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Math 208: Differential Equations

Problem Set on Applications of First Order ODE


A. Decomposition and Growth
1. The number of bacteria in a yeast culture grows at the rate proportional to the number present. The
bacteria count in the culture doubles in 3 hours. At the end of 15 hours, the count is 1 million. How
many bacteria were in the culture originally?
2. Radium decomposes at a rate proportional to the quantity of radium present. Suppose it is found
that in 25 years, approximately 1.1% of the quantity of radium is decomposed. Determine
approximately how long it will take for approximately of the radium to decompose.
3. Radium decomposes at a rate proportional to the amount present. In 100 years, 100 mg of radium
is reduced to 96 mg.
a. How many mg is left after another 100 years?
b. What is the half-life of radium?
4. The number of bacteria in a yeast culture doubles in one hour. Find the number of bacteria which
will be present after 3.5 hours.
5. The death rate of an ant colony is proportional to the number present. If no birth were to take place,
the population at the end of one week will be reduced by one-half. However, because of birth, the
rate of which is also proportional to the number present, the ant population doubles in two weeks.
Determine the proportionality constant because of birth in unit of per week.
6. Assuming that radium decomposes at a rate proportional to the amount present, in how many years
will half the original amount be lost if 10% is lost in 243 years?
7. The decrease in bacterial population in wastewater due to chlorine disinfection is given by
dN/dt=kN1.5. If after 10 min 60% of the bacteria are obtained, how long will it take to kill 90% of the
bacteria?
B. Newtons Law of Cooling
1. According to Newtons law of cooling, the rate at which a substance cools in a fluid is proportional to
the difference between the temperature of the substance and that of the cooling medium. A
thermometer reading 8C is brought into a room, the temperature of which is 21C. One minute
later, the temperature reading is 0C. Determine the temperature reading 5 min after the
thermometer is brought into the room.
2. A body whose temperature is 180C is immersed in a liquid which is kept at a constant temperature
of 60C. In one minute, the temperature of the immersed body is 120C. How long will it take for the
bodys temperature to decrease to 90C?
3. At 9:00 am, a thermometer reading 21C is brought outdoors where the temperature is
-9C. At 9:05 am, the thermometer reading is 7C. At 9:10 am, the thermometer is taken back
indoors where the temperature is fixed at 21C. Find:
a. the reading at 9:20 am.
b. when the reading to the nearest degree will show the correct 21C outdoor temperature.
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4. A 22.7 kg iron ball is heated at a uniform temperature of 93C and is immediately plunged into a
vessel containing 45 kg of water whose temperature is 5C. The specific heat of iron is
0.896 kJ/kg-K and for water, 4.187 kJ/kg-K. After 5 min, the ball has an average temperature of
85C. Find:
a. the temperature of the ball as a function of time.
b. the temperature of the ball after 10 minutes.
c. the common temperature approached by the ball and water as time approaches infinity.
C. Steady-State Heat Conduction
1. A brick wall (k = 0.12 W/m-K) is 30 cm thick. If the inner surface is 20C and the outer surface is
0C, find the heat loss through the wall per day through a square meter area.
2. A furnace wall is made up of two layers of brick, 5 cm of kaolin brick (k = 0.09 W/m-K) followed by
10 cm fireclay brick (k = 1.64 W/m-K). The inside temperature of kaolin is at 1000C and the outside
surface of fireclay is at 80C. Calculate:
a. the heat loss/square meter area.
b. the interfacial temperature between fireclay and kaolin.
3. A pipe 10 meters long and 30 cm in diameter contains steam at 100C. The pipe is covered with a
layer of insulating material 10 cm thick and having a thermal conductivity of 0.94 W/m-K. If the
temperature at the outer surface of the insulation is kept at 33C, find:
a. the heat loss in W.
b. the temperature halfway through the insulation.
4. A pipe 20 cm in diameter contains steam at 100C and is covered with certain insulation 5 cm thick.
The outside insulation is kept 40C. By how much should the thickness of the insulation be
increased in order that the rate loss will be decreased by 20%?
5. A pipe 10 cm in diameter contains steam at 100 C. It is covered with two coats of insulating
material, each 2.5 cm thick, one of asbestos (k = 0.06 W/m-K) and magnesia (k = 0.17 W/m-K). If
the outside temperature is 30C, find the heat loss per hour for a meter length of pipe when the
asbestos is outside and the magnesia inside.
6. The inner and outer radii of a hollow spherical shell are 4 cm and 9 cm, respectively. The thermal
conductivity of the material between the walls is 0.75 W/m-K. The inner surface is kept at a constant
temperature of 100C and the outer surface is at 0C. Find:
a. the rate of heat loss.
b. the temperature 5 cm from the center.
D. Mixing
1. A tank initially has 350 L of brine containing 10 kg of dissolved salt. Fresh water flows into the tank
at a rate of 11 L/min and the brine flows out at the same rate. Find the salt content of the brine at
the end of 10 min. When will the salt content be 7 kg?
2. The air in a recently used classroom 10 by 10 by 12 m tested 0.12% by volume of carbon dioxide.
How many cubic meters of fresh air must be admitted per minute in order that 10 min later it shall
contain not over 0.06% carbon dioxide? Assume that fresh air contains 0.04% carbon dioxide and
that immediate mixing of fresh air and stale air takes place.
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3. A tank contains 300 L of brine. Brine containing 2 kg/L of salt flows into the tank at the rate of 4
L/min. The mixture kept uniform by stirring flows out at the rate of 8 L/min. If after 10 min, the brine
contains 100 kg of salt, find the initial concentration of brine in the tank.
4. A tank filled with 400 L of salt solution containing 0.5 kg of salt per liter is mixed with brine
containing 1 kg salt/L flowing at the rate of 20 L/min. The mixture kept uniform by stirring flows out
at the same rate. Find the amount of salt in the tank at any time t and find how long will this amount
be 300 kg.
5. A tank contains 400 L of water. In error, 150 kg of salt are poured into the tank instead of 100 kg.
To correct the condition, a stopper is removed from the bottom of the tank allowing 12 L of brine to
flow out per minute. At the same time 4 L/min of fresh water is pumped into the tank. If the mixture
is kept uniform by constant stirring, how long will it take the brine to contain the desired amount of
salt?
E. Flow of Water through an Orifice
1. A tank whose cross-section measures 1 m by 1.5 m is filled with water to a height of 3 m. It has a
hole at the bottom that has a radius of 3 cm.
a. When will the tank be empty?
b. When will the water in the tank be 1.6 m high?
2. A conical portion of a funnel 25 cm across the top and 20 cm deep has a 2-cm hole at the bottom. If
it is initially full of water, in how many seconds will it be empty?
3. A water container whose circular cross-section is 2 m in diameter and whose height is 3 m is filled
with water. It has a hole at the bottom whose radius is 3 cm. When will the tank be empty?
4. A water container whose square cross-section has a 2-meter diagonal. The container, with a height
of 3 meters, is filled with water. It has a hole at the bottom whose diameter is 3 cm. When will the
tank be empty?