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Basic Concepts

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A GLENCOE PROGRAM

BIOLOGY: THE DYNAMICS OF LIFE


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Basic Concepts

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Contents
To the Teacher
1 A Food Web
2 Ecological Pyramids
3 Primary Succession
4 Atomic Structure
5a Covalent Bonding
5b Ionic Bonding
6 Plasma Membrane
7 The Cell
8 Osmosis
9 Active Transport
10 Mitosis
11 ATPADP Cycle
12 Photosynthesis
13 Cellular Respiration
14 Monohybrid Cross
15 Meiosis
16 DNA Replication
17 DNA Transcription
18 RNA Translation
19 Recombinant DNA
20 Pasteurs Experiment
21 Genetic Equilibrium
22 Variation in Populations
23 Possible Phylogeny of Humans
24 Lifes Six Kingdoms
25 Lytic Cycle
26 Lysogenic Cycle
27 Bacterial Structure
28 Life Cycle of an Alga
29 Life Cycle of a Slime Mold
30 Phylogeny of Protists
31 The Life of a Mushroom
32 Phylogeny of Fungi
33 Phylogeny of Non-Seed Plants
34 Phylogeny of Seed Plants
35 Phylogeny of Flowering Plants
36 Functions of Stomata
37 Leaf Structure
38 Life Cycle of a Moss
39 Life Cycle of a Fern
BASIC CONCEPTS

40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78a
78b
79

Life Cycle of a Conifer


Flower Structures
Life Cycle of a Flowering Plant
Germination of a Bean Seed
Animal Development
Body Structure of Sponges and Cnidarians
Phylogeny of Sponges and Cnidarians
Life Cycle of a Jellyfish
Phylogeny of Worms and Mollusks
Phylogeny of Arthropods
Structure of a Sea Star
Phylogeny of Echinoderms
Structure of a Bony Fish
Phylogeny of Fishes and Amphibians
Amniotic Egg
Phylogeny of Reptiles
Adaptations for Flight
Phylogeny of Birds
Structure of a Mammal
Phylogeny of Mammals
Conditioning
Skin Deep
Skeleton and Joints
Structure of Bone
Muscle Contraction
Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration
Structure of the Brain
Organization of the Nervous System
Structure of the Eye
Process of Hearing
Blood Types
Your Blood Vessels
Your Heart
The Urinary System
Female Reproductive System
The Menstrual Cycle
Identifying a Pathogen
Response to Injury
Antibody Immunity
Cellular Immunity
The AIDS Epidemic
BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

iii

To the Teacher

Basic Concepts

This book contains color Basic Concepts Transparencies for Biology: The
Dynamics of Life. The transparencies provide visual teaching tools for reinforcing the concepts presented in the text. In most cases, the transparency
illustration is different than illustrations in the textbook, providing optimum
support for your visual learners. The accompanying worksheet for each transparency master focuses students attention on the topic at hand, requiring
them to analyze the illustration and relate it to the concepts being taught in
the textbook. The use of the masters makes the worksheets a convenient
homework assignment. Transparency masters and worksheets can be found in
the appropriate Unit Resource book.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Teaching strategies as well as worksheet answers are provided for each


transparency. Several transparencies utilize overlays for maximum teaching
benefit, and the use of these overlays are included in the teaching suggestions.
Teaching strategies and answers can be found in the Teacher Support and
Planning section of the corresponding Unit Resource book.

iv

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

1
A Food Web

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use with Chapter 2,


Section 2.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

2
Ecological Pyramids

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use with Chapter 2,


Section 2.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

3
Primary Succession

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use with Chapter 3,


Section 3.1

BASIC CONCEPTS

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

4
Atomic Structure

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use with Chapter 6,


Section 6.1

BASIC CONCEPTS

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Electron energy levels

Nucleus

Oxygen atom

Hydrogen atom

Nucleus
8 protons ( p+)
8 neutrons (n0)

overlay 4a

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

5a
Covalent Bonding

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use with Chapter 6,


Section 6.1

BASIC CONCEPTS

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

11p+
12n 0

2e

8e

Na

+
+

Ionic Bonding

Sodium atom

5b

17p+
18n 0

2e

7e
8e

Cl

Chlorine atom

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Sodium+ ion

11p+
12n 0

2e

8e

NaCl

Ionic bond

17p+
18n 0

Chloride ion

2e

8e
8e

Use with Chapter 6,


Section 6.1

BASIC CONCEPTS

Transparency

Plasma Membrane

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 7,
Section 7.2

Polar
head

Phosphate
group
Glycerol
backbone

Fatty
acids

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Phospholipid
molecule

Cholesterol
Membrane
protein

Membrane
protein

Cytoplasm

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

Filaments of cytoskeleton

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

The Cell

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 7,
Section 7.3

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Microfilaments

Cytoplasm
Chromatin
Nucleolus
Nuclear membrane
Nucleus
Microtubules

Central vacuole
Lysosome
Plasma
membrane

Typical Animal Cell

Mitochondria
Endoplasmic
reticulum with
ribosomes
Golgi apparatus

Cell wall
Nuclear membrane
Nucleolus
Chromatin
Nucleus
Chloroplast
Microfilaments
Microtubules
Cytoplasm

Typical Plant Cell


overlay 7a
BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Osmosis

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 8,
Section 8.1

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

9
Active Transport

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use with Chapter 8,


Section 8.1

BASIC CONCEPTS

Transparency

10

BASIC CONCEPTS

Mitosis

Use with Chapter 8,


Section 8.2

Prophase

Metaphase
3. Centrioles
move apart

4. Spindle
forms
1. Four
chromosomes
with sister
chromatids

2. Disappearing
nuclear envelope

1. Centrioles
2. Spindle fibers

3. Chromosomes at
equator of spindle

Telophase

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Anaphase
1. Each chromatid is a
copy of one original
chromosome

1. Four chromosomes in each cell


2. Spindle
fibers move
chromatids
toward
centrioles

2. Spindle

4. Two
new
cells

3. Nuclear envelope
reforms

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

11

ATPADP Cycle

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 9,
Section 9.1

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

12

BASIC CONCEPTS

Photosynthesis

Use with Chapter 9,


Section 9.2

Light-Dependent Reactions

e
e
e + H+ + NADP+ NADPH + H+

Energy
e

ATP
ADP + Pi

O2 + 4H+

Sun

4e

Chlorophyll
molecules

2H2O
Sun

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Light-Independent Reactions
CO2

Unstable
6-carbon
molecule

H2O

Two 3-carbon
molecules
(2PGA)

5-carbon molecule (RuBP)

Calvin Cycle

ATP
ADP + Pi
NADPH+H+

Two 3-carbon
sugars (2PGAL)

NADP+

6-carbon sugar
(glucose)

ADP + Pi ATP
Sugars
Starch
Cellulose

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Electrons move
down another
electron transport
chain. The electrons
combine with NADP+
to form NADPH.
Light striking
chlorophyll causes
electrons to gain
energy and leave the
chlorophyll molecule.
As these electrons
pass down an
electron transport
chain, they lose
energy, which is
used to make ATP.

Electrons from water


replace electrons lost
by chlorophyll. Water
breaks into hydrogen
and oxygen.

overlay 12a
BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

13

Transparency

Cellular
Respiration

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 9,
Section 9.3

Glycolysis
2ATP

2ADP

4ATP

4ADP + 4 Pi

2 Pyruvic
acid

Glucose
2NAD+

2NAD+ + 2H+

2PGAL
Mitochondrial
membrane

Formation of Acetyl-CoA
CO2

Outside the
mitochondrion

Inside the
mitochondrion

Pyruvic
acid

Pyruvic
acid

Coenzyme A

CoA
Acetyl-CoA

Intermediate
by-product

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

NAD+

CoA
Acetyl-CoA

NADH + H+

Citric Acid Cycle


6-carbon molecule

4-carbon
molecule
Citric acid

NAD+

Oxaloacetic acid
NADH + H+
NAD+

NADH + H+
FADH2
FAD

5-carbon
molecule
ATP

CO2

ADP
Ketoglutaric acid

4-carbon molecule
Succinic acid
NADH + H+

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

NAD+ CO2

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

14

Monohybrid Cross

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 10,
Section 10.1

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

overlay 14a
BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

15

BASIC CONCEPTS

Meiosis

Use with Chapter 10,


Section 10.2

Meiosis I
1. Sister chromatids
4. Spindle forms

2. Nucleus
disappears

3. Homologous
chromosomes

1. Homologous
chromosomes
separate

1. Spindle fibers
attach to
centromeres

2. Homologous
chromosomes
line up in pairs
2. Cell pinches
in two

Prophase I

Metaphase I

Anaphase ITelophase I

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Meiosis II
1. Spindle fibers
attach to
centromeres

2. Spindle
forms

2. Chromosomes
line up
1. Chromosomes still made up
of sister chromatids

2. Nucleus reforms
1. Sister
chromatids
separate

3. Cell pinches
in two
Four sex cells

Prophase II
BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

Metaphase II

Anaphase IITelophase II
BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

16

DNA Replication

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 11,
Section 11.1

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

17

DNA Transcription

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 11,
Section 11.2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

18

Transparency

BASIC CONCEPTS

RNA Translation

Use with Chapter 11,


Section 11.2

Ribosome
A

A G

mRNA codon

Peptide bond

Methionine

Alanine

tRNA
anticodon

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

U A C
A U

A G

U A

C G U

G C A U A C
A U G

A A
C G A
G U U

Alanine
Methionine

Peptide
bond

U A

Stop
codon

C G U

G C
A U G

A U A C

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

A A C
A A
C G A
G U U

A U G G C

A U A

C A A U U G U A A

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

19

BASIC CONCEPTS

Recombinant DNA

Use with Chapter 13,


Section 13.2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Formation of Recombinant DNA

Cloning of Recombinant DNA in Bacteria

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

20
Pasteurs Experiment

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use with Chapter 14,


Section 14.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

21
Genetic Equilibrium

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use with Chapter 15,


Section 15.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

22

Variation in
Populations

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 15,
Section 15.2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

23

Possible Phylogeny
of Humans

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 16,
Section 16.2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

Mesozoic

245

Paleozoic

Eras: shown in millions of years

66

Cenozoic

EUBACTERIA

544

Precambrian

ANIMALS

Amphibians
and Fishes

Paleozoic

Sea Stars

Mesozoic

Cenozoic

Jellyfishes
and Sponges

Mollusks
and
Worms

Arthropods

Lifes Six Kingdoms

ARCHAEBACTERIA

PROTISTS

FUNGI

PLANTS

Birds and
Reptiles

24

Mosses

Ferns

Conifers

Flowering
Plants

Mammals

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 17,
Section 17.2

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

Lysis and Release

Attachment

Bacteriophage

Lytic Cycle

Nucleic acid

25

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Bacterial
host cell

Bacterial
chromosome

Assembly

Entry

Replication

Use with Chapter 18,


Section 18.1

BASIC CONCEPTS

Transparency

26

Lysogenic Cycle

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 18,
Section 18.1

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Bacteriophage
Nucleic acid

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

27

BASIC CONCEPTS

Bacterial Structure

Use with Chapter 18,


Section 18.2

Flagella

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Pili

Capsule
Cell wall

Plasma
membrane

Chromosome

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

Gamete

Fertilization

Gamete

2n

2n

Zygote

Sporophyte (2n)

2n

Spore

Meiosis

Spore

Gametophyte (n)

Gametophyte (n)

28

Female gametophyte

Male gametophyte

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency

Life Cycle of
an Alga
BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 19,
Section 19.2

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

29

Spore-filled
capsule on a
stalk forms

Spores
released

Amoebas feed,
grow, and divide

Slug that
migrates
produced
by mass

Amoeba-like cell
released from
a spore

Life Cycle of
a Slime Mold

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Multicellular
amoeboid mass

Amoebas
gather

Use with Chapter 19,


Section 19.3

BASIC CONCEPTS

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES


175 species

Oomycotes

450 species

10 000 species

Bacillariophytes

Rhizopods

800 species

Euglenophytes

11 500 species

Species numbers are approximate and subject to change pending discoveries or extinctions.

65 species

Myxomycotes

1000 species

Dinoflagellates

4000 species

Rhodophytes

1500 species

7000 species

Chlorophytes

Phylogeny of Protists

Phaeophytes

30

Acrasiomycotes

Transparency

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Flagellates

3900 species

Fungi

Plants

Ciliates

Animals

8000 species

Sporozoans

2500 species

Use with Chapter 19,


Sections 19.1, 19.2, 19.3

BASIC CONCEPTS

Transparency

31

The Life of a Mushroom

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 20,
Section 20.2

Cap
Basidiospores

Gills

Basidium
Basidiospore

Stipe

Hyphae
Meiosis occurs, forming
four haploid basidiospores.
Basidium

Haploid nuclei fuse,


forming a diploid cell.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

+ Mating type
Mating type

Hyphae of
two mating
types fuse.
Nuclei remain
separate.
New mycelium
forms. Each
cell has two
haploid nuclei.

Mycelium forms a button, which


develops into a mushroom.

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

1000 species

25 000 species

Basidiomycotes

25 000 species

Deuteromycotes

30 000 species

Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Protists

Lichens
20 000 species

Ascomycotes

Use with Chapter 20,


Section 20.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

Species numbers are approximate and subject to change pending discoveries or extinctions.

Phylogeny of Fungi

Zygomycotes

32

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

15 species

6500 species

100 species

Bryophytes
20 000 species

6 species

Protists

Calamites

Psilophytes

Lepidodendron

11 000 species

Pterophytes

Use with Chapter 21,


Section 21.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

Species
numbers are
approximateMESOZOIC
and subject to change
pending discoveries
or extinctions.
PRESENT
CENOZOIC
PALEOZOIC
PRECAMBRIAN

Anthocerophytes

1150 species

Lycophytes

Phylogeny of Non-Seed Plants

Arthrophytes

33

Hepaticophytes

Transparency

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

65 species

Gnetums

34

Cycads

Conifers
600 species

Protists

250 000 species

Anthophytes

Use with Chapter 22,


Section 22.3

BASIC CONCEPTS

Species
numbers are
approximateMESOZOIC
and subject to change
pending discoveries
or extinctions.
PRESENT
CENOZOIC
PALEOZOIC
PRECAMBRIAN

200 species

1 species

Ginkgoes

Phylogeny of Seed Plants

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

35

Phylogeny of
Flowering Plants

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 22,
Section 22.3

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

36

Water

Stoma

Functions of Stomata

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Guard
cells

Cellular
fibers

Chloroplasts

Epidermal
cells

Use with Chapter 23,


Section 23.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

Upper
epidermis

Blade

Guard cells

Stoma

Air space

Leaf Structure

Petiole

37

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Cuticle

Xylem
Phloem

Vascular
bundle

Lower
epidermis

Spongy
mesophyll

Palisade
mesophyll

Use with Chapter 23,


Section 23.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

Transparency

38

Life Cycle of
a Moss

Sperm

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 24,
Section 24.1

Longitudinal Section
of the capsule

Stalk

Antheridium

Young spore
tissue

Egg

Zygote
Archegonium
Tissue of the
gametophyte

Capsule

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Sporophyte on
gametophyte
Spores

Male
gametophyte

Female
gametophyte
Young
spore

Protonema

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

Sporangium

Rhizoids

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

39

Life Cycle
of a Fern

Sporangium bursts open


to release spores

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 24,
Section 24.1

Gametophyte

Spores

Archegonia
Antheridia
Rhizoids

Antheridium
Lower surface of
the fern prothallus

Sperm
Archegonium
Egg

Sporangia

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Sorus

Sori
Young sporophyte
on gametophyte
Embryo
Young frond

Fern frond
Sporophyte

Rhizome

Prothallus

Young root

Roots
Rhizome

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

40

Life Cycle of
a Conifer

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 24,
Section 24.1

Microspores

Microspore mother cells

Male gametophyte
Male
cones

Megaspore
mother cell

Tube
nucleus

Sperm
nucleus

Pollen grain
Megaspores

Ovule
Pollination

Mature
cone

Meiosis
n

Young
female
cones

Germinating
pollen grain

Archegonia
with egg cells

on
Fertilizati
2n

Zygotes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Pollen tube
Sperm nucleus

Female
gametophyte

Two seeds on
cone scale
Germination
Cotyledons
Adult
sporophyte

Embryo

Seed
Young
seedling

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

41

Flower Structures

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 24,
Section 24.2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Delphinium Flower

Typical Parts of a Flower

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Petal
Sepal

Spur
Stamen
Pistil
Petal
Stigma
Anther

Style

Stamen
Filament

Pistil

Ovary
Sepals

overlay 41a
BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

42

Transparency

Life Cycle of a
Flowering Plant

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 24,
Section 24.2

Pollen sac
with microspore
mother cells
Anther
Microspores
in fours
Pollen
grain
Meiosis
Ovary

Ovule with
megaspore
mother cell

Male
gametophyte

Sperm
Tube
nucleus
Four
megaspores
Egg

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

GAMETOPHYTE
GENERATION
n
SPOROPHYTE
GENERATION
2n

Pollen
tube

Female
gametophyte

Fertilization

Double
fertilization
Adult
sporophyte
plant

Pollen tube
Zygote
Endosperm
nucleus
Young
seedling

Germinating
seed
Seed

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

Fruit
with seeds

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

43

Germination of a
Bean Seed

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 24,
Section 24.2

Radicle
Hypocotyl
Cotyledon
Seed coat
Primary root

Epicotyl

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Cotyledon

Withered
cotyledons
Hypocotyl

Secondary
roots

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

44
Animal Development

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use with Chapter 25,


Section 25.1, 25.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

a. Acoelomate organisms

Digestive
tube

Endoderm

Mesoderm

Ectoderm

d. Cells move inward;


gastrula forms.

a. Zygote

b. Blastula

Coelom

Blastopore

Where
mesoderm
forms

Endoderm

Ectoderm
Embryonic
germ
layers

c. Section through
a blastula

c. Coelomate organisms

Digestive
tube

Endoderm

Ectoderm
Mesoderm

e. Gastrula with
blastopore forming

b. Pseudocoelomate
organisms

Pseudocoelom

Digestive
tube

Endoderm

Mesoderm

Ectoderm

overlay 44a

Transparency

45

Body Structure of
Sponges and Cnidarians

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 26,
Sections 26.1, 26.2

Sponge Body Plan

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Cnidarian Body Forms

MEDUSA
FORM

POLYP
FORM

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Collar cell

Osculum

Amoebocytes

Digestive cavity

Spicules
Amoebocytes
Direction
of flow
of water
Pore cell
Collar cells

Pores

Spicule
Flagella

Epithelial-like cells

Nematocysts

Mouth

Gastrovascular
cavity

Tentacle
Mouth lobes
Basal
disc

overlay 45a
BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

Protists

Phylum Cnidaria
Class Hydrozoa
2700 species

Phylogeny of Sponges
and Cnidarians

Phylum Cnidaria
Class Scyphozoa
200 species

46

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Present

Phylum Cnidaria
Class Anthozoa
6200 species

Phylum Porifera
5000 species

Use with Chapter 26,


Section 26.1. 26.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

Life Cycle
of a Jellyfish

Asexual
Reproduction

Male

47

Sperm

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Eggs

Sexual
Reproduction

Female

Larva

Use with Chapter 26,


Section 26.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

overlay 47a

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

One by
one, the
tiny medusae
move away from
the parent polyp,
and the cycle
begins again.

In the asexual phase, a polyp grows and begins to form


buds that become tiny medusae. As the buds build up,
the polyp resembles a stack of plates.

The zygote grows and


develops into a blastula.
The blastula becomes a
free-swimming larva. The
larva, covered with cilia,
swims to a suitable area
for attachment and
settles.

In sexual reproduction, a male medusa


releases sperm and the female medusa
releases eggs. External fertilization
occurs in the water.

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

48

10 000 species

Bivalves

Phylogeny of
Worms and Mollusks

80 000 species

Gastropods

Species numbers are approximate and subject to change pending discoveries or extinctions.

600 species

Cephalopods

Transparency

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Cestodes
3500 species

Annelids

Nematodes
12 000 species

3000 species

Turbellarians

8000 species

Trematodes

12 000 species

Use with Chapter 27,


Section 27.1

BASIC CONCEPTS

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

49

Phylogeny
of Arthropods

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use with Chapter 28,


Section 28.1

BASIC CONCEPTS

Transparency

50

Structure of a
Sea Star

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 29,
Section 29.1

Water Vascular System


Madreporite

B.

Ampulla
Ring canal

Ray

A.

Radial canal
Madreporite

Tube foot

Stomach
Digestive gland

Reproductive organ

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Ring canal

Anus
Spines
Tube feet

Section Through Arm

Eyespot

Digestive
gland

C.
D.

Reproductive organ

Pedicellaria

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

Spine
Tube foot

Ampulla

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

51

Ophiuroids
2000 species

Asteroids
1500 species

Holothuroids
1500 species

Crinoids
600 species

Echinoids
950 species

Phylogeny of Echinoderms

Species numbers are approximate and subject to change pending discoveries or extinctions.

Transparency

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Echinodermata

Use with Chapter 29,


Section 29.1

BASIC CONCEPTS

Transparency

52

Structure of a
Bony Fish

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 30,
Section 30.1

Lateral line

Fins

Swim bladder
Backbone
Kidney

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Gills

Urinary bladder
Reproductive organ

Scales
Intestine
Stomach
Liver

Heart

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Agnatha

Placoderms

Osteichthyes

Ostracoderms

Chondrichthyes

Caecilians
168 species

369 species

Salamanders

Phylogeny of Fishes
and Amphibians

Amphibians

53

7 species

Lobe-finned
fishes

Species numbers are approximate and subject to change pending discoveries or extinctions.

Early
tetrapod

Reptiles

3700 species

Frogs and Toads

Transparency

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Lampreys

43 species

Hagfishes

17 species

850 species

Sharks
and Rays

18 000 species

Ray-finned Fishes

Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Superclass Agnatha
Classes Chondrichthyes,
Osteichthyes, and
Amphibia

Use with Chapter 30,


Sections 30.1, 30.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

54

Amniotic Egg

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 31,
Section 31.1

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Egg shell
Embryo

Amnion

Chorion

Blood
vessels

CO2
Yolk

O2
Air space
Allantois

Albumen

overlay 54a
BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

55

Phylogeny of
Reptiles

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 31,
Section 31.1

Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Reptilia
7075 species

Snakes
Lizards

Turtles

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

To mammals

Crocodiles and
Alligators

(scaly reptiles)
First turtles

(ruling
reptiles)
Cotylosaurs
(stem reptiles)
Dinosaurs
To birds
Present

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

56

BASIC CONCEPTS

Adaptations for Flight

Use with Chapter 31,


Section 31.2

Hollow bone

Wing
Beak

Lung
Sternum
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Air sacs
Gizzard

Bone
Intestine

Leg

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

57

BASIC CONCEPTS

Phylogeny of Birds

Use with Chapter 31,


Section 31.2

Parrots, lories,
and cockatoos
340 species

Perching birds
5200 species

Owls
146 species

Herons, bitterns,
and ibises
114 species

Woodpeckers,
toucans, and
honey guides

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

383 species

Hawks, eagles, and falcons


288 species

Swans, geese, and ducks


150 species

Archaeopteryx

Penguins
Theropod dinosaur

18 species

Species numbers are approximate and subject to change pending discoveries or extinctions.

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Underhair

Uterus

Liver

Mammary
glands
Guard
hair

Pancreas

Structure of a Mammal

Intestines

58

Scent glands

Transparency

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Diaphragm

Heart

Lungs

Teeth

Use with Chapter 32,


Section 32.1

BASIC CONCEPTS

59

Transparency

Phylogeny of
Mammals

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 32,
Section 32.2

Artiodactyls
Cetaceans
Primates

Perissodactyls

Lagomorphs

Rodents

Carnivores

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Sirenians
Chiropterans

Insectivores
Placental
mammals

Proboscids

Edentates

Therapsids
(mammal-like reptiles)

Reptiles
Amphibians

Marsupials

Fishes
Invertebrates
Monotremes

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

60
Conditioning

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use with Chapter 33,


Section 33.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

61

Transparency

BASIC CONCEPTS

Skin Deep

Use with Chapter 34,


Section 34.1

Hair
Dead
epidermis

Living
epidermis
Sweat pore

Epidermis

Oil gland

Hair follicle
Dermis

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Muscle
Duct of
sweat gland

Artery
Subcutaneous
layer

Vein
Nerve

Sweat gland

Fat tissue

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Elbow

Wrist

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

Neck vertebrae

Shoulder

Ligament
Pivot joint

Ball-and-socket joint

62

Gliding joint

Hinge joint

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency

Skeleton and Joints


BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 34,
Section 34.2

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Blood
vessel

Spongy
bone

Transparency

63

Membrane

Compact bone

Marrow cavity

Cartilage

Structure of Bone

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Osteon systems

Canals

Bone cell

Use with Chapter 34,


Section 34.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

Transparency

64

BASIC CONCEPTS

Muscle Contraction

Use with Chapter 34,


Section 34.3

Bone
Tendon
Skeletal muscle

Myofibril

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Bundles of
muscle fibers

Filaments

Relaxed

Contracting

Sarcomere
Maximally contracted

Actin
Myosin

Two sarcomeres

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

65

Transparency

Regulation of Blood
Glucose Concentration

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 35,
Section 35.3

After a meal

Between meals

Blood glucose increased

Blood glucose decreased

Alpha cells
Beta cells
Pancreas
Glucagon secreted
Insulin secreted

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Glycogen

Liver

Glycogen

Blood
glucose

Blood
glucose

Target tissues

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

66

Skull

Structure of the Brain

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 36,
Section 36.1

Cerebrum

Thalamus
Hypothalamus

Corpus callosum
(white matter)

Cerebellum
Pituitary
Midbrain
Brain
stem

Pons

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Medulla
oblongata

Spinal cord

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

67

Organization of the
Nervous System

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 36,
Section 36.1

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

68

Optic nerve

Retina

Cone cell

Structure of the Eye

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Rod cell

Light pathway

Cornea

Lens

Vitreous humor

Use with Chapter 36,


Section 36.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

Transparency

69

BASIC CONCEPTS

Process of Hearing

Use with Chapter 36,


Section 36.2

Inner ear

Outer ear

Middle ear
Semicircular canals

Stapes
Incus

Auditory nerve
Oval window

Malleus
Eardrum

Cochlea

Ear canal

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Cochlear
duct

Fluid
Fluid
Fluid

To auditory nerve

Hair cells

Sensory neurons

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

Antigen A

Blood Type AB

No antibodies

Antigen A

Antigen B

Red blood cell

Red blood cell

Blood Type A

Blood Types

Anti-B antibody

70

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

No antigens

Blood Type O

Anti-B antibody

Red blood cell

Red blood cell

Anti-A
antibody

Blood Type B

Anti-A
antibody

Antigen B

Use with Chapter 37,


Section 37.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

Transparency

71

BASIC CONCEPTS

Your Blood Vessels

Use with Chapter 37,


Section 37.2

Capillaries
Arterioles

Artery
Vein

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Venules

To heart
Valve open

Contracted skeletal
muscles
To heart

Vein

Valve closed

Vein
Relaxed
skeletal
muscles

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

72

BASIC CONCEPTS

Your Heart

Use with Chapter 37,


Section 37.2

Superior vena
cava

Arch of
aorta

Right lung

Pulmonary
trunk

Right atrium

Left lung

Right
ventricle

Left atrium
Rib (cut)

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Right coronary
artery

Left
ventricle

Cut edge
of pericardium

Left coronary
artery

Diaphragm
Pulmonary
artery

Superior
vena cava

Pulmonary
vein

Right lung

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

Pulmonary
artery
Pulmonary
vein

Inferior
vena cava

Left lung

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Aorta

73

Tubule

To renal
vein
From renal
artery
Capillaries

Bowmans
capsule

Urinary
bladder

Ureters

Renal
veins

Renal
arteries

To
ureter

Vein:

Bowmans capsule

Artery:

A Nephron

The Urinary System

Urethra

Glomerulus

Vena
cava

Kidney

Transparency

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Tubule

Capillaries

Duct to
bladder

Renal
vein

Renal
artery

Urine,
excess
water and
salts

Collecting duct
to ureter

The
Kidney

Use with Chapter 37,


Section 37.3

BASIC CONCEPTS

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Uterus

Ligaments
Cervix
Vagina
Bladder

Uterus

Cervix

Vagina

Rectum

Urethra

Bone

Ovary

Ovary

Female Reproductive System

Oviduct

74

Oviduct

Transparency

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use with Chapter 38,


Section 38.1

BASIC CONCEPTS

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

75

Time

Thickness of
uterine lining
and levels of
ovarian
hormones

Ovary

Levels of
pituitary
hormones

Transparency

Flow stage

Follicular stage

10

Progesterone
Estrogen

Follicle

Uterine lining

LH

FSH

The Menstrual Cycle

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

12

14

Ovulation

16

18

22
Luteal stage

20

Corpus luteum

24

26

28

Flow

Use with Chapter 38,


Section 38.1

BASIC CONCEPTS

Transparency

76

Identifying a
Pathogen

BASIC CONCEPTS
Use with Chapter 39,
Section 39.1

Step 1
Infectious pathogen
identified

Step 3
Pathogen injected
into healthy animal

Step 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Pathogen grown in
pure culture

Healthy animal
becomes sick

Step 4
Identical pathogen
indentified
BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

77

Injury

Response to Injury

Histamine released,
blood vessels dilate

Transparency

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Phagocytes

Swelling
occurs

Pus

Tissue fluid moves


into injured area

Use with Chapter 39,


Section 39.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

7. Plasma cells
secrete antibodies
5. Activated Helper T cells
bind with B cells causing
B cells to divide

4. Helper T cells bind to


self-nonself antigens

ADAPTIVE IMMUNE SYSTEM

3. Macrophage with
self-nonself antigens

Bodys (self) antigens

INNATE IMMUNE SYSTEM


2. Bacteria engulfed by macrophage cells

6. B cells divide to form


plasma cells and
memory B cells

8. Memory B cells and


antibodies attack
and mark antigens for
macrophage destruction

1. Bacteria invade
the body

Antibody Immunity

ANTIBODY
IMMUNITY

78a

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use with Chapter 39,


Section 39.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES

Transparency

Pathogen

CELLULAR
IMMUNITY

Helper
T cell

Stimulates

Memory
T cells

Stimulates

Self-nonself antigen
complex displayed on
macrophages surface

Results in

Macrophage

Active
Cytotoxic
T cells

Produces

Cytotoxic
T cell

Antigens displayed
on surface of
infected cells
stimulate

Cellular Immunity

Engulfed by

78b

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Cytotoxic T cell

Foreign
antigen

Infected
cells

Infected cell lyses

Perforin

Lesion

Use with Chapter 39,


Section 39.2

BASIC CONCEPTS

Transparency

79

BASIC CONCEPTS

The AIDS Epidemic

Use with Chapter 39,


Section 39.2

Viral RNA

Reverse transcriptase
Inner protein core
Outer protein core
Outer lipid envelope
Outer protein

HIV structure

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Virus particle

Fusion of
membranes

Attachment
protein

Receptor

Uninfected
helper T cell

BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life

BASIC CONCEPTS TRANSPARENCIES