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VOCABULARY SKILLS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN ENGLISH

AMONG GRADE IV STUDENTS IN SAN ANDRES


ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Maricel H, Gutierrez
Southern Luzon State University
Tiaong Campus
April 25,2016

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Name: Maricel H. Gutierrez
Date of Birth: December 02, 1990
Place of Birth: San Andres Candelaria, Quezon
Age: 25
Sex: Female
Address: San Andres Candelaria Quezon
Parents: Mr. Hilarion and Mrs. Rosalinda Gutierrez
E-mail Address: Mazeh02@yahoo.com
Educational Background
School/ University

Inclusive Dates

San Andres Elementary School

2002-2003

Sta. Catalina National High School

2008-2009

Southern Luzon State University

2016-Present

Academic Affiliations:
GURU Society Member

2013-Present

Serbisyong Suarez Scholar

2013-Present

APPROVAL SHEET
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree Bachelor in Elementary
Education, this research paper entitled Vocabulary Skills and Academic Achievement
in English among Grade IV Students in San Andres Elementary Schoolhas been
prepared and submitted by Maricel H. Gutierrez, who is here by recommended for oral
examination.

JOANA MARIE P. DEL RIO


Research Adviser
Approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Bachelor in
Elementary Education, by the oral examination committee.

FERDINAND RELLOROSA
Member

HESHELL ELLAGA
Member

JESUS DUMA
Chairman
Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree Bachelor in
Elementary Education.

ENRICO SAJUL MAgr.


Officer-in-Charge
_________
Date signed

DEDICATION

I want to dedicate this piece of work to my Father and Mother


And to my beloved sisters and brothers
For their endless support
Also to Almighty God

MHG

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researcher express her thanks to the different personalities who made her research a
successful one.
MS. JOANA MARIE DEL RIO, for her dedication and full time effort to guide
the researcher to made this successful.
MR FELIX CORNEJO, for his heart warming welcome to San Andres
elementary School to conduct the study.
MRS CYNTHIA EUSEBIODE TORRES for allowing the researcher for
Malabanban Sur Elementary School for tryout. Her willingness to help and guidance with
regards to the researchers study.
MAAM ANALYN MAGBOO for her kindest cooperation and help for
conducting the researchers study to her class.
GRADE IV PUPILS of San Andrea Elementary School, for helping the
researcher by answering and responding to the test which is prepared and made by the
researcher itself.
MR HILARION GUTIERREZ, the father of the researcher and also her
siblings: Kuya Aldo, Kuya Emon, Ate Rechel, Ate Cherryl, Kuya Unad, Mira and Sherry,
for their endless support and giving the researcher motivation to be more energetic in
pursuing this research.

MR JONATHAN FLORDELIZ for the support financially and emotionally and


give motivation to made this successful.
CANAL FAMILY, for their full time effort, and support and providing materials
that the researcher used while doing this research.
DEAREST ALMIGHTY GOD, for the blessings and strength for the researcher
to have a good output.
BEED III-B for their sharing of ideas that is useful for this research.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Page
Title page . i
Biographical sketch .. ii
Approval Sheet . iii
Dedication...iv
Acknowledgement ..v
Table of Contents ..vii
List of Tables ...viii
List of Appendices .ix
Abstractx
Chapter I Introduction.....1
Background of the study.
Objectives
Significance of the study
Scope and Delimitation..
Definition of terms.

Chapter II Review of Literature


Conceptual framework
Null Hypothesis..
Chapter III Methodology.
Research Locale
Respondents
Research Design
Research Instrument..
Procedures/ data Collection.
Statistical Treatment.
Chapter IV Results and Discussion.
Findings
Chapter V Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Conclusion..
Recommendations..
References Cited.
Appendices..

LIST OF TABLES

Table

Page

1. Mean Distribution of the Vocabulary Skills in English.


2. Mean Distribution on Academic Achievement in English.
3. Coefficient Correlation of Vocabulary Skills
and Academic Achievement in English..

LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix

Page

A. Letter Asking Permission to conduct the study


B. Letter Asking For Tryout..
C. Letter for the Evaluation
D. Table of specification
E. Sample of Test
F. Sample validation Of the Instrument.
G. Summary of the Evaluators
H. Item Analysis of the Test
I. Grades of the Respondents in
1st and 2nd Grading Period.
J. Students Score in Test.
K. Solved Pearson r and T- value

ABSTRACT

Title: Vocabulary skills and academic Achievement in English among Grade IV Students
in San Andres Elementary School
Author: Maricel H. Gutierrez
Adviser: Joana Marie Del Rio

This study aims to find out the Vocabulary Skills in relation to academic Achievement in
English among Grade IV Students. Specifically it aims to accomplish. 1.To determine the
mean score of the respondents vocabulary skills in terms of: 1.1Synonyms, 1.2
Antonyms, 1.3 Prefixes, 1.4 Suffixes. 2. To determine the mean academic Achievement
of the pupils in English. 3. To find out if there is significant relationship between
vocabulary skills and academic achievement among grade IV students in San Andres
Elementary School. This study utilized the descriptive method of research, which was
administered to forty (40) grade IV pupils of San Andres Elementary School. Based on
the analyzed data the following findings were revealed: Synonyms with a mean of 77.5,
Antonyms with the mean of 83, Prefixes with a mean of 77 and Suffixes with a mean of
79.25. The mean academic achievement of students in English is 82.04 with analysis as
below average. The r-value of 0.63 was obtained and when subjected to a t-test its
computed value is 5.0, which is higher than the critical value of 2.021 at 0.05 level of
significance, thus the null hypothesis is rejected. There is a significant relationship
between the vocabulary skills and academic achievement of Grade IV Students in
English. Almost half of the students are below average. They have minimum knowledge,
skills and understanding.
Key words:
Achievement

Vocabulary skills, Synonyms, Antonyms, Prefixes, Affixes, Academic

Chapter I
INTRODUCTION

English as a global language comprises many aspects. One of the aspects is the
vocabulary skill.
Everyone has specific and distinct skills which are automatically achieved and
need to be develops. One of the skills that should be develops for the learner is the
vocabulary skills.
According to Chall & Jacobs (2003) vocabulary skills is linked strongly to
academic success of students. Person who have large vocabularies can understand new
ideas and concept more quickly than students with limited vocabularies.
The learners having good vocabulary skills can be able to read, write and
understand difficult words which are part of English.
Having the ability to comprehend word meaning, helps the individual learner to
cope with the challenging world of learning. Learners can understand different word
meanings and create good writing.
A knowledge of common affixes, synonyms, and antonyms help individual to
uplift vocabulary skills (Acurantes et al,.1995).
It holistically develops the learners not only by knowing the meaning of the words
or correctly identifies synonyms and antonyms but there are lots of competencies they
can get from it.
The learners can write good composition and they can be able to express
themselves formally and creative. They can also able to speaks good and deal with more
difficult task with the different disciplines.

If learners have great vocabulary skills they can be the best that can be. The
competent learners who will be ready at difficult task to be assign by the demanding
world of learning.
Background of the study
The researcher became interested in this research because according to DOE
Virginia (2012), students are required to expand their vocabularies as they advance from
grade to grade, and they need to know skills in vocabulary including synonyms,
antonyms, prefixes and suffixes.
How the learners can be successfully have vocabulary skills will be based by the
activities and techniques of the educator, as well as the efforts for our learners to
understand antonyms, synonyms, prefixes and suffix, for them to have a good vocabulary
skills.
The researcher wants to find out the vocabulary skills of students of San Andres
Elementary School. The researcher wants to find out how they accurately use same
meaning of specific words, as well as the opposite meaning of words, and the use of
prefixes and suffixes, how words change by adding or removing this affixes and if it has
relation with the academic performance in English.

Objectives
This study aimed to determine the vocabulary skills in relation to Academic
Achievement in English among grade IV students.

Specifically it aimed to accomplish the following:


1. To determine the mean score of the respondents vocabulary skills in terms of:
1.1 synonyms

2
3

1.2 antonyms
1.3 prefixes
1.4 suffixes
To determine the mean Academic Achievement of the pupils in English.
To find out if there is significant relationship between vocabulary skills and Academic
Achievement in English among grade IV students in San Andres Elementary School.

Significance of the study


The ideas and information gained from this study will benefit the following.
Pupils, it will help them to build up a skill which will benefit to their English
competency. It will help them to be a good reader, writer, speaker by having the practice
of vocabulary skills. Teacher, it will help them to be passionate in teaching the English
subject. It will also help them to prioritize the vocabulary skills as one of the tools for
enhancing learners English competency. Researcher, as a future educator it can be a
help for her by means of pointing out vocabulary skills as one of the tools for learners
enhancing learners competency. It will also help her to create more activities which will
uplift learners knowledge about wide range of words applied in communication and
studies.
Scope and Delimitation
The study is limited in vocabulary skills in antonyms, synonyms, prefixes and
suffixes in relation to the Academic Achievement in English as a subject of San Andres

Elementary School at San Andres Candelaria Quezon in the Academic Year 2015-2016.
The grade IV pupils were (40) forty pupils as the respondents. The researcher selected
Section A because the students here were heterogenous. The data were quantitative for
statistical purposes and for analyzing the study. This study is limited on the self- made
test as the main instrument of this research.
Definition of terms
All words have their meanings. Each word is defined operationally or
conceptually for easy understanding.
Academic Achievement refers to the mean grade in English in the first two
grading period.
Antonyms refers to a word that express a meaning opposed to the meaning of
another word, in which case the two words are antonyms of each other.
Prefixes are part of word that is added to the beginning of a base word, it also
change the meaning of the base word.
Suffixes are part of word that is added to the end of a base word, it also change
the meaning of the base word.
Synonyms are words that can be used interchangeably but meaning remains the
same.

Vocabulary skills refers to students understanding and recognition of words


and how this word was used in the sentence. This is what being tested in this study using
test.

Chapter II

RELATED LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES

This chapter presents the related readings and studies on the topic associated with
the research problem. The topics presented below discuss the facts on the vocabulary
skills synonyms, antonyms, prefixes, suffixes and academic achievement.
Vocabulary Skills
Vocabulary become more complex as students get older and this may frustrate are
overwhelm struggling readers. More advanced readers can also benefit from word study
skills therefor, it is important to teach all students how to break complex words into
smaller parts. To help those struggling students, teaching word parts will have to utilize.
These are: recognizing the words, decode words quickly and accurately and understand
the meaning of words (Vaughn et al., 2007).
According to ELA (1999) the following are ways to develop vocabulary
skills.1.Apply knowledge of words origins, derivations, synonyms, antonyms and idioms
to determine the meaning of word and phrases.2.Use knowledge prefixes and suffixes to
determine the meaning of unknown words in the phrase.3 Known common roots and
affixes derived from Greek and Latin words and used of this knowledge to analyze the
meaning of complex words.4. Use of thesaurus to determine related word and concepts.
5. Distinguish and interpret words with multiple meaning.
Oxford (2001), stated strategies for the discovery of a new words meaning which
will

improve

the

vocabulary

skills

of

the

learners.

These

are

the

following:1.Determination strategies: which includes analyzing of part of speech


affixes and roots.2.Social strategies, including: group activity where in the students
discover new meaning and ask teacher for assistance and ask teacher for paraphrase

or give the synonyms of new word and ask also the teacher to give sentence including
the new word.3.Memory strategies including: Study word with a pictorial
representation of its meaning and connect the new word to a personal experience.
Connect the word to its synonyms and antonyms, use semantic maps.4.Cognitive
strategies, including: verbal repetition, writers repetition, take notes in class, put
English labels on physical objects, use the vocabulary section in textbook and keep
this vocabulary notebook.5.Metacognitive strategies, including: use English media
(songs, movies, newscasts), testing oneself with word tests and continue to study
word overtime.
Oxford (2001) also added that learners uses simple strategies to determine
meaning and increase vocabulary for reading including the use of prefixes, suffixes,
root-words multiple meanings, antonyms, synonyms and word relationships.
Vocabulary skills is develop when the pupils acquiring new word to use in
daily life, and more specifically it is basis for learning in any language. Vocabulary
Development focuses on helping students learn the meaning of new words and
concepts in various contexts and across all academic context area. The teacher help
students to have good vocabulary skills, they are providing explicit instruction on
important words from text and teaching students strategies to help them learn word
meaning independently.
Loftus and Coyne (2013) Vocabulary become more complex as students get older
and this may frustrate are overwhelm struggling readers. Because of this it is
important to teach all struggling to improve their vocabulary skills and to help those

struggling students, teaching word parts will have to utilize and these are: recognizing
the words, decode words quickly and accurately and understand the meaning of
words. (Vaughn et al., 2007)
Segalowitz (1998) Stated that the more developed the learners vocabulary
skills, the less cognitive demands are placed on a learner, and enable learners to read
with less effort.
DepEd (2013) Stated in K-12 English curriculum guide that the grade IV
students at the beginning of the class in English subject, the teacher start to discuss
and introduces the synonyms, antonyms, prefixes and suffixes continuously to
develop their vocabulary skills. Students are expected to demonstrates understanding
that word meaning can be derived from different sources, demonstrate understanding
that words are composed of different parts and their meaning changes depending on
context. So the teacher as a primary mover of an educative process have their own
role for the students to become competent learners. The teachers will provides
different resources to find word meaning and use strategies to decode the meaning pf
words to enhance student vocabulary skills.
Synonyms
Although words that are synonyms are close in meaning, they rarely have the
exact the same meaning. In some other times, you will be able to use one of the several
words in the sentence, but at other times only the exact word will fit with the sentence or:
it is better to read more often so as you encounter a word in different context, you better
able to determine its meaning. (Aceron, 2012)

According to Strong et al., (1993) a collecting lists of synonyms is a productive


and often entertaining may to enlarge vocabulary. There is a lot of synonyms, but you
have to be careful to choose a more exact and effective word to be used.
Synonyms are most significant for vocabulary improvement, although some
words are quite overused, but there are several words to be used but you have to careful
for alternative words.
Shaw (1999) Stated that distinguishing the meaning of synonyms is effective and
often stimulating way to enlarge your vocabulary. Although there are words which have
the same meaning are synonyms for one another but remember that these words may
differ from one another. Becoming aware of distinction between similar words add to
your understanding and improve your vocabulary skills.
Kaihua (2016) Concluded in this study that the known synonym of the learner
might be conducive to the acquisition of the unknown synonyms. As learners vocabulary
size and vocabulary knowledge increase, more and more known synonyms become
related to the unknown ones, which also make unknown ones to acquired easier.
Antonyms
A knowledge of a variety of antonyms will help to avoid common place, over
worked words and also it will enable you to color your vocabulary. As students known
the antonyms of a word will often help them to understand the words exact meaning or at
least one exact meaning (Aceron 2012)

According to Strong (1993) antonyms or word with opposite meaning will


improve your understanding and also contribute to vocabulary growth. Since not all the
antonyms you discover will improve directly useful but all with add to your vocabularies.

Prefixes and Suffixes


Marzano (2004) Cited strategies to expand vocabularies and understanding using
suffixes ad prefixes. 1. The students have to review meaning of suffix and give examples.
2. Have students brainstorm more words that include suffixes and prefixes. 3. Involve
student periodically in games that allow them to play with terms. 4. Encourage students
periodically in achievements that help them add to their knowledge of terms 5. Highlights
affixes that will help them to remember the meaning of the term.
Information from suffixes and prefixes can help student learn and remember
words using words parts can be a particularly useful strategy in reading content are text.
In teaching word parts, you should stress how the parts to affect word meaning.
Once students have grasped the concepts of suffixes and prefixes you can easily teach
them the specific word parts.
Teaching students even just a few of affixes can dramatically improve their
vocabulary skills
Strong (1993) stated that knowing the most important suffixes and prefixes will
help students to improve their vocabulary skills since these are building blocks from
which many words are formed prefixes,

A knowledge of common suffixes and prefixes help students to broaden their


vocabulary (Villanueva et al., 1995)
According to Pennington (2009) prefixes and suffixes are very efficient tool to
acquire academic vocabulary.
Familiarity with prefix and suffix usage can provide clues for figuring but
thousands of words. As the learner learn the common prefixes and suffixes they will be
able guess the correct meaning of the new words. They will learned that the words when
adding prefix and suffix will changed their meaning (Aceron, 2012).
Conceptual Framework
The researcher has a background concept from related literature that vocabulary
skills involve knowledge in antonyms, synonyms, prefixes and suffixes which greatly
helps the individual learners to be competent in English. Through emphasizing the
vocabulary skills in the classroom by the teacher, we will produce competent learners that
can cope with demands of the curriculum.

Independent Variable

Vocabulary skills
Synonyms
Antonyms
Prefixes
Suffixes

Dependent variable

Figure 1: Research
Paradigm
Academic
Achievement in
English

Fig.1. Variables in Vocabulary Skills in relation to Academic Performance


The research paradigm in the Fig.1 shows the independent variables which are the
Vocabulary Skills in synonyms, antonyms, prefixes and suffixes. On the other hand the
dependent variable is the Academic Achievement in English of the students.
The independent variables affect the dependent variable in a way that have a good
Vocabulary Skills, it may uplifts the Academic Achievement in English among students.
Null Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between Vocabulary Skills and Academic
Achievement in English among grade IV students.

Chapter III
METHODOLOGY
This chapter deals with the method and procedures follow by this research for
conducting the study. It also includes research locale, sampling and respondents, research
instrument, procedures/ data collection and statistical treatment.
Research Locale

The study was conducted in Andres Elementary School. It is located at Brgy. San
Andres, Candelaria Quezon. The researcher conducted her research here because it was
near to the researchers house. Also for her to easy gathered necessary information for the
betterment of her study.
Sampling and Respondents
The respondents of this study were composed of selected Grade IV pupils of San
Andres Elementary School. Those pupils came from section A of Grade IV class having
(40) forty respondents. They were composed of students with different competencies and
skills so that the researcher can cope with balance result. Respondents were selected
purposively by the researcher through purposive sampling.
Research Design
The researcher used descriptive research design in her study. The design is dealt
with the facts about about the vocabulary skills of respondents in terms of synonyms,
antonyms, prefixes and suffixes in relation to the academic achievement in English.
Instrumentation and Validation
Self made test was utilized. The test was conducted to find out the vocabulary
skills of the respondents. The researcher followed the following procedure in making the
test.
1. Development of the TOS
The construction of the TOS was made first. This was done to avoid bias in the
distribution of question. The researcher was allotted 25% for synonyms, 25% for

antonyms, 25%for prefixes and 25% for suffixes with a total of 100%. Each item was
devided into three level of cognitive domain. The knowledge, understanding, and
analyzing.
2. Construction of Self made Test
The researcher constructed (40) items test and the distribution of question was
based from TOS. Test items was composed of ten (10) items for synonyms, (10) for
antonyms, ten (10) for prefixes and ten (10) for suffixes. Test was composed of multiple
type of question. Instruction in the test was made clear to avoid confusion on the part of
the respondents.
3.Content Validation of the Self made test
After the construction of the Self made test, the researcher submitted it to her
adviser for comment and suggestion about the content and its face validity. The
researcher presented the test to other teachers who were knowledgeable about the topic to
evaluate its content.
4.Tryout of the Self made Test
The researcher asked permission to the principal of Malabanban Sur Elementary
School to try out the test. The test was tried out to forty (40) students which is same grade
of the respondents. This was being done to find any problem that may arise before the
actual administration.
5.Item Analysis

After the tryout, all the items were analyzed and revision was made. Items 3, 8,
19, 28 and 40 were revised due to its difficulty.
6. Actual Administration
The researcher asked permission to the principal through letter noted by the
adviser to allow the researcher to conduct her study among grade IV students of San
Andres Elementary School. Upon approval, the researcher conducted her study and after
a week the researcher went back to the said school. The researcher administered her test.
The researcher have read and explained the direction clearly in order for the students to
answer it easily and without further question.
Procedure/ Data Collection
The researcher presented letter to the principal noted by the adviser to conduct her
study. The researcher discussed synonyms and antonyms in the first day. The following
day the researcher discussed prefixes and suffixes. After a week, the researcher went back
to administer her test. The researcher collected the test to be check by her. The researcher
also get and secure the academic grade of the student in English in the first two grading.
Statistical Treatment
After the data have been collected, analysis and interpretation of result from the
tests and the grades of the students in the first two grading was statistically calculated.
To get the mean score of the respondents vocabulary skills in synonyms,
antonyms, prefixes and suffixes. Also the mean of the academic achievement of grade IV
in English,

The formula was:

X
N

Where:
X= mean of the scores
= summation
X= scores of the respondents
N=total numbers of respondents
Pearsons Product-moment correlation will use to determine the significance of
relation between the Vocabulary Skills and Academic Achievement in English among
Grade IV pupils.
The formula of which is below:

x 2
y 2
( N y 2)

R=

( N x2 )

N xy x y

Where:
R= Correlation Coefficient
N= Total numbers of respondents

X= Score mean of test in Vocabulary Skills


Y= Academic Achievement of Pupils
X= Score mean of test in Vocabulary Skills
Y= Summation of Academic Performance
To interpret the result computation, the following scale point and adjectival
interpretation utilized
Scale

Analysis

0.00 0.21

Low negligible relationship

0.21 0.40
0.41 0.70

Present but slight relationship


Marked or substantial relationship

0.71 1.00

High to very high relationship

To determine the significance of the coefficient correlation the pearson r


and t-test will be compute using the formula below

Where
T= computed t- value
R= computed correlation
N= number of respondents

The researcher utilized the summary of grade interval and descriptive analysis
Grade Interval
95-100
89-94.99
83-83.99
77-82.99
71-76.99

Analysis
Excellent
Above average
Average
Below average
Poor

Transmutation of Grade for 10 items


10 = 100

5 = 50

9 = 90

4 = 40

8 = 80

3 = 30

7 = 70

2 = 20

6 = 60

1=0

Chapter IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data
gathered by researcher through the use of test to find out the vocabulary skills and
academic achievement in English among grade IV students in San Andres Elementary

School. These data collected are presented in tabular form every presentation to show the
results of objectives from chapter 1.
Table 1
Mean distribution of Vocabulary Skills
variables
synonyms
antonyms
prefixes
suffixes
Grand Mean

of students
score
3100
3320
3080
3170
79.38

Rank

Analysis

77. 5
83
77
79.25

3
1
4
2
Below average

Below average
Average
Below average
Below average

As shown in Table 1 Synonyms obtained 77. 5, antonyms 83, prefixes 77 and


suffixes 79. 25.
As shown from the data gathered among vocabulary skills,

antonyms has the

highest point, followed by suffixes, synonyms and prefixes. Based from the mean of each
vocabulary skills, the grand mean was 79.38 which is below average as an analysis.
The pupils havent mastered well the skills of vocabulary therefore some of the
score are low, but in terms of antonyms the pupils felt good so that they answered
correctly most of the questions. Because in the antonyms they just select the opposite
meaning of words in the test.
According to Caln (2012) to enhance students vocabulary and reading
comprehension, students are need to taught prefixes and suffixes, how words change by
adding or removing affixes and roots. Synonyms are most significant for vocabulary

improvement and antonyms having opposite meaning are useful for concept and
vocabulary understanding.
Jensen (2005) cited that one reason why knowledge of synonyms is relatively less
developed, is that they tapped into students metalinguistic knowledge.
Based from the study of Mearas (1997), she stated that the test measuring suffix
knowledge had a higher degree of difficulty than a test measuring word association
knowledge

Table 2
Mean distribution on the academic achievement in English
N

Analysis

40

3281. 5

82.04

Below Average

Table 2 shows the mean distribution on the academic achievement in English. The
highest grade was 94. 5 and the lowest was 77. The two grading periods obtained
summation of 3282 and the mean of 82.05 with the analysis of below average. The pupils
changed their performance in terms of academic in English. As the researcher analyzed

their grades, they are low from first grading and improved only the second grading.
Probably this is due to absences and lack of focus on the lesson of the teacher.
Table 3
Coefficient correlation of vocabulary skills and academic achievement in English.
variables
Vocabulary Skills

X
79.38

Academic Achievement

82.04

r
0.63

t
5 .0

Analysis
Significant

The mean sustained in the vocabulary skills is 79.38 and in the academic
achievements in English was 82.04. T he r value obtained 0.63 and when subjected to ttest, the t value is 5.0 which is higher than the critical value of 2.021 at 0.05 level of
significance thus the null hypothesis is rejected.
Based from the data, it shows that there is significant relationship between the
vocabulary skills and academic achievements in English.
Student work knowledge is linked strongly to academic success because students
who have large vocabularies can understand quickly the new ideas and concept. (Chall
and Jacobs 2003)
.Omar (2007), stated that in English Proficiency, learners vocabulary skills is a
prerequisite for academic success in English medium program. Also the vocabulary
knowledge and writing skills are good predictor of overall academic performance.

CHAPTER V
This study deals with the summary conclusions drawn and recommended based
on the findings of the study.
Summary
This study aimed to find out the vocabulary skills and academic achievement in
English among Grade IV pupils of San Andres Elementary Schools. Specifically it sought
to accomplished the following 1.)To determine the mean score of the respondents
vocabulary skills in items of: 1.1 Synonyms 1.2 Antonyms 1.3 Prefixes 1.4 Suffixes 2.)
To determine the mean academic achievements of the pupils in English. 3.) To find out if

there is significant relationship between vocabulary skills and academic achievement


among grade IV students in San Andres Elementary School. This study utilized the
descriptive method of research. The respondents comprises of forty (40) grade IV pupils
of San Andres Elementary school S.Y. 2015-2016 in Candelaria Quezon. Respondents
were selected purposively through purposive sampling. Test was used as the main
instrument in gathering the necessary data.
Findings
The following findings were revealed 1.) On the vocabulary skills, the result are
as follows. 1.1 Synonyms obtained the mean of 77. 5, 1.2 Antonyms obtained the mean
83, 1.3 Prefixes obtained the mean of 77, 1.4 Suffixes obtained the mean of 79.25 with
the total grade mean of 79.38, 2.)The mean academic achievement of students was 82.04,
3.) The mean vocabulary skills and the mean academic achievement in English obtained
the r- value of 0.63 and when subjected to a t-test it obtained 5.0 which is higher than the
critical value of 2.021 at 0.05 level of significance thus the null by hypothesis was
rejected.
Conclusions
Based on the findings the following conclusions were drawn.1.) The vocabulary
skills is below average. 2.) The mean academic in English is below average 3.) There is a
significant relationship between the vocabulary skills and the academic achievement.
Recommendation

Based on the findings and conclusions the researcher recommended that the
school must enhance the pupils vocabulary skills by giving daily activities which they
can adapt new words and use those words in a sentence and in dialogue or conversation
which will be part of their academic performance in English. Because if the unfamiliar
words practice, it will help learners to easy comprehend and understands the word that
they will be encountered. The teacher should make an extra effort especially for those
pupils who got low scores in test.

References cited
Books
Aceron, Romel A. 2012, Study and thinking skills. Mandaluyong City: Books Atbp.
Publishing Corp.

Stahl, Steven A. 1999, Vocabulary Development. Cambridge: MA: Brookline Books.


Shaw, Harry 1999. A complete course in freshman English. New York: Harper& Row
Publisher Incorporated.

Villanueva et al.,1995. English Skills for college freshmen. Quezon Ave, Quezon City:
KATHA Publishing Co., Inc.

Strong Willliam et al.,1993, Language Arts Today. New York: Macmillan/ Macgraw- Hill.

Oxpord Rebecca L. 2001: Teaching English as second or foreign language. Boston:


Heinle and Heinle.

Pennington Kenneth 2009, High Frequency prefixes, suffixes and root. Pennington
Publishing

Published work
Armbruster 2009, A Summary of the Vocabulary Research with Student who are deaf or
hard of hearing.

Segalowitz 1998, Assessing the Development of Automacity in Second Language: Word


Recognition Applied Psycholinguistics.
Journal
Chall Js & Jacobs V. A 2003, Writing and Reading in Elementary Grades Developmental
trends among low SES children: Language Arts

Kaihua Nie 2016, The Effect of Synonym Relationship upon the Acquisition of MultiDimensional Vocabulary Knowledge: Studies In Literature and Language.
Unpublished Thesis
Omar 2007, Recognition Vocabulary Skills as a Predictor of Academic Achievement in
English: Sothern Cross University: Southern Cross University e Publication.

Caln Chung 2012, Research based Vocabulary Instruction for English Language
Learners: Eastern University.

Website
Kidport: Essential Skills for teaching Vocabulary. Retrieved December 17,
2015.www.quva.com/jg.

Portland, ME, Stenhouse. ELA vocabulary development. Retrieved November 23,


2015.www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss documents.

APPENDIX A
Letter to Conduct Study
Republic of the Philippines
Southern Luzon State University
Tiaong Campus
Brgy. Lagalag, Tiaong, Quezon
January 8, 2016
MR. FELIX C. CORNEJO
Principal
San Andres Elementary School

Sir:
Greetings in the precious name of the Lord!
The undersigned is currently working on her undergraduate thesis entitled Vocabulary
Skills and Academic Achievement in English among Grade IV Students in San
Andres Elementary School.
In connection with this, may she request your permission to conduct her research and to
use your respective pupils as respondents.
Your favorable response about this matter is highly appreciated. Thank you and
Godspeed!
Very respectfully yours,
Maricel H. Gutierrez
Researcher
Noted:
Ms. Joana Marie Del Rio
Adviser
Recommending Approval

Approved by:

Mr. Enrico Sajul


EIC

Mr. Felix C. Cornejo


Principal
APPENDIX B
Letter for Tryout
Republic of the Philippines
Southern Luzon State University
Tiaong Campus
Brgy.Lagalag, Tiaong Quezon

January 29, 2016


Mrs. Eusebia Cynthia A. de Torres
Principal
Malabanban Sur Elementary School
Brgy. Malabanban Sur, Candelaria, Quezon

Madam:
The undersigned is currently working on her undergraduate thesis entitled Vocabulary
Skills and Academic Achievement in English among Grade IV Students in San
Andres Elementary School.
In connection with this, may she request your good office for try-out of her test to the
grade IV pupils on January 29, 2016.
Your favourable response regarding this matter is highly appreciated.
Thank you and God Speed!
Respectfully yours,
MARICEL H. GUTIERREZ
Researcher
Noted:
MS. JOANA MARIE DEL RIO
Research Adviser
Approved by:
MRS. EUSEBIA CYNTHIA A. DE TORREZ
Principal
APPENDIX C
Letter of request to the Evaluator
Republic of the Philippines
Southern Luzon State University
Tiaong, Campus
Brgy.Lagalag, Tiaong Quezon
Dear Evaluators,
May I request your indulgence to rate all the items of my questionnaire base on
the following criteria for context validation.
-Relevance of item
-Appropriateness

-Language structure
Please check the box which corresponds to your evaluation using the code below.
3- Accepted
2-Needs Revision
1-Reject

Very truly yours,


Maricel H. Gutierrez
Researcher
Noted:
Ms. Joana Marie Del Rio
Research adviser

APPENDIX D
Table of Specification
TABLE OF SPECIFICATION
TOPI
CS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

NO
.
OF
IT
EM
S

KNOW
LEDG
E

SYNO
NYMS

ANTO
NYMS

PREFI
XES

SUFFI
XES

COM
PREH
ENSI
ON

ITEM
PLACEMEN
T

4,7,10

ANA
LYSI
S

ITEM
PLAC
EME
NT

5,6

10

25
%

1,2,3,8,9

12,15

11,13,14,17,1
8,19

16,20

10

25
%

22,24,28,
29,30

21,23,25,27
32,39

26

10

25
%

31,35,36,
37,38,40

33,34

10

15

25
%
100
%

18
TOTA
L

ITEM
PLACE
MENT

40

APPENDIX E
Sample of Test
Name:_______________________________
Grade & Section_____________

Score____________
Date__________

Test I: (Synonyms) Choose the correct answer of the following items. Underline the
letter of the correct answer.
1. What do we call with the words which have the same meaning?
a. antonyms

b. Homographs

c. Homonyms

d. synonyms

2. The barangay hall is always tidy. Based from the statement, what is the synonym of the
underlined word?
a. clean

b. close

c. messy

d. open

3. The words below are synonyms of the word great EXCEPT:


a. excellent

b. awesome

c. expert

d. unskilled

c. priceless

d. valuable

4. What is the synonym of the word costly?


a. cheap

b. expensive

5. Petchie is a brave dog, therefore it does not afraid anytime. The underlined word
means?
a. best

b. coward

c. courageous

d. fearful

6. The initial letter of his name is R. The word initial means what?
a. first, beginning

b. last, end

c. middle, midst

d. start, end

7. Plenty of leaves are falling down on the ground. What is the underlined word means?
a. all

b. few

c. many

d. several

8. The word clever is synonymous with the words below EXCEPT:


a. dull

b. expert

c. intelligent

d. smart

9. My aged grandmother can hardly stand on her own feet. Based from the sentence, aged
means?

a. less energy

b. old

c. weak

d. young

10. What is the word which is best fit with the word heroic?
a. brave, fearless
weak

b. coward, unskilled

c. fearful, weak

d.skillful,

Test II (Antonyms) Read the items carefully and answer the following questions.
Underline the letter of the correct answer
11. It is the antonym of the word fragile.
a. breakable

b. durable

c. flexible

d. weak

c. homographs

d. homonyms

c. narrow

d. short

12. These are the words with opposite meaning.


a. antonyms

b. synonyms

13.What is the antonym of the word wide?


a. big

b. long

14. Mr. Flordeliz depart from his place at exactly 2:00 pm so that he ______here at
midnight. Find the antonym of the depart to complete the sentence
a. arrive

b. evacuate

c. leave

d. move

15.Monica is industrious unlike her sister who is__________. Find antonym of the
underlined word which make sentence complete.
a. diligent

b. hardworking

c. humble

d. lazy

16. Vanessa is not completely bad. All of the words are antonym of the underlined word
EXCEPT:
a. better

b. good

c. naughty

d. nice

c. thick

d. thin

17. It is the antonym of the word hard.


a. smooth

b. soft

18. The words below are antonyms of the word failure EXCEPT:
a. mistake

b. success

c. improve

d. grow

c. neat

d. ugly

19. What is the antonym of the word pretty?


a. beautiful

b. gorgeous

20. Choose the word which has the correct antonym.


a. long: short
moderate

b. nice: good

c. silent: speechless

d.

slow:

Test III. (Prefixes) Choose the letter of the correct answer. Underline the letter of the
correct answer.
21. If our dedication is less, success would be __possible. What is the correct prefix for
this sentence?
a. im

b. in

c. re

d. un

22. What prefix should be use in this sentence. My father __play the video of their
wedding because I didnt yet watch it.
A. im

b. in

c. re

d. un

23. My bestfriend and I have ___understanding about the information I gave to him.
What is the correct prefix for this sentence?
a. im

b. mis

c. re

d. un

24. What prefix should be use in this sentence. Success is ___separable to the person who
has faith with God.
a. dis

b. im

c. in

d. re

25. Some of the pupils in the school disrespect weak pupils. What is the meaning of the
underlined word in the sentence?
a. not obey

b. not respect

c. unrespect

d. with respect

26. The DSWD ___packed relief goods for the victims of typhoon. What prefix should be
use in this sentence?
a. dis

b. im

c. in

d. re

27. The grade IV pupils __calculate their answer to make sure that this is correct. Find
the correct prefix for this sentence.
a. im

b. mis

c. re

d. un

c. mis

d. re

28. The prefix below means Not EXCEPT:


a. im

b. in

29. What is the meaning of the prefix un?

a. no

b. not

c. with

d. without

c. to use

d. to use again

30. What is the meaning of the word reuse?


a. cannot be use

b. to not use

Test IV: (Suffix) Read the items carefully. Answer the following question and
underline the letter of the correct answer.
31. We should not practice of being hope_________ because God is Always there for us.
What suffix should match with the incomplete word?
a. er

b. ful

c. less

d. or

c. with peace

d.

32.What is the meaning of the word peaceful?


a. full of love
peace

b. full of peace

without

33. The mango tree in our backyard is fruit______. All of the suffixes are not match with
the incomplete sentence EXCEPT:
a. fall

b. fell

c. ful

d. full

34. Which is the meaning of the word painter?


a. the one who draw

c. the one who print

b. the one who paint

d. the one sculpt

35. It is the word that is added to the end of the base word.
a. filler word

b. prefix

c. root word

d. suffix

36. What suffix should add with this sentence? Harmless animals have harm______
predator.
a. er

b. ful

c. full

d. or

37. The warriors are fearless so that they won the battle. The underlined word from this
statement means what?
a. full of fear

b. not fear

c. with fear

d. without fear

38. The faith_____ husband is responsible man. What suffix should match with this
sentence?
a. er

b. ful

c. less

d. or

39. It is the meaning of merciful.


a. full of mercy
mercy

b. not mercy

c. with mercy

d.

without

40. Our create_____ loves us very much. What suffix should be use for this sentence?
a. ful

b. ness

c. or

d. ous

Key to Correction
Test 1(Synonyms)

Test II (Antonyms)

1. d

11. b

2. a

12. a

3. d

13. c

4. b

14. a

5. c

15. d

6. a

16. c

7. c

17. b

8. a

18. a

9. b

19. d

10. a

20. a

Test III (Prefixes)

Test IV (Suffixes)

21. a

31. c

22. c

32. b

23. b

33. c

24. c

34. b

25. b

35. d

26. d

36. b

27. c

37. d

28. d

38. b

29. b

39. a

30. d

40. c
APPENDIX F

Sample of Evaluation Test


Test I: (Synonyms) Choose the correct answer of Accepted
Needs
the following items. Underline the letter of the
Revision
correct answer.
1. What do we call with the words which have the
same meaning?
a. antonyms
b. Homographs
c. Homonyms
d. synonyms
2. The barangay hall is always tidy. Based from the
statement, what is the synonym of the underlined
word?
a. clean
b. close
c. messy
d. open
3. The words below are synonyms of the word great
EXCEPT:
a. excellent
b. awesome
c. expert
d. unskilled
4. What is the synonym of the word costly?
a. cheap
b. expensive
c. priceless
d. valuable
5. Petchie is a brave dog, therefore it does not afraid
anytime. The underlined word means?
a. best
b. coward
c. courageous
d. fearful
6. The initial letter of his name is R. The word initial
means what?
a. first, beginning
b. last, end
c. middle, midst
d. start, end
7. Plenty of leaves are falling down on the ground.
What is the underlined word means?
a. all
b. few
c. many
d. several
8. The word clever is synonymous with the words
below EXCEPT:
a. dull
b. expert
c. intelligent
d. smart
9. My aged grandmother can hardly stand on her
own feet. Based from the sentence, aged means?
a. less energy
b. old
c. weak
d. young
10. What is the word which is best fit with the word

Not
Accepted

heroic?
a. brave, fearless
b. coward, unskilled
c. fearful, weak
d.skillful, weak
Test II (Antonyms) Read the items carefully and
answer the following questions. Underline the
letter of the correct answer
11. It is the antonym of the word fragile.
a. breakable
b. durable
c. flexible
d. weak
12. These are the words with opposite meaning.
a. antonyms
b. synonyms
c. homographs
d. homonyms
13.What is the antonym of the word wide?
a. big
b. long
c. narrow
d. short
14. Mr. Flordeliz depart from his place at exactly
2:00 pm so that he ______here at midnight Find the
antonym of the depart to complete the sentence
a. arrive
b. evacuate
c. leave
d. move
15.Monica is industrious unlike her sister who
is__________. Find antonym of the underlined word
which make sentence complete.
a. diligent
b. hardworking
c. humble
d. lazy
16. Vanessa is not completely bad. All of the words
are antonym of the underlined word EXCEPT:
a. better
b. good
c. naughty
d. nice
17. It is the antonym of the word hard.
a. smooth
b. soft
c. thick
d. thin
18. The words below are antonyms of the word
failure EXCEPT:
a. mistake
b. success
c. improve
d. grow
19. What is the antonym of the word pretty?
a. beautiful
b. gorgeous
c. neat
d. ugly
20. Choose the word which has the correct antonym.
a. long: short
b. nice: good
c. silent: speechless d. slow: moderate

Test III. (Prefixes) Choose the letter of the correct


answer. Underline the letter of the correct answer.
21. If our dedication is less, success would be
__possible. What is the correct prefix for this
sentence?
a. im
b. in
c. re
d. un
22. What prefix should be used in this sentence. My
father __play the video of their wedding because I
didnt yet watch it.
A. im
b. in
c. re
d. un
23. My best friend and I have ___understanding
about the information I gave to him. What is the
correct prefix for this sentence?
a. im
b. mis
c. re
d. un
24. What prefix should be used in this sentence.
Success is ___separable to the person who has faith
with God.
a. dis
b. im
c. in
d. re
25. Some of the pupils in the school disrespect weak
pupils. What is the meaning of the underlined word
in the sentence?
a. not obey
b. not respect
c. unrespect
d. with respect
26. The DSWD ___packed relief goods for the
victims of typhoon. What prefix should be used in
this sentence?
a. dis
b. im
c. in
d. re
27. The grade IV pupils __calculate their answer to
make sure that this is correct. Find the correct prefix
for this sentence.
a. im
b. mis
c. re
d. un
28. The prefix below means Not EXCEPT:
a. im
b. in
c. mis
d. re
29. What is the meaning of the prefix un?

a. no
b. not
c. with
d. without
30. What is the meaning of the word reuse?
a. cannot be use
b. to not use
c. to use
d. to use again
Test IV: (Suffix) Read the items carefully. Answer
the following question and underline the letter of
the correct answer.
31. We should not practice of being hope_________
because God is Always there for us. What suffix
should match with the incomplete word?
a. er
b. ful
c. less
d. or
32. What is the meaning of the word peaceful?
a. full of love
b. full of peace
c. with peace
d. without peace
33. The mango tree in our backyard is fruit______.
All of the suffixes are not match with the incomplete
sentence EXCEPT:
a. fall
b. fell
c. ful
d. full
34. Which is the meaning of the word painter?
a. the one who draw b. the one who paint
c. the one who print d. the one sculpt
35. It is the word that is added to the end of the base
word.
a. filler word
b. prefix
c. root word
d. suffix
36. What suffix should add with this sentence?
Harmless animals have harm______ predator.
a. er
b. ful
c. full
d. or
37. The warriors are fearless so that they won the
battle. The underlined word from this statement
means what?
a. full of fear
b. not fear
c. with fear
d. without fear
37. The warriors are fearless so that they won the
battle. The underlined word from this statement
means what?
a. full of fear
b. not fear

c. with fear
d. without fear
38. The faith_____ husband is responsible man.
What suffix should match with this sentence?
a. er
b. ful
c. less
d. or
39. It is the meaning of merciful.
a. full of mercy
b. not mercy
c. with mercy
d. without mercy
40. Our create_____ loves us very much. What
suffix should be used for this sentence?
a. full
b. ness
c. or
d. ous

APPENDIX G
Summary of the Evaluation

Item Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Evaluators
1
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

WM
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

ANALYSIS
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted

APPENDIX H
Item Analysis for Tryout

Items
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Upper
N= 10
8
0.8
9
0.9
2
0.2
9
0.9
8
0.8
8
0.8
8
0.8
4
0.4
9
0.9

Lower
N= 10
3
0.3
4
0.4
1
0.1
2
0.2
3
0.3
2
0.2
3
0.3
1
0.1
4
0.4

Df
0.48

Ds
0.5

Remarks
Retained

0.48

0.5

Retained

0.13

0.1

Revised

0.5

0.7

Retained

0.48

0.5

Retained

0.5

0.6

Retained

0.48

0.5

Retained

0.18

0.3

Revised

0.65

0.5

Retained

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

8
0.8
8
0.8
9
0.9
9
0.9
8
0.8
7
0.7
9
0.9
7
0.7
9
0.9
3
0.3
8
0.8
8
0.8
8
0.8
7
0.7
8
0.8
7
0.7
8
0.8
9
0.9
3
0.3
7
0.7
7
0.7
9

2
0.2
2
0.2
4
0.4
2
0.2
2
0.2
2
0.2
4
0.4
2
0.2
3
0.3
1
0.1
3
0.3
2
0.2
2
0.2
1
0.1
3
0.3
2
0.2
3
0.3
2
0.2
3
0.3
2
0.2
1
0.1
4

0.5

0.6

Retained

0.5

0.6

Retained

0.53

0.5

Retained

0.55

0.7

Retained

0.5

0.6

Retained

0.48

0.5

Retained

0.58

0.5

Retained

0.5

0.5

Retained

0.5

0.6

Retained

0.15

0.2

Revised

0.5

0.5

Retained

0.48

0.6

Retained

0.55

0.6

Retained

0.5

0.6

Retained

0.53

0.5

Retained

0.48

0.5

Retained

0.55

0.5

Retained

0.48

0.7

Retained

0.15

Revised

0.53

0.7

Retained

0.48

0.6

Retained

0.5

0.5

Retained

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

0.9
8
0.8
7
0.7
8
0.8
9
0.9
9
0.9
7
0.7
9
0.9

0.4
2
0.2
1
0.1
3
0.3
3
0.3
2
0.2
2
0.2
4
0.4

9
0.9
2
0.2

2
0.2
1
0.1

0.55

0.6

Retained

0.53

0.6

Retained

0.63

0.5

Retained

0.5

0.6

Retained

0.48

0.7

Retained

0.48

0.5

Retained

0.63

0.5

Retained

0.48

0.7

Retained

0.13

0.1

Revised

APPENDIX I
Academic Achievement in English

Students

First grading

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

91
75
79
82
77
85
82
80
95
89
79
77

Second
Grading
90
75
76
81
78
83
75
78
92
88
78
77

181
150
155
163
155
168
157
158
187
177
157
154

90.5
75
77.5
81.5
77.5
84
78.5
79
93.5
88.5
78.5
77

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

86
82
82
81
81
75
81
81
80
93
80
82
85
86
80
94
83
79
79
77
79
83
82
83
87
88
87
83

85
79
82
78
78
75
78
79
82
90
78
82
83
83
78
95
82
80
78
78
79
80
80
82
87
86
85
80
82.04

171
161
164
159
159
150
159
160
162
183
158
164
168
169
158
189
165
159
157
155
158
163
162
165
174
174
172
163

85.5
80.5
82
79.5
79.5
75
79.5
80
81
91.5
79
82
84
84.5
79
94.5
82.5
79.5
78.5
77.5
79
81.5
81
82.5
87
87
86
81.5

APPENDIX J
Students Score in Test

Students
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Synonym
s
80
60
80
70
70
80
90
90
100
80
80

Antonym
s
100
80
80
80
90
80
90
70
100
80
90

Prefixes

Suffixes

80
70
70
70
60
90
70
70
90
80
70

100
80
80
80
80
100
80
70
90
90
60

360
290
310
300
300
350
330
300
380
330
300

90
73
78
75
75
88
83
75
95
83
75

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

70
80
80
60
80
70
90
60
70
60
90
80
80
80
100
70
80
80
70
60
70
80
80
80
70
80
80
80
90
3100

80
90
80
90
70
80
80
70
60
90
100
80
80
80
90
80
100
90
90
80
80
70
90
80
70
80
80
90
80
3320

80
80
80
70
70
80
90
70
70
80
80
80
80
80
90
70
100
80
70
70
70
60
70
80
80
90
100
70
70
3080

80
90
70
80
70
60
80
80
80
60
90
70
80
80
80
80
100
70
70
80
60
70
80
60
70
100
100
90
80
3170

310
340
310
300
290
290
340
280
280
290
360
310
320
320
360
300
380
320
300
290
280
280
320
300
290
350
360
330
320

78
85
78
75
73
73
85
70
70
73
90
78
80
80
90
75
95
80
75
73
70
70
80
75
73
88
90
83
80
3175

APPENDIX K
Computation of Pearson r and t- value

N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

X
90
73
78
75
75
88
83
75
95
83

Y
91
75
78
82
78
84
79
79
94
89

X
8100
5329
6084
5625
5625
7744
6889
5625
9025
6889

Y
8281
5625
6084
6724
6084
7056
6241
6241
8836
7921

XY
8190
5475
6084
6150
5850
7392
6557
5925
8930
7387

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Total

75
78
85
78
75
73
73
85
70
70
73
90
78
80
80
90
75
95
80
75
73
70
70
80
75
73
88
90
83
80
3175

79
77
86
81
82
80
80
75
80
80
81
92
79
82
84
85
79
95
83
80
79
78
79
82
81
83
87
87
86
82
3293

5625
6084
7225
6084
5625
5329
5329
7225
4900
4900
5329
8100
6084
6400
6400
8100
5625
9025
6400
5625
5329
4900
4900
6400
5625
5329
7744
8100
6889
6400
253969

6241
5929
7396
6561
6724
6400
6400
5625
6400
6400
6561
8464
6724
6724
7056
7225
6241
9025
6889
6400
6241
6084
6241
6724
6561
6889
7569
7569
7396
6724
272476

5925
6006
7310
6318
6150
5840
5840
6375
5600
5600
5913
8280
6162
6560
6720
7650
5925
9025
6640
6000
5767
5460
5530
6560
6075
6059
7656
7830
7138
6560
262414

Pearson R and t- value computation

x 2
y 2
( N y 2)

R=

( N x2 )

N xy x y

40 ( 262414 )(3175)(3293)

[ ( 40 ) (253965 )(10080625) [ ( 40 ) ( 272476 )(10843849) ] ]


1049656010455275
[ 1015860010080625 ][ 1089904010843 ]

41285
( 77975 ) ( 55191 )
41285
4303518225

= 0.63
*marked as substantial relationship

t= r

n2
1r 2

0.63 2

1
= 0.63 402

= 0.63

=0.63

=0.63

38
10.3969

38
0.6031

63.00779307

= 5.0
*Higher than the critical value of 2.021