es, and more than 300 Illustrative
Engravings. Price, by first post, in muslin, $1.T5.
Ple&se Address, S. R. Wells, S89 Broadway, New York.

THE
PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL,
A FIRST-CLASS

FAMILY MAGAZINE,
Devoted to
Plirenoloojy The Brain and its Functions; the
Location and Nature of the Organs, with directions
for cultivating, improving, and restraining.

Pliysiogiioniy *'
to

Kead Them," on

Signs of Character, and

How

Scientific Principles.

Kthnolosy or the

Natural History of Man, OriManners, Customs and Modes of Life in difierent


Tribes and Nations, with illustrations.

gin,

Pliysioloj^y The Laws of Life and Health


What v/e should Eat and Drink, How we should bo
clothed,

and

How

to Exercise, Sleep

Portraits, Sketebeji

and Live.

and Biograpliies

Men and Women of the World.


Parents and Teaclsers As a guide in Educa-

of the leading

ting and Training Children, this Magazine has no superior, as

Much

it

renders training and government easy.

general and useful information on the leading


and no efforts are spared to

topics of the day is given,

make

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List of Premiums.
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rial

389 Broadway,

New

York.

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

0001H5H47'=i3

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