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Coal is a solid non-metallic material used in the industry as energy fuel, reducing agent
particularly in metallurgy; raw material for carbon chemistry, absorbent, filtering.
From the geological standpoint, coal is an organic sediment deposited in tabular bodies
or layers called mantles. This is a non-crystalline gel, formed from plant remains
preserved from oxidation in swampy areas. Along with the plant remains noncombustible
materials constituting the ashes and reduce their economic value were deposited.
Organic matter lost due to internal heat of the earth and the pressure on the layers
recumbent, first water and then volatiles oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen with carbon; not
staying in the end the combined carbon and non-combustible inorganic portion. This
process is called carbonization and determines the range of the coal.
Coal is caused by the decomposition of terrestrial plants, leaves, wood, bark, and spores
that accumulate in swamps, lagoons or marine areas, shallow. The dead plants
accumulate at the bottom of a basin. They are covered with water and, therefore,
protected from air that would destroy them. Begins a slow transformation by the action
of anaerobic bacteria, a type of microorganisms that can not live in the presence of
oxygen. With time a progressive carbon enrichment occurs. Later they can be covered
with clay deposits, which help maintain proper anaerobic environment to continue the
process of coalification.


- Development and evolution of lush vegetation.
- Hot and humid climate.
- Slow continuous increase in the water table.
- Slow Sinking.
- Protection against floods swamp.
- In tropical bog 7 - 9 years, growing from 5 to 6 m.
- In cold climates 7- 9 years 30 cm growth.

- Wet: Meteoric and inherent.
- Volatile matter: H gives heat, N consumes heat, O, y CO2.
- Ash: Inorganic and noncombustible.
- Fixed Coal: Continuous heat source (unless the H).
- Power Binder: transformation into coke.
- Reflectance.

In Peru there were three major periods of the formation of coal:
- Mississippian - Lower Carboniferous (Paleozoic).
- Jurassic to Cretaceous Transition (Mesozoic).
- Miocene (Tertiary).
Coal deposits of the referred period, is distinguished by its magnitude, extent, quality,
range and emerge with a few exceptions in different areas.
With this it is possible to determine carboniferous provinces containing coal deposits with
similar characteristics and genesis.



Chicama basin.
Oyn basin.
Chavin Conchucos basin.
Goyllarisquizga basin.
Huallaga Maran basin.
Jatunhuasi basin.
Yura basin.

Graphite is a crystalline form of coal that differs from uncrystallized for their properties
and uses.
Its ignition temperature is very high; so you may use as a refractory, for example in the
manufacture of casting molds, crucibles, among others. Graphite is also a good
conductor of heat and electricity, so it is used in the manufacture of electrodes.
The hardness of graphite is 1 according to the Mohs scale; their cleavage is perfect and
sheets can bend, allowing use as a solid lubricant.

The "crystalline" and "amorphous" graphite two varieties are distinguished. The diameter
of the crystals of the first variety must exceed the minimum of 0.2 mm; It is formed by
regional metamorphism; its price is much higher than the second variety.
The "amorphous" graphite has lower cryptocrystalline crystals actually being a
microcrystalline. It can be found in metamorphic aureoles of intrusive.
The graphite of Peru is "amorphous" or cryptocrystalline. Most Mesozoic coals were
formed by contact metamorphism. Deposits are small and are presented in the
departments of Piura, La Libertad, Ancash and Lima.
In the department of Piura, graphite was also found in the Olmos Group near the bigote
hamlet, formed by regional metamorphism. This is a rather impure cryptocrystalline

graphite; its existence is an important indication of the Paleozoic age of metamorphosed

It is used in steelmaking smelting, batteries, pens, belts, brake packaging machines,
electrodes, paints, etc.

Peru has a significant potential for coal utilization which offers interesting and varied
opportunities for investors. Verifiable reserves in the basins of the Alto Chicama, Holy,
Oyon and Jatunhuasi amounted to 131.0 million MT of which 36.0 million are available
in the short term. The total coal resources estimated at 711 million MT.
Bituminous coal reserves with medium and low volatile material found in the basin of
Jatunhuasi and southern part of the basin Oyon respectively.
The best possibilities present exploitation and industrialization of anthracite of the
Northwest Andes. The potential of anthracite in the Sierra Norte is the order of hundreds
of millions of tons; This potential is very limited advantage of.
Exploitation rates anthracite in Peru are very small; transportation is very expensive,
production is heterogeneous and insecure supply. Most of the extracted anthracite is
used as fuel without washing brickworks and only a small fraction industries.