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Raghad Salameh

February 16, 2016

Chapter 2 Key Terms

Adherence to collective norms: faithful observance of standards


imposed on members of a group as a condition of membership in the
group. Can relate to conduct, values or appearance.

Collective interest: a set of common concerns, involvement or


curiosity that members of a group have in common. Individual interests
are often better addressed by making them a common set of interest
that the group can discuss together.

Collective responsibility: Holding a whole group or collective


accountable for the individuals/individual groups within the group or
collective

Common good: Something that benefits the well-being of society as a


whole

Competition: the act or instance of contending with others. Seen as


an incentive for individuals and groups to work harder and more
efficiently.

Cooperation: working together to achieve the same end. Principle


emphasized by collective ideologies.

Economic equality: a principle common to collective ideologies which


can have different meanings depending on the person or ideology.
Example of fostering economic equality, a government that ensures
that all people earn equal wages for work of similar value.

Economic freedom: The choice to buy whatever one wishes, and sell
ones labour, idea or product to whomever one wishes.

Individual rights and freedoms: A key principle of individualism and


feature of liberal democracies. Such as freedom of religion, right to life,
liberty and security of a person.

Liberalism: a collection of ideologies committed to the principle of


dignity and freedom of the individual as the foundation for society. Has
faith in human progress, tends to favour decentralized power in

Raghad Salameh
February 16, 2016

political and economic affairs, and respects the sovereignty of the


reasoning individual.

Private property: Anything owned by an individual including physical


property or intellectual property.

Public property: Anything owned by the state/province or community


and managed according to the best interests of the society.

Rule of law: a key principle in liberal democracies that states every


individual is equal before the law and all citizens are subject to the law.

Self-interest: ones personal pursuits or advantage

Autonomy: a state of individual freedom from outside authority

Self-reliance: the quality of being solely responsible for ones own


being

NGOs: (Non-governmental Organizations) organizations not founded


by the government that address a social issue, or economic
development.

Supplementary Material

Reactionary: tending to oppose change. A reactionary change in


political regime, often idealizes the past and accepts economic
inequality.

Conservative: A political view that wants to maintain status-quo,


respects the past, opposes radical change

Moderate: A political view that favours some change, the middle


between conservative and liberal.

Raghad Salameh
February 16, 2016

Liberal: A political view that favours change, opposes maintaining


status quo.

Radical: extreme, revolutionary. A radical change in political regimeoften rejects the political and economic traditions of the past: Prior
habits/beliefs that were carried out

Fascism: An extreme, right-wing, anti-democratic nationalist


movement which led to totalitarian forms of governments in Germany
and Italy from the 1920s to the 1940's.

Conservatism: a collection of ideologies committed towards the


common good of whole as the foundation for society. Favours
centralized power.

Liberalism: a collection of ideologies committed to the principle of


dignity and freedom of the individual as the foundation for society. Has
faith in human progress, tends to favour decentralized power in
political and economic affairs, and respects the sovereignty of the
reasoning individual.

Socialism: Any ideology that contains the belief that resources should
be controlled by the public for benefit of everyone in society. For the
common good.

Communism: A system of society with property vested in the


community and each member working for the common benefit
according to ones capacity and receiving accordingly to ones needs

Raghad Salameh
February 16, 2016

Chapter 2: Individualism and Collectivism


1.
a. Collectivism in history
i. Anthropological studies tell us that most, if not all, the
earliest human societies were collectivist, because it was
possible to survive only by working and hunting as part of
a group. The sense of identity of ancient societies was
largely based on membership in a groupusually an
extended family
i. Collectivism was also practised 2000 years ago by early
Christians, as mentioned in the New Testament of the
Bible. For example, Acts 2:4445 states, And all those who
had believed were together, and had all things in common;
and they began selling their property and possessions, and
were sharing them with all, as anyone might have need.
ii. Aboriginal peoples in Canada describe their traditional
cultures as having a strong sense of the collective. In
matters such as land-holding, decision making, and
educating and raising children, many Aboriginal cultures
emphasize thinking and acting collectively to achieve what
is best for the common good. Many of these collectivist
traditions are still practised in some Aboriginal
communities.
b. Individualism in history
i. The Renaissance period in European history was
characterized by a renewed interest in classical Greek and
Roman culture. European scholars revived classical ideas
about the central importance of life in this world, mans
central role in the world, and the appreciation of the worth
of the individual.
ii. Ancient Greek culture had been very humanistic and very
individualistic. According to Greek mythology, the gods on
Mount Olympus were anthropomorphic, behaving like
people and sometimes interacting with them. This notion of
human potential led the ancient Greeks to focus on the
capabilities, strength, beauty, and reason of individual
humans. Humans, according to these ancient thinkers and

Raghad Salameh
February 16, 2016

their culture, could be like gods: they could remake their


worlds and be the authors of their own fates.
2. a. Individualism: to live a life based on independence.
b. Collectivism: to live a life in which the priorities of the collective
group are worth more than that of personal worth.
3. Principles of Individualism:
a. Rule of law: the restriction of the arbitrary exercise of power by
subordinating it to well-defined and established laws.
b. Individual rights and freedoms: key principle of individualism.
Examples of such rights and freedoms include freedom of
religion, freedom of association, and the right to life, liberty, and
the security of the person. One important individual right in
liberal democracies is the right to vote
c. Private property: a legal designation for the ownership
of property by non-governmental legal entities. Private
property is distinguishable from public property, which is owned
by a state entity; and collective property, which is owned by a
group of non-governmental entities.
d. Economic freedom: the freedom to buy what you want and to sell
your labour, idea, or product to whomever you wish. Markets in
which consumers and businesses have free choice to buy, sell, or
trade, without government interference in those transactions.
e. Self-interest: one's personal interest or advantage, especially
when pursued without regard for others.
f. Competition: the act or instance of competing or contending with
others. An incentive for individuals to work harder.
4. a.

b. I get all of my music from YouTube, not downloading anything,


and not sharing anything. I do however watch illegally uploaded
movies online.
i. My stance in regards to the issue of downloading music
and its relationship to individualism is that the individual
should be able to judge if downloading music illegally is
morally wrong or justified. Artists make enough money
through the music they produce that they are not
drastically hurt by the illegal downloading of music, despite
what they may say. Not everyone downloads music
illegally, and either way everyone pays a certain tax to the

Raghad Salameh
February 16, 2016

government that covers the possibility of downloading


music illegally, so its economically and politically justified.
5. Principles of Collectivism:
a. Economic equality: the concept or idea of fairness in economics,
particularly in regard to taxation or welfare economics.
b. Co-operation: Co-operation is the means through which members
of a group or a collective achieve their common goals. It may
involve designating roles, following certain protocols for
speaking, or following guidelines for decision making
c. Public property: property that is dedicated to public use and is a
subset of state property. The term may be used either to
describe the use to which the property is put, or to describe the
character of its ownership
d. Collective interest: a group of entities that share or are
motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work
together to achieve a common objective.
e. Collective responsibility: individuals are responsible for other
people's actions by tolerating, ignoring, or harboring them,
without actively collaborating in these actions.
f. Adherence to collective norms: Groups usually impose norms, or
standards, on their members as a condition of membership in the
group. These norms can relate to conduct, values, or
appearance. While they are voluntary, the group members
generally see these standards as binding, which makes
adherence to collective norms important.