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Data Communication & Network

REFERENCES

1. Behrouz Forouzan, Data Communications and Network, 4th Edition,


McGraw-Hill, 2007. (TEXT BOOK)
2. Andrew S Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, Prentice Hall, 1997.
3. E. Ramos, A. Schoroeder and A. Beheler, Computer Network
Concepts, McMillan, 1996.
4. Azhar, Haniza and Zakiah, Komunikasi Data and network(Modul
Pengajaran), Edisi Pertama, 2005.
5. B. Nazrulazhar and H. Erman, Data Communications and Network :
Practical Approach, 1st Edition, Venton, 2008.
Data Communication & Network

ASSESSMENT
Course work

Percentage

Assignment

15%

Laboratory tests

10%

Mid-term exam

15%

Quiz

15%

Presentation - Project

15%

Total Coursework

70%

Final Exam

30%

Total

100%
Data Communication & Network

Course Outcomes
Upon completion this course, students will be able to perform tasks
related to he following:
i. Explain the fundamental of data communication and networking
concepts
ii. Selecting the type of media, network topology and appropriate network
technology with the latest technology.
iii. Configure and troubleshoot basic network using guided and unguided
media

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Data Communication and Network


BIT1313
Introduction

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Data Communication and Network


Data

Information presented in whatever form is agreed upon by


the parties creating and using the data

Data communication

Exchange of data between two devices


Via some form of transmission medium

Telecommunication: communication at a distance


(tele in Greek=far)

Data Communication & Network

Data Reprsentation
TEXT Unicode (32 bits to represent character)- ASCII
NUMBERS - represented by bit patterns
IMAGES-composed of a matrix of pixel
AUDIO- recording or broadcasting of sound or music
VIDEO- recording or broadcasting of a picture or movie

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Transmission Media

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Components of data communication

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Data flow (simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex)

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Network
Network: A set of devices (nodes) connected by communication links
Node: Computer, printer, or any device capable of sending and/or
receiving data

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Network criteria
1) Performance : Transmission and response times - throughput and delay.
2) Reliability: How often the networks fail
3) Security: Privacy and integrity of communication Data; recovery from
crack and data loss.

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Type of Connection
Point-to-point

Dedicated link between two devices


The entire capacity of the channel is reserved
Ex) Microwave link, TV remote control
Multipoint
More than two devices share a single link
Capacity of the channel is Spatially shared.

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Physical Topology

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Mesh Topology
Each device has dedicated point-to-point link to other devices.
Fully connected mesh will have n( n-1)/ 2 links
Where n = number of nodes
Advantages: Fast communication, Robust and Privacy (Security)
Disadvantages: Cabling Space and cost

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Star Topology

Dedicated point-to-point link only to a central controller, called a hub


Hub acts as an exchange: No direct traffic between devices
Advantages: Less expensive, robust
Disadvantages: dependency of the whole on one single point, the hub

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Bus Topology

One long cable that links all nodes


tap, drop line, cable end
limit on the number of devices, distance between nodes
Advantages: Easy installation, cheap
Disadvantages: Difficult reconfiguration, no fault isolation, a fault or break in the
bus stops all transmission

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Ring Topology
Dedicated point-to-point link only with the two nodes on each sides
One direction, repeater
Advantages: Easy reconfiguration, fault isolation
Disadvantage: Unidirectional traffic, a break in the ring cab disable the entire network

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Hybrid Topology
Example: Main star topology with each branch connecting several
stations in a bus topology
To share the advantages from various topologies

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Categories of Networks

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Local area network ( LAN)


Usually privately owned
A network for a single office, building, or campus a few Km
Common LAN topologies: bus, ring, star
An isolated LAN connecting 12 computers to a hub in a closet

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Metropolitan area network (MAN)

Designed to extend to an entire city


Cable TV network, a companys connected LANs
Owned by a private or a public company

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Wide area network (WAN)


Long distance transmission, e.g., a country, a continent, the world
Enterprise network: A WAN that is owned and used by one company

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Internetwork
Internetwork (internet) : two or more networks are
connected by internetworking devices
Internetworking devices: router, gateway, etc.
The Internet: a specific worldwide network

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Internetwork Example
A heterogeneous network : four WANs and two LANs

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The Internet
The Internet has revolutionized many aspects of our daily
lives. It has affected the way we do business as well as
the way we spend our leisure time. The Internet is a
communication system that has brought a wealth of
information to our fingertips and organized it for our use.
1967: ARPANET proposed by DoDs ARPA(Advanced Research Project
Agency)
1969: ARPANET in a reality: UCLA, UCSB, SRI, U. of Utah
1973: Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn propose TCP,
To split TCP into two protocols TCP and IP

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Internet Today

ISP (Internet service


providers)
NISP (national ISP)
NAP (network
access point)

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Protocols
Protocol : rule
A set of rules that govern data communication
For communication to occur, entities must agree upon a protocol

Key elements of a protocol


Syntax: structure or format of data
Semantics: meaning of each section in the structure
Timing: when and how fast data should be sent

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Standards: agreed-upon rules

Standards is essential in
Creating/maintaining open and competitive markets
Guaranteeing national/international interoperability

Two categories
De jure (by law or by regulation) standards
De facto (by fact or by convention) standards
Proprietary standards: closed standards
Nonproprietary standards: open standards

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Standards Committees
ISO
Voluntary international organization

ITU-T
Formerly, CCITT formed by UN

ANSI
Private non-profit corporation in the US

IEEE
The largest engineering society in the world

EIA
Non-profit organization in the US

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Internet Standards

IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)


Internet Draft
working document with no official status
with a 6-month lifetime

RFC (Request for Comment)


Edited, assigned a number, and made available to all interested parties

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Summary
introduced data communications needs
communications model
defined data communications
overview of networks
introduce Internet

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Network
Models

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Topics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Layered Tasks
The OSI Model
Layers in the OSI Model
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
Addressing

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Layered Model: Sending a Letter


We use the concept of layers in our daily life. As an example, let us
consider two friends who communicate through postal mail.

Data Communication & Networking

THE OSI MODEL


An International Standards Organization (ISO) standard that covers
all aspects of network communications is the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) model. It was first introduced in the late 1970s.
An open system is a set of protocols that allows any two different
systems to communicate regardless of their underlying architecture.
purpose: show how to facilitate communication between different
systems without requiring changes to the logic of the underlying
hardware and software.
The OSI model is not a protocol; it is a model for understanding and
designing a network architecture that is flexible, robust, and
interoperable.
he OSI model was never fully implemented.

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Data Communication & Networking

An Example Using the OSI Model

WCB/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

Physical Layer
The physical layer is responsible for movements of individual bits from
one hop (node) to the next
Mechanical and electrical specification, the procedures and functions

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Physical Layer: Duties


Physical characteristics of interfaces and media
Representation of bits
Data rate
Synchronization of bits
Line configuration
Physical topology
Transmission mode

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Data Link Layer


The data link layer is responsible for moving frames from
one hop (node) to the next
Transform the physical layer to a reliable (error-free) link

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Data Link Layer Example

WCB/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

Data Link Layer: Duties


Framing
Physical addressing
Flow control
Error control
Access control

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Hop-to-Hop Delivery

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Network Layer
The network layer is responsible for the delivery of packets
from the source host to the destination host

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Network Layer: Duties


Logical addressing and routing

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Transport Layer
The transport layer is responsible for delivery of a message
from one process to another

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Transport Layer: Duties


Service-point (port) addressing
Segmentation and reassembly
Connection control
Flow control
Error control

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Reliable Process-to-Process
Delivery of a Message

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Session Layer
Session layer is responsible for dialog control and
synchronization

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Presentation Layer
Presentation layer is responsible for translation,
compression, and encryption

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Application Layer
Application layer is responsible for providing services to the
user

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Application Layer: Services


Network virtual terminal
Mail services
File transfer, access, and management
Directory services

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Summary of Layers

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TCP/IP and OSI Model

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TCP/IP Protocol Suite


Host-to-network : Physical and data link layer
No specific protocol

Network layer
IP(Internet Protocl), ARP(Address Resolution Protocol), RARP(Reverse
ARP), ICMP(Internet Control Message Protocol), IGMO(Internet
Group Message Protocol)

Transport layer
TCP(Transmission Control Protocol), UDP(User Datagram Protocl),
SCTP(Stream Control Transmission Protocol),

Application Layer
Combined session, presentation, and application layers

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Addressing
Four levels of addresses in TCP/IP protocols
Physical (link), logical (IP, network), port, and specific addresses

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Relationship of Layers and


Addresses

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Physical Address
A node with physical address 10 sends a frame to a node with physical
address 87. The two nodes are connected by a link (bus topology LAN).
As the figure shows, the computer with physical address 10 is the
sender, and the computer with physical address 87 is the receiver.

07:01:02:01:2C:4B
A 6-byte (12 hexadecimal digits) physical address.

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Logical (IP) Address

The physical addresses will change from hop to hop, but the logical
addresses usually remain the same
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Port Address
The physical addresses change from hop to hop, but the logical and
port addresses usually remain the same

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Specific Address
Some application have user-friendly addresses that are designed for
that specific address
Example 1: e-mail address: kchung@kw.ac.kr
Defines the recipient of an e-mail

Example 2: URL (Universal Resource Locator) : www.kbs.co.kr


Used to find a document on the WWW

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