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Module 4: Analysis of Frame Structures

Lecture 3: Stiffness of Beam Members

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4.3.1 Introduction
A beam is a structural member which is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting
bending. The primary tool for analysis of beam is the EulerBernoulli beam equation. Other
methods for determining the deflection of beams include "slope deflection method" and
"method of virtual work". For calculation of internal forces of beam include "moment
distribution method", force or flexibility method and stiffness method. However, all these
methods have limitations if either of geometry, loading, material properties or boundary
conditions becomes arbitrary in nature. Finite element techniques can well handle such cases
and relieve the analyzer of making simplifications to arrive approximate solutions.
4.3.2 Derivation of Shape Function
The degrees of freedom at each node for a beam member will be (i) vertical deflection and
dv
, where
(ii) rotation. For a beam member, the slope of the elastic curve is given by:
dx
the variable v is the displacement function of the beam. As the beam has two degrees of
freedom at each node, the variation of v will be cubic and can be expressed using Pascals
triangle as:
0

v x 0 1 x 2 x 2 3 x 3 1 x x 2 x 3 1
(4.3.1)
2
3
and
0

dv

0 1 2 x 3x 2 1

dx
2
3

Fig. 4.3.1 Beam element

(4.3.2)

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Now, applying boundary conditions, the following expressions from the above relations can
be obtained:
At x=0:
0
0



V1 1 0 0 0 1 ; 1 0 1 0 0 1 ;
2
2
3
3

At x=L:
V2 1 L L2

0
0



L3 1 ; 2 0 1 2 L 3L2 1
2
2
3
3

Thus combining the above expressions one can write:


V1 1
0
1

V2 1
2 0

0 0
1 0
0 1
A
L L2 L3 2

1 2 L 3L2 3
0

(4.3.3)

So,
0 1
0
1

2 1

3 0

0 V1 1

0 2 0
3
L L2 L3 V2 L2

1 2 L 3L2 2 2
0
1

0
0

L3

0
1
2

L
1
L2

0
0
3
L2
2
3
L

0
V1
0
1 1

L V2
1
2
L2

(4.3.4)

Therefore,

v x 1 x

x2

1
0
3
x 3 2
l
2
l 3

1
2

l
1
l2

0
3
l2
2
3
l

0
V1
0
1 1
N1
l V2
1
2
l 2

N2

N3

V1


N 4 1
V2
2

(4.3.5)

Where,
N1 1

2 2 x3
3x 2 2 x 3
x2 x3
3 2 2 3
;
;
and
N

x
2
3
4
L
L L2
L2
L2
L3
L2
L3
(4.3.6)

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N is called shape function which interpolates the beam displacement in terms of its nodal
displacements.
4.3.3 Derivation of Element Stiffness Matrix
Now, the strain displacement relationship matrix [B] can be expressed from the following
expressions with the help of eq. (4.3.1):

d 2v
0
dx 2

0

1
1
6 x B B A d
2

4

1
0
Where, B 0 0 2 6 x ; A
1

(4.3.7)

0
V1

1 0
0

; d 2
2
3
L L
L
V2
2
2
1 2 L 3L
0

From the moment curvature relationship, we can write:


M EI EI

d 2v
1
EI B A d
2
dx

(4.3.8)

Strain energy,
L

EI
1 T
0 2 M dx = 2

d A B B A d dx
L

1 T

(4.3.9)

Thus,

B B A d dx

U
EI A 1
d
0
L

(4.3.10)

So, the stiffness matrix will be:

k EI A 1 T B T B A 1 dx EI A 1 T B T B dxA1

0
0

L
L
0
0
B T B dx 0 0 2 6 x dx
0
2
0
0

6 x
0

Now,

(4.3.11)

0
0 0
0

0
0 0
0
dx
0 4
12 x
0

0 12 x 36 x 2

4L

6 L2

6 L2

12L3

(4.3.12)

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So,

0
k EI A1 T
0

0
k EI
0

0
0
EI
0

0
0
0
0

0
1
0
0

4L

6 L2

2
L3 0
1
0
L2
2
3 0
L
1 0

L2

3
L2
2

L
3
L2
1

1
0 6 0

2 0 3

0 6 L2

2 6l 2
L3

1
2

L
1
L2

0
3
L2
2
3
L

0 1
A
6 L2

12 L3

4L

6 L2

0 1

0 0
3

6 L2 L2
2

12 L3 3
L

12
0
L3

0
6
L2
1
EI
L
123
L
1
6
2
L
2
L

6
L2
4
L
6
2
L
2
L

12
L3
6
2
L
12
L3
6
2
L

1
2

L
1
L2

0
3
L2
2
3
L

0
1

L
1
L2

6
L2

2
L
6
2
L
4

Thus, the element stiffness of a beam member is:


6 L 12 6 L
12
6 L 4 L2 6 L 2 L2
EI
k 3 12 6 L 12 6L
L

2
2
6 L 2 L 6 L 4 L

(4.3.13)

4.3.4 Generalized Stiffness Matrix of a Beam Member


Consider a beam member making an angle with X axis as shown in Fig 4.3.2 below. By
resolving the forces along local X and Y direction, the following relations are obtained.

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Fx1 Fx1 cos Fy1 sin
Fx 2 Fx 2 cos Fy 2 sin
Fy1 Fx1 sin Fy1 cos

(4.3.14)

Fy 2 Fx 2 sin Fy 2 cos
M1 M1
M2 M2

Where, Fx1 and Fx 2 are the axial forces along the member axis X . Similarly, Fy1 and Fy 2 are
the forces perpendicular to the member axis X . M1 and M 2 are the moment about its axis at
node 1 and 2 respectively.

Fig. 4.3.2 Inclined beam member

The relationship expressed in eq. (4.3.14) can be rewritten in matrix form as follows:
Fx1 cos

Fy1 sin
M 1 0

Fx 2 0
Fy 2 0

M 2 0

sin
cos
0
0
0
0

0
0
1

0
0
0

0 cos
0 sin
0
0

0
0
0
sin
cos
0

0 Fx1
0 Fy1
0 M 1

0 Fx 2
0 Fy 2

1 M 2

(4.3.15)

Now, the above equation can be expressed in short as:

F T F

(4.3.16)

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Similarly, the displacement vector in local coordinate system ( , ) may be transformed to
global ( , ) coordinate system by the following relation.

d T d

(4.3.17)

The force-displacement relation in local coordinate system may be expressed as:


0
0

Fx1 0 12 EI


L3
Fy1
6 EI

0
M1
L2

0
Fx2 0


12 EI
Fy2 0 3

L
M
2
6 EI
0

L2

0
6 EI
L2
4 EI
L
0
6 EI
2
L
2 EI
L

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
12 EI
3
L
6 EI
2
L
0
12 EI
L3
6 EI
2
L

0
6 EI u
1
L2
v
2 EI 1

L 1

0 u2

6 EI
2 v2
L

4 EI 2

(4.3.18)

The matrices in the above equation are written with respect to the member axis. Now, the eq.
(4.3.18) can be rewritten as follows with the use of eqs. (4.3.16) and (4.3.17).

T F k T d

(4.3.19)

F T

(4.3.20)

Or,
1

k T d

Here, the transformation matrix [T] is orthogonal. Thus, from the above relationship, the
generalized stiffness matrix can be expressed as:

k T T k T

(4.3.21)

Considering cos and sin the above expression can be written as follows:

21

0
k EI
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

12
0 0
L3

0
6
0

0
L2

0 0
0

0
12
0 3
L
1

6
0

L2

0
6
L2
4
L
0
6
2
L
2
L

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
12
3
L
6
2
L
0
12
L3
6
2
L

0
6

L2
2

L 0

0 0

6 0
2
L 0
4

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

(4.3.22)
Thus, the generalized stiffness matrix of a beam member is derived as:
12 2
L3

12
L3

6
2

k EI L 2
12
L3

12
L3
6

L2

12
L3
12 2
L3
6
L2
12
L3
12 2
3
L
6
L2

6
L2
6
L2
4
L
6
L2
6
2
L
2
L

12 2
L3
12
L3
6
L2
12 2
L3
12
3
L
6
L2

12
L3
12 2
3
L
6
2
L
12
3
L
12 2
L3
6
2
L

6
L2
6
L2

2
L

6
L2

6
2
L
4

(4.3.23)

0
0
0

0
0