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ANP2001 Week 2 tutorial

1. The lining of the inner walls of the hearts chambers is termed the:
a. visceral pericardium b. serous pericardium c. epicardium d. myocardium e. endocardium
2. The outermost layer of the hearts serous pericardium is termed the:
a. visceral pericardium b. parietal pericardium c. epicardium d. myocardium e. endocardium
3. The hearts natural pacemaker is termed the:
a. sinoatrial node b. atrioventricular node c. bundle of His/atrioventricular bundle d. left and right bundle branches e.
Purkinje fibers
4. The hearts electrical conduction network found within the ventricular myocardium is termed the:
a. sinoatrial node b. atrioventricular node c. bundle of His/atrioventricular bundle d. left and right bundle branches e.
Purkinje fibers
5. If the hearts natural pacemaker fails to fire, then:
a. no blood would enter the atria b. no blood would enter the ventricles c. the node on the floor of the right atrium would
act as a secondary pacemaker d. the node on the floor of the left ventricle would act as a secondary pacemaker e. the
person would die within minutes
6. Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?
a. tunica interna/intima b. tunica media c. tunica externa d. tunica adventitia
7. The exchange of gases and nutrients between blood and tissues is a major function of:
a. arterioles b. arteries c. capillaries d. veins
8. Which of the following statements best describes arteries?
a. all arteries carry oxygenated blood towards the heart b. all arteries contain valves to prevent the back-flow of blood
c. all arteries carry blood away from the heart d. only large arteries are lined with endothelium
9. The circulatory pathway that carries blood from the digestive tract towards the liver is termed the:
a. coronary circuit b. cerebral circuit
c. hepatic portal circuit d. pulmonary circuit
10. Immediately following strenuous and vigorous exercise, which of the following is most likely to occur?
a. blood will be rapidly diverted to the digestive organs b. the skin will be cold and clammy
c. capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood d. blood flow to the kidneys quickly increases
11. Blood returning to the heart from the inferior vena cava would enter the:
a. left atrium b. right atrium c. left ventricle d. right ventricle
12. Blood in the pulmonary arteries:
a. enters the hearts right ventricle b. is heading towards the lungs
c. leaves the left ventricle to enter the aorta d. flows from the lungs towards the hearts left atrium
13. Fetal blood would bypass the pulmonary circuit by flowing through this structure located in the fetal interatrial wall:
a. the tricuspid atrioventricular valve b. the ductus arteriosus c. the foramen ovale
d. the pulmonary semilunar valve e. the aortic semilunar valve
14. Located between the right atrium and right ventricle is the:
a. tricuspid atrioventricular valve b. bicuspid/mitral atrioventricular valve c. fossa ovalis
d. pulmonary semilunar valve e. aortic semilunar valve
15. The pulmonary veins:
a. carry oxygenated blood away from the heart b. carry oxygenated blood towards the heart

c. carry deoxygenated blood away from the heart d. carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart
16. Which of the following statements about veins is CORRECT?
a. venous valves are an extension of the tunica media
b. up to one third of the total blood volume is stored in the venous circulation at any given time
c. veins have a small lumen in relation to the thickness of its wall
d. the flow of venous blood is not a major result of ones blood pressure
17. Peripheral resistance of blood vessels:
a. decreases as the length of the blood vessel increases b. increases as the diameter of the blood vessel increases
c. increases as the viscosity of blood increases d. does not play a major role in affecting ones blood pressure
18. Blood flow to the skin:
a. is regulated mainly by a decreasing pH
b. increases when external environmental temperature rises
c. increases when internal body temperature decreases so that the skin does not freeze
d. is not an important source of nutrients and oxygen for skin cells
19. Which of the following statements about the movement of materials at the systemic capillary level is CORRECT?
a. oxygen is actively transported up its concentration gradient
b. waste products such as CO2 follow the same general pathway as O2
c. CO2 moves from its site of production into the interstitial fluid
d. if capillary blood osmotic pressure is much greater than interstitial fluid osmotic pressure, tissue edema will likely
result
20. Which arterial tunic modification is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure?
a. a thin tunica interna/intima b. a thick tunica media
c. a thin tunica externa d. a thick tunica adventitia
Label

1. The lymphatic system functions to:

a. transport glucose b. collect excess fluid from the interstitial space c. defend the body
against foreign cells and molecules d. only b & c are correct e. a, b, and c are correct
2.. are rings of lymphatic tissue located in the nasopharynx.
a. palatine tonsils b. adenoids c. pharyngeal tonsils d. both b & c

3. Which of the following is not a function of the spleen?


a. removal of old or defective RBCs from the blood c. storage of platelets b. phagocytosis of
foreign material in blood d. intiates immune response e. all of the above are functions of the
spleen
4..
Compared to blood capillaries, lymph capillaries
a.
have a basement membrane
c.
have endothelial cells that overlap like shingles
shape

b.

are smaller in diameter


d.
have regular cylindrical

5..
The tonsils consist of the _____, which protect against bacteria that may invade tissues
around the openings between nasal & oral cavities.
a. pharyngeal tonsil, palatine tonsil, lingual tonsil b.pharyngeal tonsil, palatine tonsil, lingual
tonsil, parotid tonsil c.pharyngeal tonsil, palatine tonsil, lingual tonsil, submandibular tonsil
d.parotid tonsil, sublingual tonsil, submandibular tonsil
6.. How is the lymph pumped around the body?
A. By a special organ (the lymphocardial node), located in the abdomen, that acts like a little
pump.
B. The lymph vessels are flattened against arteries and the muscular action of the arteries helps
to push the lymph along.
C. By muscular movements and contractions of the larger lymph vessels.
7. What stops lymph from travelling backwards through the lymphatic vessels?
A. Nothing, because the lymphatic system works most efficiently when the lymph is allowed to
travel in whichever direction it needs to go. B. Many of the vessels contain one-way valves,
which are forced shut by back-pressure.
C. The lymph is contained and pumped at high pressure inside the lymphatic vessels, making
any backwards movement impossible.
8.What happens to any excess fluid that the lymphatic system removes from tissues?
A. Fluid that the body needs is returned to the bloodstream, but excess fluid is piped directly to
the bladder for excretion.
B. Fluid that the body needs is returned to the bloodstream, but excess fluid is directed to the
mouth to aid in saliva production.
C. All collected fluids are returned to the bloodstream.

9.. Lymph capillaries


a. have a basement membrane. b. are less permeable than blood capillaries. c. prevent backflow of lymph into
the tissues. d. all of the above.
10.. Lymph is moved through lymphatic vessels because of
a. contraction of surrounding skeletal muscles. b. contraction of the heart. c. pressure changes in the blood
vessels. d. flapping of the lymph valves. e. pumping by lymph nodes.

11. Which of the following statements is true?


a. Lymphatic vessels do not have valves. b. Lymphatic vessels empty into lymph nodes.
c. Lymph from the right-lower limb passes into the right lymphovenous portal.
d. Lymph from the jugular and subclavian trunks empties into the cisterna chyli.
e. All of the above.
12.
Lymph nodes are usually present in groups in the: submaxillary, superficial cervical,
axillary, iliac and ______.
a.
plantar
b.
inguinal
c.
encephalon d.
femoral
13. The tonsils
a. consist of three groups of lymphatic nodules. b. are located in the nasal cavity. c. are located
in the oral cavity. d. increase in size in adults. e. all of the above.
14. Lymph nodes
a. filter lymph. b. are where lymphocytes divide and increase in number. c. contain a network
of reticular fibers. d. contain lymphatic sinuses. e. all of the above.
15.
a.
b.
c.
them.
d.

The thymus:
Produces new cells and destroys the old (haematopoiesis).
Is the source of lymphocytes before birth and enables lymphocytes to develop into T cells.
Defends by initiating macrophages to remove microorganisms in blood and phagocytose
Is a blood reservoir

short answer
1 If the thymus of an experimental animal is removed immediately after its birth, the animal
exhibits the following characteristics: (a) it is more susceptible to infections, (b) it has decreased
numbers of lymphocytes in lymphatic tissue, and (c) its ability to reject grafts is greatly
decreased. Explain these observations.

2 What effect does rapid (respiratory rate equals 24 breaths per minute), shallow (tidal volume
equals 250 mL per breath) breathing have on minute ventilation, alveolar ventilation, and
alveolar PO2 and PCO2?

3 Describe how lymph is transported from the tissue fluid around the muscles of the biceps back
to the blood