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Professional Practice in Project

Management
UoS ENGG 5205
Tutorial Activities and Case Studies
Semester 2 2016

Copyright
2009-2016 University of Sydney. All rights reserved
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the
prior written permission of Project Management Programme, School of Engineering and IS,
University of Sydney

2009-2016 University of Sydney

ENGG 5205 Professional Practice in Project Management

Table of Contents Case Studies and Activities


Group Case Activities .................................................................................................................... 1
Tutorial Topic Areas ................................................................................................................... 1
Tutorial Time Table .................................................................................................................... 2
Topic 1: Project engagement and initiation .................................................................................... 3
Activity 1.1. Importance of PMs ................................................................................................... 4
Activity 1.2. Business Goals, Strategies and projects ....................................................................... 4
Activity 1.3. Cisco E-Commerce Connection................................................................................... 5
Activity 1.4. Make/Buy Decisions ................................................................................................. 7
Activity 1.5. Weighted Scoring models.......................................................................................... 7
Activity 1.6. Payback period, BCR and NPV ................................................................................... 8
Activity 1.7. Creating a simple project definition statement ............................................................ 9
Topic 2: Project planning ............................................................................................................. 11
Activity 2.1. Identifying stakeholders ......................................................................................... 11
Activity 2.2: Royal Prince Hamlet hospital - stakeholders .............................................................. 12
Activity 2.2: Royal Prince Hamlet hospital - scope ........................................................................ 14
Activity 2.3: Royal Prince Hamlet hospital - WBS .......................................................................... 15
Activity 2.4: Royal Prince Hamlet hospital - network..................................................................... 16
Activity 2.5: Estimating cost and duration ................................................................................... 16
Activity 2.6: Critical Path Method............................................................................................... 17
Activity 2.7: Gantt Chart ........................................................................................................... 18
Activity 2.8: PERT estimation ..................................................................................................... 18
Activity 2.9: Project budget S-curve............................................................................................ 19
Activity 2.10: Earned Value ....................................................................................................... 20
Activity 2.11: Quality objectives ................................................................................................. 21
Activity 2.12: Risk identification ................................................................................................. 22
Activity 2.13: Procurement negotiation exercise payment terms ................................................. 23
Topic 3: Project implementation and control ................................................................................ 24
Activity 3.1: Progress monitoring and reporting ........................................................................... 24
Activity 3.2 Emerald City Tramways - earned value metrics ........................................................... 26
Activity 3.3: Dealing with team conflict ....................................................................................... 28
Activity 3.4: (Optional) Team Preference Analysis ........................................................................ 28
Topic 4: Project completion and closure....................................................................................... 29
Activity 4.1: RPH Hospital project completion .............................................................................. 29
Activity 4.2: Mini case study: insurance company rollout .............................................................. 29
Topic 5: Project management maturity ........................................................................................ 31
Activity 5.1: Fellini Furnishings Design managing strategic change ............................................... 31
Activity 5.2: Nichols Services case study (adapted from Kerzner) ................................................... 33
Activity 5.3: How best to align a project to strategy brain storm.................................................. 34
Activity 5.4 - People skills of a successful project manager ............................................................ 35

2009-2016 University of Sydney

ENGG 5205 Professional Practice in Project Management

TUTORIAL TIME TABLE


Tutorial topics
Please note that the week numbers are indicative only and that some topics may be compressed or
spread over successive weeks as required. Specific case study readings and activities will be set for
each tutorial. Tutorials start in Week 2 and continue to week 12.
Please note that these week numbers do not count the mid-semester break scheduled for the week
26 to 30 September, during which no lectures are delivered. Students are expected to attend and
participate in all lectures and tutorials. However, the final lecture will be conducted as an optional
final review session in Week 13 (ie, the week ending 28 October 2016, the last day of lectures), but
this will not provide new content.
Please print off this document and bring it to each lecture. We will use these exercises in our
tutorials. However, please note that not all activities or case examples will be used out in any one
tutorial. This handout includes some optional items subject to the time available, as well as
supplementary activities for your individual use after the tutorial.
For convenience, the tutorial exercises have been broken up into 5 major topic areas (see the column
labelled Course Section below, with the detailed activities itemised under each section. These
topics are:
1. Project Engagement and Initiation
2. Project Planning
3. Project Implementation & Control processes
4. Project Completion and Closure processes
5. Project management maturity
Your lecturer or tutor will specify which topic and which activities are to be completed in each of
your tutorials.
Please also note that the mid-semester tests will be scheduled to be taken online in the tutorial
session in Week 7 or 8 (to be confirmed in lectures). Currently they are scheduled for Monday 12
September and the tutorial scheduled 19 September. A period of 24 hours is normally allocated to
these online tasks.
Additional simple tests or multiple choice practice quizzes may be given during tutorials to assist in
preparation. These will consist of separate handouts and are not contained in this booklet.

2009-2016 University of Sydney

ENGG 5205 Professional Practice in Project Management

Tutorial time table


Week(s)

Course Section

Tutorial activities

Project Engagement
and Initiation

Project objectives and strategic alignment case study


Project selection methods ROI calculations and scorecards

Project Engagement
and Initiation
and

Activities based on stakeholder management analysis

Project definition and scoping

Critical path analysis


Gantt chart evaluation (speed up a project) exercise

PERT analysis and schedule probability exercise

Cost budget exercise


Earned value exercises

Risk assessment exercise OR

Project Planning
4

Project Planning
Processes

Quality management exercise


Mid term Quiz will be set for online delivery or in Tutorial in
Weeks 7 and 8 actual dates to be confirmed in lecture and on
Blackboard
8

Procurement negotiation exercise

Project
Implementation &
Control processes

Progress monitoring and reporting exercise

Assessing project performance from metrics

10

(week after semester


break 5 October)

Team conflict exercise


Team preference analysis by questionnaires (example Belbin methodology see www.belbin.com)

11

Project Completion
and Closure
processes

Project completion and handover activities


Project success evaluation

12

Project management
maturity

Project manager performance objectives and metrics


Post project review activity.

13

Review

Pre-exam review Q & A

Final due date for group coursework and individual


assignments

Once again, we remind you to print this document out and bring it to each lecture for use during the
tutorial sessions.

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ENGG 5205 Professional Practice in Project Management


Solutions to exercises will be put onto Blackboard progressively through the semester.
Additional activities and exercises will be provided from time to time to give you more opportunity to
practice concepts and solve problems in project management. I will provide additional sample
solutions to those supplementary problems as required.

2009-2016 University of Sydney

ENGG 5205 Professional Practice in Project Management

TOPIC 1 PROJECT ENGAGEMENT AND INITIATION

Activity 1.1. The Importance of PM and Project Managers


Collaborate with any of your nearby colleagues in the tutorial room to make a list of failed or
disrupted projects. These may be ones you have read about on the Web or in the newspapers or
that you know about from work or have been personally involved in. With the help of your group,
identify some of the issues or events that caused the problems in those projects.
Categorise the issue or events list into the following four categories:

Showstoppers (ie, events that made or could make the project unviable)

Caused severe replanning

Caused minor replanning

Were not a problem

With your group, make some suggestions how those situations could have been resolved in a
positive/proactive way (before they become a crisis).

Activity 1.2. Business Goals, Strategies, Objectives, and Projects


Innovative Valves (IV) manufactures valves for filling and controlling the level of water in industrial
tanks. It had concentrated on products for the construction industry (valves for newly-installed
tanks), but now IV wants to move into the much larger and more lucrative replacement market.
Whereas annual demand for new valves is about one thousand units, it is about one million for
replacement valves. IV wants to capture 50 percent of the replacement market during the next five
years.
The company envisioned a new valve, the Millennium Valve (MV), as a way to gain a share in the
tank-valve replacement market. IV must design and produce the MV to have superior quality and a
lower cost than its competition. It should be easy to use - non-clogging, quiet during operation, able
to maintain water level with pressure changes, allow the user to easily set the water level, and
adjustable in height.
It should take no more than six months (from design to production time) to complete this project,
and cost no more than $US 10 million. IV estimates that the MV will have a NPV of 80 million USD,
an IRR of 25 percent, and a payback period of less than 2 years.

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ENGG 5205 Professional Practice in Project Management


Adapted from John M. Nicholas, Project Management for Business and Technology,
2nd ed., Pearson Education, 2001. p. 154.

Question
1. What are the business goals, business strategy, business objectives, and project/product
objectives?
2. How measurable or tangible are these goals and objectives?

Activity 1.3. Ciscos E-commerce Connection


In 2001, Cisco sold more than $17 billion of a total $19 billion worth of routers, switches, and other
network interconnect devices over the Web. Ciscos Web site (www.cisco.com) has evolved over
several years, beginning with technical support for customers and developing into one of the worlds
largest e-commerce sites. Today, Cisco offers nearly a dozen Internet-based applications to both enduse customers and reseller partners.
Cisco began providing Internet support in 1991. Software downloads, defect tracking, and technical
advice were the first applications. In 1994, Cisco put its system on the Web and named its site Cisco
Connection Online. By 1998, Ciscos customers and reseller partners were logging onto Ciscos Web
site about one million times a month to receive technical assistance, check orders, or download
software. The on-line service has been so well received that over 90% of all customer service
inquiries are delivered on-line, as are 90% of software updates.
Cisco builds virtually all its products to order, so there are very few off-the-shelf products. Before the
Cisco Web site, ordering a product was lengthy and complicated. Cisco began deploying e-commerce
tools in 1995, and by 1996, the Internet Product Center allowed users to purchase any Cisco product
over the Web. In 1999, the same customers engineer could sit down at a PC, configure a product online, immediately detect any errors, and route the order to Ciscos procurement department. Ciscos
large customers take advantage of immediate and automatic access to Ciscos on-line ordering,
configuration, and technical support tools. But, because of their large purchasing volumes, these
large customers sought a faster alternative to Ciscos Web site. Therefore, an alternative program
was launched in 1997 that interactively links the customers and Ciscos computer systems over the
Internet. In this way the configuration of the new system and the price is validated at the customers
own PC before the order is placed.
With on-line pricing and configuration tools, about 98% of the large orders go through Ciscos
system, saving time for both Cisco and its customers. Lead times were reduced, down from 4 to 10
days to only 2 to 3 days, and customers order submission productivity increased an average of 20%.

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ENGG 5205 Professional Practice in Project Management


In the first 5 months of the systems operation in 1996, Cisco booked over $100 million in sales on
the Internet alone. In 1997, the figure grew more than tenfold. Cisco closed 1998 with $4 billion in
on-line sales. On-line sales grew to 85% of total volume during 1999, reaching $37 million per day.

Finding Order Status


Each month, Ciscos Web site receives hundreds of thousands of order status inquiries such as
When will the order be ready? Is it eligible for the North American Free Trade Agreement? What
export control issues apply? Cisco gives customers the tools on its Web site to find the answers by
themselves. In addition, Cisco records a shipping date, the method of shipment, and the current
location of each product. The companys primary domestic and international freight forwarders
regularly update Ciscos database electronically with the status of each shipment. The new
information in the database automatically updates Ciscos Web site, keeping the customer current on
the movement of each order. As soon as an order ships, Cisco sends the customer a notification
message by e-mail or fax.

Benefits

Reduced operating cost: Cisco estimates that putting its applications on-line saves the company
hundreds of millions of dollars per year, or over 17% of the total operating costs.

Enhanced technical support and customer service: With 60% of its technical support and
customer service calls handled on-line, Ciscos technical support productivity has increased by
200% to 300% per year.

Reduced technical support staff cost: The on-line technical support reduces technical support
staff costs by roughly $125 million per year.

Reduced software distribution cost: Customers download new software releases directly from
Ciscos site, saving the company $180 million in distribution, packaging, and duplicating costs per
year. Having product and pricing information on the Web and Web-based CD-ROMs saves Cisco
an additional $50 million per year in printing and distributing catalogs and marketing materials to
customers.

By using e-commerce, Cisco is able to increase the sales to business while reducing costs associated
with order processing, customer service, technical support, and confirming order status.
Sources: www.cisco.com; Internet Week (June 11, 2001): 51-54; and E. Turban et al.,
Electronic Commerce (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000): 211213, 216.

Discussion Questions
1. What are the major benefits of Cisco Connection Online to Cisco and its customers and how
can they be measured?
2. Prepare a table showing the total quantitative benefits to the company per year.
3. What are the non-quantitative benefits to Cisco? What are the benefits to the customers?

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ENGG 5205 Professional Practice in Project Management

Quantitative exercises

Activity 1.4: Illustrating Make/Buy decisions


A major manufacturer of music and video DVDs is reviewing some of its current operation costs. The
new DVD factory manager believes they can reduce costs if they install their own glass mastering
system to make the DVD master disk. Currently, this is outsourced to Sony and costs them $1500 per
unit to buy.
If they publish 50 DVDs per year, they will need one master each time. A new mastering system will
cost them $30,000 to install and they it will cost them an additional $10,000 per year in maintenance,
materials and labour to use the new machine, irrespective of volumes. The machine should be
usable for at least 5 years without major upgrades.
Using the new machine, each DVD master will cost them about $100 per unit.
Would you recommend they invest in the equipment to make their own masters or continue to buy
them in? (You can ignore bank interest, etc they have the cash available if they want to buy the
machine).

Activity 1.5: Weighted scoring model


The table below provides details of the agreed weights for each selection criterion. In the table, the
three projects have been assessed on each criterion, with the score of 1 meaning the project is
unfavourable, 2 satisfactory and 3 favourable.

Selection Criterion
Consulting costs
Acquisition time
Disruption to existing work
Cultural differences
Critical skill shortages
Implementation risks
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Weight
20
20
10
10
10
20

A
1
2
2
3
2
1

Method
B
2
3
1
3
1
2

C
3
1
3
2
1
3
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ENGG 5205 Professional Practice in Project Management


Compatible IT infrastructure
10
WEIGHTED SCORES

What is your recommendation using these weighted scores?


How would your recommendations for this evaluation change if the stakeholders changed their
weighting for implementation risks to 10 and increased the weight of cultural differences from 10 up
to 20?

Activity 1.6 Payback period, Benefit Cost Ratio, NPV and other measures
You are a project manager for a medium-sized company that is considering installing a new Customer
Relationship Management (CRM) System within the next 6 months. Your manager has asked you to
conduct a feasibility study and requested that you perform a nett present value (NPV) analysis and in
addition provide the benefit-to-cost ratio and payback period for the project.
After researching the likely costs and benefits, you have produced the following table documenting
the cash flows in the project over the next 5 years.
Assuming that the company can borrow money at 10% per annum, complete the table showing the
Nett Cash Flow and then determine:
1. The payback period

____________

2. The BCR (benefit to cost ratio) ____________


3. The nett present value.

____________

Year

Total

Investment*

$-10K

-$20K

-$20K

-$50K

-$50K

-$50K

-$200K

$0

$10K

$30K

$60K

$60K

$60K

$220K

0.9091

0.8264

0.7513

0.6830

0.6209

Benefit
Nett Cash
Flow
Discount
factors

-$10K
1

Discounted
cash flow

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ENGG 5205 Professional Practice in Project Management

Year

Total

Cumulative
cash flow
* includes ongoing costs after the initial investment in year 0.

Scope Management exercises


Activity 1.7 Creating a simple project definition
Note: This exercise and its solution will be discussed specifically in class and sample solutions
provided on Blackboard.
Open Questions has been growing exponentially over the past few years. Emma Bosse built the
company from scratch, beginning out of her garage to an enterprise that billed $18 million last year
alone and now has 150 employees located in its Sydney Headquarters.
Open Questions is a company that provides telephone, email and webinar based support to
companies which do not have their own internal computer system help-desk structure. It
concentrates on being able to handle hardware, LAN, telecommunications and software application
problems.
The company provides support with a team of 10 to 20 people available at a time to cover any type
of question. An experienced and broadly trained support person answers the phone and screens the
kind of problem, then turns the caller over to someone with the correct expertise for the particular
technology.
Sometimes several experts are called into a telephone conference together to help the caller. This
system has been in place for about five years. Open Questions has contracts with about 300
companies of various sizes to provide this support and is leading an active marketing effort to add
new companies in competition with off shore outsourcers.
At present, Open Questions has outgrown its office space. The company can either stay where they
are and triple up people in offices, wait 18 months until some extra floors of the office building
become available, move to a nearby location, or perhaps even move to the next suburb. Everyone
seems to have a different idea of what would be best, which they vigorously debate in the kitchen as
they heat up their lunches or get coffee.
Finally, President Emma Bosse makes a decision: Open Questions will move to new office space 3
kms away, in a nearby suburb but one with a different train station and a very different kind of
shopping centre.
You were hired six months ago as an assistant project manager and have spent the past few months
getting acclimatised by supporting more experienced project managers and learning company
procedures. Needless to say, you are keen to get started. When you hear about the move, you
suggest to Jim Beam, your boss and Open Questions infrastructure manager, that you manage the
project.
Jim, who was among the first 10 people hired at Open Questions and who once worked in the
presidents basement, is a little hesitant, but decides to give you the chance.

2009-2016 University of Sydney

ENGG 5205 Professional Practice in Project Management

As you savour the upcoming challenge, you start thinking about a few things that make you nervous:
You know you must minimize Open Questions downtime, because everyone is busy enough as it is.

Although Open Questions is moving only three kilometres away, many employees walk their
children to the next-door childcare facility or enjoy the nearby restaurants and local gymnasium
and fitness club. They would rather not move at all.

The president is concerned that the new office reflects the image of a successful company on the
way to the top. The new place needs to look up-market and good quality. But, of course, she is
also worried about the effect of the move on the companys profits.

You have always assisted project managers before. This is your first time being in charge.

In the next units, as we review the art and science of project management, we will apply new
tools and techniques to this scenario. For now, discuss the case with your team and make sure
you can identify the project in this scenario. In other words, what are the temporary and
unique aspects of what may seem to be just part of company operations?

Prepare a short briefing note with your team to summarise what the project is and what you see as
the key elements your project will have to address. Include a discussion of aspects of Open
Questions operations that would not be part of the project but rather are part of Open Questions
general procedures.
Specifically, address the following questions:
1. What exactly is the project in this scenario?
2. Who are the stakeholders?
3. How are the stakeholders affected by or involved in the project?
4. Do any particular stakeholders need to make a contribution to the project? Who are they
and what is required?
5. How might you manage these stakeholders to maintain their positive input or involvement
with the project?
6. What are some of the main stakeholder-related issues that you will need to address in this
project?

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TOPIC 2 PROJECT PLANNING

Activity 2.1 Identifying Your Stakeholders


Read the following case study with your team and prepare a short list of potential stakeholders who
might be for or against the project. What problems might you expect to encounter with some of
these stakeholders? How would you propose dealing with these problems and/or communicating
with the stakeholders affected?
*** ***
Despite the reluctance of governments to encourage alternative fuel sources, it is clear that there is a
long term trend of rising petroleum prices and risky sources of supply.
Major Power Corporation (MPC) noted this trend several years ago and has just set up a new
subsidiary Mega Fuels International (MFI) to investigate and produce hybrid engines which could use
many alternative sources of energy, with an emphasis on surface transportation and motor vehicles.
Tony Conway has been appointed CEO of MFI with the brief to get the new entity up and running
based on some innovative petrol substitutes now reaching the production stage.
MFIs plan is to develop an innovative product, a new fuel-cell device that can work alongside or in
place of a conventional petrol-fuelled car engine. The device, the Bionic Motor, uses petrol, diesel,
methanol or hydrogen fuel interchangeably, with an automatic detector to determine the current
type of fuel and to calibrate the system accordingly.
MFI has not made a firm decision whether to target personal transportation or long haul vehicles and
public transportation, which might involve sales to government and large corporations, or both.
Early research undertaken by MFI suggests that the product is feasible from a technical, financial,
environmental and consumer perspective.
MFI is engaged in high-level consultations with government ministries, especially given the growing
hostility of consumers to rapidly rising petrol prices and the countrys dependency on foreign
suppliers. The government has an official policy of delivering economic and community benefits, but
everyone knows their major concern at present is to win votes in the next election by supporting
popular interest in alternative fuel sources that can be manufactured within the country. The fact
that the engines that can utilise these new fuel sources can be made locally is a bonus, although the
government would also be concerned if there were serious impacts on employment in existing car
engine factories in sensitive electorates.
Its expected that there are many stakeholders who will oppose projects such as this one, including
other international petrochemical firms, manufacturers of conventional car engine components as
well as major international companies seeking to enter this new market for hybrid engines and
alternative fuels.
The Company recognises the importance of social responsibility and environmental sustainability.
Issues that may affect the development of the product include the production of highly polluting by
products from the fuel switching process, the disposal of old units and safety issues in using and
supporting such a variety of fuel types. Due to concerns about the long term effects of petro-

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ENGG 5205 Professional Practice in Project Management


chemical fuels, the company will also look towards other alternative fuels (electrical, solar etc) to
guide future developments of the new product.
Both project and product success is important to the future prosperity and perhaps even survival of
MFI.
Stakeholders

Potential Problems

Proposed control strategy

Activity 2.2 Royal Prince Hamlet Case Study Stakeholders


Royal Prince Hamlet Hospital (RPH) is a leading teaching hospital located in suburban Sydney. It is
funded by the government, supplemented by a small proportion of fees from private patients and as
a result is subject to government policies regarding Health services.
To better support clinical decision-making and to increase consumer satisfactions, the State
Government has published a new strategic plan which specifically recommends the introduction of
an electronic health record to allow clinicians access to patient information across organisations,
services, locations and systems. The government has been pro-active in implementing this policy and
has conducted a tender to acquire a new patient administration solution suitable for most hospitals
of the size and complexity of RPH.
Since the existing patient administration products used at RPH are more than twenty years old, the
technologies used to develop these two products have become outdated and it is not only difficult
but also expensive to enhance and integrate them with other newer systems. Accordingly it is
convenient to comply with the governments policies and to take advantage of the cost savings that
can be made by utilising the recommended product.
It is planned to combine the rollout of the new administration system with a number of other
changes to the Hospitals infrastructure. In particular the hospitals clinical records department, one
of the major users of the new system, requires more floor space and will be relocated from its
current location in Building D to a newly refurbished floor in Building A about half a kilometre across
the current hospital campus. They have special security requirements due to the sensitive nature of
their data, and will also require new computers and servers to be installed in this facility to support
the proposed new patient records system.
The objectives of the larger project are to replace the entire existing patient administration system
throughout the hospital and its departments, including patient records, patient admissions and
outpatients; this will be done in a progressive rollout over several months.
However, you and your small team are responsible for a small part of this larger project. Your job is
to supervise the relocation of the clinical records team to the new building and liaising with the IT

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ENGG 5205 Professional Practice in Project Management


staff of the hospital while they install the new computer systems and the new clinical records
module. The computers and software will be installed by a separate team from the IT staff of the
hospital supported by technical experts from the Department of Health.
Your specific project is: to liaise with the hospital property acquisition & development personnel to
advise them of any special space requirements; to supervise the builder now contracted to do the fit
out of the new facility in Building A and to verify its completion to the departments satisfaction; to
liaise with IT to verify the satisfactory installation of the new computer systems required by clinical
records; to ensure that site security during the move meets the requirements of the Hospital and the
Department of Health; to ensure that all transfers of files and equipment are managed securely with
no losses and damage, and to keep management and staff informed of progress.
Seating and record storage issues are likely to be important in making the move: all staff would like
improved facilities, but there are concerns that the move will disadvantage some members of the
team who have particularly good views of the river and may require some to travel further over the
hospital grounds to get to public transport or parking, and to access local facilities such as child car
and cafes.
You estimate that the fitout will take about 3 months to complete and that the training will be
accomplished over about 3 weeks from availability of the new systems being certified by the IT
department, subject to the availability of the facilitators. Given the expected timing of the larger
project, you will probably have a window of from 3 to 6 months from today to wrap up your work.
You will also have to control some expectations. For a start, the project must be achieved within the
estimated budget as there are no additional funds available under the State Governments stringent
budgeting procedures. In addition, there will be some time pressures to keep within the time frame
imposed by the rollout of the new software modules through the hospital the IT people will need
access to the new site for installation and training purposes, so you must not become a bottleneck
for this larger project.
You know this will not be easy!

Activity Deliverables

Review this high level statement of work and prepare a list of major stakeholders from the
hospital and community that might have a stake in the relocation project.

What are likely to be their major concerns in the proposed relocation of the clinical records
team?

What activities might you conduct to control their expectations and to deal with these likely
concerns?

Working as a team try to summarise your conclusions by providing a list of people and issues
that will need to be addressed by the project manager during the planning stage to ensure
that the stakeholders are satisfied.

Be prepared to present your stakeholder list to management.

Stakeholders

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Major concerns/interests

Proposed control strategy

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ENGG 5205 Professional Practice in Project Management

Activity 2.2 Royal Prince Hamlet Case Study Scope


It is now a month further into the RPH project. Due to space constraints on the IT Department, you
have been asked to move the majority of their servers and communications equipment to another
floor of Building A as an additional part of your relocation project.
In summary, your project team is to liaise with the hospital property acquisition & development
personnel to advise them of any special space requirements of the IT and records personnel, to liaise
with their building subcontractor throughout the refurbishment and fit out; to verify the completion
of the fit out of the new facility in Building A; to liaise with IT to verify the satisfactory relocation of
their computer systems; to liaise with clinical records to ensure their move is successful with no loss
of data or equipment; to ensure that site security has been maintained; and to keep management
and staff informed of progress.

Activity Deliverables

Work as a team to summarise this information into a high level scope document using a
suitable layout as described in your lectures or the template below. Provide an overall
statement of scope that tries to give a SMART objective for the overall project.

Identify the major deliverables or high level tasks, some major user requirements,
acceptance criteria and some issues or assumptions that may need to be clarified before
finalising your project plan.

Project Scope Statement


Scope Description / In Scope: (products, functions, processes)

Out of Scope:

Acceptance Criteria: (define criteria that will be measurable)

Project Deliverables:

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ENGG 5205 Professional Practice in Project Management

Major Activities:

Interfaces: (to other projects, functions, or external bodies)

Activity 2.3 Royal Prince Hamlet Case Study WBS


Using the information provided in the previous activity, and the high level set of activities below,
prepare a simple WBS in diagrammatic form for the relocation project.

Evaluate Space and Seating Requirements with IT and clinical records departments

Advise property acquisition team of needs

Review final design brief for builder

Supervise builder and monitor progress

Finalise Seating and partitioning

Confirm completion of fit out

Finalise logistics of office move

Conduct move to new premises

Verify completion

Project closure and wrap-up

You may use the space below to draw your WBS diagram.

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Activity 2.4 Royal Prince Hamlet Case Study network


Using the WBS information provided in the previous activity, prepare a simple network diagram for
the relocation project. Use the precedence diagramming method for your network.
You may use the space below to draw your network diagram.

Activity 2.5 Estimating Task Cost and Duration


You have the option of using any one of three team members for a project assignment.
Your subject matter expert estimated that the task will take 90 effort hours.
The following resource matrix provides individual productivity, availability, and unit cost for each of
the team members.

Task
Design prototype

Prod
60%

Bill
Avail
50%

$/Hr
$45

Prod
120%

Mary
Avail
40%

$/Hr
$80

Prod
100%

Minh
Avail
40%

$/Hr
$60

Calculate the cost and duration for each person to accomplish the task.
Labour Cost

Duration

Bill
Mary
Minh

If cost is the primary consideration, who should be assigned to the task?


If schedule is the primary consideration, who should be assigned to the task?

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Activity 2.6 Critical Path Method


The following table shows the Work Breakdown Structure and time estimates for project managing a
corporate project involving re-engineering business process work flows.
Using the task information provided draw a network diagram and determine the length of the
projects critical path.

Task
(a) initiate project
(b) assign project manager
(c) establish constraints
(d) form project team
(e) develop project schedule
(f) prepare cost estimate
(g) develop and document work flows
(h) prepare version control plan
(i) prepare human resources plan
(j) set up revised admin structure
(k) assemble and configure procedures
(l) implement system
(m) conduct training
(n) reproduce documents

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Immediately
preceding task

Expected completion time


(days)

a
a
b
d
d
d
b
c, e
g
f, i, j
k
h, g
m

5
2
6
12
10
9
5
9
1
2
3
9
7
8

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Activity 2.7 Gantt Chart


Use the information provided in the preceding exercise to draft a Gantt Chart for the project.
What might you do to accelerate this project, given the current duration estimates? What would you
require from management to enable this to be done?
You may assume that additional resources are available at a cost of $500 per person per day. (But
dont assume you just need more people!)
Gantt Chart template:

Your requirements from management:

Activity 2.8 PERT estimation


Using the following task time estimates in days, use the PERT formula to calculate the most likely
duration of each task.
Activity

Optimistic

Most Likely

Pessimistic

Write specification

Produce component design

12

Develop prototype

11

Conduct tests

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t (ave)

Variance

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Activity

Optimistic

Most Likely

Pessimistic

Acceptance

t (ave)

Variance

Total duration for each option


Use the PERT variance formula provided by your lecturer to calculate the variance for each task.
Then total the variances to obtain the total path variance for your critical path.
You may then calculate standard normal variate (Z score) of your estimate the probability of any
desired project duration using the formula:
Z = Target duration - path Expected Duration
Total path variance
Assuming a target duration of 27 days duration, what is the Z score for this project? (Your tutor or
lecturer will provide you with the probability using Excel).

Activity 2.9 Project budget S-Curve


A company wishes to conduct a marketing seminar for a new product. The subject matter experts
have suggested the following task duration estimates in weeks and the dependencies as shown in the
network diagram below.

(Tasks B, C, D, F, G and H are on the critical path).


The estimators have provided the following baseline budgets for each of these tasks, assuming
normal working hours.
Task

Task Budget

$4,500

$6,250

$4,550

$6,000

$8,000

$6,600

$10,000

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Cumulative Budget

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H

$1,800

Total

$47,700

$47,700

Budget ($)

Using this data and the graph below, draw a simple cumulative cost curve for the project showing the
planned budget expenditure over time.

Time (weeks)

Activity 2.10 Calculating the Earned Value


The project consists of 4 tasks to be conducted over 4 weeks, with the duration and costs below. You
are now at the end of Week 3 and are trying to estimate the current status.
Task

A Plan
B Specify and
design

Duration
and
planned
cost
1 week
$ 1,000
1 week
$ 2,000

C Build

1 week
$ 2,000

D Implement

1 week
$1,000

Week 1

week 2

week 3

week 4

Status at end of
week 3

complete - actual
cost = $1,000
completed
actual costs
= $2,500
50% complete
actual costs
= $ 1,200
not yet started

Total duration = 4 weeks


Total Budget (Cost at Completion) = $ 6,000
Status information above is at end of week 3

Questions:
1. What is the Planned Value (ie. how much work was to be achieved by end of Week 3)?
2. What is the Earned Value (ie. how much work was achieved using the data above?)
3. What is the Actual Cost of work performed to date?
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4. What is the SPI? (Schedule Performance Index)
5. What is the CPI? (Cost Performance Index)
6. What do the SPI and CPI tell you about the productivity of the team and the likely trends in
the project?

Activity 2.11 (Optional) Define and analyse the quality objectives


In the Royal Prince Hamlet hospital case study, there are several areas where project success will be
judged on smooth implementation and satisfaction of user expectations, namely on quality-related
issues, not just time and cost. For example, the team must:

Satisfy all user requirements for additional secure office and storage space

Ensure relocation with no loss of records or security breaches

Redeploy IT Systems and infrastructure without disruption

Take any one of these and describe the objectives in sufficient detail to avoid any ambiguity, how
they will be measured if the project is implemented, and how they would be measured to ensure
that the expected results were achieved.

Activity Deliverables

As a team, review the case information provided earlier and identify precisely what the
requirements might be and how these requirements might be measured or tracked.

Capture your results in the template format below. Use the final column in the template to
document any specific activities that might need to be included in the work plan to achieve
these objectives (eg, Quality Controls, surveys, inspections, etc).

User requirement

Performance or
quality objectives

Success / Acceptance
criteria

Implications to project
(eg, QC)

Security of office space


Adequate and
correctly configured
space
Relocation process
IT redeployment

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Activity 2.12 (Optional) Risk Identification and analysis


It is now a bit later in the Royal Prince Hamlet project and the project plan is now starting to take
shape. In addition to the previous information provided, the following additional information is now
available:
The IT department has not yet specified their final requirements for air-conditioning and power
preferred. In addition, the IT manager has complained that the selected removalist is not experience
with transporting IT and telecommunications equipment.
The clinical records department are spending most of their time familiarising themselves with the
new software and are frequently skipping team meetings. In addition, the facilities management
group within the hospital have authorised changes to the fit out without consulting you or your
team.
Your manager is becoming concerned, and is asking you for frequent updates on these and other
problems. It is clear that for risk analysis is long overdue!

Activity Deliverables

Work as a team to create a short list of potential risks that could affect your relocation
project.

Determine specific categories for the risks identified to assist further analysis of roles and
responsibilities.

What would you proposed as potential mitigation strategies for each risk?

Document the actions to be taken, who is responsible for each action, and when this
mitigation should be carried out.

Input your list of risks and categories into the template below and be prepared to present
your risk list and risk categories to management.

Template
Note. This is a subset of a typical risk register, with some simplification of the columns to assist initial
analysis.
What could go wrong

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Category
of risk

How and when


will we know/
risk indicators?

Potential
cause

Potentially, how
will we fix it?

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Activity 2.13 Procurement negotiation exercise


Scenario on Payment Terms
The supplier has proposed the following terms for supply of a software product they need to modify
for the client.
The total Price is $ 1,000,000. The supplier has stated they wish to keep their cash flow on the
project neutral.
Activity

% of Price

Expected time from start of


project

Contract execution

20

Start

Delivery 1 - basic software for generic


testing

30

2 months

Delivery 2 software modified to your


requirements

30

5 months

Acceptance of the software following


functional and performance testing

20

7 months

Your organisation really wants the supplier product as there is no other one suitable in market place.
However you feel that following this schedule does not give them sufficient incentive to complete to
your deadlines.
Acting as the PM for the Principal/Client, propose alternative terms that you think the Supplier could
be expected to accept.

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TOPIC 3 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION AND CONTROL

Activity 3.1 Progress monitoring and reporting


Total Transformation Pty Ltd (TT) is a well-known Sydney-based training company specialising in
short training seminars for high technology companies. They provide advanced training to some of
the largest manufacturing and high technology companies in the country.
Their courses use prestigious speakers and are aimed at senior executives, so budgets are generous.
They offer high quality presentations with excellent presenters and high quality handouts.
As one of their project managers, you are reviewing the status of one of their seminars. Review the
Gantt chart on the next page and with your team determine the current status of the project and
suggest some strategies to bring it back on track.
To assist you with your analysis, refer to the Gantt Chart and budget information provided over the
page and complete the following table:
Task

Task Budget

$4,500

$6,250

$4,550

$6,000

$8,000

$6,600

$10,000

$1,800

Total

Planned %
Complete

Actual %
Complete

PV

EV

AC

$47,700

Deliverables:
With the assistance of your team review the Gantt chart and progress information attached and
answer the following questions:
1. Are they on budget or not?
2. Are they on time?
3. If not, how would you bring them back on track?
4. What questions might you need to resolve to be confident about achieving this result?

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Seminar project Status information for analysis and progress report


Budget cost = $4,500

Select seminar topic

Select and engage


speaker(s)

Actual cost = $4,500


Budget cost = $6,250

Actual cost = $7,500

Identify and hire


venue & equipment

Budget cost = $4,550

Actual cost = $5,000

Budget cost = $6,000


Actual cost = $4,600

Mailings to client database

Budget cost = $8,000


Actual cost = $6,450

Advertising and other


business media promotion

Printing and delivery of


course books and demo CDs

Budget cost = $6,600. Planned 33% completed.

Actual cost = $4,500. 67% complete.

Conduct seminar

Budget cost = $10,000

Hold project debriefing and


review

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Budget cost = $1,800

19

20

Total Project Budget = $47,700


Note: All budget and actual costs are as of today see dotted line

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Activity 3.2 Emerald City Tramways EV metrics


Emerald City Tramways is currently engaged in extending its light rail system through the CBD.
Phase 1 will take the tramway from its current major route around Chinatown and the citys
entertainment area down to the harbour area on the bay.
It is now April 1, about 1 week before the first internal project review is scheduled to take place and
Jenny Moore and Richard Andrews are reviewing the presentation that Richard will make jointly to
the project sponsors, the Mayor of the City and the State Premier.
Richard is the project manager and Jenny is the contract manager for this project, which has the
code name Overload. The project has the potential for $600 million or more total revenue over the
next five years, but only if the current phase, which is running over 12 months from January to
December this year, is successfully completed by December 31, within the agreed budget ($110
million) and to the agreed requirements.
Richard is a very capable but technically focussed PM, and often over-plays the technical successes
of his projects at the expense of its business objectives. Jenny runs through the presentation slides
and quickly notes that once again, Richard has given a great deal of attention to the technical results
to date, but has only left the financials to a single slide at the end of his presentation.
He is obviously pleased with both his teams technical and financial performance, and is very
optimistic about the successful completion of his contract, especially since he has allocated only
$100 million of his $110 million total budget, and believes the difference provides enough buffer for
any potential problems.
The first slides summarise the project. Richard intends to say that at the 25% point in the contract,
his team is on track financially, having spent $25 million, or 25% of the total budget so far allocated.
Referring to the schedule, he intends to say we completed all tasks on time in January and
February, but had a few slippages in some tasks in March. However, by careful monitoring, we
picked up these problems quickly and took corrective actions to bring our schedule back on track.
We did this by using some overtime in the last two weeks of March to catch up, and I am now
confident that our project team can maintain its current rate to ensure that we have some
substantial progress by June 30, which is our next review point.
Jenny congratulated Richard on his performance to date and comments on the good results shown
in the presentation. As contract manager, she is interested in more financial details, and she asked if
she could have the project schedule and the actual budget to review before the big presentation.
She is particularly interested in when the major contract milestones are due and how much each will
const.
Richard answered, I dont have all the final numbers yet, as we are still setting up our Web based
project management system. However, I have some informal spreadsheets that you will find
interesting. I had to put some numbers together in March when we were doing that overtime, so I
can give you that spreadsheet as a start.
As youll see, at the 25% point in the schedule, we have spent only 25% of the allocated budget, as I
mentioned in the presentation.

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Richard then gave Jenny the following spreadsheet:
Task
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Totals

Schedule
completion
Jan 31
Feb 28
Mar 31
June 30
Aug 31
Sept 30
Nov 30
Dec 31

Budget $M
4
6
10
30
26
20
2
2
100

Planned %
complete
100%
100%
100%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%

Actual %
complete
100%
100%
80%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%

Actual Cost
$M
5
8
12

25

Jenny adds one additional column to the spreadsheet and labelled it EV.
If you were Jenny Moore, what would be your analysis of Richards projects current status? What
do you think will be the probably outcome of the project based upon this analysis?
Task
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Totals

Schedule
completion
Jan 31
Feb 28
Mar 31
June 30
Aug 31
Sept 30
Nov 30
Dec 31

Budget $M
4
6
10
30
26
20
2
2
100

Planned %
complete
100%
100%
100%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%

Actual %
complete
100%
100%
80%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%

Actual Cost
$M
5
8
12

EV $M

25

Using the totals from the spreadsheet, determine:


CV
CPI
SV
SPI

____________
____________
____________
____________

% complete
Percent spent

____________
____________

Can you extrapolate from these numbers how much the project is really likely to cost by December
31? Is it in any risk of running late?
______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

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Activity 3.3 Dealing with team conflict


Patrick Tyson is the Project Manager of an engineering team setting up a new multi media centre for
Sony in the Riverside Technology Park in Sydney.
He has a technical background in data communications equipment design, and then moved into
setting up major phone centres for Telstra. He is an excellent engineer and line manager, but all his
previous projects have involved managing other technical communications experts.
This time he has to manage several researchers who are not engineers. These experts are acting as
business analysts who will document requirements to ensure that the IT systems and technology
products support the multi media work that will be done in the new centre. These researchers come
from more of a business background in media and consumer products, and primarily speak business
language. They work with business users to understand their processes and needs.
Patrick tends to be detailed in his approach to management which reflects his background as a
technical person. He wants daily meetings and reports on progress, although he is not directly
responsible for the Intervention plan. He is concerned about any possibility of slippage since his
team is on the critical path of the revised project plan.
The two analysts find this level of control annoying and unnecessary they have a heavy load of
work and just want to get on with it. Also since they are dealing with end users they find it hard to
predict accurately when each task will be finished, as the users are busy people who have to attend
to other activities. They would prefer weekly meetings and reporting on progress to Patrick.
Tensions are rising and have been noticed by the Division Manager, Jim Katsiris, who has overall
responsibility for all the many projects involved in setting up this new research centre.
Given the above information how would you handle this if you were Jim Katsiris? What are the
reasons for your approach?

Activity 3.4 (Optional) Team Preference Analysis


Your lecturer will demonstrate a typical questionnaire used to determine the team role preferences
for team members. The questionnaire will be presented in the tutorial session and you will be asked
to assess your own preferences using the framework provided in the presentation.

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TOPIC 4 PROJECT COMPLETION AND CLOSURE

Activity 4.1 RPH Hospital project completion


The hospital relocation project has progressed fairly well, considering your inexperience in
departmental moves, the difficulty of handling the clinical records department and the IT manager,
and unforeseen problems!
The fit out of the new building went very well and the contractors met all their milestones. The
clinical records group have been successfully transferred with less than 24 hours downtime and the
move of the IT hardware is currently on schedule to meet your planned end date. You were lucky even the expenses have come in within the agreed range.
Unfortunately, as you review your latest Gantt Chart, you realise that you left off the project
completion and handover activities from your WBS and the schedule. You have a few points listed,
but they havent been fully defined yet and are due to start in only 2 weeks.
Prepare a list of the actions (in their appropriate sequence) that you plan to include as part of
closeout activities.

Activity 4.2 Mini Case - A major insurance company rollout


Our company, Megabank Insurance, has just completed a major IT system rollout that included a
new sales tracking and ordering process, requiring business process changes and the installation of a
new CRM system.
Our IT team spent a lot of time briefing the sales force on using the new system. Approximately 80%
of the sales staff was trained, including at least two people from each about 20 offices around the
country. We also confirmed using spot checks within each sales office that the training was
effective.
We knew that what that implementing this new system was not going to be painless for the sales
force. Accordingly, we included one of their representatives on our steering committee and ensured
he reviewed and signed off everything.

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We also had them review all the conversion and implementation steps in the training. We ensured
that they were familiar with all the steps required in the new system, and that these steps were
consistently implemented accurately whenever we carried out the training.
Our sales and marketing people deftly knew what was coming, and they knew how to handle the
activities for changing over to the new system.
Unfortunately, the sales team has been very slow to adopt the new system. People in all the
branches report that their sales force are reluctant to use it. They just offer a few excuses, claiming
that they have a heavy workload at the moment or that they have key sales projects under way that
needs to be done using the old system.
We are a bit concerned. We had planned a period of parallel processing using both the new and the
old systems but it is expensive and slow.
The delays in getting the new system accepted by the sales forces is now costing us a lot of money.
We are anxious to get the new process up and running quickly.

Deliverables:
Using the scenario provided and working in teams, review the situation at the end of the project and
determine what issues have caused the problem(s) described.
What are the possible underlying causes of the problem and how might they be resolved?

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TOPIC 5 PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY

Activity 5.1 (optional) Fellini Furnishing Designs case study


Managing Strategic Change
Fellini Furnishing is a major name in Australasian design and manufacture. They are renowned for
their popular designs in household appliances, furniture and utensils. Their appliances are used
everywhere, and their furniture stores are in every major shopping centre. Fellini has successfully
expanded throughout the Asia Pacific area and ships its designs throughout the entire region from
its manufacturing centres in Australia, Malaysia and China.
You are a product manager in charge of a major strategic initiative for Fellini that will involve major
changes to their appliance design and manufacturing lines the launch of the Roma family of
products (which include entirely new appliances for home theatres, as well as traditional kitchen and
laundry products) combined with strategic changes to their manufacturing centres throughout the
region.
The project more accurately, the program - comprises the following sub projects:

The introduction of a new computer aided graphics design and animation system by the IT
group, to be used by both the appliance and furniture divisions

Conversion of four major appliance and furniture manufacturing lines in three different
existing plant sites, one in Australia and two in Malaysia, including the installation of new
manufacturing equipment and expansion of their logistics facilities

The construction of a totally new manufacturing facility in China

The training and transition of the factory employees at each site to operate new assembly
equipment and manage the construction of the newly designed appliances

Commencement of the design and development of a new line of home theatre equipment to
be built and marketed in three years time

A project to manage the smooth termination of the current appliances being built in the
existing manufacturing lines

Additional projects are needed to make the appropriate business process changes and to educate
retailers and franchisees in how to use a new ordering logistics system. The transition projects will
involve supporting the line employees and working with labour relations personnel as the line
technicians are moved to other positions while the manufacturing lines are rebuilt and the
technicians are retrained in the new technology and processes. This will need very sensitive
management in Malaysia, due to local employment laws, and will also have an impact in Australia
and China.
The program has been in process now for about eight months. Conversion has started on two of the
four manufacturing lines and ground has been broken on the new manufacturing facility in the
outskirts of Guangzhou. The builders are racing to lay the foundation and required utilities before
the typhoon season in Southern China slows down their construction efforts.

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Current Program Budgets and Amount Spent - By Project


Projects in Process

Budget

Amount Spent

New Graphics Design and Animation System

$8M

$4M

Conversion Malaysian Plant A

$65M

$45M

Conversion Malaysian Plant B

$75M

$67M

Conversion Australian Plant C (two lines)

$100M

$60M

New China facility

$120M

$28M

New Home Theatre design and development


project

$20M

$5M

Termination of old appliance line /Transition of


line factory employees

$100M

$10M

Projects Not Yet Started


Internal Business Process Changes
Retailer Education and Process Transition
Current Total Budget/Amount Spent

The Strategic Change


Fellini management has determined, through competitive marketplace research, that they will
require the new appliances to be in store with all their retailers in Asia and Australia by the original
planned dates at the very latest. However, from reviewing industry benchmarks, the program
budget needs to be slashed by at least $150 million to put your program back in line with industry
standards.
You have been asked to report the changes you will make to your program to accommodate this
change to corporate strategy.

Assignment
Working with your team, prepare a list of questions to ask to clarify Fellinis strategic direction for
these various projects.
Based on your teams best judgement, assign priorities to each of these initiatives in order matching
Fellinis most important strategic goals.
Based on these questions (and managements likely responses), what possible changes might you
propose to the program for better alignment with Fellinis overall strategy?

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Activity 5.2 (optional) Nichols Services case study


Quick Case Study: adapted from Kerzner Case Studies
Nichols Services is a 600-employee company located in Denver, Colorado in the United States. As a
major provider of health care management services, Nichols had grown from 250 employees in
January 1993 to 600 employees by December 1994. By 1997, Nichols expected the employment
level to exceed 1,000 people.
Nichols was historically not a project-driven company. However, the business was changing.
Whenever a new company wished to subscribe to the service membership, the new company would
be treated as a project and headed up by a project manager. Each customer wanted a health care
package custom designed for their own use. (Historically, health care in the United States is usually
provided by an employer).
Nichols senior executives realised that the business was becoming more and more project-driven.
Project management was here to stay, and the time was right to train the employees in project
management. Nichols put together a top-notch team made up of line managers. This team
designed a project management process/methodology formulated around life cycle phases. All
training was to be conducted to support the project management process.
The project management process specified three levels of management: executive committee,
sponsorship committee, and project teams. All project teams were composed of management and
supervisors. Functional employees were responsible for the daily or routine activities and were not
assigned to projects. The managers and supervisors were now burdened not only with managing
their functions, but also serving on one or more project teams.
Sponsorship committees consist of four members, which include at least one executive, and the
remainder are middle managers. The sponsorship committees provide guidance for the project
teams, establish priorities when needed, and make sure that all project teams adhere to the
strategic initiatives established by the executive committee.

QUESTIONS
1. Is it a good idea to have one or more executives serving on the sponsorship committee?
What are the likely effects, given that Nichols is historically not a project-driven
organisation?
2. What is wrong with having project teams composed entirely of line managers? Is there an
impact on the project? Could there be an impact on the company's regular flow of work?
Explain.
3. Will the composition of the project teams and the steering committees change as the
organisation matures in project management? What must exist in the culture of the
company for these changes to occur?
4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of training all of the managers and supervisors
first, rather than lower level employees?
5. What should senior management do if some of the supervisors and line managers prefer to
continue managing projects?

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Activity 5.3 Aligning projects to strategies


Using the materials covered in this course so far, assume that you are about to be assigned a
significant project to manage. Brainstorm with your team to determine how best to go about
assessing the strategic fit of your project.
How would you ensure that the project remains aligned with strategy throughout its life cycle?
Use the following table to capture your teams comments, and be prepared to present your results.
Specific (current) organisational goals or
strategies

Methods of determining alignment or maintaining


alignment
1.
2.
1.
2.
1.
2.
1.
2.

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Activity 5.4 Attributes and people skills of a successful project manager


With your team, prepare a list of the attributes and skills required of a successful project manager.
Be prepared to present your results.

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