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# Episode 5

## ON TEACHING APPROACHES AND METHODS

Name
of
FS
Student
_Deliman,
Jundel
L.__________________________________________
Course _Bachelor of Secondary Education________________________ Year & Section _II__
Resource Teacher _Mary Juliet Doo __________ Signature ___________ Date _02-0116__
Cooperating
School
_JH
Cerilles
State
College______________________________________

## My Performance (How I Will Be Rated)

Field Study 2 Episode 5 - On Teaching Approaches and Methods
Focused on: Determining the teaching approach or method used by the Resource Teacher

Exemplary
4

Superior
3

Satisfactory
2

Unsatisfactory
1

Observation/Documentation

My Analysis

My Reflection

My Portfolio

Submission

Sub Totals
{

Rating: (Based on
transmutation)

Over-all Score

_______________________
Signature of FS Teacher
above Printed Name

_______________________
Date

## Transmutation of score to grade/rating

Score
20
18-19
17
16
15
14

1.0
1.25
1.5
1.75
2.00
2.25

99
96
93
90
87
84

Score
12-13
11
10
8-9
7-below

2.50
2.75
3.00
3.5
5.00

81
78
75
72 and
below

My Tools
OBSERVATION SHEET
Name of the Resource Teachers Observed: Mary Juliet Doo
Subject Area: Mathematics

Approach/Method

1. Deductive Method

## Description of Teaching Behavior that

Proves
Use
of
the
Teaching
Approach/Method
(What
did
my
Resource Teacher do as she used this
approach/method?)
My resource teacher taught her
learners ratio and proportion by directly
stating its definitions and how the process is
done. She then gave examples afterwards. A
quiz followed after the discussion. This is a
deductive way of teaching.

2. Inductive Method

## On the contrary, on her follow-up

similarities, my resource teacher gave her
students a drawing of two quadrilaterals and
allow them to examine it using the concept
of ratio and proportion. Then they listed the
make a generalization.

3. Demonstration Method

## From the word itself, demonstration

is teaching learners how to perform a thing.
Yesterday, my resource teacher taught the
students how to deal proportions and finding
the missing variable. In her follow-up
lesson, she taught the learners on how to
prove similar quadrilaterals through the use
of ratio and proportion.

4. Problem Solving

## Problem solving is best employed

and shown when my resource teacher
selected learners to find the value of x in the
given ratio and proportion.

5. Discovery Method

## Given the concept in ratio and

proportion and an illustration of similar

## quadrilaterals, my resource teacher let the

students find the connection in it. They
found out that quadrilaterals are similar if
their corresponding side are in proportion to
each other. This is a discovery method of
teaching.
6. Problem Solving Method

## Same with number 4, Problem

Solving Method is best shown by the
teacher when she let the students generate
answer on the given questions related to
students what property to be used and what
steps are needed. This is an example of
problem solving method.

7. Project Method

## Although my resource teacher did

not gave a project yesterday, Im sure that
the Grade 9 students have Math projects
because it is a perquisite in their studies. It
could be in a form of illustration or a
product. On the other hand, she gave them
assignment or home task to practice on their
lesson.
Knowing that her students had prior
knowledge on ratio and proportion, my
resource teacher presented a sample of it
and let the students form insights. Then, she
discussed geometric means which could be
obtained from ratio and proportion. In this
way, learners construct new learning from
their prior knowledge. This is the focused of
constructivist approach.

8. Constructivist Approach

9. Metacognitive Approach

## Metacognitive approach is thinking

about thinking. It is beyond cognition. An
example of this is that my resource teacher
let the students reflect on the properties of
similar quadrilaterals and how would it be
applicable in the new situation she presented
on the board.
From the word itself, integrated
approach means teaching more subject
matter at once. It is relating other subjects to
Math. Although it is not greatly shown by
my resource teacher, I can say that she can
teach interactively through touching
History, Science, etc. while teaching
a

## 10. Integrative Approach

Mathematics.
My Analysis
1. Which approaches/ methods will be grouped together? Why?
For me, Direct, Demonstration and Deductive Method should be in one group.
Indirect, Inquiry, Problem-Solving, project and Inductive Method is another group.
Cooperative, Peer and Partner learning is another group. And Blended, Reflective,
Metacognitive, Constructivist and Integrative approach would be the last group.
I group it this way in the sense that the first group is less interactive, passive and
teacher-centered. The second group is student-centered and more on hands-on activities.
The third one is more focused on group teaching while the last are more advance
approaches and are most suited and applicable in the 21st century.
2. Which approaches/ methods are more interactive? Less interactive?
The Deductive and Direct method are less interactive in the sense that learners are
just waiting to be fed by information. On the other hand, Inductive, Problem-Solving, etc.
are more interactive because they focused on the students experiences. Thus, they need
hands-on exercises.
3. When should the direct method be used?
Direct method is best used when the topic at hand is procedural, factual and noncontroversial in which the learners still dont have insights about it. The expertise of the
instructor is needed to supplement the needs of the learners.
4. When should the indirect method be used?
Indirect method is best used when you want your learner to infer, discover and solve
problems. This is an interactive method; thus, the teacher is tasked to provide various
experiences for the learners to generate information and learning.
5. Which approaches/ methods promote learning to live together?

For me, the approaches/methods that promote learning to live together are
Cooperative Learning, Peer Tutoring and Partner Learning. In these methods, learners are
engaged in groups or in partner. They not only learn or gain information from each other
but also learn how to cooperate and go with their fellow learners. In this way, both the
cognitive and the social part of the learner is improved.

My Reflections
If I decide on my teaching approach/method, I will consider

## If I decide on my teaching approach/method, I will consider many things.

First is my instructional objectives. My aims should define what method to be used or
what approach needed to be performed in order that my aims will be achieved. Also, I
will consider my subject matter. Some teaching methods are applicable in Math and
Science like Problem-Solving method and other. Some also are more suited to English
and other subjects. I will also consider my learners. My learners age is very crucial.
Say for example, some methods especially for those that require Higher-OrderThinking-Skills (HOTS) are more suited to older learners. Also, the interest of my
learners should not be forgotten. Learners learn best if their interests are met. And
the teacher should choose appropriate teaching method to do this. Another factor is
the ability of the teacher himself/herself. A teacher should be knowledgeable on the
topic. Also always consider time. Some teaching approaches/methods require plenty
of time.
These are some of the things Ill consider in deciding my teaching
approach/method. But as teachers, we should always bear in mind that there is no
perfect method. The best method is the one that works; the one that yields results.

My Portfolio
1. By means of a graphic organizer show the characteristics of a constructivist and a
metacognitive approach.

## Construction of learning from ones prior knowledge

Active process of learning

CONSTRUCTIVIST
APPROACH

Student-centered

## Includes subvocalizing or talking to oneself.

Beyond cognition.

METACOGNITIVE
APPROACH

## Reflecting on how one think and learn.

2. Do serious research and complete this Table on Methods. The first is done for you.
Method
1. Deductive Method

2. Inductive Method

Direct teaching so I can
accomplish more within a given
period of time.

3. Problem-Solving Method

When to Use
Time
is
limited;
subject matter is very
difficult;
learners
lesson; teacher is not
yet
skilled
in
facilitating skills

## Learners are more engage

in an active teachinglearning process
Higher-order-thinkingskills (HOTS) will be
developed among learners

## Help learners develop

critical thinking, openmindedness
and
wise
judgment
Develop HOTS

4. Project Method

5. Cooperative Method

## Let students have a

tangible product of the
concept discussed
Enable them to develop
manipulative skills and
creativity
Includes cooperation in
group and sharing of ideas

## Learners social health is

Time is plenty
Teacher is an
topic
Learners are older
so
that
their
HOTS are more
developed, thus
they are able to
generate
generalization
Best suited in
Math and Science
Students age is
appropriate to the
level of question
has something to
do
with
the
students life
Time is sufficient
like a period of
several days or
weeks
When the teacher
wants students to
apply what they
learn
The project has
application
or
connection
to
learners real life
If

learners

are

6. Demonstration Method

nourished
Employs friendliness and
openness among learners
Values like cooperation and
hard work will surely
develop
Learners gain knowledge
from each other

## Value of confidence will be

developed
among
demonstrators
Curiosity
and
keen
observation
will
be
developed
among
observers
The demonstration is a
well-planned activity
Topic will be discussed in
depth by the demonstrator

needed to be
acquainted
If the teacher
considers
her
students as a great
resources
of
certain topic
If time is ample to
give learners time
to be with each
other
Demonstrators are
knowledgeable