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Math 2111 Advanced Calculus (I)

Homework 2
Hand in Problems:
1(c)(e), 2(b), 3, 4, 5, 6, Lecture Note: 1(3)(4)(5)(6), 2(4), 3(2), 4
1. Use Lagrange multipliers to find the maximum and minimum values of the function
subject to the given constraint.
(a) f (x, y) = y 2 x2 ; 41 x2 + y 2 = 1.
(b) f (x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 ; x + y + z = 12.
(c) f (x, y, z) = x4 + y 4 + z 4 ; x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1.
(d) f (x, y, z) = 3x y 3z; x + y z = 0, x2 + 2z 2 = 1.
(e) f (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 ; x + y + z = 1, x y + 2z = 2.
2. Find the extreme values of f on the region described by the inequality
(a) f (x, y) = 2x2 + 3y 2 4x 5, x2 + y 2 16.
(b) f (x, y) = exy , x2 + 4y 2 1.
3. Consider the problem of minimizing the function f (x, y) = x on the curve y 2 +x4 x3 = 0.
(a) Try using Lagrange multipliers to solve the problem.
(b) Show that the minimum value is f (0, 0) = 0 but the Lagrange condition f (0, 0) =
g(0, 0) is not satisfied for any value of .
(c) Explain why Lagrange multipliers fail to find the minimum value in this case.
4. (a) Maximize

n
X

xi yi subject to the constraints

i=1

n
X

x2i

= 1 and

i=1

n
X

yi2 = 1.

i=1

(b) Put
ai
xi = qP

a2j

to show that
X

ai b i

bi
and yi = qP
qX

a2j

qX

b2j

b2j

for any numbers a1 , , an , b1 , , bn . This inequality is known as the CauchySchwarz Inequatliy.

Definition: An ordered field F is said to satisfy the (strictly) monotone sequence property if every bounded (strictly) monotone sequence converges to a limit in F.

r q
p
5. In high school algebra, we may compute the number 2 2 2 by the following
ways. r
r q
q p
p

Let x = 2 2 2 , then x2 = 2 2 2 2 = 2x. Hence, x = 0 or 2. Clearly,


x 6= 0 and we have x = 2.
Suppose that R has no (strictly) monotone sequence property , do the above steps still
work? Explain your reason.
6. In Homework 1, we prove that the relation in Problem 4(b) is an equivalence relation.
Hence, for a convergent sequence {n }, we can collect all sequences with -relation to
{n } together. Define

h
i
n
o

{n } := {xn } {n } {xn }
h
i
as the collection of all sequences with the same limit as {n }. We call {n } the
equivalence class of {n }. Moreover, we collect all equivalence classes together by
nh
i
o

S :=
{n } {n } converges .
1
1 1
For example, {n } = { n1 }, {n } = {1, 1, 1, }, {n } = {1, 1 + , 1 + + , }.
2
2 4

 
 


Then {n } , {n } , {n } S.
h
i h
i
(a) Prove that lim n = lim n if and only if {n } = {n } .
n

(b) Now, we want to give a binary operation on S by


h
i h
i
h
i
{n } {n } := {xn + yn }
h
i
h
i
for some {xn } {n } and {yn } {n } .
h
i
i. Check that the operation is well-defined. (That is, if {xn }, {sn } {n }
h
i
h
i h
i
and {yn }, {tn } {n } , then {xn + yn } = {sn + tn } .)
h
i h
i
ii. Check that the operation is closed on S. (That is, {n } {n } S if
h
i h
i
{n } , {n } S.)
h
i
iii. Check that the operation satisfies Commutative Law. (That is, {n }
h
i h
i h
i
{n } = {n } {n } )
h
i
iv. Check that the equivalence class {0, 0, 0, } is an additive identity under the
h
i h
i h
i
operation . (That is, {0, 0, 0, } {n } = {n } .)
h
i
v. Check that the equivalence class {n } is an additive inverse of the equivh
i
h
i h
i
alence class {n } under the operation . (That is, {n } {n } =
h
i
{0, 0, 0, } .)

Lecture Note:
(Page 7)
1. Proposition 1.21
2. Proposition 1.22
(Page 45)
3. Problem 1.1
4. Problem 1.2