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Part 1: Free vortex

In this experiment three size of orifice was used. For the orifice size of 8 mm, the vortex form
was in the smaller radius. For the second orifice which is 12 mm in size, the vortex formed was
much larger than the orifice formed by the 8 mm orifice. The used of orifice in size of 24 mm
was the largest vortex formed. This phenomenon occurs because the vortex formed is dependent
on the size of the orifice used. From the experiment, clearly when the size of orifice gets larger,
then the vortex formed will large too. This occurs because when the orifice size gets larger the
more water can flow out from the tank. Then it not accumulated. When more water gets out, the
larger vortex formed. This vortex was formed by the force of water flow in the tank. The flow
pattern formed is in circumferential.
For the observation of destruction of the vortex, a core object has been placed at the
center of the orifice. This action will destroy the vortex formed because the flow of water was
block by the core object. When the blocking occurs, the flow rate of the water through the orifice
will decrease. This give more effect on the smaller orifice (8 mm) cause the flow rate of the
water will decrease more than other orifice (12,16 & 24 mm).
Then the experiment was performed to discover the plotting profiles. The diameter of the
vortex formed was increased proportionally when the size of the orifices used is much larger.
The used of the small orifices will formed the small diameter of vortex. The larger size of the
orifice used the larger of diameter of the vortex formed. The diameter of the vortex formed is
decreased when the depth of the vortex increased. The measurement of the diameter will result in
decreased pattern if the measurement was taken proportionally to the depth of the vortex formed.

Part 2: Force vortex

The second part of the experiment involves the use of paddle at the bottom of the tank to create
forced vortex. Figure 9, 10, and 11 shows that the value of slope for the measured data deviates
slightly from the theoretical value. The measured slope for the 1 st and 2nd trial is 0.169, 0.1512,
and 0.1626 respectively while the theoretical slope is 0.1015, 0.0796, and 0.0865 respectively.
The deviation is very small and we can conclude that the data is acceptable. The increase in
angular velocity also shows the increase in height from top of measuring gauge to bridge, h. The
slope of the curve increases as angular velocity increase due to the stream function formed in
forced vortex is parabolic in nature.

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