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Applied Thermal Engineering 29 (2009) 793798

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Applied Thermal Engineering


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng

Adsorption cooling cycles for alternative adsorbent/adsorbate pairs working


at partial vacuum and pressurized conditions
W.S. Loh a, I.I. El-Sharkawy b,1, K.C. Ng a,*, B.B. Saha b,*
a
b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescents, Singapore 119260, Singapore
Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga-koen 6-1, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 14 June 2007
Accepted 16 April 2008
Available online 23 April 2008
Keywords:
Adsorption
Single-stage
Thermal activation
Single-effect double-lift cycle

a b s t r a c t
This article presents the performance analysis of both ideal single-stage and single-effect double-lift
adsorption cooling cycles working at partially evacuated and pressurized conditions. Six specimens of
adsorbents and refrigerant pairs, i.e., ACF (A-15)/ethanol, ACF (A-20)/ethanol, silica gel/water, Chemviron/R134a, Fluka/R134a and MaxsorbII/R134a have been investigated. The relationships between equilibrium pressures, adsorbent temperatures and equilibrium adsorption concentrations (Dhring diagram)
are presented. Parametric analyses have been carried out with various regeneration (desorption) and
evaporation temperatures. Theoretical analysis for adsorption cycles working in single-stage mode shows
that ACF (A-20)/ethanol can achieve a specic cooling effect (SCE) of 344 kJ/kg_ads, which is followed by
the silica gel/water pair with 217 kJ/kg_ads at a regeneration temperature of 85 C. On the other hand,
when the regeneration temperature is below 70 C, single-effect double-lift cycle has a signicant advantage over single-stage cycle, at which the SCE is higher due to the reduction in adsorption bed pressure in
single-effect double-lift cycle.
2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
The study of thermally activated adsorption cooling cycle is
motivated by two factors, namely the need to switch to
ozone-friendly working uids for refrigeration in the wake of
the ratication of the Montreal Protocol by several countries
and environmental concern in reducing the greenhouse gas
emissions in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol [1]. Thermally
activated adsorption cooling cycles or vapor adsorption refrigeration systems are considered to be the alternatives of conventional
vapor compression cycles as they can be driven by low temperature heat sources [2], i.e., industrial waste heat, solar hot water
system, etc. Apart from this, the systems are relatively simple
to construct, as it has no major moving parts. Electricity is needed
for the pumping of heat source and coolant ows only. Moreover,
the heat source temperature can be further reduced as low as
50 C if single-effect multi-lift (multi-stage) regeneration is
implemented [3]. Recent study shows that the cooling capacity
of the single-effect double-lift silica gel/water refrigeration cycle
can be improved by optimizing the adsorbent mass allocations

* Corresponding authors.
E-mail addresses: mpengkc@nus.edu.sg (K.C. Ng), bidyutb@cm.kyushu-u.ac.jp
(B.B. Saha).
1
Permanent address: Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of
Engineering, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura, Egypt.
1359-4311/$ - see front matter 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2008.04.014

between the bed adsorbing vapor from the bed in desorption


mode. They reported that the SCE of a single-effect double-lift cycle can be improved up to 20% when the mass ratio of upper to
bottom bed is xed at 2.5 provided that the cycle is driven by a
heat source of temperature 80 C and the delivered chilled water
temperature is achieved at 7 C [4]. However, since the system is
driven by low-temperature waste heat, Ng [5] has classied that
the COP of this thermally activated adsorption systems is normally very low.
The primary step for developing vapor adsorption refrigeration
systems is the characterization of adsorbent/adsorbate pair, which
includes the experimental determination of adsorption parameters. Recently, extensive effort has been put in to investigate the
possible adsorption working pairs [69]. The performance of zeolite/water [10], activated carbon/ammonia [11], activated carbon/
methanol [12], and silica gel/water [1315] have been analyzed.
The adsorption parameters enable the derivation of the relationship between adsorption uptake (the quantity of adsorbate adsorbed per unit mass of adsorbent), adsorption pressure and
temperature. From these perspectives, the current study aims to
analyze the performance of sub-atmospheric and pressurized
adsorption cooling cycles without heat recovery at which ACF (A15)/ethanol, ACF (A-20)/ethanol and silica gel/water function as
adsorbent/refrigerant pairs for sub-atmospheric cycles, whilst
Chemviron/R134a, Fluka/R134a and Maxsorb II/R134a are employed for pressurized cycles.

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W.S. Loh et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 29 (2009) 793798

Nomenclature
a; b
CE
Cp
COP
E
hfg
LH
n
P
Ps
Qh
qst
R
SCE
T
T e;a

constants in Eq. (10) ()


cooling effect per unit volume of adsorbent (MJ/m3)
specic heat capacity (kJ/kg K)
coefcient of performance ()
characteristic energy of the assorted adsorbent/adsorbate pair (J/kg)
specic enthalpy difference between saturated vapor
and saturated liquid (kJ/kg)
latent heat (kJ/kg K)
exponential parameter describes isotherm, ()
pressure (Pa)
saturated pressure (Pa)
heat added or rejected (kJ/kg_ads)
heat of adsorption (kJ/kg)
gas constant (J/kg K)
specic cooling effect (kJ/kg_ads)
temperature (K)
temperature at the end of adsorption process (K)

2. Theoretical analysis
The Dhring diagram (PTW) illustrates the relationship between the pressure, adsorbent temperature and adsorption concentration at equilibrium state conditions, and from which the
actual adsorption/desorption processes can be estimated. In the
present study, the DubininRadushkevich (DR) equation (Eq.
(1)) is used to predict the adsorption characteristics of ACF
(A-15)/ethanol and ACF (A-20)/ethanol [16]. Alternatively, for
Chemviron/R134a, Fluka/R134a and Maxsorb II/R134a pairs, DubininAstakhov equation (Eq. (2)) is employed therein to predict the
adsorption isosteres [17]. For silica gel/water pair, the modied
Freundlich (SBK) equation (Eq. (3)) is used to predict the adsorption isotherms [14,18].
W W 0 expfRT lnPs =P=E2 g;
W W 0 expfRT lnPs =P=En g:

1
2

In the Dubinin equations, E is the characteristic energy of the assorted adsorbent/adsorbate pair, which can be evaluated experimentally and R denotes the gas constant. The parameter n is an
exponential constant, which provides the best ttings of the experimental isotherms. The term W denotes the specic mass of adsorption or uptake (kg of adsorbate per unit mass of adsorbent) while
W 0 is the maximum uptake. The other parameters for DR and
DA equations are given by El-Sharkawy et al. [19]. In Eq. (3),
PT w and P s T s are the saturation vapor pressure at water vapor
temperature T w and silica gel temperature T s , respectively. The
numerical values for A0 A3 and B0 B3 are determined by the least
square t to experimental data [2]. The saturated vapor pressure
and temperature are correlated by Antoines equation as shown in
Eq. (4), where T is the absolute temperature [20].
W AT s PT w =P s T s BT s ;

T e;d
T s;a
T s;d
W
W0

temperature at the end of desorption process (K)


temperature at the start of adsorption process (K)
temperature at the start of desorption process (K)
adsorption capacity per unit mass of adsorbent at equilibrium (kg/kg)
maximum value of W (kg/kg)

Subscripts
ads
adsorbent
c
condenser
cri
critical
d
desorption
e
evaporator
fg
difference in property for saturated vapor and saturated
liquid
g
regeneration
ref
refrigerant/adsorbate
w
water

single-effect double-lift cycle was represented by doted lines. As


can be seen from the idealized Dhring diagram of Fig. 1, the single-effect double-lift cycle can operate in lower heat source temperature as compared to single-stage cooling cycle for the same
uptake capacity. Hence, single-effect double-lift cycle more preferable in lieu of single-stage cycle for the utilization of low-temperature solar or waste heat sources; this offers an attractive
possibility for improving energy conservation and efciency in
cooling purposes.
3. Simulation of equilibrium model
3.1. Single-stage adsorption cycle
The detailed analysis on thermodynamic processes of an ideal
adsorption cycle has been discussed previously by Cacciola and
Restuccia [21]. The ideal cycle (shown in Fig. 1 by solid lines) basically consists of four sequential thermodynamic processes, i.e., preheating (c ? d), desorption (d ? a), pre-cooling (a ? b) and
adsorption (b ? c) processes. An equilibrium model is adopted to
evaluate the cycle performance in terms of specic cooling effect
(SCE) and coefcient of performance (COP). Being thermodynami-

where
AT S A0 A1  T s A2  T 2s A3  T 3s
BT s B0 B1  T s B2  T 2s B3  T 3s


3820
Ps 133:32  exp 18:3 
:
T  46:1

The single-stage and single-effect double-lift adsorption cooling


cycles were superimposed onto the Dhring diagram in Fig. 1. The
single-stage cycle was represented by the solid lines whereas the

Fig. 1. Qualitative Dhring diagrams (PTW) for both single-stage and singleeffect double-lift cycles.

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W.S. Loh et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 29 (2009) 793798

cally equilibrium, all the thermal contributions are calculated


based on heat and mass balance from the Dhring diagram. The
COP of the adsorption cooling cycle is dened as the ratio of the
SCE and heat input to the system, Q h , as shown in Eq. (5).
The heat added to the system which is shown in Eq. (6) is simply
the summation of both the heat added to the adsorbent (Eq. (7)) and
adsorbate or refrigerant (Eq. (8)). In Eq. (7), the specic heat capacities of the assorted adsorbents are 924 J/kg K for silica gel, 900 J/
kg K for activated carbon bers and 930 J/kg K for activated carbons,
respectively [19,22,23]. The rst term of Eq. (8) is the isosteric heating of the adsorbate, while the second and third terms represent the
sensible heat added to the adsorbate and heat of adsorption, respectively. Heat of adsorption is described by Eq. (9) and the function
f T as given in Eq. (10) is deduced through experimental isotherm
data for ethanol on activated carbon bers (A-15 and A-20), HFC134a on activated carbon powder (Fluka and Maxsorb II) and activated carbon granule (Chemviron), whereas the heat of adsorption
for silica gel/water system is equal to 2800 kJ/kg [20,2].
The specic cooling effect (SCE) is dened as the difference between the evaporator load and heat dissipated to cool the adsorbate from condenser temperature to evaporator temperature, and
is shown by Eq. (11).
SCE
:
Qh
Q h Q ads Q ref :
Z Ta
C pads dT:
Q ads

COP

Tc

Q ref W max

5
6
7

Td

C pref dT

Tc

1=n

qst hfg ElnW 0 =W

Ta
Td

WC pref dT

W max

qst dW :

E  f T:


Z
SCE W max  W min LHT e 

Tc

Te

The working principle of the single-effect double-lift adsorption


cycle has been proposed by Saha et al. [18]. The ideal cycle as
shown in Fig. 1 by dotted lines, consists of two sequential thermodynamic processes (I and II). These sequential thermodynamics
processes employed the same principles as in the single-stage single-lift cooling cycle, at which the pre-heating, desorption, precooling and adsorption processes for the rst and second stages
are indicated as c ? d0 ? a0 ? b and c00 ? d00 ? a00 ? b00 , respectively. In the single-effect double-lift adsorption cycle, there is an
additional pair of adsorbent beds incorporated in between the
evaporator and condenser of the system. These extra adsorbent
beds allow the refrigerant pressure to increase via two consecutive
steps from evaporator to condenser. At the same time, this enables
the single-effect double-lift cycle to reduce the regeneration temperature of the adsorption cycle by dividing the evaporating pressure lift (pressure difference between the condenser and
evaporator) into two smaller steps. In the present simulation, the
total mass of adsorbent for single-stage cycle is assumed to be
equal to single-effect double-lift cycle, meaning that each bed in
the single-effect double-lift cycle will carry only half the amount
of adsorbent of the adsorbent bed in single-stage adsorption cycle.
The simulated performances of single-effect double-lift adsorption
cycle are compared with the single-stage adsorption cycle in terms
of COP and SCE.
4. Results and discussion

W min

f T aT=T cri :

3.2. Single-effect double-lift adsorption cycle

10


C pref dT :

11

Simulations for the six working pairs [ACF (A-15)/ethanol, ACF


(A-20)/ethanol, silica gel/water, Chemviron/R134a, Fluka/R134a
and Maxsorb II/R134a] are carried out at partial vacuum and pressurized conditions. The working pressures for ACF (A-15)/ethanol,
ACF (A-20)/ethanol and silica gel/water are between 1 and 10 kPa.
The Chemviron/R134a, Fluka/R134a and Maxsorb II/R134a based

Table 1
Adsorbent temperature and uptake capacity for idealized adsorption/desorption cycle simulated at T evap 6:7 C and T cond 29:4 C in accordance to ARI Standard 560
Adsorbent/refrigerant pairs

Single-stage cycle
Temperature (C)

Uptake (kg/kg)

Single-effect double-lift cycle


1st Cycle
Temperature (C)

Uptake (kg/kg)

2nd Cycle
Temperature (C)

Uptake (kg/kg)

ACF (A-15)/ethanol

ACF (A-20)/ ethanol

Silica gel/water

Chemviron/R134a

Fluka/R134a

Maxsorb II/R134a

Ta
Tb
Tc
Td

80
52
30
55

80
52
30
55

80
50
30
55

80
53
30
55

80
53
30
55

80
53
30
55

Wmin
Wmax
DW

0.28
0.47
0.19

0.25
0.58
0.33

0.04
0.12
0.08

0.31
0.34
0.03

0.36
0.45
0.09

1.39
1.75
0.36

T 0a
Tb
Tc
T 0d

66
52
30
42

66
52
30
42

65
50
30
42

63
50
30
42

67
53
30
42

67
53
30
42

Wmin
Wmax
DW

0.28
0.47
0.19

0.25
0.58
0.33

0.04
0.12
0.08

0.31
0.34
0.03

0.36
0.45
0.09

1.39
1.75
0.36

T 00a
T 00b
T 00c
T 00d

66
52
30
42

66
52
30
42

65
50
30
42

63
50
30
42

67
53
30
42

67
53
30
42

Wmin
Wmax
DW

0.39
0.58
0.19

0.43
0.76
0.33

0.08
0.16
0.08

0.33
0.36
0.03

0.40
0.49
0.09

1.58
1.94
0.36

The subscripts correspond to thermodynamic state points in Fig. 1.

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W.S. Loh et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 29 (2009) 793798

Table 2
COP and SCE for single and two-stages ideal adsorption cooling cycle, simulated at coolant temperature of Tevap = 6.7 C and Tcond = 29.4 C in accordance to ARI Standard 560

Single-stage cycle

COP

SCE (kJ/kg_ads)

Single-effect double-lift cycle

COP

SCE (kJ/kg_ads)

Adsorbent/adsorbate pairs

Regeneration Temperature (C)


45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

(A-15)/ethanol
(A-20)/ethanol
Silica gel/water
Chemviron/R134a
Fluka/R134a
Maxsorb II/R134a
(A-15)/ethanol
(A-20)/ethanol
Silica gel/water
Chemviron/R134a
Fluka/R134a
Maxsorb II/R134a
(A-15)/ethanol
(A-20)/ethanol
Silica gel/water
Chemviron/R134a
Fluka/R134a
Maxsorb II/R134a
(A-15)/ethanol
(A-20)/ethanol
Silica gel/water
Chemviron/R134a
Fluka/R134a
Maxsorb II/R134a

0.12
0.21
0.26
0.01
0.03
0.05
5.64
15.3
15.2
0.20
0.94
3.16

0.21
0.32
0.34
0.02
0.07
0.09
17.7
50.3
46.5
0.58
2.84
8.99

0.05
0.08
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.02
2.92
5.85
0.91
0.13
0.56
1.83
0.25
0.35
0.36
0.03
0.09
0.11
32.2
85.0
69.6
1.00
4.61
15.0

0.30
0.42
0.52
0.02
0.06
0.09
29.0
56.8
53.3
0.83
3.28
11.2
0.28
0.36
0.36
0.03
0.10
0.12
48.6
117.8
87.0
1.45
6.28
21.0

0.42
0.56
0.62
0.03
0.10
0.14
63.7
121.6
104.4
1.75
6.50
23.0
0.29
0.36
0.36
0.03
0.10
0.13
66.2
147.6
100.3
1.93
7.85
27.2

0.49
0.62
0.66
0.04
0.12
0.18
99.7
184.8
143.7
2.71
9.53
34.7
0.30
0.37
0.36
0.04
0.10
0.14
84.5
173.7
110.5
2.43
9.33
33.3

0.53
0.65
0.68
0.05
0.14
0.20
135.9
243.8
174.2
3.72
12.4
46.4
0.31
0.37
0.36
0.04
0.10
0.14
102.9
195.8
118.5
2.95
10.7
39.4

0.55
0.67
0.68
0.06
0.15
0.22
171.2
297.2
198.2
4.75
15.1
57.9
0.31
0.38
0.36
0.04
0.11
0.15
120.9
213.8
124.8
3.49
12.1
45.4

0.56
0.68
0.68
0.06
0.15
0.23
205.0
344.0
217.3
5.82
17.7
69.3
0.32
0.38
0.36
0.04
0.11
0.15
138.1
228.2
129.9
4.05
13.3
51.3

pressurized adsorption cycles are operated for pressure between


300 and 800 kPa. These pressures are calculated from the saturated
pressure at the evaporator and condenser temperatures.
Table 1 shows the temperature data at pre-cooling, adsorption,
pre-heating and desorption processes for both the single-stage and
single-effect double-lift cycles of the six assorted adsorbent/adsorbate pairs. These temperatures are simulated at evaporator temperature, T evap of 6.7 C and condenser temperature, T cond of
29.4 C in accordance to ARI Standard 560. The uptakes (W) of
the six working pairs are simulated from Eqs. (1)(3). For the same
amount of uptake capacity (DW = WmaxWmin), single-effect double-lift cycles require lower desorption or regeneration temperatures, T g compare to those of the single-stage cycle. For instant,
Maxsorb II-R134a working pair at uptake capacity of 0.36 kg/kg,
the T g at single-stage and single-effect double-lift cycles are equal
to 80 C and 67 C, respectively. Among these working pairs, Maxsorb II/R134a has the highest uptake capacity which is followed,
respectively by ACF (A-20)/ethanol, ACF (A-15)/ethanol, Fluka/
R134a, silica gel/water and Chemviron/R134a pairs.
Table 2 summarizes the effect of regeneration temperature on
the COP and SCE of single-stage and single-effect double-lift cycles.
From Table 2, it is evident that the SCE values increase linearly
with the increase of regeneration temperature for all six assorted
adsorbent/adsorbate pairs. For both single-stage and single-effect
double-lift cycles, ACF (A-20)/ethanol provides the highest value
for SCE which is followed by silica gel/water, ACF (A-15)/ethanol,
Maxsorb II/R134a, Fluka/R134a and lastly Chemviron/R134a. It is
worthy to mention that the sub-atmospheric systems always possess higher SCE and COP compared to those of pressurized systems.
For adsorption pairs with activated carbon as the adsorbent i.e.,
ACF (A-15), ACF (A-20), Chemviron, Fluka and Maxsorb II, the single-effect double-lift cycles have higher SCE values compared to
those of the single-stage cycles when T g is below 70 C. However,
for silica gel/water pair, the SCE of single-effect double-lift cycle
is higher compared to that of the single-stage cycle when T g is lower than 65 C. Fig. 2 shows the SCE of ACF (A-20)/ethanol adsorption pair for single-stage and single-effect double-lift cycles. The
simulated curves for single-stage and single-effect double-lift cycle
coincide when T g is about 67 C. In addition, the SCE of single-ef-

Fig. 2. Effect of regeneration temperature on specic cooling effect and coefcient


of performance at single-stage and single-effect double-lift adsorption cooling cycle
for ACF (A-20)/ethanol pair.

fect double-lift cycle for all six assorted working pairs are at least
about 40% higher than that of the single-stage cycles at T g below
60 C. This is caused mainly due to the lower desorption in single-stage cycles.
The COP values of single-stage and single-stage double-lift cycles increase abruptly with increasing T g up to 80 C and 60 C,
respectively. However, the improvement in COP values is only
marginal when T g is greater than 80 C and 60 C for single-stage
and single-stage double-lift cycle, respectively. This happens due
to the fact that the requirement of heat input becomes signicantly
higher when temperature difference between heat source and heat
sink is larger.
Contrary to SCE, the single-effect double-lift cycles have lower
COP values compared with those of the single-stage cycles. Since
in single-effect double-lift cycle comprises with four reactor beds,
the heat input requirement increases in this cycle as compared to
that of the single-stage one resulting a lower COP as compared to
that of single-stage cycles. COP of single-stage cycle is more than
50% compared to single-effect double-lift cycle at the same regen-

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W.S. Loh et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 29 (2009) 793798

Table 3
Cooling effect for single-stage and single-effect double-lift of ideal adsorption cooling, simulated at coolant temperature of T evap 6:7 C and T cond 29:4 C in accordance to ARI
Standard 560

CE (MJ/m3 of adsorbent)

Adsorbent/adsorbate pairs

Regeneration temperature (C)


45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

Single-stage cycle

ACF (A-15)/ethanol
ACF (A-20)/ethanol
Silica gel/water
Chemviron/R134a
Fluka/R134a
Maxsorb II/R134a

0.58
1.17
0.64
0.10
0.22
0.52

5.79
11.37
37.33
0.62
1.28
3.14

12.74
24.31
73.11
1.32
2.54
6.45

19.94
36.93
100.57
2.04
3.72
9.76

27.17
48.76
121.92
2.79
4.84
13.04

34.25
59.45
138.72
3.57
5.90
16.28

41.00
68.80
152.10
4.38
6.91
19.46

Single-effect
double-lift cycle

ACF (A-15)/ethanol
ACF (A-20)/ethanol
Silica gel/water
Chemviron/R134a
Fluka/R134a
Maxsorb II/R134a

1.13
3.06
10.67
0.15
0.37
0.91

3.54
10.06
32.54
0.44
1.11
2.53

6.44
17.00
48.74
0.75
1.80
4.20

9.72
23.56
60.91
1.09
2.45
5.91

13.25
29.52
70.18
1.45
3.07
7.63

16.91
34.74
77.33
1.83
3.65
9.35

20.58
39.15
82.93
2.22
4.20
11.06

24.18
42.77
87.37
2.63
4.72
12.75

27.61
45.64
90.92
3.04
5.21
14.40

eration temperature. However, COP values of the single-effect double-lift adsorption cycles are higher than those of the single-stage
cycle at T g ranging from 4555 C, as shown in Table 2. This is because at relatively lower regeneration temperatures, it is impossible for a single-stage cooling cycle to operate. The minimum
desorption temperature for the six working pairs at single-stage
mode is about 55 C [24], but for the single-effect double-lift cycle,
it can operate at temperatures below 55 C, which means single-effect double-lift cycle is possible to operate at near ambient temperature, i.e., between 45 and 55 C, which can be achieved easily from
a solar hot water system or industrial waste heat. This shows the
major advantage of single-effect double-lift cycle. If higher temperature heat source is available, single-stage adsorption cycle tends
to provide relatively higher performance. The effect of T g on COP
for ACF (A-20)/ethanol pair is also shown in Fig. 2.
From the design point of view, the compactness of reactor beds
is essential to achieve high cooling load at smaller chiller footprint.
As adsorbents are compressible substances, the mass of adsorbent
per unit volume (m3) highly depends on the packing density, qeff of
the adsorbents. Packing density is dened as the mass of adsorbent
that can be packed in a unit volume. Thus, cooling effect per unit
volume (CE) can be determined by multiplying the specic cooling
effect and the adsorbent packing density. The effects of regeneration temperature on CE per unit volume for the respective adsorbent/adsorbate pairs at assorted packing density are illustrated in
Table 3. It is noticed that the cooling effect for silica gel/water pair
having the highest value which is followed by ACF (A-20)/ethanol,
ACF (A-15)/ethanol, Maxsorb II/R134a, Fluka/R134a and Chemviron/R134a. In the present simulation, Chemviron/R134a working
pair has the highest packing density of 752 kg/m3, followed by silica gel/water pair with 700 kg/m3, Fluka/HFC-134a pair with
391 kg/m3, Maxsorb II/HFC-134a pair with 281 kg/m3 and ACFs/
ethanol with 200 kg/m3 [2,25].
5. Conclusions
Six specimens of adsorbents and refrigerant pairs, i.e., ACF (A15)/ethanol, ACF (A-20)/ethanol, silica gel/water, Chemviron/
R134a, Fluka/R134a and Maxsorb II/R134a have been analyzed
for the performance based on an ideal thermally driven adsorption
cooling cycle operating with single-stage single-lift and two-stage
double-lift cycles at assorted operating pressures. The salient
points of the present study are summarized as follows:
(a) ACF (A-20)/ethanol pair provides the highest value of specic cooling effect.

(b) Silica gel/water pair gives the highest value of cooling effect
per unit volume of adsorbent at the specied packing
densities.
(c) Silica gel/water pair is found to be the most feasible adsorbent/adsorbate pair among the six assorted adsorbent/
refrigerant pairs. However, increasing the packing density
of ACF (A-20) in the reactor beds may lead the ACF (A-20)/
ethanol based adsorption cooling systems promising for
cooling application.
(d) Partial vacuum adsorption cooling cycles provide better performances in term of COP and SCE as compared to those of
the pressurized cycles at the same operating temperature
conditions.
(e) The main advantage for single-effect double-lift adsorption
cycle is the ability to operate at relatively lower heat source
temperature i.e., about 4555 C.
(f) At lower regeneration temperature (less than 70 C), the single-effect double-lift cycle provides higher value of specic
cooling effect.
(g) Single-stage cycles attain higher COP values than those of
the single-effect double-lift cycles at relatively higher heat
source temperatures.

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