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# AP Physics B Formula Study Sheet

NEWTONIAN MECHANICS
displacement is a change in
Δx = area under v-t graph position; velocity is the rate
Kinematics of change of displacement,
Δv = area under a-t graph acceleration is the rate of
change of velocity
the sum of all forces is
Net Force Fnet = ma proportional to mass x
acceleration
the friction force is
Friction force Ff = μFN proportional to the coefficient
of friction x the normal force
the acceleration of an object
v2
centripetal acceleration ac =
r
experiencing UCM is equal to
the speed2 / the radius
torque is equal to the
torque τ = rF perpendicular distance x the
force
momentum is equal to mass x
momentum p = mv velocity
impulse is equal to the change
impulse J = FΔt = mΔv in momentum

1 kinetic energy is ½ mass x
kinetic energy K= 2 mv2 velocity2

gravitational potential gravitational potential energy
Ug = mgh is mass x gravitational field x
energy height
work is the energy done by an
mechanical work W = FΔx external force moving
through a displacement
power (general Wnet power is the rate of energy
P= transfer
definition) ∆t

power in terms of power is the rate at which an
P = Fv external force moves through
velocity a displacement
the force in a spring is equal
to the spring constant x the
spring force Fs = kΔx amount of stretch or
compression of the spring
1
the energy stored in a spring
spring potential energy Us = 2 kΔx2 = ½ x spring constant x the
stretch or compression
the period of a spring depends
m
period of a spring Ts = 2π
k
on mass and spring constant
(not amplitude)
the period of a pendulum
l
period of a pendulum Tp = 2π
g
depends on length and
gravitational field

relationship between period and 1 period and frequency are frequency T= f reciprocals of each other any two masses exert a gravitational force between Gm 1 m 2 any two objects with mass FG = r2 gravitational force on each other gravitational potential energy any 2-mass system near has Gm 1 m 2 potential energy between any two objects with UG = r mass FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS absolute pressure in a P = P0 + ρgh fluid gage pressure P = ρgh buoyant force Fbouy = ρVg fluid flow continuity A1v1 = A2v2 volume flow rate A1v1 1 P + ρgy + 2 ρv2 = Bernoulli’s principle constant pressure (general F P= definition) A ideal gas law PV = nRT = NkBT 3 internal energy in a gas Kavg = 2 kBT velocity of a gas 3RT 3k B T vrms = = µ molecule M W = PΔV or area under thermal work graph change in internal ΔU = Q + W energy Wnet efficiency (general) e= Qin TH − TC ideal (Carnot) efficiency ec = TH .

. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM kq1 q 2 Electrostatic force Fe = r2 kq1 Electrostatic field E= r2 Electrostatic potential kq 1q 2 Ue = energy r kq 1 Electrostatic potential V= r Charge on a capacitor Q = VC ε0 A Capacitance C= d Energy stored in a UC = ½ QV = ½ CV2 capacitor ∆Q Current (definition) I= ∆t ρl Resistance of a wire R= A Ohm’s Law V = IR V2 Power in a circuit P = IV = R = I2R Equivalent resistor for Req = R1 + R2 + … series Equivalent resistor for  1 1  −1 Req =   R + R +..   parallel  1 2  Equivalent capacitance for  1 1  −1 Ceq =   C + C +..   series  1 2  Equivalent capacitance for Ceq = C1 + C2 +… parallel ..

Take ast . Magnetic force on a moving charge in a FB = qvBsinθ magnetic field Magnetic force on a current carrying wire in FB = BIlsinθ a magnetic field Magnetic field around a µ0 I B= 2πr current carrying wire Magnetic flux Φm = BAcosθ Average EMF generated ∆ Φm by a changing magnetic − εavg = ∆t field EMF generated by a loop moving into or out ε = Blv of a magnetic field Force BIl’s qvB ε Blvd when the flux is changing.

WAVES AND OPTICS Velocity of a wave v = fλ c Index of refraction n= v Snell’s Law n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2 n1sinθ1 = n2sin90 or Critical angle n2 sinθc = n1 1 1 1 Mirror & lens equation + si s o = f hi s Magnification M= =− i ho so Focal length in terms of R f= radius of curvature 2 Diffraction pattern path mλ = dsinθ difference Diffraction pattern mλL xm = spacing d ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS Energy of a photon E = hf = pc Maximum kinetic energy -φ + hf = Kmax of an emitted electron deBroglie wavelength of h λ= an emitted electron p Rest energy of a mass ΔE = (Δm)c2 .