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TABLE OF CONTENT

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVES

THEORY

APPARATUS

PROCEDURES

RESULT

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

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DISCUSSION

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CONCLUSIONS

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RECOMMENDATIONS

20

REFERENCES

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APPENDICES

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ABSTRACT
For the fluid mixing experiment, we had studied about various type flow depending on
different type of impeller and force occur. The reasons of this experiment are to determine the
flow patterns based on two type of liquid that is water and hydraulic oil. The flow patterns are
distinguished by observing how the two different mixtures are flowing in the tank. These
flow patterns are depending on the type of impellers used and their position. Other than that,
we need to show how the power consumed by a mixer varies with speed, type of impeller,
and with the inclusion of baffles. The power can be calculated in the form of power number
which will further be discussed. For the first experiment, we have determined that different
impellers indeed results in different flow patterns with two different types of mixture. The
presence or absence of baffle in the mixing tank also can impact the flow pattern. Photos
showing the differences in flow patterns are attached in the results section of the report. As
for the second experiment, the power consumed by the mixer is calculated and the result
obtained is interpreted in the form of graph where we can see the relation between the power
and the angular speed. The results from this experiment are not 100% accurate due to some
errors occur at the sensor during conducting the experiment. Thus, we added some
recommendations to further improve this experiment and to avoid the errors as much as
possible.

INTRODUCTION
Mixing of liquids that are miscible or at least soluble in each other occurs frequently in
process engineering and in everyday life. An everyday example would be the addition of milk
or cream to tea or coffee. Since both liquids are water-based, they dissolve easily in one
another. The momentum of the liquid being added is sometimes enough to cause enough
turbulence to mix the two, since the viscosity of both liquids is relatively low. If necessary, a
spoon or paddle could be used to complete the mixing process. Blending in a more viscous
liquid, such as honey, requires more mixing power per unit volume to achieve the same
homogeneity in the same amount of time.
The use of paddle or impeller give different effects to the mixture and power
consumed. These produces fluid velocity and fluid shear respectively. Fluid velocity produces
movement throughout the mixing vessel, intermixing material in one part of the tank with
another, prevents solids from setting out and produces flows. Fluid shear in the form of
turbulent eddies is essential to micro-mixing within the large velocity streams breaking up
gas bubbles or immiscible liquids into small droplets. All mixing impellers produce both fluid
velocity and fluid shear but different types of impellers produce different degrees of flow
turbulence.
The impeller flow patterns give impact to the result of mixing process. The flow
pattern depends on the impeller type which gives variation in flow patterns resulting from
different impeller types. The presence of baffle in mixing tank would influence the flow
patterns as well. It can increase the amount of top to bottom circulation which contributes to
turbulence by giving out some obstacles for the mixture to swirl as a whole and elimination
of vortexes.
The most common flow patterns in mixing are axial (down and up) and radial (side to
side) flow. These flow patterns also describe the generic classes of impellers: axial and
radial.The differences in the flow patterns can cause variations in distribution of shear rate
and energy dissipation rate within the mixing tank. In this experiment, not only the fluid
patterns of the fluid are determined, but also to show how the power consume by a mixer
varies with speed, type of impeller, and with and without baffle.

An impeller (also written as impellor or impellar) is a rotor used to increase (or


decrease in case of turbines) the pressure and flow of a fluid. Impellers are rotating devices
that force liquids, gases and vapors in a desired direction. They are widely used in pumping,
blowing, and mixing applications. This area gives the ability to search for impellers for
pumping and mixing of media and allows selection of type of impeller and size. Impeller
applications, specifications and features, types, and materials are all important parameters to
consider when searching for impellers.
Axial flow impellers are used at high speeds to promote rapid dispersion and are used
at low speeds for keeping solids in suspension. Axial flow propeller impellers are impellers
that have 2 to 4 blades and convey the pumped media in the direction along the revolving
axis of the impeller. Axial (down and up) pumping is an important flow pattern because it
addresses two of the most common challenges in mixing; solid suspension and stratification.
In this process both the superficial and annular velocities can be calculated to determine and
control the level of mixing.
Axial flow is the patterns where the fluid or gas is flowing parallel to the axis turbine.
There are many impellers that produce axial flow which are propeller, pitched blade turbines,
and hydrofoils. An axial flow propeller exhibits a flow pattern throughout the entire tank
volume as a single stage. It imposes necessarily bulk motion, and is used to on
homogenization processes, in which increased volumetric flow rate is necessary.
Radial flow is the pattern that the working fluid flowing mainly along the radii of
rotation in the tank. Radial flow impellers produce two circulating loops, one below and
above the impeller. Mixing occurs between the two loops but less intensely than within each
loop. These impellers impose necessarily shear stress to the fluid, and are used to mix
immiscible liquids or generally, when there is a deformable interface to break. Besides, they
are used for the mixing of very viscous fluid. Unlike axial impellers, radial impellers are
commonly selected for low level mixing (known as a tickler blade) or elongated tanks. They
typically give high shear rates because of their angle of attack. They also have a relatively
low pumping number, making them the most sensitive to viscosity. Radial impellers do not
have a high tank turnover flow like axial flow impellers.
Flat blade impellers are used for mixing and have one or more paddles. Beside that
flat blade paddle have a different diameter of paddle. Turbines propeller are impellers that

have multiple fins and convey the pumped media in the direction along the revolving axis of
the impeller.
The power input is influenced by the geometry of the equipment and also the
properties of the fluid. The flow pattern and degree of turbulence are key aspects of quality of
mixing. The power input, P to an impeller of diameter, D driven at rotational speed, N in a
fluid of density, and viscosity, can be expressed in terms of a dimensionless Power

number,

P
5
N D
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OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this experiment are:
i.

To observe the various flow patterns that can be achieved by the use of different

ii.

impellers with and without the use of baffles.


To show how the power consumed by a mixer varies with speed, type of impeller, and
with the inclusion of baffles.

THEORY
Many type of impeller were used in this experiment and some of it are propeller and
turbine impeller. Turbine impeller is a rotating component which transfer energy from motor
to the fluid. The velocity that achieved by impeller is transfer into pressure when the outward
movement of fluid is confined by the container.
In this experiment, baffle are needed to stop the swirl in mixing tank. Baffle is a
device used to restrain the flow of a fluid, gas, or loose material or to prevent the spreading of
sound or light in a particular direction .Most of common baffle used are straight flat plate of
metal that run along the straight sides of vertically oriented cylindrical tank. For the unbaffle
tank, tendency for swirling flow pattern to develop rotating liquid. However, there is a limit
to rotational speed that used. If exceed the limit of the rotational speed fluid will spill out of
the container.
In laminar flow (NRE<10), the same power were used by the impeller. The flow pattern
may be effected by the baffle but it not favorable. To allow the fluid circulate and produce
axial deflection we may need the baffle. In transitional flow (10<N Re<10,000), the circulation
of pattern will be clear when the tank is unbaffle but the vortex will disturbed the pattern.
Formula being used in this experiment are angular speed and power.
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Angular speed () = N ( r.p.m. ) x

Power ( P ) = Torque ( ) x Angular Speed ( ) ( rads-1 )

= rads-1

APPARATUS
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.

Fluid Mixing Apparatus


Flat paddle
Turbine impeller
Baffles
Speed controller
Force indicator
Tank
Motor
Water
Hydraulic Oil

PROCEDURES
General Start up Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Power outlet was turn on.


All of tightening screw was fastened.
Make sure all surrounding working area was dry and clean.
The shaft was lifted up using lifting chain attached to the shaft.
The experiment was carried out.

Experiment 1
1. The tank was filled with water up to 3.0L.
2. The end of shaft was attached with flat paddle.
3. The speed of the impeller was turn up in small increment: 100rpm, 150rpm, 2000rpm
and 250rpm.
4. The movement and flow pattern was observed and draw.
5. Step 2 to 4 was repeated by replacing the flat paddle with other impeller: turbine
impeller.
6. Repeated the procedure with baffles fitted in the tank with each flat paddle and
turbine impeller.
Experiment 2
1. The tank was filled with hydraulic oil up to 3.0L.
2. The end of shaft was attached with flat paddle.
3. The speed of the impeller was turn up to 100rpm and the reading of force was
recorded.
4. Increased the speed of impeller to 100rpm, 150rpm and 200rpm, 250rpm and recorded
the force for respective speed.
5. Repeated step 3 to 4 with baffles fitted in the tank.
6. The power consume for each speed was calculated.
General Shut Down Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.

The liquid inside the tank was removed by opening the outlet valve.
Washed and rinsed the tank to make sure no oil residue after the experiment.
The paddle and impeller was removed from the tank and washed after used.
The power outlet was turn off.
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RESULT
EXPERIMENT 1
Table 7.1 Flat paddle + without baffle
Types Of Fluids
Water

Oil

Angular Speed (rpm)


100

Torque (Nm-2)
0.3

150

0.7

200

0.9

250

1.2

100

1.2

150

1.7

200

2.1

250

2.6

Flow Pattern

Table 7.2 Flat paddle + baffle


Types of Fluids

Angular Speed (rpm)

Torque (Nm-2)

Flow Pattern
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Water

Oil

100

2.3

150

2.5

200

2.7

250

2.9

100

0.8

150

1.2

200

1.5

250

1.9

Table 7.3 Turbine impeller + without baffle


Types of Fluids
Water

Angular Speed (rpm)


100

Torque (Nm-2)
2.0

Flow Pattern

10

Oil

150

2.3

200

2.7

250

2.9

100

1.4

150

1.9

200

2.1

250

2.4

Table 7.4 Turbine impeller + baffle


Types of Fluids
Water

Angular Speed (rpm)


100

Torque (Nm-2)
2.1

150

2.3

Flow Pattern

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Oil

200

2.6

250

2.8

100

1.3

150

1.8

200

2.1

250

2.3

EXPERIMENT 2
Table 7.5 Flat paddle + without baffle
Types Of
Fluids

Angular Speed
(rpm)

Water

100
150
200
250
100
150
200
250

Oil

Angular
Speed
(rad/s)
10.47
15.71
20.94
26.18
10.47
15.71
20.94
26.18

Force (N)

Torque (Nm-2)

Power (W)

0.0016
0.0038
0.0049
0.0065
0.0065
0.0075
0.095
0.0117

0.3
0.7
0.9
1.2
1.2
1.7
2.1
2.6

3.14
11.0
18.85
31.42
12.56
26.71
43.97
68.07

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Power vs Speed
80
70
60
50
Powe r (W)

water
oil

40
30
20
10
0
8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

Spe e d (rad/s)

Graph 7.1 Flat paddle without baffle

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Table 7.6 Flat paddle + baffle


Types of Fluids

Angular Speed
(rpm)

Water

100
150
200
250
100
150
200
250

Oil

Angular
Speed
(rad/s)
10.47
15.71
20.94
26.18
10.47
15.71
20.94
26.18

Force (N)

Torque (Nm-2)

Power (W)

0.0104
0.0112
0.0122
0.0131
0.0036
0.0054
0.0068
0.0086

2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9
0.8
1.2
1.5
1.9

24.08
39.28
56.54
75.92
8.34
18.85
31.41
49.74

Power vs Speed
80
70
60
50
Powe r (W)

water
oil

40
30
20
10
0
8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

Spe e d (rad/s)

Graph 7.2 Flat paddle with baffle

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Table 7.7 Turbine impeller + without baffle


Types of Fluids

Angular Speed
(rpm)

Water

100
150
200
250
100
150
200
250

Oil

Angular
Speed
(rad/s)
10.47
15.71
20.94
26.18
10.47
15.71
20.94
26.18

Force (N)

Torque (Nm-2)

Power (W)

0.009
0.0104
0.0122
0.0131
0.0063
0.0086
0.0095
0.0108

2.0
2.3
2.7
2.9
1.4
1.9
2.1
2.4

20.94
36.13
56.54
75.92
14.66
29.85
43.97
62.83

Power vs Speed
80
70
60
50
Powe r (W)

water
oil

40
30
20
10
0
8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

Spe e d (rad/s)

Graph 7.3 Turbine impeller without baffle

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Table 7.8 Turbine impeller + with baffle


Types of Fluids

Angular Speed
(rpm)

Water

100
150
200
250
100
150
200
250

Oil

Angular
Speed
(rad/s)
10.47
15.71
20.94
26.18
10.47
15.71
20.94
26.18

Force (N)

Torque (Nm-2)

Power (W)

0.0095
0.0104
0.0117
0.0126
0.0059
0.0081
0.0095
0.0104

2.1
2.3
2.6
2.8
1.3
1.8
2.1
2.3

21.99
36.13
54.44
73.30
13.61
28.28
43.97
60.21

Power vs Speed
80
70
60
50
Powe r (W)

water
oil

40
30
20
10
0
8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

Spe e d (rad/s)

Graph 7.4 Turbine impeller with baffle

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SAMPLE CALCULATIONS
Area of flat paddle impeller = 0.09m x 0.06m
= 0.0054 m
Angular speed = rpm x (2 / 60)
= 100 rpm x 2 (3.142) / 60
= 10.47 rad/s
Force (N)

= N/m (torque) x m (area of flat paddle)


= 0.3 x 0.0054
= 0.0016 N

Power (W)

= Torque (T) x Angular Speed (rad/s)


= 0.3 x 10.47
= 3.14 watts

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DISCUSSION
Mixing is a common operation in the process industries. It is generally performed by rotating
impeller in a vessel. Products obtained from food, petroleum, mining, pharmaceutical, pulp
and paper would not be available without fluid mixing technology. Mixing also plays a vital
role in industrial waste treatment. The mixing intensity can be varied by varying agitating
speeds and choosing suitable impeller. A wide range of mixing situations can be found in
practice which may involve high and low viscosity of fluids, suspending solid in liquid and
dispersing gas or liquid.
The simplest way used to improve mixing efficiency is increasing the rotational speed
which leads to high energy consumption. Thus, the cost will also increases. Different shapes
of impeller will produce different shape of flows. For turbine impeller, the liquid is pushed
towards of the container, along the radius of the container. In flat impeller, the liquid is
pushed in a downwards direction that is along the axis of the container.
In experiment 1, baffles are usually installed to prevent a vortex formation which can
reduce the mixing efficiency of the fluid. Installation of baffles in the container is to promote
a turbulence flow which have a better mixing. Baffles also used to stop the swirl in a mixing
tank because almost all impellers rotate in clockwise or anti clockwise rotation. Without
baffles, the tangential velocities coming from any impellers cause the entire fluid mass to
spin. It may look good from the surface seeing that vortex all the way down to the impeller
but that is a bad behavior of mixing. There was a very little shear and the particles go around
and this is tend to centrifuge rather than a mixer. With the inclusion of baffle, the flow is
observed to be turbulent flow thus increasing the mixing efficiency.
For experiment 2, four set of result were obtained in which the difference in the
inclusion of baffles and type of the impeller use which is flat paddle and turbine impeller. The
torque was recorded at every increment of speed. Four sets are also plotted to show the
relationship involved. In the graph that have plotted, it shows that the power consumption is
increases as the speed increases. Based on theory, the torque for water is higher than oil. But
for the flat paddle without baffle, the result have shown that the oil torque is higher than
water. This was maybe due to the sensor problem in the lab. The sensor broken cannot give
the true torque value. But this theory is proved for others type of paddle use which is flat
paddle with baffle, turbine impeller without baffle and the turbine impeller with baffle. In this
experiment, the inclusion of baffles gives a high torque. The flat paddle impeller with baffle
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gives the torque among others as it has a high shear led to the most mixing efficiency. It is
also effective to disperse a high viscosity fluid which require more power to operate them.
When the system operates without baffle, a vortex is mainly produced. This limit in how
much power can transmit to the fluid due to the forming of the vortex. The usage of baffles
will reduce the power needed to operates them because of the agitation where there is no
vortex forming. By using the flat paddle with baffles, it will give the most efficient in fluid
mixing.

CONCLUSIONS
The results show there is big difference in the result for tank with the baffle and without it.
When no baffle inserted, the fluid flow smoothly and in a clockwise direction while the fluid
flow randomly in stagnant direction with no uniform direction. It is said the baffle insertion
produce high shear mixing. The shape and design of impeller also play important role in
affecting the flow of fluid.
In experiment 1, flat paddle impeller has lower torque rather than turbine impeller.
The result obtained was not accurate according to the theory. Theory said that torque obtain
using flat paddle must be higher than turbine impeller. This is due the sensor broken and the
sensor cannot sense the true torque. Industries mostly using flat paddle impeller as it not
really slow and quite fast but not consume much power. In other words it most effective and
affordable cost.
In experiment 2 also insertion of baffle also gives the higher torque and power. The
flat paddle impeller is the highest among others as it has the high shear-thinning characteristic
and taken as the most effective for dispersive mixing with high viscosity which required more
power for operate them. In order to achieve higher torque, using the flat paddle with the
baffle combination will give more efficiency in handling more workload fluid.

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RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Seal the impeller at the end of the shaft and also seal to the tank properly to prevent
any accident can cause serious injury.
2. Take the average of 3 readings at least for a more precise results.
3. Where all the PPEs as it involving the heavy set of tank and engine.
4. Properly handling the oil for not spilling on the floor as it become slippery that can
cause serious injury.
5. Make sure the working area was dry and clean.

REFERENCES
Glimm, B. J., & Sharp, D. H. (2006). Complex Fluid Mixing Flows: Simulation vs . Theory
vs . Experiment, 39(5), 03.
Jirout, T., & Rieger, F. (2011). Impeller design for mixing of suspensions. Chemical
Engineering Research and Design, 89(7), 11441151. doi:10.1016/j.cherd.2010.12.005
Motors, E. (n.d.). INDUSTRIAL MIXER MOTORS & PADDLES.
Mixing 101: Flow Patterns & Impellers | Dynamix Agitators. (2013). Dynamix Inc. Retrieved
2 May 2016, from http://www.dynamixinc.com/mixing-101-the-basic-principles-of-mixingand-impellers
Nguyen, N. & Wu, Z. (2004). Micromixersa review. J. Micromech. Microeng., 15(2), R1R16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0960-1317/15/2/r01
Vessel, T. H. E., & Tubes, D. (n.d.). t I ,.

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