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Introduction Management of

Technology
Since technology is such a vital force, the field of technology management has emerged to
address the particular ways in which companies should approach the use of technology in
business strategies and operations. Technology is inherently difficult to manage because it is
constantly changing, often in ways that cannot be predicted. Technology management is the set
of policies and practices that leverage technologies to build, maintain, and enhance the
competitive advantage of the firm on the basis of proprietary knowledge and know-how.
The U.S. National Research Council in Washington, D.C., defined management of technology
(MOT) as linking "engineering, science, and management disciplines to plan, develop, and
implement technological capabilities to shape and accomplish the strategic and operational
objectives of an organization" (National Research Council, 1987). While technology
management techniques are themselves important to firm competitiveness, they are most
effective when they complement the overall strategic posture adopted by the firm. The strategic
management of technology tries to create competitive by incorporating technological
opportunities into the corporate strategy.
Technology management needs to be separated from research and development (R&D)
management. R&D management refers to the process by which a company runs its research
laboratories and other operations for the creation of new technologies. Technology management
focuses on the intersection of technology and business, encompassing not only technology
creation but also its application, dissemination, and impact. Michael Bigwood suggests that New
Technology Exploitation (NTE) lies somewhere between R&D and New Product Development,
with characteristics of the cyclical learning process of scientific discovery and the more defined
and linear process of product development.
Given these trends, a new profession, known as the technology manager, emerged. Defined as a
generalist with many technology-based specializations and who possessed new managerial skills,

techniques, and ways of thinking, technology managers knew company strategy and how
technology could be used most effectively to support firm goals and objectives.
Educational programs supporting this career grew as well. Formal Technology Management
programs became available in the 1980s and these were largely affiliated with engineering or
business schools. Coursework was limited, and the field was just finding its own unique focus.
During the 1990s, the increasing integration of technology into overall business function and
strategy helped to align technology management more closely with business programs. Most
graduate programs in the 2000s were offered through business schools, either as separate MBA
tracks or as MBA concentrations. Coursework in these programs shifted emphasis from
technology to management, centering around innovation management and technology strategy,
while touching on other areas such as operations, new product development, project
management, and organizational behavior, among others. There was still little specialization in
any particular industry.
During the early 2000s, another shift took place. Global distribution, outsourcing, and large-scale
collaboration impacted the nature of technology management (TM) and preparatory educational
programs. At least two MBA programs were shifting their technology management focus to
"innovation and leadership," with particular emphasis on real-world problem solving in
partnership with large corporations.

Problems in Managing Technology


Lack of coordination:
Despite several institutions for R&D, there interaction with industry is very low. So,
industrialists have to depend on foreign collaborate that is difficult to be selected in a
right prospect.

Cost of discoveries:
Cost of discoveries have increased and pay-offs have decrease with reduces
the speed of technology development.
Imitation of new products:
Because of limitation of new products, profit potential reduces. So, to
increase it innovations in manufacturing or distribution are required.
Import of technology:
Impart of technology becomes difficult because of:

Lack of facilities for training of technicians.


Lack of facilities for testing of raw materials.
Lack of availability of spar part of after technical collaboration.
Developed countries not willing to provide key technology.
Developed countries think that developing country, like india is higher
rivals and if given latest technology, they will take over them because
of rich natural and human resources.

Old design to absorb new technology:

Because of very old design of Indian plant set industries capacity to absorb
new technology is less, e.g. change of foot breaker, accelerator from left
hand side to right hand side in bullet motor cycle and in certain of side
indicator in Bajaj Scooter took a long time.
Pollution of biosphere:
Pollution of biosphere that is the land, air, water and natural condition on
which living human being depends, is created by smoke, odour, nose,
influents, dust, etc. it is a baste a to certain extent because of reclining
agents, but beyond that extent it is not only harmful but also a threat to life
and the planet itself. Therefore technologies have to develop and use new
and use new and less platy forms of energy and innovating.
Resources of industry are limited:
Resource of the industry such as minerals, different forms of energy, water
supply, skilled labour and knowledge are limited, which prevent growth of
technology. So, technology has to discover new materials, substitutes for
existing materials, new use of existing materials and develop new forms of
energy and human knowledge to meet shortage or fear of shortage.
Social institutions and values:
Social institutions and values in consistent with the full productive potential
in technology hindered the development, example, religious beliefs, prevent
mingle or oil exploration or industrialisation of certain areas called as
wholly places.

Factors / issues in managing


technology

Pollution:
Pollution is an unavoidable consequence of industrial production. Smoke, smell, noise,
effluents and dust are generated by industrial establishments.
The biosphere-the land, air, water and natural conditions on which all life on earth
depends- can absorb and break down many of these industrial pollutions without harm to
people, animals or plants. But the biosphere is not all infinite sponge, and the build-up of
harmful chemicals in the ecosystem poses a threat to life and the planet itself. The earths
absorptive capacity is especially limited when a single society concentrates its industrial
technology and industrial products too densely in a single region. A critical issue today is
societys capability to raise the standard of living everywhere as less-developed countries
industrialize without causing irreparable damage to the earths biosphere. Part of the
answer to this potential obstacle to further technological development is to invent and use
new and less polluting forms of technology and energy.

The industrial resource base:


Industrial resource base comprises minerals, different forms of energy, water supplies,
skilled labor force, and human knowledge. There is a limit to the availability of these and
this limitation checks the advancement of technology.
But the technology itself offers an answer to shortage of all resources. It has potential to
discover new materials, for existing ones and new uses for existing materials. It also has
potential to develop human knowledge and discover newer and newer forms of energy.
Technology need to be perceived as a threat to the resource base of society.

Social institutions:
The third factor limiting technology is social values and institutions that may be
inconsistent with the full productive potential that is present in technology.
An example is seen in Western Australia, where aborigines prevented two international
mining companies from drilling for oil at a spot considered sacred by the tribal group.
According to their tribal legends, the spirit of a giant sacred serpent is sleeping under the
ground where the oil was discovered. Australian labor unions supported the aboriginal
demands to halt drilling by boycotting the site and threatening to blacklist all other
mining operations of the two companies. Anthropologists estimated that western
Australia may have as many as 2,00,000 sacred sites like this one, thereby passing a
considerable problem for mining and drilling operations there.

Status of Technology in India:


India, like any other third world country, attained political independence after prolonged
colonial rule and exploitation. The country entered the modern world in a state of
economic backwardness and poverty of a large section of its people. It is obvious that
technology must attend to the basic problems of food, clothing, health and housing of
people. At the same time, rapid industrial development through latest technology is
necessary to catch up with the advanced countries.
With these objectives in mind, government of India set-up Research and development
establishments, space research centers, medical research centers, agricultural research
establishments, oil exploration centers, power development projects and the Council of
Scientific and Industrial research. Besides, several universities and institutes have been
set up to provide higher education in science, technology and management. As of today,
there are 4700 intermediate/ junior colleges, 144 universities, and 44 deemed universities
in the country. Also there are more than 500 science and technological institutions, and
1220 in-house research and development laboratories. There is also the department of
Science and Technology, and administrative wing of the government, to co-ordinate the
activities of all research and technical activities in the country.

Techniques in Business
Technology Management
Business technology management (BTM) techniques allow you to unify business and technology
decision making. Setting up guidelines known as capabilities enables you to organize operational
practices and improve performance. Typically, each organization's tools and standards are
unique. By aligning and synchronizing these tools, the convergence results in better utilization by
everyone.

Business Technology Strategies


Use of project management methodology such as the Project Management Body of Knowledge
or the Capability Maturity Model enables specific management techniques for specialized needs.
The goal is to produce operational improvement. The problem is that each of these solutions
addresses one organization's needs without acknowledging necessarily the needs of any other
related function. Business technology management techniques fill this gap and attempt deliver a
seamless strategic management plan.
To implement BTM principles, create comprehensive, flexible processes. The object is to reduce
redundancy and build off practices that work effectively. Next, ensure that governance is
performed by senior stakeholders in your company. By centralizing sponsorship, you can assure
a consistent directive and activities aligning to strategic goals. Use rotational or part-time
assignments to provide a fresh outlook and serve to revitalize the governing body on a regular
basis. Establish specialized focus groups or project teams to respond to specific needs.
Be sure to provide adequate information regarding any decision. Publish operational data and
performance metrics so that participating managers understand the impact of their daily
employee activities. Utilize technology to connect all the different facets of your company.
Automate repetitive tasks, produce and distribute operational reports to motivate and cultivate
improved employee performance, analyze operational data to identify trends and propose
interventions that make a difference. Ensure your company complies with all regulations at every
level.
BTM competencies achieved by repeating these management activities result in organizational
effectiveness. Select and execute proposed projects that align with strategic goals for each
functional area of your business. Develop short and long term strategic plans and associated
budgets. By matching funds with the projected needs of your evolving business, you can best
utilize all the business technology available. Create a long term architecture that aligns with your
company industry as a whole. As you are able to complete each of these tasks, your company
functions at increasing levels of maturity. The result is continuing success. Business technology
management enables efficient execution of company vision statements.

Case Study
Technology management: case study of an integrated
health system.
Technology management has assumed a role of vital importance in today's health care
environment. Capital reserves and operating income have been stretched by pervasive and

expensive technologies, while overall reimbursement has been reduced. It is imperative for
hospitals to develop and consistently use technology management processes that begin prior to a
technology's introduction in the hospital and continue throughout its life cycle.
At Samaritan Health System (SHS), an integrated health care delivery system based in Phoenix,
technology management provides tools to improve decision making and assist in the system's
integration strategy as well as control expenses. SHS uses a systemwide technology-specific plan
to guide acquisition and/or funding decisions. This plan describes how particular technologies
can help achieve SHS' organizational goals such as promoting system integration and/or
improving patient outcomes while providing good economic value.
After technologies are targeted in this systemwide plan they are prioritized using a two-stage
capital prioritization process. The first stage of the capital prioritization process considers the
quantitative and qualitative factors critical for equitable capital distribution across the system.
The second stage develops a sense of ownership among the parties that affect and are affected by
the allocation at a facility level. This process promotes an efficient, effective, equitable, and
defensible approach to resource allocation and technology decision making. Minimizing
equipment maintenance expenditures is also an integral part of technology management at SHS.
The keys to reducing maintenance expenditures are having a process in place that supports a
routine fiscal evaluation of maintenance coverage options and ensuring that manufacturers are
obligated to provide critical maintenance resources at the time of equipment purchase.
Maintenance service options under consideration in this report include full-service contracts with
the manufacturer, insurance coverage, time and materials, and independent service vendors/inhouse support. Careful consideration of all the ramifications of each option is warranted because
there are substantial cost differences among these methods. At SHS, technology management
efforts resulted in equipment purchases and maintenance negotiations representing savings of
more than $1.5 million in a single year. SHS undertakes an intensive review of purchases and
maintenance expenditures, using the techniques described in this report, with the objective of
reducing expenses by 10% per year. This report describes the technology management methods
that SHS uses to achieve these results.

Business technology management boosts performance


at Coca-Cola Enterprises.
In 2006, when Esat Sezer joined Coca-Cola Enterprises as senior vice president and chief
information officer, the company was facing rising costs and flat revenues. It had failed to keep
pace with the rapidly changing business landscape that included shifting consumer preferences,
retailer consolidation, and rising production and delivery costs.
Operating in 46 countries with 74,000 employees, the company is the world's largest marketer,
producer, and distributor of Coca-Cola Company products. It services 414 million consumers
and one million retail stores, and supplies products to more than two million vending machines,
beverage dispensers, and coolers.

Sezer joined with the senior management team to put together a global business strategy that
would expand the product portfolio, transform the go-to-market model, and improve efficiency
and effectiveness. During a recent Q and A session with the BTM Exchange, he explained: "To
support this strategy to become the best sales and customer service company, we identified the
need to make sizable investments in technology and to integrate our technology strategy with our
business strategy."

It has worked. For 2008, Coca-Cola Enterprises had net operating revenues of $21.8 billion, a 4
percent increase compared to $20.9 billion in 2007.

The turnaround was one of the reasons I wanted to join Coca-Cola Enterprises, Sezer says.
For about 20 years, the company had grown through acquisitions in which we inherited varying
processes and procedures. In addition, we were facing the most difficult commodity cost
environment our industry had ever seen. In 2007, we created a global operating framework,
which for the first time stated the company's mission, vision, and key strategic priorities from a
global scale. It also included the core capabilities we needed to invest in and to improve.

Technology was identified as a key investment area to support our business priorities.
Although he may not have called it by that name, this is a textbook example of the strategy and
planning principles of business technology management (BTM) creating an enterprise strategy,
identifying the management capabilities needed to execute it, and investing in the technology
that will enable these capabilities.

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