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l Physics

Prepared by Sisay Shewamare.

NOTICE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD

This module has four major sections

A. The first one is the INTRODUCTORY section that consists of five parts vis:

1.

2.

regarding the specific pre-requisite knowledge and skills you require to start the module.

Carefully look into the requirements as this will help you to decide whether you require some

revision work or not.

3.

TIME REQUIRED: It gives you the total time (in hours) you require to complete the module.

All self tests, activities and evaluations are to be finished in this specified time.

4.

MATERIALS REQUIRED: Here you will find the list of materials you require to complete

the module. Some of the materials are parts of the course package you will receive in a CDRom or access through the internet. Materials recommended to conduct some experiments may

be obtained from your host institution (Partner institution of the AVU) or you may acquire

/borrow by some other means.

5.

MODULE RATIONALE: In this section you will get the answer to questions like Why

should I study this module as pre-service teacher trainee? What is its relevance to my career?

B. The second one is the CONTENT section that consists of three parts:

6.

OVERVIEW: The content of the module is briefly presented. In this section you will find a

video file (QuickTime, movie) where the author of this module is interviewed about this

module. The paragraph overview of the module is followed by an outline of the content

including the approximate time required to complete each section. A graphic organization of

the whole content is presented next to the outline. All these three will assist you to picture how

the content is organized in the module.

7.

provided to give you what knowledge skills and attitudes you are expected to attain after

studying the module.

8.

specific objectives, stated in this section, is at the heart of a teaching learning activity. Units,

elements and themes of the module are meant to help you achieve the specific objectives and

any kind of assessment is based on the objectives intended to be achieved. You are urged to pay

maximum attention to the specific objectives as they are vital to organize your effort in the

study of the module.

C. The third section is the bulk of the module. It is the section where you will spend more time and is

referred to as the TEACHING LEARNING ACTIVITIES. The gist of the nine components is listed

below:

9.

preparedness to the specific objectives of this module, are presented in this section. The preassessment questions help you to identify what you know and what you need to know, so that

your level of concern will be raised and you can judge your level of mastery. Answer key is

provided for the set of questions and some pedagogical comments are provided at the end.

10.

KEY CONCEPTS: This section contains short, concise definitions of terms used in the

module. It helps you with terms which you might not be familiar in the module.

11.

provided. It is mandatory to read the documents.

12.

COMPULSORY RESOURCES: A minimum of two video, audio with an abstract in text form

is provided in this section.

13.

USEFUL LINKS: A list of at least ten websites is provided in this section. It will help you to

deal with the content in greater depth.

14.

TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES: This is the heart of the module. You need to

follow the learning guidance in this section. Various types of activities are provided. Go through

each activity. At times you my not necessarily follow the order in which the activities are

presented. It is very important to note:

Enjoy your work on this module.

I. Statistical Physics

BY SISAY SHEWAMARE GEBREMICHAEL JIMMA UNIVERSITY ETHIOPIA

In order to successfully study this module, it is recommended that you need to have either completed or

to concurrently study the AVU Thermal Physics, Mathematical Physics and Quantum Mechanics

Teachers Training modules.

III TIME

This module can be completed in 120hrs.

IV MATERIALS

The materials in this module are different books, and from the soft copy available on the internet.

V MODULE RATIONALE

In this module we are focusing on the system of macroscopic particles and we study the statistical

description of systems in terms of probability and the behavior of the density of state which help to

measure the macroscopic parameters like heat, absolute temperature and entropy. As a result of this

discussion we will acquired some very powerful tools for calculating the macroscopic properties of any

system in equilibrium from knowledge of its microscopic constitutes then we shall illustrate their

usefulness by discussing the application of macroscopic thermodynamics and distribution of systems of

particles.

VI OVERVIEW

The central concepts of this module are the macroscopic systems of particles and macroscopic

measurement. The module begins with the study of statistical description of systems with statistical

thermodynamics and measuring the macroscopic parameters and its application.

Activities are related to the interaction of the macroscopic systems of particle and analyzing the

distribution of macroscopic systems in terms of the mean energy, entropy and pressure. The inter relation

between the macroscopic parameter discussed in the application of macroscopic thermodynamics and in

the partition function.

6.1 OUTLINE

1 Unit 1 Statistical description of systems of particle

2 Macroscopic measurements

(30 hours)

Entropy of the combined system,

The approach to thermal equilibrium.

Heat reservoir.

Dependency of the density of states on the external parameters.

(25 hours)

Absolut temperature,

Heat capacity and specific heats.

Entropy

3 Statistical thermodynamics

(25 hours)

Statistical enesemble.

Probability,

Simple random walk problem in one dimenssion;

Binomial distribution.

Gaussian distribution.

Principles of equal priori probability

Relaxation time

The probability of the density of states.

(40 hours)

Enesembles systems,

Connection of canonical distribution with thermodynamics .

Partition function and their properties.

Gibs paradox.

Validity of the classical approximation.

The equi partition theorem

Kinetic theory of dilute gases in equilibrium

Distribution of systems of particles

A. Statistical Description of

Systems of Particles

C. Statistical Thermodynamics

Statistical Theories,

Specification of the state of the system,

phase space

Statistical enesemble.

Heat reservoir.

Accessible States,

on the external parameters.

Probability calculations,

Simple random walk problem in one dimenssion;

D. Some Applications

Thermodynamic potentials

and their relation with thermodynamical variables,

Enesembles systems,

Connection of canonical distribution with thermodynamics .

Partition function and their properties.

Gibs paradox,

Validity of the classical approximation.

The equi partition theorem

Kinetic theory of dilute gases in equilibrium

Distribution of systems of particles

Statistical

Physics

Binomial distribution.

Gaussian distribution.

Principles of equal priori probability

Relaxation time

The probability of the density of states.

B. Macroscopic Measurements:

Work and internal energy.

Absolut temperature,

Heat capacity and specific heats.

Entropy

After completing this module you will be able to

Appreciate that the statistical distribution of systems of particle and their solution at equilibrium

Understand the concept of temperature, heat and internal energy

Understand the underlying basis and the total statistical thermodynamics law

Understand the macroscopic parameters and their measurements

Understand the basic generalized force and entropy

Understand the application of statistical and macroscopic thermodynamics

Understand the partition function

Derive the macroscopic measurements using the partition function

Derive the distribution of systems of particles

Learning objectives

After Completing this section

you would be able to:

Content

1. Unit 1 Statistical description of systems of

particle (25 hours)

Statistical enesemble.

Probability,

Simple random walk problem in one dimenssion;

Binomial distribution.

Gaussian distribution.

Principles of equal priori probability

Relaxation time

The probability of the density of states .

2. Macroscopic measurements

(25 hours)

Absolut temperature,

Heat capacity and specific heats

Entropy

3. Statistical thermodynamics

Discussion on two state system to apply

random walk problem

Define the relaxation time

Deriving the binomial distribution

Derive the Gaussian equation

(30 hours)

Entropy of the combined system,

The approach to thermal equilibrium.

Heat reservoir.

Dependency of the density of states on the

external parameters

energy

Describe the absolute and entropy relation

State the heat capacity at constant V,P

Define and derive the entropy

Write the equilibrium conditions

Derive the entropy equation for two systems

Solve problems related to entropy

Calculate the density of state at equilibrium

condition

macroscopic thermodynamics (40 hours)

thermodynamical variables,

Enesembles systems,

Connection of canonical distribution with

thermodynamics .

Partition function and their properties.

Gibs paradox.

Validity of the classical approximation.

The equi partition theorem

Kinetic theory of dilute gases in equilibrium.

Find thermodynamics quantity relations

using the thermodynamics potentials

Define the ensemble systems

Derive the partition function

Show the thermodynamics quantities using

the partition function

Show the Gibbs paradox

Derive different distribution

Dear Learners:

In this section, you will find self-evaluation questions that will help you test your preparedness to

complete this module. You should judge yourself sincerely and do the recommended action after

completion of the self-test. We encourage you to take time and answer the questions.

Dear Instructors:

The Pre-assessment questions placed here guide learners to decide whether they are prepared to take the

content presented in this module. It is strongly suggested to abide by the recommendations made on the

basis of the mark obtained by the learner. As their instructor you should encourage learners to evaluate

themselves by answering all the questions provided below. Education research shows that this will help

learners be more prepared and help them articulate previous knowledge.

Evaluate your preparedness to take the module on thermal physics. If you score greater than or equal to

60 out of 75, you are ready to use this module. If you score something between 40 and 60 you may need

to revise your school physics on topics of heat. A score less than 40 out of 75 indicates you need to

physics.

1) How many calories of heat are required to raise the temperature of 3kg of aluminum from 20 0C

to 550C? Given specific heat capacity of aluminum C 910J kg -1K -1 and 4.2J=1 calorie

a. 13000

c. 35750

b. 22750

d. 95550

2) If 200g of water is contained in a 300g aluminum vessel at 10 0C and an additional 100g of water

at 1000C is poured into the container, what is the final equilibrium temperature of the system? In

degree Celsius

a. 77

c. 35

b. 45

d. 20

3) Two moles of an ideal gas ( =1.4) expand quasi-statically and adiabatic ally from pressure of 5

atm. and a volume of 12 liters to final volume of 30 liters a. What is the final pressure of the gas?

a. 1.4

c. 3

b. 3.4

d. 1

4) An ideal gas ( =1.4) expands quasi-statically and adiabatically. If the final temperature is one

third the initial temperature so by what factor does its volume change?

a. 10

c. 16

b. 20

d. 12

5) Following question 4 above, by what factor does its pressure change?

a. 1

c. 0.02

b. 1.2

d. 2

6) One mole of an ideal gas does 3000J of work on the surroundings as it expands isothermally to a

final pressure of 1atm. and volume of 25l. Determine the temperature of the gas

a. 200K

c. 400K

b. 100K

d. 300K

7) Following question 6 above, calculate initial volume of the gas.

a. 20l

c. 22l

b. 30l

d. 25l

8) Five moles of an ideal gas expands is isothermally at 127 0C to four times its initial volume. Find

the work done by the gas

a. 30,000J

c. 50,000J

b. 40,000J

d. 32,012J

9) A gas is compressed at a constant pressure 0.8 atm from a volume of 9 liters to a volume of 2

liters. If in the process 400J of heat energy flows out of the gas what is the work done by the gas?

a. 57J

c. 50J

b. 37J

d. 400J

10) Using question 9 above, what is the internal energy lost by the system

a. 500J

c. 456J

b. 600J

d. 400J

11) There are two thermometers based on different thermometric properties of two different

materials. The two thermometers show identical readings because

a. each property changes uniformly with temperature.

b. the relation between the property and temperature is identical in the two cases

c. the property of one of increases with temperature and the property of the other decreases

at a uniform rate

d. the two thermometers have been calibrated with reference to a common standard.

12) In a Carnot cycle

a. work done during adiabatic expansion is less than work done during adiabatic

compression

b. work done by working substance during adiabatic expansion is greater than work done

during adiabatic compression.

c. work done during adiabatic expansion is equal to work done during adiabatic compression

d. work done during adiabatic expansion is equal to the heat absorbed from the source.

13) Which of the statements below is wrong about an ideal gas?

a. The total number of molecules is large

b. The molecules are in random motion

c. The molecules do not exert any appreciable force on one another or on the walls

d. The volume of the molecule is negligibly small compared with the volume occupied by

the gas.

14) The mean free path in a gas is

a. the distance travelled by a molecule before hitting a wall

15)

16)

17)

18)

c. the root mean square velocity

d. the average distance travelled by molecules between any two successive collisions

In adiabatic process work done

a. by working substance during adiabatic expansion is greater than work done during

adiabatic compression.

b. during adiabatic expansion is equal to work done during adiabatic compression

c. during adiabatic expansion is equal to the heat absorbed from the source.

d. by working substance during adiabatic expansion is equal to the heat that enters.

Which of the following statements is wrong about a real gas?

a. The total number of molecules is large

b. The molecules are in random motion

c. The molecules exert negligible force on one another or on the walls

d. The volume of the molecule is appreciable compared with the volume occupied by the

gas.

The root mean square velocity of a gas

a. does not depend on the temperature but on the pressure of the gas.

b. increases with the density of the gas.

c. decreases with the volume of the gas.

d. depends on both the pressure and temperature of the gas.

The average molecular kinetic energy at a temperature T oK is

a. 13 kT

c. 12 kT

b. 32 kT

d. 23 kT

1. b

7. c

13. c

2. c

8. d

14. d

3. a

9. a

15. .b

4. c

10. c

16. c

5. c

11. a

17. d

6. d

12. c

18. b

Physics, as a discipline that attempts to describe phenomena and processes in nature, has succeeded

in developing theoretical frameworks that describe processes and phenomena ranging from

subatomic particles to celestial bodies in galaxies. Theoretical framework, sufficient enough to

describe nonlinear systems such as the properties of granular media, earthquakes, friction and many

other systems, is still lacking.

Statistical physics gives a rational understanding of Thermodynamics in terms of microscopic

particles and their interactions. It allows calculation of macroscopic properties from microscopic

considerations. The tools and methods developed in statistical physics are extensively used in

frontier research areas to understand non-linear systems.

The material presented in this module is highly sequential. You need to follow the activities in the

order they are presented in the module. If you don't understand something go and refer to the

compulsory materials and visit the useful links there in; don't just write it down and hope that you'll

figure it out later.

Extensive research in recent years has shown that the students who do best in physics (and other

subjects) are those who involve themselves actively in the learning process. This involvement can

take many forms: writing many questions in the margins of the module; asking questions by email;

discussing physics in the AVU discussion fora doing exercises and self-assessments on schedule

etc.

ACTIVITY 1: Statistical Description of System of Particles

You will require 25 hours to complete this activity. In this activity you are guided with a series of

readings, Multimedia clips, worked examples and self assessment questions and problems. You are

strongly advised to go through the activities and consult all the compulsory materials and as many

as possible of the useful links and references.

Deriving the statistical equation

Discussion on two state system to apply random walk problem

Define the relaxation time

Deriving the binomial Gaussian distribution

Description of a system of particles is an effort where theory is applied to a large numbers of

particles. We are not interested in all the details of the underlying microscopic dynamics of

individual particles that constitute a large number of particles like a given of mass of gas.

Instead, it is the systems macroscopic properties among which are the thermodynamic functions

that we wish to understand or to deduce, and these are gross averages over the detailed dynamical

states. That is the reason for the word statistical in the name of our subject. Prominent feature in

the landscape of statistical mechanics is the Boltzmann distribution law, which tells us with what

frequency the individual microscopic states of a system of given temperature occur. An informal

statement of that law is given in the next section, where it is seen to be an obvious generalization of

two other well known distribution laws: the Maxwell velocity distribution and the barometric

distribution. We also need to note here that the exponential form of the Boltzmann distribution law

is consistent with indeed, is required by the rule that the probability of occurrence of

independent events is the product of the separate probabilities.

Reading #1:.

Complete reference : Statistical Mechanics

From Cornell Universit

URL : http://pages.physics.cornell.edu/sethna/StatMech

Accessed on the 23rd September 2007

Abstract :

Contents: Random Walks and Emergent Properties; Temperature and Equilibrium; Entropy; Free

Energies and Ensembles; Quantum Statistical Mechanics; Computational Stat Mech: Ising and

Markov; Order Parameters, Broken Symmetry, and Topology; Deriving New Laws; Correlations,

Response, and Dissipation; Abrupt Phase Transitions; Continuous Phase Transitions.

Rationale:

This chapter covers most of the topics in the second and third activities of the

module...

1. Reference http://jersey.uoregon.edu/vlab/Piston/index.html

Date Consulted:-Nov 2006

Description:2. Reference:-: http://lectureonline.cl.msu.edu/~mmp/kap10/cd283.htm.

Date Consulted:- August 2006

Description:.

3. Reference http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binomial_distribution

Date Consulted:-Nov 2006

Description:4. Reference:-: http://www.stat.yale.edu/Courses/1997-98/101/binom.htm.

Date Consulted:- August 2006

Description:5. Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normal_distribution

Complete Reference:- Computer calculation of Phase Diagrams.

Rationale:

Useful Link #1

Title: Exactly Solved Models in Statistical Mechanics

URL: http://tpsrv.anu.edu.au/Members/baxter/book

Screen Capture:

Description: Rodney Baxter's classic book is officially out of print. Contents: basic statistical mechanics; the onedimensional Ising model; the mean field theory; Ising model on the Bethe Lattice; The Spherical Model; Duality

and Star Triangle Transformations of Planar Ising Models; Square-Lattice Ising Model; Ice-Type Models;

Alternative Way of Solving the Ice-Type Models; Squared Lattice Eight-Vertex Model; Kagom Lattice EightVertex Model; Potts and Ashkin-Teller Models; Corner Transfer Matrices; Hard Hexagon and Related Models;

Elliptic Functions. .

Rationale: This book can be downloaded and used for personal and non-commercial use

Date Consulted: - Aug 2007

Useful Link #2

Title: STATISTICAL PHYSICS An Introductory Course

URL: http://www.worldscibooks.com/physics/3526.html

Screen Capture

By Daniel J Amit (Universita di Roma "La Sapienza" & The Hebrew University) & Yosef

Verbin (The Open University of Israel

Description: This invaluable textbook is an introduction to statistical physics that has been written

primarily for self-study. It provides a comprehensive approach to the main ideas of statistical

physics at the level of an introductory course, starting from the kinetic theory of gases and

proceeding all the way to BoseEinstein and FermiDirac statistics. Each idea is brought out with

ample motivation and clear, step-by-step, deductive exposition. The key points and methods are

presented and discussed on the basis of concrete representative systems, such as the paramagnet,

Einstein's solid, the diatomic gas, black body radiation, electric conductivity in metals and

superfluidity.

The book is written in a stimulating style and is accompanied by a large number of exercises

appropriately placed within the text and by self-assessment problems at the end of each

chapter. Detailed solutions of all the exercises are provided.

1: Statistical description of systems of particles

Consideration of non interactive systems of particles to analyze the probability with binomial and

Gaussian distribution by consideration of the statistical approach and with the density of systems of

particles.

1: Statistical Description of Systems of Particles:

Statistical Theories,

Ensemble

Accessible state

Probability calculation

Phase space

1.1Specification of the state of the system

How do we determine the state of a many particle system? Well, let us, first of all, consider the

simplest possible many particle system, which consists of a single spinless particle moving classically

in one dimension. Assuming that we know the particles equation of motion, the state of the system is

fully specified once we simultaneously measure the particles position q and momentum p. In

principle, if we know q and p then we can calculate the state of the system at all subsequent times

using the equation of motion

1.2 Statistical ensemble

If we are informed about any of the initial conditions of a thrown up coin like its position, the height

of the throw and the corresponding velocity of the coin, we would indeed predict the out come of the

experiment by applying the law of classical mechanics.

In an experiment that describes the outcome in terms of the probability of a single coin, we consider

an ensemble consisting of many such single experiments.

1.3Probability

In this section we will discuss some of elementary aspect of probability theory. It is important to

keep in mind that whenever it is desired to described a situation from a statistical point of view

(i.e., in terms of probabilities), It is always necessary to consider an assembly ( ensemble) consists

of a very large number of similar prepared systems.

Group discussion

Give some example which can be described by two states of systems of particles

Answer

a)

In throwing a pair of dice, one gives a statistical description by considering a very large number.

b) In the basic probability concept, it will be useful to keep in mind a specific simple but important, illustrative

example the so called random walk problem

c)

1

and a magnetic moment ; in accordance with quantum mechanics, its

2

spin can therefore point either up or down with respect to a given direction. If both these possibilities are

equally likely, what is the net total magnetic moment of N such atoms?

d) Diffusion of a molecule in a gas: A given molecule travels in three dimensions a mean distance l between

collisions with other molecules. How far is it likely to have gone after N collisions?

For the sake of simplicity we shall discuss the random walk problem in one dimension. A particle

performing successive steps, or displacements, in one dimension after a total of N such steps, each

of length l , the particle is located at

x ml

Where

N mN

The probability PN (m) of finding the particle at the position x ml after N such steps.

W N ( n1 )

N!

p n 1 q n2

n1!n 2 !

Group discussion

Derive the probability W N (n1 ) for finding the particle at position x=ml after N steps

You can see the derivation as follow

The total number of steps N is simply

N n1 n2

m n1 n2

m n1 n2 n1 ( N n1 ) 2n1 N

Our fundamental assumption was that successive steps are statistically independent of each other.

Thus one can assert simply that, irrespective of past history, each step is characterized by the

respective probabilities

P = probability that the step is to the right

q =1 p = probability that the step is to the left

Now, the probability of any one given sequence of n1 steps to the right and n2 steps to the left is

given simply by multiplying the respective probabilities, i.e., by

p1p 2 p3 L pn q1q 2q 3 L q n p n1 q n 2

The number of distinct possibilities is given by

N!

n1!n2 !

The probability W N (n1 ) of taking n1 steps to the right and n2 = N - n1 steps to the left, in any

order, is obtained by multiplying the probability of this sequence by the number of possible

sequences of such steps. This gives

W N ( n1 )

N!

p n 1 q n2

n1!n2 !

Indeed, we recall that the binomial expansion is given by the formula

N

(p + q)N =

n 0

N!

pnq N n

n!( N n)!

Read the binomial distribution in the fundamentals of thermodynamics book (Federick Reif)

pp.7-23

Group discussion

Given that n1

1

( N m),

2

n2

1

( N m)

2

Show that

p N ( m)

N!

1

[( N m) / 2]![( N m) / 2]! 2

In this discussion you may consider the probability PN (m) that the particle is found at position m

after N steps is the same as WN (n1 ) given by

PN (m) = WN ( n1 )

If f(u) is any function of u, then the mean value of f(u) is defined by

M

f (u )

p(u ) f (u )

i

i 1

P(u )

i 1

This expression can be simplified. Since P(ui) is defined as a probability, the quantity

M

i 1

P(u ) 1

i 1

f (u ) p (u i ) f (u i )

i 1

Activity

Derive the summation and the product of the mean value of different function

Solution

If f(u) and g(u) are any two functions of u, then

M

i 1

i 1

i 1

Or

f (u ) g (u ) f (u ) g (u )

cf (u ) cf (u )

u u u

deviation

( u ) 2 P (ui )(ui u ) 2 0 second moment of u about its mean, or more simply the

i 1

The variance of u is proportional to the square of the scatter of u around its mean value. A more

useful measure of the scatter is given by the square root of the variance,

* u u

1

2 2

P ( n)

n n

exp

2

2 * n1

2 * n1

1

This is the famous Gaussian distribution function. The Gaussian distribution is only valid in the

limits N>>1 and n1 >>1

Activity

Solution

Let us expand lnP around n = n~ . Note that we expand the slowly varying function lnP(n), instead of

the rapidly varying function P(n), because the Taylor expansion of P(n) does not converge sufficiently

rapidly in the vicinity of n = n~ to be useful. We can write

~ n) ln P (n

~ ) B B ...

ln P(n

1

2

2

2

where

d k ln P

Bk

dn k n n

n n

P n P n1 exp

2

2 * n1

1

The constant P( n1 ) is most conveniently fixed by making use of the normalization condition

For discrete case

N

P (n ) 1

N

n1 0

N

P (n)dn 1

N

for a continuous distribution function. Since we only expect P (n) to be significant when n lies in the

relatively narrow range n1 * n1 , the limits of integration in the above expression can be replaced

by with negligible error. Thus,

n n

exp

2 * n

Pn

dn P n1

2

2 * n1 exp x 2 dx 1

Activity

Take a bottle of gas which is isolated with the external environment.

Solution

In this situation, we would expect the probability of the system being found in one of its accessible

states to be independent of time.

This implies that the statistical ensemble does not evolve with time.

Individual systems in the ensemble will constantly change state; but the average number of systems

in any given state should remain constant.

Thus, all macroscopic parameters describing the system, such as the energy and the volume, should

also remain constant.

There is nothing in the laws of mechanics which would lead us to suppose that the system will be

found more often in one of its accessible states than in another. We assume, therefore, that the system

is equally likely to be found in any of its accessible states. This is called the assumption of equal a

priori probabilities, and lies at the very heart of statistical mechanics.

1.8 The relaxation time

Activity

Take an isolated many particle systems will eventually reach equilibrium, irrespective of its initial

state.

Number of particle

Solution

Time

The typical time-scale for this process is called the relaxation time, and depends in detail on the

nature of the inter-particle interactions.

The principle of equal a priori probabilities is only valid for equilibrium states.

The relaxation time for the air in a typical classroom is very much less than one second. This suggests

that such air is probably in equilibrium most of the time, and should, therefore, be governed by the

principle of equal a priori probabilities.

1.8 Behavior of the density of states

A macroscopic system is one which has many degrees of freedom denote the energy of the system by

E. We shall denote by E the number of states whose energy lies between E and E+dE in a

system. Let E denote the total number of possible quantum states of the system which are

characterized by energies less than E. Clearly E increase when E increases. The number of states

E in the range between E and E+dE is then

E E E E

E

E

Activity

Consider the case of a gas of N identical molecules enclosed in container of

volume V. The energy of the system can be written

E=K+U+Eint Where

K=K(p1,p2,.pN)=

1 N

2

pi , U=U(r1,r2,rN)

2m i 1

U=0, Eint=0

Solution

The number of states (E, V) lying between the energies E and E+ E is simply equal to the

number of cells in phase-space contained between these energies.

Py

Px

R

E

E+dE

E ,V

E E

d 3 r1...d 3 rN d 3 p1...d 3 p N

d3 r = dxi dyi dzi

d3 p = dpi x dpi y dpi z ,

the number of states E lying spherical shell between energies E and E+dE is given

BV N E

3N

In other words, the density of states varies like the extensive macroscopic parameters of the system

raised to the power of the number of degrees of freedom. An extensive parameter is one which

scales with the size of the system (e.g., the volume). Since thermodynamic systems generally

possess a very large number of degrees of freedom, this result implies that the density of states is an

exceptionally rapidly increasing function of the energy and volume. This result, which turns out to

be quite general, is very useful in statistical thermodynamics.

Problem

1. A penny is tossed 400 times. Find the probability of getting 215 heads. (Suggestion: use the

Gaussian approximation)

Solution

A penny is tossed 400 times. Find the probability of getting 215 heads is given by the Gaussian

approximation

P ( n)

n n

exp

2

2 * n1

2 * n1

1

where

N=400, n1=251, p=1/2, q=1/2

n1 Np

* n1

* n1 2 100 ,

Npq

400 x1 / 2 x1 / 2 100 10

n1 200

P (251,400)

1

10 2

251 200 2

200

Problem

2. A particle of mass m is free to move in one dimension. Denote its position coordinate by x and its

momentum by p. Suppose that this particle is confined with a box so as to be located between x=0

and x=L, and suppose that its energy is known to lie between E and E+dE. Draw the classical phase

space of this particle, indicating the regions of this space which are accessible to the particle

Solution

Let us represent the particle motion in the coordinate of p, x

p

P+ dp

p

0

The particle with position x and momentum p position lies between x=0 and x=L, energy lies

between E and E+dE

The momentum of the particle is given by

E=p2 /2m

p

2mE

energy E in phase space is given by

d E

E the number of states which have an

dE

E = p

2mE

3. What is the probability of throwing a three or a six with one throw of die?

solution

the probability that the face exhibit either 3 or 6 is

1 1 1

6 6 3

You will require 25 hours to complete this activity. In this activity you are guided with a series of

readings, Multimedia clips, worked examples and self assessment questions and problems. You are

strongly advised to go through the activities and consult all the compulsory materials and use as

many as possible useful links and references.

Describe the absolute and entropy relation

State the heat capacity at constant V,P

Define and derive the entropy

This activity defines the relation between work done and internal energy of a system. The concept

of Entropy is derived for a combined system and problems related to entropy and density of states

for the equilibrium are treated.

Reading #2:.

Complete reference : From Classical Mechanics to Statistical Mechanics

From Draft chapters of Thermal and Statistical Physics

URL : http://stp.clarku.edu/notes/chap1.pdf

Accessed on the 23rd September 2007

Abstract :

Thermal and Statistical Physics: From Classical Mechanics to Statistical Mechanics;

thermodynamic Concepts and Processes; Concepts of Probability;The Methodology of

Statistical Mechanics; Magnetic Systems; Noninteracting Particle Systems; Thermodynamic

Relations and Processes; Theories of Gases and Liquids; Critical Phenomena and the

Renormalization Group; Introduction to Many-Body Perturbation Theory...

Rationale:

This chapter covers most of the topics in the second and third activities of the module...

1. Reference http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_zero

Date Consulted:-Nov 2006

Description: - Absolute zero is the lowest possible temperature, occurring when no heat

energy remains in a substance. Absolute zero is the point at which particles have a minimum

energy, determined by quantum mechanical effects, which is called the zero-point energy.

By international agreement, absolute zero is defined as precisely 0 K on the Kelvin scale,

which is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale, and -273.15C on the Celsius scale.

[1]

Absolute zero is also precisely equivalent to 0 R on the Rankine scale (also a

thermodynamic temperature scale), and 459.67 F on the Fahrenheit scale

2. Reference:-: http://www.upscale.utoronto.ca/GeneralInterest/Harrison/Entropy/Entropy.html

Date Consulted:- February 1999

Description:The entropy is a measure of the probability of a particular result.

The entropy is a measure of the disorder of a system.

The entropy measures the heat divided by the absolute temperature of a body.

The laws that govern the relationships between heat and work are studied in thermal physics. Since

heat is a form of energy and work is the mechanism by which energy is transferred, these laws are

based on the basic principles that govern the behaviour of other types of energy such as the

principle of conservation of energy.

In this activity you will be guided through a series of tasks to understand heat as a form of energy

and define terms like heat capacity, heat of fusion and heat of vaporization.

Macroscopic Measurements:

Absolute temperature

Heat capacity and specific heat capacity

Entropy

2.1 Work and internal energy

The macroscopic work done by a system is determined by the volume of a system if changed quasistatically from Vi to V f and throughout this process the mean pressure of the system has the

measurable value p V .

Vf

pdV

Vi

If the system is isothermally insulated so it cant absorb any heat then Q=0

The internal energy E W

Activity

Consider a system that consists of the cylinder containing a gas. Supply the external energy to the

system by switching the circuit. What do you observe? Consider a standard macrostate i of volume

Vi and mean pressure pi , where E Ei . How would one determined the mean energy E j of any

other macrostate j of volume V j and the mean pressure p j ?

Figure A system consists of cylinder containing gas.

The volume V of the gas is determined by the position of the piston. The resistance can brings

thermal contact to the system.

Solution

The microstate of the system can be specified by the two parameters, volume V and internal

As the gas expand from 1 to its final volume 3 the mean pressure decrease to some value p3 and the

work done by the piston W13

To bring the pressure p 3 without changing the volume, work is done by the electric resistance by an

amount WR and if the amount of energy consumed by the resistance then the energy supplied by

the external system is WR .

The total internal energy of the system in state in state 2 is then given by

E E a Wac (WR )

The amount of heat absorbed from a macrostate 1 to a macrostate 2 is given by

E 2 ( E 2 E1 ) W12

Heat

The heat Qab absorbed by the system in going from a macrostate a to another macrostate is given by

Qab Eb Ea Wab

2.2 Absolute temperature

Properties of absolute temperature

1. The absolute temperature provides one with a temperature parameter which is completely

independent of the nature of the particular thermometer used to perform the temperature

measurement.

2. The absolute temperature T is a parameter of fundamental significance which enters all the

theoretical equations. Hence all the theoretical predictions will involve this particular

temperature.

Activity

From the equation of state p

N

kT = nkT

V

Consider a macroscopic system whose macrostate can be specified by its absolute temperature T and

some other macroscopic parameter y (y might be volume or mean pressure)

Activity

Take a macroscopic system at temperature T, an infinitesimal amount of heat dQ is added to

the system and the other parameters y kept fixed.

The resulting change dT in temperature of the system depends on the nature of the system as

well as on the parameters T and y specifying the macrostate of the system

Result

The specific heat capacity at constant y is defined by

dQ

dT

Cy

The specific heat per mole or heat capacity per mole is thus defined by

cy

1

1 dQ

Cy

dT

c 'y

1

1 dQ

Cy

m

m dT

Task

Take a gas or a liquid whose macrostate can be specified by two parameters say the temperature T

and volume. Calculate the heat capacity at constant volume C and at constant pressure C p

gas kept at constant volume or at constant pressure

1. To determine C

We clamp the piston in position that the volume of the system is kept fixed.

In this case the system cannot do any work, and the heat dQ added to the system goes entirely to

increase the internal energy of the system

dQ dE

2. To determine C p

The piston left completely free to move the weight of the piston being equal to the constant force per

unit area (mean pressure) on the system

In this case the piston will move when heat dQ is added to the system; as the result the system does

also mechanical work. Thus the heat dQ is used both to increase the internal energy of the system and

to do mechanical work on the piston

dQ dE pdV which is the fundamental law of thermodynamics

From the result we expected

i). dE is increase by small amount( and hence the temperature T will also increase by smaller

amount) in the second case compared to the first.

ii). C p C

2.3.1 Heat capacity using the second law of thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics is given by dQ TdS the heat capacity

S

Cy T

If all external parameters of the system kept constant, then the system dose no macroscopic work,

dW 0 then the first law reduced to dQ dE

E

S

T V T V

CV T

Example

Let us consider heat measurements by the method of mixtures in terms of the specific heats of the

substance involved. Consider that two substances A and B, of respective masses mA and mB , are

brought into thermal contact under condition where the pressure is kept constant. Assume that before

the substance are brought into thermal contact their respective equilibrium temperature are TA and TB

respectively. Compute the final temperature T f

Solution

2.4 Entropy

The entropy can readily be determined by using the second law dQ TdS for an infinitesimal quasistatic process.

Given any macrostate b of the system, one can find the entropy difference between this state and

some standard state a to state b and calculating for this process

b

Sb S a

a

dQ

T

Suppose that the macrostate of a body is specified by its temperature, since all its other parameters

are kept constant.

b

S Tb S Ta

a

dQ b C y T ' dT '

T

T'

Ta

T

then

S Tb S Ta C y ln

Tb

Ta

Problem

Consider two system A and system B with constant specific heat C ' A and C 'B and originally at

respective temperature TA and TB , are brought into thermal contact with each other. After the system

come to equilibrium, they reach a come final temperature T f . What is the entropy change of the

entire system in this process?

System A,TA

B,TB System

Isolated system

Answer

To calculate the entropy change of system A, we can imagine that it is brought from its initial

temperature TA to its final temperature T f by a succession of infinitesimal heat additions.

dQ mAC ' A dT

T

f

T

dQ

m C ' dT

dS

S A (T f ) S A (TA ) A A

mAC ' A ln f

T

T

TA

TA

T

f

T

dQ

m C ' dT

dS

S B (T f ) S B (TB ) B B

mB C 'B ln f

T

T

TB

TB

S A S B mAC ' A ln

Tf

TA

+ mB C 'B ln

Tf

TB

Problems

(a) One kilogram of water at 00C is brought into contact with a large heat reservoir at 1000C. When

the water has reached 1000C, what has been the change in entropy of the water? Of the heat

reservoir? Of the entire system consisting of both water and heat reservoir?

b) If the water had been heated from 00C to 1000C by first bringing it is contact with a reservoir

at 500C and then with a reservoir at 1000C, what would have been the change in entropy of the

entire system?

C) Show how the water might be heated from 00C to 1000C with no change in the entropy of the

entire system.

Answer

Entropy of water

dS 01000 C

dQ

where dQ mCdT

T

mCdT

T

373 k

S mC

273 k

S mC ln

dT

T

Tf

Ti

S water mC ln

373

273

= 1310J/K

The amount of heat loss by the reservoir

Qwater Qreservoir

Qreservoir mC (T f Ti )

S reservoir

mC (T f Ti ) water

T373

=-1126J/K

Total entropy

S total S reservoir + S water

S total

mC (T f Ti ) water

Stotal 184J/K

T373

+ mC ln

373

273

You will require 30 hours to complete this activity. In this activity you are guided with a series of

readings, Multimedia clips, worked examples and self assessment questions and problems. You are

strongly advised to go through the activities and consult all the compulsory materials and use as

many as possible useful links and references.

Define the work done and the internal energy

Describe the absolute and entropy relation

State the heat capacity at constant V,P

Define and derive the entropy

In this activity you will investigate the relationship between pressure, temperature, volume, and the

amount of gas occupying an enclosed chamber. This activity consists of three sections. In section

one amount of gas and the importance of Avogadros number is discussed. In the second section the

relationship between pressure and volume will be covered. In part three the relationship between

pressure and volume as well the amount of gas present in a chamber will be determined. The results

learnt in these tasks will be used to derive the Ideal Gas Law.

Reading #2:.

Complete reference : From Classical Mechanics to Statistical Mechanics

From Draft chapters of Thermal and Statistical Physics

URL : http://stp.clarku.edu/notes/chap1.pdf

Accessed on the 23rd September 2007

Abstract :

Thermal and Statistical Physics: From Classical Mechanics to Statistical Mechanics;

thermodynamic Concepts and Processes; Concepts of Probability;The Methodology of

Statistical Mechanics; Magnetic Systems; Noninteracting Particle Systems; Thermodynamic

Relations and Processes; Theories of Gases and Liquids; Critical Phenomena and the

Renormalization Group; Introduction to Many-Body Perturbation Theory...

Rationale:

This chapter covers most of the topics in the second and third activities of the

module...

Reading 5:

Complete reference: Introduction To Statistical Mechanics | Free eBooks

Download!

From

URL:http:// www.ebookee.com/Introduction-To-Statistical-Mechanics_139834.html Accessed

Abstract

Rationale:

Reading 6:

r.

Chemistry ...

From

URL http:// www.ebookee.com/Molecular-Driving-Forces-Statistical-Thermodynamics-in-Chemistryamp-Biology_145376.html

Abstract:

Rationale:

.

1. Reference:- Kittel C. and Kroemer H., (1980) Thermal Physics, 2nd ed., W. H. Freeman

and Co., San Francisco, CA..

Abstract:

Rationale: This classic reference on thermal physics is recommended for a serious student

of Physics. The contents have been treated in detail with adequate mathematical support.

2. Reference: Fundamentals of statistical and thermal physics: F. Reif (McGraw-Hill, New

York NY,1965).

Abstract:

Rationale: This reading provides easy sources of information. The contents have been treated

in lucid manner with adequate mathematical support.

1. Reference http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy

Date Consulted:Description:2. Reference:-: http://lectureonline.cl.msu.edu/~mmp/kap10/cd283.htm.

Date Consulted: Description: - This Java applet helps you understand the effect of temperature and

volume on the number of collisions of the gas molecules with the walls. In the applet, you

can change the temperature and volume with the sliders on the left side. You can also

adjust the time for which the simulation runs. The applet counts all collisions and displays

the result after the run. By varying temperature and volume and keeping track of the

number of collisions, you can get a good feeling of what the main result of kinetic theory

will be.

3. Reference: video.google.com

Date Consulted: Nov 2006

Complete Reference: - Computer calculation of Phase Diagrams.

http://video.google.com/videoplay?

docid=1397988176780135580&q=Thermodynamics&hl=en

Rationale: Thermodynamic models of solutions can be used together with data to

calculate phase diagrams. These diagrams reveal, for a given set of all parameters (such as

temperature, pressure, and magnetic field), the phases which are thermodynamically

stable and in equilibrium, their volume fractions and their chemical compositions...

1. Title: The P-V Diagram and Engine Cycles

URL: http://www.antonineeducation.co.uk/Physics_A2/options/Module_7/Topic_4/topic_4.htm

Abstract: This site contains a good summary on Representation of processes on p V

diagram, Estimation of work done in terms of area below the graph, Expressions for work

done are not required except for the constant pressure case, W = p V , Extension to cyclic

processes: work done per cycle = area of loop

2. Title: Avogadro's Number

URL: http://njsas.org/projects/atoms/avogadro.php

Abstract: A historic as well as scientific of the origin of Avogadros number is presented

on this page

The Ideal Gas Law describes the relationship between pressure, volume, the number of atoms or

molecules in a gas, and the temperature of a gas. This law is an idealization because it assumes an

ideal gas. An ideal gas consists of atoms or molecules that do not interact and that occupy zero

volume.

A real gas consists of atoms or molecules (or both) that have finite volume and interact by forces of

attraction or repulsion due to the presence of charges. In many cases the behaviour of real gases can

be approximated quite well with the Ideal Gas Law. and this activity focuses on the description of

an ideal gas.

Introduction

Thermal relay switch and dispersion systems (Boltzmann and Gibbs factors, partition

and connection functions with thermodynamics

Consider an isolated system whose energy is specified to lie in a narrow range. As usually, we denote

by then number of states accessible to this system. From the fundamental postulate we know that

in equilibrium such a system is equally likely to be found in any one of these states. If a system has a

constraint y1,y2,yn then the accessible state given by y1 , y 2 ,... y n .

If some constraints of an isolated system are removed, the parameters of the system tend to readjust

themselves in such a way that y1 , y 2 ,... y n approaches a maximum f i

Activity

Consider a purely thermal interaction between two macroscopic systems, A and A,

Energy of the systems E and E, the external parameters are constant, so that A and A cannot do work

on one another and the systems are thermally contact heat will exchange. Considering the energy

width E

Let us calculate the accessible state

The temperature at equilibrium

The entropy at equilibrium

Result

The number of microstates of A consistent with a macrostate in which the energy lies in the range E

to E + E is denoted (E). Likewise, the number of microstates of A consistent with a macrostate

in which the energy lies between E and E + E is denoted (E ).

The combined system A(0) = A + A is assumed to be isolated (i.e., it neither does work on nor

exchanges heat with its surroundings). The number of accessible to the entire system A0 let us denote

by 0 (E) when A has energy between E and E+dE.

The probability

P(E)=C 0 (E)

Total accessible state

0 E E ' E 0 E

Temperature at equilibrium

The probability of system A having the energy an energy near E is given by

P(E)=C E ' E 0 E

~

To locate the maximum position of P(E) at E= E

ln P ( E ) 1 P

=0

E

P E

ln P( E ) ln C ln E ln ' E '

ln P( E ) ln E ln ' E '

=0

E

E

E

ln E ln ' E '

=0

E

E '

E ' E'

Activity

~ and ~ denote the corresponding energies of A and A at the maximum, and where we

where E

E'

have introduced the definition

1

ln

kT

where k is some positive constant having the dimension of energy and whose

The parameter T is then defined as kT

S

E

Solution

Where we have introduced the definition S k ln this quantity S is given the name of entropy

Total accessible state 0 E E ' E 0 E and taking the logarithm

ln 0 E ln E ln ' E 0 E

S 0 S S '

The condition of maximum probability is expressible as the condition that the total entropy

S S ' max imum entropy occurs when T=T

If the two systems are subsequently placed in thermal contact, so that they are free to exchange heat

energy until the two systems attain final mean energies E f and E f '

which are

f f

'

E f E ' f E i Ei

'

The mean energy change in each system is simply the net heat absorbed, so that

Q E f Ei

Q+Q=0:

It is clear, that the parameter , defined

ln

E

Temperature

1. If two systems separately in equilibrium are characterized by the same value of the

parameter, then the systems will remain in equilibrium when brought into thermal contact

with each other.

2. If the systems are characterized by different values of the parameter, then they will not

remain in equilibrium when brought into thermal contact with each other.

If two systems are n thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they must be in thermal

equilibrium with each other

A

Suppose the macroscopic system A has ' E ' accessible states and absorbs heat Q ' E '

'

'

'

using Expanding ln E , Q at E=Q

1 2 ln '

ln '

Q' 2 ...

Q'

2 E ' 2

E '

using approximation

Q'

ln '

Q' =

the higher order becomes zero

kT '

E '

ln ' E ' , Q ' ln ' E '

Q'

kT '

S '

Q '

T'

Q '

For a heat reservoir

T'

3.5

Activity

Now that we have examined in detailed the thermal interaction between systems, let us turn to the

general case where mechanical interaction can also take place, i.e. where the external parameters of

the systems are also free to exchange. We begin, therefore, by investigating how the density of states

depends on the external parameters.

Solution

E+

E

occurred by states with a value of whose energy

changes from E to E+when the external

parameter is changed from x to x+dx

The number of states accessible to the system microstates accessible to the system when the overall

energy lies between E and E + E depends on the particular value of x, so we can write

E, x .

The number of states (E, x) whose energy is changed from a value less than E to a value greater

than E when the parameter changes from x to x + dx is given by the number of microstates per unit

energy range multiplied by the average shift in energy of the microstates, Hence

E, x

E , x E r

dx

E

x

where the mean value of Er/ x is taken over all accessible microstates (i.e., all states where the

energy lies between E and E + E and the external parameter takes the value x). The above equation

can also be written

E, x

E , x

X dx

E

where

X E, x

E r

is the mean generalized force conjugate to the external parameter x.

x

Consider the total number of microstates between E and E + E. When the external parameter

dx . In symbols

x

changes from x to x + dx, the number of states in this energy range changes by

E , x

dx E E E

E

x

E

which yields

x

E

X

x

E

E

E

then

ln ln

X

X

x

E

E

ln ln

X X

x

E

Thus,

ln

X

x

where

Activity

Consider a quasi static process in which the system A, by virtue of its interaction with systems A',

is brought from an equilibrium state describe by E and x 1, 2,...n to an infinitesimally

different, equilibrium state described by E dE and x dx .

What is the resultant change in the number of states accessible to A?

Solution

The accessible state

E ; x1 ,..., xn

d ln

n

ln

ln

dE

dx

E

1 x

ln

,

E

ln

X

x

d ln dE X dx

dW X dx

Then d ln dE dW dQ

The fundamental relation valid for any quasi-static infinitesimal process

dQ TdS dE dW or equivalently

dS

dQ

T

Adiabatic process

dQ 0 which asserts

dS 0

Equilibrium

Consider the equilibrium between the systems A and A in the simple case the external parameters

are the volumes V and V of the two systems. The number of state available to the combined system

A0 is given by the simple product.

0 E , V E , V ' E ', V '

Activity

Using the accessible state given for the combined system derive the equation that guarantee for

thermal and mechanical equilibrium.

Solution

0

For the combined system the accessible state given as E , V E , V ' E ', V '

ln 0 E ,V ln E ,V ln ' E ', V '

The total entropy of the system given by

S0 S S '

At the maximum value the total accessible state d ln 0 0

d ln 0 E , V d ln E , V d ln ' E ',V ' 0

d ln

ln E , V

V

dV

ln E , V

E

dE +

V '

where

ln E , V

V

V '

dV '

E '

dE ' =0

ln E , V

E

similarly '

E '

d ln pdV dE ' p ' dV ' ' dE ' =0

from the combined system

E E ' E0

V V ' V 0

Then dE dE ',

dV dV '

Collecting terms

dE ' dE =0

dE ' dE

'

pdV = ' p ' dV

Then mechanical equilibrium

p = p'

Thermodynamics laws and basic statistics relation

Summery of thermodynamic laws

Zero law: If two systems are in thermal in equilibrium with a third system, they must be in

thermal equilibrium with each other.

First law: an equilibrium macrostate of a system can be characterized by a quantity E

(called internal energy) which has the property that for an isolated E =constant. If the

system is allowed to interact and thus goes from one macrostate to another, the resulting

change in E can be written in the form E W Q

(called entropy ) which has the property that

In any process in which a thermally isolated system goes from one macrostate to

another, the entropy tends to increase S 0

If the system is not isolated and under goes a quasi-static infinitesimal process in

dQ

which it absorbs heat dQ, then dS

T

Third law: The entropy S of a system has the limiting property that T 0 , S S0 where

S0 is a constant independent of all parameters of the particular system

Macroscopic Thermodynamics

You will require 40 hours to complete this activity. In this activity you are guided with a series of

readings, Multimedia clips, worked examples and self assessment questions and problems. You are

strongly advised to go through the activities and consult all the compulsory materials and use as

many as possible useful links and references.

Derive the equation for the canonical distribution and kinetic theory of dilute gasses in

equilibrium

Useful Link # 1

Title MACROSCOPIC AND STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS

URL: http://www.worldscibooks.com/physics/6031.html

Screen Capture

Description

This textbook addresses the key questions in both classical thermodynamics and statistical

thermodynamics: Why are the thermodynamic properties of a nano-sized system different from

those of a macroscopic system of the same substance? Why and how is entropy defined in

thermodynamics, and how is the entropy change calculated when dissipative heat is involved?

What is an ensemble and why is its theory so successful?

They include the introduction of the grand canonical ensemble, the grand partition function

and its application to ideal quantum gases, a discussion of the mean field theory of the Ising

model and the phenomenon of ferromagnetism, as well as a more detailed discussion of ideal

quantum gases near T = 0, for both Fermi and Bose gases.

Reading 2:.

Complete reference:

Fundamentals Of Statistical And Thermal physics

From

URL: http://www.ebookee.com/Reif-Fundamentals-Of-Statistical-And-Thermal-Physics_

Abstract:

Rationale:

Reading 3

Complete reference: Maxwell Velocity Distribution simulation

URL: http://www.kfki.hu/physics/physedu/kinetic_gas_model/exp/veldistr.html

Abstract: A graph which show the Maxwell velocity distribution

Reading 4

http://colos1.fri.unilj.si/~colos/COLOS/TUTORIALS/JAVA/THERMODYNAMICS/THERMO_UK/HTML/Vel_

Distri.html

Abstract: Distribution of particles in their energy leel

Partition function and their properties Ideal gas, validity of classical approximation,

Boltzmann, Bose Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics

The gas laws described in activity 3 were found by experimental observation, but Boyles law and

Charles law are not obeyed precisely at all pressures. A gas which obeys the above laws perfectly

at all pressures would be a perfect or ideal gas, and the kinetic theory resulted from an attempt

to devise a mechanical model of such a gas based on Newtons laws of motion.

dQ dE dW

dQ TdS

The work done by the system when the volume is changed by an amount dV in the process is given

by

dW pdV

TdS dE pdV

Macroscopically, an ideal gas is described by the equation of state relating its pressure p, volume V,

and the absolute temperature T. For v moles of gas, this equation of state is given by

pV vRT

The internal energy of an ideal gas depends only on the temperature of the gas, and is independent of

the volume

E = E (T) independent of V.

Entropy

The entropy of an ideal gas can readily be computed from the fundamental thermodynamic relation

TdS dE pdV

ds vCV

dT vR

dV

T

V

pV cons tan t

V 1T cons

The thermodynamic state of a homogeneous system may be represented by means of certain selected

variables, such as pressure p, volume v, temperature T, and entropy S. Out of these four variables ,

any two may vary independently and when known enable the others to be determined. Thus there are

only two independent variables and the others may be considered as their function.

The first and the second law of thermodynamics give the four thermodynamic variables

dQ dE pdV the first law of thermodynamics

dQ TdS the second law of thermodynamics

dE TdS pdV combined the two laws

Activity

For two independent variables S and V using the fundamental thermodynamics derive the

thermodynamics state of a homogeneous system.

Answer

The independent thermodynamic function

E E S , V the internal energy

Differentiating the function

E

E

dS

S V

V

dE

dV

S

dE TdS pdV

Comparing the two equations we can get

E

E

p

Using the second order differential and dE is a perfect differential. E must be independent of the order

of differentiation.

V S

S V

V S

p

S V

Then

T

Activity

For two independent variables S and p using the fundamental thermodynamics derive the

thermodynamics state of a homogeneous system.

Answer

The independent thermodynamic function

dE TdS pdV

dE TdS d pV Vdp

d E pV TdS Vdp

let H E pV which we call it enthalpy

H H S, p

dH TdS Vdp

Differentiating the function

H

H

dp

dS

S p

p S

dH

dH TdS Vdp

Comparing the two equations we can get

H

p S

Using the second order differential and dH is a perfect differential. H must be independent of the

order of differentiation.

H T

p S S p p

S p p s

Then

T

V

p S S

Activity

For two independent variables T and V using the fundamental thermodynamics derive the

thermodynamics state of a homogeneous system.

Answer

The independent thermodynamic function

dE TdS pdV

dE d TS SdT pdV

d E TS SdT pdV

let F E TS which we call it Helmholtz free energy

F F T ,V

dF SdT pdV

Differentiating the function F F T ,V

F

F

dT

T V

V

dF

dV

T

dF SdT pdV

Comparing the two equations we can get

F

T V

V T

Using the second order differential and dH is a perfect differential. H must be independent of the

order of differentiation.

T V V

F

V T T

Then

p

T V

Activity

For two independent variables T and p using the fundamental thermodynamics derive the

thermodynamics state of a homogeneous system.

Answer

The independent thermodynamic function

dE TdS pdV

dE d TS SdT d pV Vdp

d E TS pV SdT Vdp

let G E TS pV which we call it Gibbs free energy

G G T , P

dG SdT Vdp

Differentiating the function G G T , p

G

G

dp

dT

T p

p T

dG

dG SdT Vdp

Comparing the two equations we can get

p T

Using the second order differential and dH is a perfect differential. H must be independent of the

order of differentiation.

G

T p p T

G

S

p T T p p

Then

S

V

T p

p T

Summary for the thermodynamics function

Maxwell relations

The entire discussion of the preceding section was based upon the fundamental thermodynamics

relation

dE TdS pdV

V

T

V

S

S

V

Thermodynamics functions

E.............................E E ( S , V )

H E pV ............H H ( S , p )

F E TS ..............F F (T , V )

G E TS pV ......G G (T , p )

dE TdS pdV

dH Tds Vdp

dF SdT pdV

dG SdT Vdp

Specific heats

Consider any homogeneous substance whose volume V is the only relevant external parameter.

The heat capacity at constant volume is given by

dQ

dT

CV

T

V

dQ

dT

Cp

T

p

Activity

a) For an infinitesimal process of a system the molar specific heat at constant volume and at

constant pressure is given by CV and C p respectively. Show that C p C v R which shows

C p Cv

b) Using the heat capacity and thermodynamics function relation show that the heat capacity at

constant volume and at constant pressure related by C p CV

Solution for a

At constant volume dV 0

Then first law of thermodynamics reduced to dQ dE

Using the molar heat capacity

Cv

1 dQ

v dT

1 E

v T

2V

k

E

dT

T v

dE

The change of energy depends only on the temperature change of the gas

dE vC v dT

dQ vC v dT pdV

pV vRT

pdV vRdT

dQ vC v dT vRdT

Cp

1 dQ

v dT

Then

1 dQ

v dT

Cv R

p

C p C v R Which shows C p C v

Solution for b

Considering the independent variable S S T , p and second law of thermo dynamics

S

dQ TdS T

dQ T

dT

p

p

dT

p

p

T

T

T

dT

V

T

dT

p

p

dQ T

T

p

C p CV

p

T

T

T

T

T

T

dT then

V

1 V

V T

=p

1

V

=- V

T

V

dV

dT

p

p

dp =0 since V= constant

T

k

1

V

, kV p

T

=- V

T

k

C p CV

p

T

T

= CV - V

= CV

2V

k

1) Isolated system

An isolated system consists of N number of particles in a specified volume v, the energy of the

system being known to lie in some range between E and E + dE. The fundamental statistical postulate

asserts that in an equilibrium situation the system is equally likely to be found in any of its accessible

states. Thus, if the energy of the system in state r is denoted by Er, the probability Pr of finding the

system in state r is given by

Pr C

If E<Er<E+ E

Pr 0

Other wise

Normalized

An ensemble representing an isolated system in equilibrium consists then of system distributed in the

above expression. It is some times called a microcanonical ensemble.

A T

We consider the case of a small system A in thermal interaction with a heat reservoir A. What is the

probability Pr of finding the system A in any one particular microstate r of energy Er?

The combined system A0=A+A and from the conservation of energy E0=Er+E

When A has an energy Er, the reservoir A must then have an energy near E=E0-Er.

The number of state ' ( E 0 E r ) accessible to A

The probability of occurrence in the ensemble of a situation where A in state r is simply proportional

the number of state accessible to A0

Pr C ' ' ( E ' )

Using

ln '

'

E

ln ' ( E 0 E r ) ln ' E 0

E r ....

E ' E0

ln ' ( E 0 E r ) ln ' E 0 E r

' E ' ' E 0 e E r

then

Pr C ' ' E 0 e Er

C'

C ' ' ( E 0 )e Er 1

1

' E 0 e E r

r

Pr

e E r

e Er The probability of the canonical distribution

r

Activity

Spin system: paramagnetic particles which has N atoms in a system with spin

Answer

Considering a system which contains N atoms, spin particles interact with external magnetic field

H with the magnetic moment

state

+

_

Magnetic moment

P Ce E Ce H

Energy

E H

E H

P++P-=1 then we get

C

1

e H

e H

e H e H

e H

e H e H

Activity

Consider a monatomic gas at absolute temperature T confined in a container of volume V. The

molecule can only be located somewhere inside the container. Derive the canonical distribution for a

monatomic non interacting gas

Solution

1

P2

E= mV 2 =

2m

2

If the molecules position lies in the range between r and r+dr and momentum lies between P

and P+dP then the volume in phase space is given by d3rd3P=(dxdydz)dpxdpydpz)

The probability that the molecule has position lying in the range between r and r+dr and

momentum in the range between p and p+dp

2

d 3 rd 3 p 2pm

P(r,p)d rd p

e

h03

The probability that P(p)d3p that a molecule has momentum lying in the range between p and

p+dp

P p d p P r , p d rd p Ce

3

2 m

d3p

Then

P ' V P p d 3 p Ce mV

/2

Generalized force

Activity

Using the canonical distribution write the generalized force

Solution

If the a system depends on the external parameter x, then Er=Er(x) and from the definition of the

generalized force we have that

Xr

E r

x

e

X

e

Er

E r

Er

then

X

1 ln Z

x

dW X dx

dW

1 ln Z

dV

V

1 ln Z

V

Activity

One can write the thermodynamics function in terms of the partition function derive the equation

Solution

The partition function given by Z e Er x so it can be represented in terms of , x since Er=Er(x)

Z=Z ( , x) considering a small change

d ln z

ln z

ln Z

dx

d

dx

d ln Z dW Ed

The last term can be written inn terms of the change in E rather than the change in . Thus

d ln Z dW d E d E

d ln Z E dW d E dQ

dS

dQ

therefore

T

S k ln Z E

TS kT ln Z E

Thus ln Z is very simply related to Helmholtz free energy F

F= E TS =-kT ln Z

Z e Er partition function

r

If a system can be treated in the classical approximation then its energy E E q1 ,...qn , p1 ,.. pn

depends on some f generalized coordinates and f momenta.

The partition function in the phase space given by

Z ... e E ( q1 ,...qn , p1 ,... pn )

hf

Activity

Consider the energy of the system is only defined by a function to which is an arbitrary additive

constant. If one changes by a constant amount 0 the standard state r the energy state becomes

E r Er 0 using the partition function

a. Show the corresponding mean energy shifting by the amount of 0

b. Show the entropy of the combined system will not change S S

Solution

a. The mean value of the energy when shifting the system energy by 0

Partition function

Z e ( Er 0 )

r

0

Er

= e e

= e 0 Z

r

ln Z ln Z 0

from the definition E

ln Z

ln Z

and E

ln Z

ln Z

E E 0

b. The entropy

let the partition function in terms of the variables Z Z ( , x)

d ln Z

ln Z

ln Z

ln Z

ln Z

d

dx where E

and dW

dx

d ln Z Ed dW

using the relation Ed d E dE

d ln Z d E dE + dW

d ln Z d E = dE + dW = dQ

d (ln Z E ) = dQ =

S k ln Z * E

dQ

kT

S k ln Z * E = k ( ln Z 0 E 0 ) =k ( ln Z + E )=S

S S the entropy keeping constant

Activity

The second remark concerns the decomposition of partition function for a system A which consists

of two parts A and A which interact weakly with each other, if the states of A and A are labelled

respectively by r and s find the partition function for the total system

Solution

Part A state r corresponding energy Er

Part A state s corresponding energy Es

System A state r,s corresponding energy Ers

The partition function for the system A is given by Z

Z e ( Er Es ) where E E E

r ,s

r

s

r ,s

then

Z e ( Er Es ) = e ( Er )

r ,s

( Es )

Z Z ' Z ''

ln Z ln Z ' ln Z ''

Activity

Consider a gas consisting of N identical monatomic molecules of mass m enclosed in a container of

volume V. The position vector of the ith molecule denoted by ri

N

i 1

Pi 2

U r1 , r2 ,...rN where for non-interacting

2m

monatomic ideal gas U=0 and write the partition function in phase space

Solution

Taking a gas consisting of N identical monatomic molecules of mass m enclosed in a container of

volume V. The position vector of the ith molecule denoted by ri

Pi 2

U r1 , r2 ,...rN where for non-interacting

, its momentum by pi the total energy given by E

i 1 2m

N

monatomic ideal gas U=0 therefore the partition function in phase space can be given as follows

Z exp

p12 ... pN 2 U r1 ,...rN

2m

1

h0

p12 ... pN 2

2m

exp

3N

exp U r ,...r d

1

3

1

h03 N

3

1

...d 3 N

...d 3 N = V N

VN

1

exp

p12 ... pN 2

3N

h0

2m

dp13 ...dpN 3

2

2

2

2

3

where p 1 p1x p1 y p1z , dp1 dp1x dp1 y dp1z so for the ith particle

V

1

exp

p2

3

h0

2m

dp

Z N

p1 x 2

2m

2m

dp1x

,

V

3 2m

h0

p2

2m

2m

=V

2

h 0

2m

Z N = V

h 2 0

2m

dp

3 2m

3

ln Z N ln V ln 2 ln

2 h 0

2

Activity

With the given partition function, find

i) The value for the mean pressure,

ii) The mean energy,

iii) The heat capacity,

iV) The entropy

Solution

i) The mean pressure

p

1 ln Z NkT

V

V

pV NkT

ii) The total mean energy

E

ln Z

3N 3

NkT

2 2

3

kT

2

E N

iii) The heat capacity at constant volume

E

3

R

T V 2

CV

iV)The entropy

S k ln Z E , where

3

N

2

3 2m

3

ln Z N ln V ln 2 ln

2 h 0

2

3 2m

3

3

S Nk ln V ln 2 ln

2 h 0

2

2

3

3 2m k

3 2m k

S Nk ln V ln T (ln

1) where ln

2

2

2 h0

2 h 2 0

S Nk ln V ln T

2

i E '

e dp e

e dp e

dp1 ,...dp f

E '

E'

e dp

e dp

i

i dp1 ,...dp f

i E '

dp1 ,...dp f

dp1 ,...dp f

considering that

p2

i

ln e 2 m i dpi let

p2

i

bp 2 then

2m

i

i

4 mi

ln

kT

2

Summery of harmonic oscillator

For a1D-harmonic oscillator which is in equilibrium with a heat reservoir at absolute temperature T.

P2 1 2

kx the energy of the oscillator

2m 2

E n h

2

k

m

Activity

Using the partition function of the harmonic oscillator derive the mean energy of the oscillator for

h 1 and h 1

Solution

The mean energy for the harmonic oscillator given by

e

n0

En

e

n 0

En

En

ln Z

where

Z e

En

n 0

Z e

n h

2

e

n0

h

2

nh

n 0

Z e

Z e

h

2

1 e

h

2

1 e

e 2 h .....

h 1

1

h

ln e 2 1 e h

ln(e

h

2

) ln 1 e h

h e h h

2 1 e h

h 1

e h 1 h

1

2

h ...

2

1

1

h

2 e 1

E h

1

1

2 h

E h

h 1 ,

1

1

1

2 h h

1

= kT

ii) Considering

h 1

1

1

h

2 e 1

then E h

1 h

e which shows T 0 the ground state energy given by

2

E h

E

1

h

2

Summery for Maxwell velocity distribution

Consider a molecule of mass m in a dilute gas the energy of the molecule is equal to

P2

int

2m

P2

due to the kinetic energy of the centre of mass motion

2m

int the molecule is not monatomic the internal energy due to rotation and vibration of the atom

with respect to the molecular centre of mass

3

3

The probability Ps r , p d rd p of finding the molecule with centre-of mass variables in the

ranges (r,dr) and (p,dp) and with internal state specified by s the result

Ps r , p d rd p e

3

p 2 int

2m

d 3rd 3 p

int

p2

2m

V2

2m

Ps r , p d rd p e

3

f r ,V d rd V Ce

3

d 3rd 3 p

d 3rd 3V

Activity

Using the normalization condition for N number of molecules in a system derive the value of C and

write the Maxwell velocity distribution

Solution

r V

f r ,V d 3rd 3V N

Ce

r V

V2

2m

C d 3r

r

d 3 rd 3V N

CV

N

C

V

m

2

mV 2 x

2m

dVx N

N

3

2

,n

V

m

f r ,V d rd V n

2

3

V2

2m

Activity

Derive the velocity distribution component

Solution

Let the number of molecule per unit volume with x-component of velocity in the range between Vx

and Vx+dVx, irrespective of the values of their other velocity is given by

g (Vx )dVx

f V d V

3

Vx

Vy

m

g (Vx )dVx n

2 kT

m

g (Vx )dVx n

2 kT

2 kT

Vy

V dV e m 2 kT V d 3V

y

z

2

Vz

2 kT

2 kT

m 2 m

g (Vx )dVx n

2 kT 2kT

V dV e m 2 kT V dV

y

z

y

2 kT

V dV

x

x

Problem

Solve the value for

Vx and Vx 2

Formulation of the statistical Problems

Consider a gas of identical particles in a volume V in equilibrium at the temperature T. We shall use

the following notation

Label the possible quantum states of a single particle by r or s

Denote the energy of particles in state r by r

Denote the number of particles in state r by nr

Label the possible quantum states of the whole gas by R

The total energy of the gas when it is in some state R where there are n1 particle r=1, n2 particles in

state r=2 etc.,

ER n11 n2 2 ... nr r

r

In order to calculate the thermodynamic function of the gas it is necessary to calculate its partition

function

Z e ER

R

Z e n11 n2 2 ...

R

Activity

Derive the mean number of the particles in state s

Solution

n e

n1 1 n2 2 ...

ns

n1 1 n2 2 ...

ns

1 ln Z

s

Problem

Calculate the dispersion

Solution

One can similarly write down an expression for the dispersion of the number of particles in state s.

One can use the general relation.

(ns ) 2 ( ns ns ) 2 ns 2 ns

n e

ns 2

n1 1 n2 2 ...

n1 1 n2 2 ...

n2s

1 2 ln Z

2 Z 2 s

1

ns 2

1 Z

1 Z

Z 2 s

Z s

1

2

1 Z

2

2

ns

Z s

n2s

ns

1 Z

Z s

1

2

1 2 ln Z

2 s 2

ns

1 ns

the dispersion of the distribution of particles

s

Photon Statistics

The average numbers of particles in state s in case of photon statistics

n e

e

s

ns

ns

ns

ns

1

e ns s

s

e ns s

ns

1

ln e ns s Using the geometric series

s

ns s

1 e s e 2 s ...

ns 0

ns

ns

ns

1

1

ln

s 1 e s

1

ln 1 e s

s

1

e

1

1 e s

Fermi-Dirac Statistics

Activities

Consider particles in a system where the total number N of particles is fixed n1 , n2,.... such that

nr 0 and nr 1 for each r, but these numbers must always satisfy nr N , let us derive the

r

Solution

Considering the above mentioned condition where the total number N of particles is fixed n1 , n2,....

such that nr 0 and nr 1 for each r, but these numbers must always satisfy nr N , to derive

r

the average number of particles in a given system for Fermi-Dirac Statistics we consider

the partition function

zs N

n

s

then

n1 , n2,...

s state omitted

n e

s

ns

n11 n2 2 ...

ns

ns s

ns s

ns

n1 , n2 ,..

e n11 n2 2 ...

e n11 n2 2 ...

n1 , n2 ,..

0 e s

ns

e n11 n2 2 ...

n1 , n2 ,..

n1 , n2 ,..

n11 n2 2 ...

n1 , n2

n11 n2 2 ...

0 e s Z s N 1

ns

Z s N e s Z s N 1

ns

Zs N

1

s

e 1

Z s N 1

ln Z s N N ln Z s N

ln Z s Z

N

Z s N 1

ln Z s N

Z N

=- N where

N

s

ln

Z s N N Z s N e N if we approximate N 1

Z s N 1 Z s N e

since we have

ns

Zs N

ns

1

s

and substituting

e 1

Z s N 1

1

s

Bose-Einstein Statistics

Activity

Derive the distribution of the particles in a system considering the case where the total number N of

particles is fixed n1 , n2,.... such that nr 0 ,1,2,.but these numbers must always satisfy

Solution

zs N

n1 , n2,...

n e

ns s

ns

ns

n11 n2 2 ...

n1 , n2 ,..

ns s

ns

e n11 n2 2 ...

e n11 n2 2 ...

n1 , n2 ,..

0 e s Z s N 1 2e 2 s Z s N 2 ...

ns

Z s N e s Z s N 1 e 2 s Z s N 2 ...

where

Z s N 1 Z s N e and

Z s N 2 Z s N e 2

Z s N 0 e s e 2e 2 s e 2 ....

ns

Z s N 1 e s e e 2 s e 2 ....

0 e e 2e 2 e 2 ....

ns

1 e e e2 e2 ....

s

n e

e

ns

s ns

ns

considering

n e

ns

n e

e

ns

n

e s s

s ns

ns

n

ln e s s

ns 0

ns 0

ns

1 e

2 s

... 1 e

ns

1 e

ns 0

ln 1 e s

ns

e

1 e

1

e

Bose-Einstein Distribution

Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics

Activity

n n ...

With the help of the partition function is z e 1 1 2 2

compute the Maxwell-Boltzmann

R

distribution distribution

Solution

n n ...

Hence, the partition function is z e 1 1 2 2

R

For N number of molecules there are, for given values of (n1 ,n2,)

N!

possible ways in which the particle can be put into the given single- particle states, so that

n1 !n2 !..

there are n1 particles in state 1, n2 particles in state 2, etc. By virtue of the distinguishability of

particles, each of these possible arrangements corresponds then to a distinct state for the whole gas.

Hence the partition function can be written

N!

e n11 n2 2 ...

n1 , n2 ,.. n1 ! n2 !...

where the sum overall values nr 0 ,1,2,.for each r, subject to the restriction

z

N!

e 1 n1 e 2 n2 ...

n

!

n

!...

n1 , n2 ,.. 1

2

z

N!

e 1 n1 e 2 n2 ... = e 1 e 2 ...

n1 , n2 ,.. n1 ! n2 !...

ln Z N ln

from the mean values of the distribution of the particle we have defined as

s

1 ln Z 1 N e

ns

e r

s

r

ns N

where

e s e r

r 1

e s

e r this is called the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution

r

1.

Reference http://jersey.uoregon.edu/vlab/Balloon/

Date Consulted:Description: This experiment is designed to further demonstrate the properties of the

ideal gas law. In addition, our balloon will also serve as a planetary atmosphere for the

second part of the experiment

2.

Reference:-: http://lectureonline.cl.msu.edu/~mmp/kap10/cd283.htm.

Date Consulted: - August 2006

Description: - This Java applet helps you understand the effect of temperature and

volume on the number of collisions of the gas molecules with the walls. In the applet,

you can change the temperature and volume with the sliders on the left side. You can

also adjust the time for which the simulation runs. The applet counts all collisions and

displays the result after the run. By varying temperature and volume and keeping track

of the number of collisions, you can get a good feeling of what the main result of kinetic

theory will be.

3.

Reference: video.google.com

Date Consulted: Nov 2006

Complete Reference: - Computer calculation of Phase Diagrams.

http://video.google.com/videoplay?

docid=1397988176780135580&q=Thermodynamics&hl=en

Rationale: Thermodynamic models of solutions can be used together with data to

calculate phase diagrams. These diagrams reveal, for a given set of all parameters (such

as temperature, pressure, and magnetic field), the phases which are thermodynamically

stable and in equilibrium, their volume fractions and their chemical compositions...

1. Title: Heat Engines

URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_engines

Abstract: - The article in wikipedia presents an overview of heat engines, everyday

examples, examples of heat engines, efficiency of heat engines etc. A good number of

external links are also provided

2. Title: Heat Engines and Refrigerators

URL: http://theory.phy.umist.ac.uk/~judith/stat_therm/node15.html

Abstract: In any heat engine, heat is extracted from a hot source (e.g. hot combustion

products in a car engine). The engine does work on its surroundings and waste heat is

rejected to a cool reservoir (such as the outside air). It is an experimental fact that the waste

heat cannot be eliminated, however desirable that might be. Indeed in practical engines,

more of the energy extracted from the hot source is wasted than is converted into work.

This web page presents a good comparison of different web pages.

3. Title: Second law of thermodynamics

URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_law_of_thermodynamics

Abstract:

URL: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/seclaw.html

Abstract: The second law of thermodynamics is a general principle which places

constraints upon the direction of heat transfer and the attainable efficiencies of heat engines.

In so doing, it goes beyond the limitations imposed by the first law of thermodynamics.

This webpage presents a visualization in terms of the waterfall analogy.

Formative Evaluation 5

Optional Formative Evaluation 3

1. What is the probability of throwing three dice to obtain a total of score of 6 or less?

Solution

Each dice have the numbers 1, 2, 3,4,5,6

When we throwing the dice the accessible state of the total sum 6 or less will be

1+1+1, 1+1+2, 1+1+3, 1+1+4, 1+2+1, 1+2+2, 1+2+3, 1+3+1,1+3+2 , 1+4+1, 2+1+1, 2+1+2, 2+1+3,

2+2+1, 2+2+2, 2+3+1, 3+1+1, 3+2+1, 3+1+2, 4+1+1

then state of the sum 6 or less is 20

the total number of accessible states is 63=216

Then the probability of throwing three dice to obtain 6 points or less is

P x

x

20

=

=0.093

total 216

2. A penny is tossed 400 times. Find the probability of getting 215 heads. (Suggestion: use the

Gaussian approximation)

Solution

A penny is tossed 400 times. Find the probability of getting 215 heads is given by the Gaussian

approximation

P ( n)

n n

exp

2

2 * n1

2 * n1

1

where

N=400, n1=251, p=1/2, q=1/2

n1 Np

* n1

Npq

400 x1 / 2 x1 / 2 100 10

* n1 2 100 ,

n1 200

P (251,400)

1

10 2

251 200 2

200

dissipated in this resistor. The battery itself consists of N individual cells connected in series so that V

is just equal to the sum of the emfs of all these cells. The battery is old, however, so that not all cells

are imperfect condition. Thus there is only a probability p that the emf of any individual cell has its

normal value v; and a probability 1-p that the emf of any individual cell is zero because the cell has

become internally short. The individual cells are statistically independent of each other. Under these

condition Calculate the mean power P dissipated in the resistor, express the result in terms of N, v,

and p

Solution

The total potential of the connection is given by V

And the total power is given by P=V2/R

From the connection n1 number of the cells has emf each values v

The total potential is given by V=n1v

The mean value of the power is given by

P

V2

Where V=n1v ,v=constant

R

n1v 2 = v 2 n1 2

n1

N!

2

p n1 q N n1 n1

n1 0 n1! N n1 !

and using from equation1.38 and equation 1.39 and rearranging the solution

1 p

2

2

2

n1 = N p 1 Np the substituting in the above equation

2

2

v 2 n1

n1v

=

P

N 2v 2 2

1 p

p 1

R

Np

4Consider the random walk problem with p=q and let m=n1 - n2 denote the net displacement to the

right. after a total of n steps, calculate the following mean values:

m, m 2 , m3 , and m 4 .

Solution

Where

a) m n1 n2

then m n1 n2

where

n1 =

W n

n1 p

n1 p

N!

p n1

p n1 q n1 1 n1 using the relation n1 p n1 p

n1 ! n2 !

p

N!

p n1 q n2 and using the binomial distribution

p

n1! n2 !

p q N

p

= pN ( p q ) N 1 where p q 1 then

n1 Np Similarly you can find for n 2 = Nq

m N ( p q)

b) m 2 n1 n2 2

N!

n !n

1

2!

p n1 q n2 = p q N

n1

N!

2

p n1 q n2 n1 p

p

n1 n1 ! n 2 !

N!

n !n

n1

p n1 q n2

p q N

pN ( p q)

N 1

2

2

2

n1 = pN p N ( N 1) similarly for n 2 can be calculated as

2

n2 qN q 2 N ( N 1) Substituting in the equation given below

2

2

2

2

m 2 = n1 n 2 2n1 n 2 = qN q N ( N 1) + pN p N ( N 1) - Np . Nq

5. An ideal gas has a temperature independent molar specific heat cv at constant volume. Let

c p / cv denote the ratio of its specific heats. The gas is thermally insulated and is allowed to

expand quasi-statically from an initial volume V, at temperature Tf to a final volume Vf

a) Use the relation pV = constant to find the final temperature Tf of this gas.

b) Use the fact that the entropy remains constant in this process to find the final

temperature Tf .

Answer

We have given that pV =cont.

from the ideal gas equation pV nRT

then p

nRT f

nRTi

nRT

which is pi

, pf

Vf

Vi

V

piVi p f V f

nRT f V f

nRTiVi

Vi

Vf

which is

TiVi

Tf Vf

V

T f Ti i

V

f

S=S(T,V)

S

dS

dT

V

dV 0

T

dT

dV

dQ TdS

dQ

dT

= CV

V

For monatomic deal gas the internal energy and molar heat capacity is given

E

CV

RT

T 2

=

V

3R

2

S

V

RT

p

R

then

V

T

V

V

T

R

V

3R

2T

2

3

ln T

2

ln V

3

which gives

2

TV 3 cons tan t

which is given as

2

5

1 1 for the ideal gas

3

3

6. The Molar specific heat at constant volume of a monatomic ideal gas is known to be

3

R.

2

suppose that one mole of such a gas is subjected to a cyclic quasi-static process

which appears as a circle on the diagram of pressure p versus volume V shown in the figure below

106dynecm-2 P

B

3

2

D

1

103cm3 V

a) The net work (in joules) done by the gas in one cycle.

b) The internal energy difference (in joules) of the gas between state C and state A.

c) The heat absorbed (in joules) by the gas in going from A to C via the path ABC of the cycle.

Answer

a) The work done in one cycle

w

pdV

V ( 2 cos )cm 3 10 3

p ( 2 sin ) dyn / cm 2 10 6

dV sin cm 3 10 3 d

0

w (2 sin ) sin 10 9 d 10 7 J

2

(2 sin ) sin d 10

w 314 J

E CV T

3

nRT

2

then substituting in the above equation we will get

E

3

pV

2

Ec Ea

3

( p c Vc p a V a )

2

3

( 2 x3 2 x1)10 2 J

2

E c E a 600 J

E Q w

w

pdV

0

w (2 sin ) sin d 10 2 J

0

w (4

)100 J

2

w 557.08

E c E a 600 J

Q ( E c E a ) w

Q 600 J 557 J

Q 1157 J

Answer

Pr r

r

P P_ _

e H e H

e H e H

tanh

H

kT

Answer

The system in the representatives statistical ensemble are distributed over their accessible states in

according with the canonical distribution

Pr

e E r

e Er

r

e E

E

e

Er

Er

where

Er

where Z= e

Er

e Er

Z

1 Z

ln Z

=

Z

Answer

The canonical distribution implies a distribution of systems over possible energies; the resulting

dispersion of the energy is also readily computed

E 2

E E E2 E

2

e E

e

Er

E2

here

2

r

Er

but

Er

2

E r =

e

r

Er

E r

then

E2

1 2Z

Z 2

1 Z

- E

E 2

12 Z

Z

E 2 - E

2 ln Z

2

1 2Z

Z 2

e

r

E r

10. The internal energy of the ideal gas is given by E=E(T) show that for the ideal gas its internal

energy does not depend on its volume

Answer

Let E=E(T,V)

Then we can write mathematically

E

E

dT

T v

V

dE

dV

T

TdS dQ dE dW

dS

1

vR

dE

dV using the above equation for dE

T

V

dS

1 E

T T

1 E

T V

dT

vR

dV

V

S=S(T,V)

S

dS

S

T

S

dT

V

1 E

T T

T

1 E

T V

vR

with the second order differential equation

V

2S

2S

VT

TV

T T

V V

1 E

T T T

1 E

V T V

1 2E

T VT

vR

1 E

1 2E

T 2 V T TV

1 E

1 2E

T 2 V T TV

1 2E

=

T VT

1 E

T 2 V 0 which implies E is independent of V

It is possible to demonstrate that the partitioning we have found is not just the most probable but by

far the most probable one. In other words, any noticeable deviation from this distribution of

particle velocities is extremely improbable (see above: multinomial distribution.) This makes for

the great practical importance of the MB distribution: it is simply the distribution of velocities in a

many particle system which we may assume to hold, neglecting all other possible but improbable

distributions.

Course material with JAVA applets

Franz J. Vesely

Computational Physics Group

Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Vienna,

Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna, Austria, Europe

Copyright F. Vesely 1996-2005

1.

System of Particles:- .

Source: http://www.answers.com/topic/coulomb-scattering

2.

Boltzmanns Distribution:-.

Source: http://hep.uchicago.edu/cdf/cdfglossary.html

Scattering cross section - The area of a circle of radius b, the impact parameter.

3.

4.

Ensemble:Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_ensemble

: http://srikant.org/core/node11.html

Source: http://comp.uark.edu/~jgeabana/mol_dyn/

6. A University of Pennsylvania physical chemistry look at the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution,

including applets..

Source: http://oobleck.chem.upenn.edu/~rappe/MB/MBmain.htm

Reading 1:

Complete reference : Statistical physics

From

URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_physics

Accessed on the 20th April 2007

Abstract :

Rationale:

From Statistical Physics

URL :

http://www.oberlin.edu/physics/dstyer

Abstract :

Rationale:

This book begins with the properties of matter in bulk that introduces statistical mechanics and shows

why it is so fascinating.

Resource #1

Title: Motion of Centre of Mass

URL: http://surendranath.tripod.com/Applets/Dynamics/CM/CMApplet.html

Screen Capture:

Description: Applet shows the motion of the centre of mass of a dumbbell shaped object.

The red and blue dots represent two masses and they are connected by a mass

less rod. The dumbbells projection velocity can be varied by using the velocity and

angle sliders. The mass ratio slider allows shifting of centre of mass. Here m1 is the

mass of the blue object and m2 is the mass of red object. Check boxes for path1

and path2 can be used to display or turn off the paths of the two masses .

Rationale: This applet depicts the motion of centre of mass of two balls (shown in red and blue

colour). The applets speed and angle of projection can be varied...

url:- http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/rstoo.html#sm

Complete Reference:- Good animation graphics and applet to visualize the dependence of moment

of inertia on distribution of matter on an object..

Rationale: Strengthens what is already discussed in Activity 2.

Resource #3;Hyper Physics

url:-: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/vesc.html

Date Consulted:-April 2007

Description:- This Java applet helps you to do a series of virtual experiments, . you can determine

the escape and orbital velocities by varying different parameters of the projectile.

With his ``Kinetic Theory of Gases'' Boltzmann undertook to explain the properties of dilute gases

by analysing the elementary collision processes between pairs of molecules.

We may understand this prescription as the rule of a game of fortune, and with the aid of a

computer we may actually play that game!

Resource #1

Title:

by Franz Schwabl (Author), W.D. Brewer (Translator

URL: http://www.ebookee.com

Screen Cupture

Description

The completely revised new edition of the classical book on Statistical Mechanics covers the basic concepts

of equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics. In addition to a deductive approach to equilibrium

statistics and thermodynamics based on a single hypothesis - the form of the microcanonical density matrix this book treats the most important elements of non-equilibrium phenomena. Intermediate calculations are

presented in complete detail. Problems at the end of each chapter help students to consolidate their

understanding of the material. Beyond the fundamentals, this text demonstrates the breadth of the field and

its great variety of applications. Modern areas such as renormalization group theory, percolation, stochastic

equations of motion and their applications to critical dynamics, kinetic theories, as well as fundamental

considerations of irreversibility, are discussed. The text will be useful for advanced students of physics and

other natural sciences; a basic knowledge of quantum mechanics is presumed.

Resource #2

Title: MACROSCOPIC AND STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS

by Yi-Chen Cheng (National Taiwan University, Taiwan)

URL: http://www.worldscibooks.com

Screen capture

Description: This textbook addresses the key questions in both classical thermodynamics and

statistical thermodynamics: Why are the thermodynamic properties of a nano-sized system

different from those of a macroscopic system of the same substance? Why and how is entropy

defined in thermodynamics, and how is the entropy change calculated when dissipative heat is

involved? What is an ensemble and why is its theory so successful?

Useful Link #1 Classical Mechanics

Title: Classical Mechanics

URL: http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/301/lectures/

Screen Capture:

Description: Advanced description of the topics discussed in mechanics I and II of the AVU

Physics module.

Rationale: This site has comprehensive coverage of most of physics, in the mechanics

courses. The learner can consult chapters 7, 8 and 9 of the book. The PDF version

is also available.

Title: Classical Mechanics

URL: http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/301/lectures/

Screen Capture:

Description: Advanced description of the topics discussed in mechanics I and II of the AVU

Physics module.

Rationale: This site has comprehensive coverage of most of physics, in the mechanics

courses. The learner can consult chapters 7, 8 and 9 of the book. The PDF version

is also available.

Title: Classical Mechanics

URL: http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/301/lectures/

Screen Capture:

Description: Advanced description of the topics discussed in mechanics I and II of the AVU

Physics module.

Rationale: This site has comprehensive coverage of most of physics, in the mechanics

courses. The learner can consult chapters 7, 8 and 9 of the book. The PDF version

is also available.

Title: Classical Mechanics

URL: http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/301/lectures/

Screen Capture:

Description: Advanced description of the topics discussed in mechanics I and II of the AVU

Physics module.

Rationale: This site has comprehensive coverage of most of physics, in the mechanics

courses. The learner can consult chapters 7, 8 and 9 of the book. The PDF version

is also available.

Title: Classical Mechanics

URL: http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/301/lectures/

Screen Capture:

Description: Advanced description of the topics discussed in mechanics I and II of the AVU

Physics module.

Rationale: This site has comprehensive coverage of most of physics, in the mechanics

courses. The learner can consult chapters 7, 8 and 9 of the book. The PDF version

is also available.

Title: Classical Mechanics

URL: http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/301/lectures/

Screen Capture:

Description: Advanced description of the topics discussed in mechanics I and II of the AVU

Physics module.

Rationale: This site has comprehensive coverage of most of physics, in the mechanics

courses. The learner can consult chapters 7, 8 and 9 of the book. The PDF version

is also available.

Title: Classical Mechanics

URL: http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/301/lectures/

Screen Capture:

Description: Advanced description of the topics discussed in mechanics I and II of the AVU

Physics module.

Rationale: This site has comprehensive coverage of most of physics, in the mechanics

courses. The learner can consult chapters 7, 8 and 9 of the book. The PDF version

is also available.

http://oobleck.chem.upenn.edu/~rappe/MB/MBmain.html - A University of Pennsylvania

The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, including applets

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/guidry/java/wien/wien.html

Some applets related to black body radiation

http://history.hyperjeff.net/statmech.html

A statistical physics timeline, for history buffs

http://www.cstl.nist.gov/div836/836.05/thermometry/home.htm

The thermometry research group at NIST, actively trying to improve our understanding and

standards of temperature, particularly below 1 K

http://comp.uark.edu/~jgeabana/mol_dyn/

laws of motion in the presence of infinitesimal perturbation

http://www.physics.buffalo.edu/gonsalves/Java/Percolation.html

An applet that shows the percolation phase transition

http://webphysics.davidson.edu/Applets/ising/intro.html

Another applet, this one showing a numerical approach to the 2d ising model

Statistics websites

http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~lane/rvls.html The Rice University virtual statistics laboratory

http://www.stat.sc.edu/~west/javahtml/LetsMakeaDeal.html

An applet for demonstrating the "Monty Hall" problem

http://www.stat.sc.edu/~west/javahtml/CLT.html

An applet by the same author for demonstrating the Central Limit Theorem

http://www.math.uah.edu/stat/index.xhtml

A large number of statistics demo applets

Statistical Physics:

In this module you have learnt an important branch of physics namely Statistical Physics. i.e. this

module offered an introduction to probability, statistical mechanics, and thermodynamics. Specific

topics in probability include random variables, joint and conditional probability densities, and

functions of a random variable. Topics in statistical mechanics include macroscopic variables,

thermodynamic equilibrium, fundamental assumptions of statistical mechanics, and microcanonical

and canonical ensembles. Topics in thermodynamics include the first, second, and third laws of

thermodynamics.

Prerequisites

Physics III: Vibrations and Waves (8.03), Differential Equations (18.03) and Concurrent Enrollment

in Quantum Physics I (8.04) is recommended. In Learning Activity 2 of this module you have been

guided through In Learning Activity 3, you have been guided through the evolution of In Learning

Activity 4, you have been guided through the applications of

Short answer questions

1. The heat absorbed by a mole of ideal gas in a quasi-static process in which its temperature T

changes by dT and its volume V by dV is given by dQ cdT pdV where c is its constant molar

specific heat at constant volume and

RT

. Find an expression for the

V

change of entropy of this gas in quasi-static process which takes it from initial volume of

temperature Ti and volume Vi to final values Tf and Vf.

2. A 0.5kg of water had been heated from 7 0c to 870 c by first bringing it in contact with a reservoir

at 340c and then with a reservoir at 870c. When the water has reach 870c

i) What has been the change in entropy of water?

ii) What has been the change in entropy of the heat reservoir?

iii) What has been the change in entropy of the entire system consisting of both water and heat

reservoir?

3. Starting from the fundamental thermodynamic equation derive the general relation which

represent a necessary connection between the parameters T, S, P, V,

T

4. The molar specific heat at constant volume of a monatomic ideal gas is known to be

3

R.

2

Suppose that one mole of such a gas is taken quasi-statically from state A to state B along straight

line on the diagram of pressure P versus volume V shown in the figure. Find the following

quantities:

i) The internal energy difference (in joule) of the gas between state A and state B

ii) The net work done (joule) by the gas between state A and state B

iii) The heat absorbed (joule) by the gas between state A and state B

In 106 dynes cm-2

P

B

2

1

A

2

4

103 cm3

5. The ideal gas is thermally insulated and is allowed to expand quasi-statically from an initial

volume Vi at temperature Ti to a final volume Vf . Using the relation PV =const to find the final

temperature Tf of this gas.

6. Derive the mean energy equation using the canonical distribution.

7. The mean energy E and the work dW are expressible in terms of lnZ considering Z=Z ( , x )

Consider Using the canonical distribution show that the Helmholtz free energy equation given by

F E TS kT ln Z

8. Consider an ideal gas of N molecules which is in equilibrium within a container of volume V0.

Denote by n the number of molecules located within any sub volume V of this container.

a) What is the mean number n of molecules located within V? Express your answer in terms

of N,V0, and V

b) i) Find the standard deviation

volume V

ii) Calculate

n

, expressing your answer in terms of N,V0 and V

n

9. Consider a system A consisting of 2 spins each having magnetic moment 2 0 , and another

system A consisting of 4 spins each magnetic moment 0 . Both systems are located in the same

magnetic field B. The systems are located in contact with each other so that they are free to contact

with each other so that they are free to exchange energy. Suppose the total magnetic moment for the

combined system is M + M= 4 0

a) Count the total number of states accessible number to the combined system A + A

b) Calculate the ratio of

p( M 0)

p ( M 4 0 )

i)M

ii ) M '

1

10. A simple harmonic one dimensional oscillator has energy level given by En (n )h , where

2

is the characteristic (angular) frequency of the oscillator and where the quantum number n can

assume the possible integral value n=0,1,2,.. Suppose that such an oscillator is in thermal contact

kT

=1

with a heat reservoir at temperature T low enough so that

h

d) Find the ratio of the probability of the oscillator being in the 3 rd excited state to the

probability of its being in the 2nd excited state.

e) Assuming that only the ground state and first excited state are appreciably occupied;

find the mean energy of the oscillator as a function of the temperature T.

11. The heat absorbed in an infinitesimal process is given by the first law islative probability

dQ dE pdV

Considering te ideal gas equation at constant pressure. Show that

C

R

, where p

CV

CV

12. Two states with energy difference4.83 4.83 1021 joule occur with relative probability e 2 .

Calculate the temperature. Given k 1.38 1023 joule/K

13. A system can take only three different energy state 1 0, 2 1.38 1021 joules,

3 2.76 1021 joules. These three states can occur in 2, 5 and 4 different ways respectively.

Find the probability that at temperature 100K the system may be

i)

ii)

14. Let Vx , Vy ,Vz represent the three Cartesian components of velocity of a molecule in a gas. Using

symmetry consideration and equipartition theorem deduced expressions for the following mean

values in terms of k, T and m

i) Vx

ii) VxVz

2

2

iii) V x iv) (Vx bVz )

Answer key:

1. S C ln

Tf

Ti

R ln

Vf

Vi

4. i) 900J

ii) 300J

iii) 1200J

V

5. T f Ti i

V

f

6. E

ln Z

7. Consider Z=Z ( , x)

S k ln Z E

TS kT ln Z E

Thus ln Z is very simply related to Helmholtz free energy F

F= E TS =-kT ln Z

V

NV

8. a) n N , b)

V0

V0

V0

V 1

NV

, c)

V0

V0

V 1

9. a) 8 b) 2/3 C) i) 30 ii) 1

10. a)

p3

1

h 1 3e h

h b)

p2 e

2 1 e h

dE Cv dT

dQ

Cv R C p

dT p

12.

p3

E E

E E3

4.83 x1021

e 2 e 2 3 Comparing the two equations 2 2

, T=175

p2

kT

1.38 x1023 T

/ kT

13. p1 Ce 1 Ce0 C

p3 Ce 3 / kT Ce

2.76 x1021

p2 Ce

2 / kT

Ce 1

C

Ce

1.38 x1021

p 1 then

p1 p2 p3 1 , 2C 5Ce 1 4Ce 2 1

1

=0.23

4.38

i)

energy 3 is p3

ii)

14. i) 0 ii) 0 iii)

4C

4

=0.12

2

e

4.38 x(2.72) 2

kT

kT

iV) 1 b 2

m

m

XVII. References:

1. Reif, F. Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, June 1,

1965. ISBN: 0070518009.

Abstract: This standard textbook is an excellent treatment of Statistical Physics. The chapter

end exercises and the summary correlate very well with the contents of the module.

Rationale: This reference on Fundamentals of statistical and thermal physics is recommended

for undergraduate text book. The contents have been treated in detail with adequate

mathematical support.

2. Gupta and Kumar Elementary statistical mechanics 21 edition 2006. ISBN 81-7556-988Abstract:

Rationale: This reading provides basic concept methods of ensemble Distribution law

3. Zemansky, M., and R. Dittman. Heat and thermodynamics: an intermediate textbook. 7th Ed.

New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, 1997. ISBN: 0070170592

Abstract:

Rationale: This reference may serve as an optional reading for this module.

4. Joel Keizer Statistical Thermodynamics of Nonequilibrium Processes (Springer-Verlag) 1987.

Abstract:

Rationale: This reference may serve as an optional reading for this module.

5. Frank E. Beichelt, L. Paul Fatti Stochastic Processes and Their Applications (Taylor &

Francis) 1997.

Abstract:

Rationale: This reference may serve as an optional reading for this module.

6. V.G. Morozov, On the Langevin Formalism for NonLinear & NonEquilibrium Hydrodynamic

Fluctuations Physica 126A (1984) 443-460.

Abstract:

Rationale: This reference may serve as an optional reading for this module.

7. Ming Chen Wang, G.E. Uhlenbeck, On the Theory of the Brownian Motion II Reviews of

Modern Physics, Volume 17; 1945.

Abstract:

Rationale: This reference may serve as an optional reading for this module.

8. Walter Greiner, Ludwig Neise and Horst Stocker, Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics,

English edition, translated from the German by Dirk Rischke (Springer, New York, 2000) ISBN

0 387 94299 8

9. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Statistical Physics, 3rd Edition, Part I (Landau and Lifshitz

Course of Theoretical Physics, Volume 5)(Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1980)

ISBN 0 7506 3372 7

10. Chandler, D. 1987 Introduction to Modern Statistical Mechanics Oxford: Oxford University

Press.

About the author of this module:

Name: Title:

Address:

Sisay Shewamare

Lecturer of Physics

Jimma University

P.O.Box 378

Jimma

Ethiopia.,

E-mail: sisayshew20@yahoo.com

Breif Biography: I am a Graduate from Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia where I did M.Sc in

Physics in the Area of statistical Physics.

Currently Im lecturer in physics at Jimma University Ethiopia.

You are always welcome to communicate with the author regarding any question,

opinion, suggestions, etc this module.

Name of the module (WORD) file :

Statistical Physics.doc

Name of all other files (WORD, PDF, PPT, etc.) for the module.

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