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Introduction in Water Treatment

Factors for selection of a treatment process


1. Characteristics of the wastewater
- Form of pollutants  suspension
 colloidal
 dissolved
- Biodegradability
- Toxicity of the components

2. Required effluent quality


3. Cost
4. Availability of treatment devices and area
(land)
5. Consideration for future use

Water treatment process

Effluent

Pre- and
Primary
treatment

runoff

Secondary
Treatment

Tertiary
treatment

Types of Water Treatment

Mechanical Treatment

Physical Treatment

Chemical Treatment

Biological Treatment

Pretreatment & Primary


treatment

Secondary & Tertiary


treatment

PRE- AND PRIMARY TREATMENT


to prepare the wastewater for biological treatment
Purpose

Treatment

Remove large solids, grit

Screening

Remove oils, grease


and suspended solids

Flotation,
Sedimentation
Coagulation
filtration

Adjust the pH

Neutralization

SECONDARY TREATMENT

- Biological degradation of organic compounds


(aerobic / anaerobic)
- Microorganisms and solids will be allowed
to settle
- Recycle of a fraction of sludge
** toxic residues have to be removed prior to
biological treatment **

TERTIARY TREATMENT
to remove specific types of residuals
- Filtration : removal of suspended or colloidal solids
- Adsorption, chemical oxidation : removal of organics
- Ozonation, chlorination : disinfection

** all these processes have their place in overall


Wastewater treatment scheme **

Pretreatment & Primary treatment technologies


Oil
separation

Equalization

Spill
basin

Source
control

Flotation

Neutralization

Coagulation
and
precipitation

Sedimentation

Filtration

EQUALIZATION

To minimize or control fluctuations in wastewater


characteristics in order to provide optimum conditions
for subsequent treatment process
Purposes of equalization for industrial treatment facilities :
1. To provide adequate dampening of organic fluctuations.

To prevent shock loading of biological systems

Purposes of equalization for industrial treatment facilities :


2. To provide adequate pH control or to minimize the
chemical requirements necessary for neutralization.
3. To minimize flow surges to physical-chemical treatment
systems and permit chemical feed rates compatible with
feeding equipment.
4. To provide continuous feed to biological systems over
period when the manufacturing plant is not operating.

5. To provide capacity for controlled discharge of wastes


to municipal systems.
To distribute waste loads more evenly.

6. To prevent high concentrations of toxic materials from


entering the biological treatment process.

Example Controlled discharge of an industrial wastewater to


a municipal plants.

Cumulative
discharge

Hours of the day

Municipal

Industrial

Hours of the day

Industrial rate of flow (gal/h)

Maximum
storage
required

Municipal rate of flow (gal/h)

Cumulative volume (million gal)

Cumulative flow

Equalization basin
Example: Submerged mixers  most common method
Equalization basin may be
designed with
- a variable volume to provide a
constant effluent flow
or
- constant volume and effluent
flow that varies with influent

Flow Equalization
- The cumulative flow is plotted versus time over
the equalization period.
- The maximum volume with respect to the constant
Discharge line is the equalization volume required.

b
b

a  empty basin
b  full basin

Application of flow equalization in the process

in-line
equalization

off-line
equalization

Application of flow equalization in the process


In-line equalization: all the flow passes through the
equalization basin.
Off-line equalization: only the flow above some
predetermined flow limit is diverted into the equalization
Basin.

References
1. George Tchobanoglous, Franklin L. Burton, H. David Stensel,
Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse. 4th ed.,
Metcalf & Eddy, Inc.,2003.
2. W. Wesley Eckenfelder, Jr. Industrial water pollution control. 3rd ed.,
McGraw-Hill, 2000.