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Chapter 62: Girkmann Problem using Axisymmetric Shell Elements

62 Girkmann Problem using Axisymmetric Shell Elements

Summary 1178

Introduction 1179

Problem Statement

1179

Results and Discussions

Conclusion 1184

1184

Modeling Details

1179

Input File(s)

1182

Video 1185

References 1185

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MD Demonstration Problems CHAPTER 62

Summary

Title

Chapter 62: Girkmann Problem using Axisymmetric Shell Elements

Contact Features

Use of axisymmetric shell elements

Use of MPCs

Geometry

Geometry

Material Properties

E = 20.59 GPa = 0

=

3335.71 kg\m 3

for sperical shell subjected to gravity loading.

, Same material properties except density is used for the stiffening ring not subjected to gravity loading.

,

Analysis Type

Use of axisymmetric shell element (CAXISYM)

Use of MPCs

Boundary Condition

Boundary conditions of axisymmetry,

Uy = 0

at the free end of the sperical shell.

Applied loads

Gravity loading for the axisymmetric shell

Uniform normal pressure of 27.306 KPa is applied at the base AB of the stiffening ring

Element Type

2-node axisymmetric shell element CAXISYM

4-node axisymmetric solid quad element CQUADX

FE Results

1. Interface shear force per unit circumference length between spherical shell and solid stiffener.

2. Interface bending moment per unit circumference length.

3. Meridional angle at which maximum bending moment occurs and the value of maximum bending moment per unit circumference length.

Introduction

CHAPTER 62 Girkmann Problem using Axisymmetric Shell Elements

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This example showcases the capability of CAXISYM elements. The problem demonstrated here was first discussed by PitkÄaranta et al. (References). The FEA solution of the Girkmann problem was obtained and compared with the solutions obtained by classical methods.

Problem Statement

A spherical shell of thickness

angle

sperical shell is

The notation is shown in Figure 62-1. The z axis is the axis of rotational symmetry.

h = 0.06m

, crown radius

Rc = 15.00m

a = 0.60m

and

is connected to a stiffening ring at the meridional

. The radius of the midsurface of the

= 2   9 40 

. The dimensions of the ring are:

.

b = 0.50m

Rm = Rc sin

of the ring are: . b = 0.50m Rm = Rc  sin  Figure 62-1

Figure 62-1 Girkmann Problem

Consider gravity loading only. The equivalent (homogenized) unit weight of the material comprised of the shell and

the cladding is

The resultant of PAB equals the weight of the structure. Assume that the stiffening ring is weightless. The goals of the computations are as follows:

. Assume that uniform normal pressure PAB is acting at the base AB of the stiffening ring.

32.69 KN\m3

To find the shear force at the interface between spherical shell and stiffening ring.

To find the maximum bending moment.

To find the meridional angle at which the maximum bending moment occurs.

Modeling Details

The spherical shell was modeled with axisymmetric shell element and stiffening ring with axisymmetric solid elements as shown in Figure 62-2.

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MD Demonstration Problems CHAPTER 62

1180 MD Demonstration Problems CHAPTER 62 Figure 62-2 FEA Model Element Modeling The spherical shell was

Figure 62-2

FEA Model

Element Modeling

The spherical shell was modeled with 2-node axisymmetric shell elements CAXISYM. The properties for CAXISYM were entered as given below:

PAXISYM

The CAXISYM elements were defined as given below:

2

1

0.06

prop_axi

CAXISYM

769

2

830

831

CAXISYM

770

2

831

832

CAXISYM

771

2

832

833

CAXISYM

772

2

833

834

CAXISYM

773

2

834

835

The solid stiffener was modeled with axisymmetric solid element CQUADX. First, the properties PLPLANE for the CQUADX were defined:

PLPLANE

1

2

prop_axi

PSHLN2

1

2

+

+

C4 AXSOLID

L

prop_axi

The CQUADX elements were defined as given below,

 

CQUADX

1

1

1

10

11

2

CQUADX

2

1

2

11

12

3

CQUADX

3

1

3

12

13

4

Material Properties

 

The material properties were modeled by using MAT1 entry as given below:

 

MAT1

12.059+10

 

0.0 3335.71

0.0

mat_axi_

MAT1

22.059+10

0.0

mat_axi_

As Nastran applies gravity over the entire model by default, two material cards were defined. The material without density was used for solid stiffener modeled with CQUADX so that the gravity load does not get applied on it.

CHAPTER 62 Girkmann Problem using Axisymmetric Shell Elements

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Transformations and MPCs

To ensure the compatibility of rotational degrees of freedom between axisymmetric solid and shell elements, MPCs were used. For the convenience of defining MPCs, transformations using local coordinate systems were defined for the node at the junction between axisymmetric shell and axisymmetric solid elements,

between axisymmetric shell and axisymmetric solid elements, Figure 62-3 Local Coordinate System   CORD2R 1

Figure 62-3

Local Coordinate System

 

CORD2R

1

0

15. 17.8763

0.0

15. 17.8763

15.+

+

15.0193017.89930

0.0

Then MPCs were defined between the node at the junction and the other nodes at the interface as given below:

MPC

1

187

2

1.

1185

2

-1.

+

+

1185

6

0.03

MPC

3

186

2

1.

1185

2

-1.

+

+

1185

6 0.02625

 

MPC

17

91

2

1.

1185

2

-1.

+

+

1185

6

-0.03

Loads and Boundary Conditions

For CAXISYM and CQUADX elements, the axis conventions for axisymmetry are: Y-axis is the axis of symmetry and X-axis defines the radial direction. The symmetry boundary conditions of the axisymmetric problem was defined

constraining the axial degree of freedom

SPC

Gravity load was applied on the axisymmetric shell elements as given below:

GRAV

Pressure loading was applied at the bottom face of the solid stiffener. Pressure value was multiplied by Nastran convention for the application of the pressure edge load on the axisymmetric problem.

as per the

Uy = 0

2

1.

of the node which lies on the axis of symmetry.

0.0

0.0

-9.81

0.0

1

3

830

2

PLOADX1

4

353 171425.

386

387

0.0

PLOADX1

4

354 171425.

387

388

0.0

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MD Demonstration Problems CHAPTER 62

Analysis Parameters

Subcase corresponding to the loadcase that contains above loads and the boundary conditions were defined and analysis was carried out by SOL 400 by using following parameters:

$# NASTRAN Control Section $# File Management Section NASTRAN SYSTEM (316)=19

ASSIGN OUTPUT2 = 'girk_fo_s400.op2', UNIT = 12, FORM = FORMATTED $# Executive Control Section SOL 400 CEND ECHO = NONE $# Case Control Section SUBCASE 1 STEP 1 $ Subcase name: DefaultLoadCase

$LBCSET SUBCASE1

DefaultLbcSet

TITLE=DefaultLoadCase SET 10 = 769 THRU 1123 SET 20 = 830 THRU 1185 MPC = 33 SPC = 1 LOAD = 6 DISPLACEMENT (SORT1, PLOT, PRINT, REAL) =ALL NLSTRESS (SORT1, PLOT, PRINT, REAL, VONMISES, CENTRE) =ALL GPFORCE (PLOT, PRINT) =20 ANALYSIS = LNSTAT

Results and Discussions

(PLOT, PRINT) =20 ANALYSIS = LNSTAT Results and Discussions Figure 62-4 Results The f06 file generated

Figure 62-4

Results

The f06 file generated out of the analysis was studied carefully and the STRESS-XY for the axisymmetric shell element CAXISYM 1123 were noted as

CHAPTER 62 Girkmann Problem using Axisymmetric Shell Elements

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62 Girkmann Problem using Ax isymmetric Shell Elements 1183 Shear Stress-(sig-xy) for element CAXISYM 1123 is

Shear Stress-(sig-xy) for element CAXISYM 1123 is -1.577151E+04

Interface shear force/circumference length

Interface shear force/ circumference length

= sig-xy * shell thickness

= -1.577151E+04 * 0.06

= 946.3 KN/m

The grid point force balance for the interface element CAXISYM 1123 is as given below,:

for the interface element CAXISYM 1123 is as given below,: So the bending moment/circumference at the

So the bending moment/circumference at the interface i:

= 3475.662*2*π*r

= 3475.662*2*3.14159*15

= 36.878 N.m/m

In order to calculate the maximum bending moment and its location, we need to find the maximum bending stress and its location. Now in order to calculate the bending stress one must know the stress distribution for the shell element. The f06 file reports the stresses for upper layer and lower layer (i.e., LAYER I and LAYER 2) for the CAXISYM elements. For example, the bending stress for the CAXISYM element 1123 is calculated as given below:

for the CAXISYM element 1123 is calculated as given below: The bending stress can also be

The bending stress can also be calculated as

Bending stress

= [Total stress (LAYER 1) – Total stress (LAYER 5)]/2

= [(-4.711647E+05) – (-3.562409E+05)]/2

= -57461.9 N/m2

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MD Demonstration Problems CHAPTER 62

The bending stress values for all CAXISYM elements are calculated like this and the node where the max. bending stress occurs was noted. At that particular node, the bending moment would be maximum. Figure 62-5 shows the variation of bending moment/thickness (N.m/m) with meridional angle.

of bending moment/thickness (N.m/m) with meridional angle. Figure 62-5 Bending Moment vs. Meridional Angle The maximum

Figure 62-5

Bending Moment vs. Meridional Angle

The maximum bending moment of 255.126 N.m/m occurs at the meridional angle of 38.15° as shown in Figure 62-5.

Conclusion

The following table shows the comparison of the results obtained from FEA modeling with that of theoretical one,

Results

MD Nastran

Theory

% Error

Moment (Nm/m)

36.878

36.81

0.18%

Q1 (N/m)

-946.291

-943.6

0.29%

Max. Moment (Nm/m)

255.126

253.97

0.46%

Angle (degrees)

38.150

38.08

0.18%

Input File(s)

Files

Description

MD Nastran input for Girkmann problem using axisymmetric shell and solid elements.

CHAPTER 62 Girkmann Problem using Axisymmetric Shell Elements

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Video

Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 20 minutes and explains how the steps are performed.

20 minutes and explains how the steps are performed. Figure 62-6 Video of the Above Steps

References

PitkÄaranta, J., Babuska, I. and Szabo, B. The Problem of Verification with Reference to the Girkmann Problem. IACM Expressions. 24, January 2009, 14-15.