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Tense &grammer

Shrikant SAHU

What is Tense?
[Sub + Helping Verb(H.V) + Main Verb(M.V)+
Obj]
HELPING VERBS
i.

1)

Noun\
Singular
1)Name
2)Place
3)Thing

Pronoun
Person

Person Person
1
2

Person
3

I , We,
ME,
MY,
US,
OUR

HE ,
SHE , IT
,THEY
THEM,
THEIR

YOU,
YOUR,

PRESENT TENSE

Simple Present

Do\Does

Present
Continious

Is \Am \Are

Present Perfect

Has \Have

Perfect
Continious

Has been\Have
been

2)

PAST TENSE

Simple Past

Did

Past Continious

Was \Were

Past Perfect

Had

Perfect
Continious

Had been

What is Singular?

And what is Plural?


Singular=Noun.
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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU

Plural means many singular. Plural = many Singular.


Some Examples of Singular and Plural
1) By adding (S)
Bottle = bottles, pencil = pencils, desk = desks, stikers =stikers , window =
windows
Cup = cups
2) For Noun That ending in ( ch, x, s,) please Add (es)
Box =boxes, Watch =watches, moss = mosses, bus = busses
3) For Noun ending in ( f \ fe ) Please change (f = v) And Add (es)
Wolf =wolves, wife =wives, leaf =leaves, life=lives
4) Some other Plurals
Child =children, woman =women, man =men, mouse = mice , baby =
babies, toy =toys, potato =potatoes, sheep=sheep , deer=deer, series
=series.

ARTICLES (a , an , The )
Vowels
place, name , thing
(a , e , i , o , u )

Any Famous

Consonant

Vowels : ( a , e , i , o , u )
Consonant : ( b , c , d , f , g , h , j , k , l , m , n , p , q ,
r,s,t,v,w,x,y,z)
1) The article (A) used before Singular, and contable Noun
which start with Consonant sound.
2) The article (AN) used before singular , countable Nouns And
which starts with Vowel sound.
3) Please Remember A,AAN means one Or Single. You
cannot use A(AN) with Plural Noun.
4) There is many Noun which uncountable . In those donot use
A(AN).
Some EX. Information, air, advice,salt and fun.

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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU

There is 3 types of Tense.


1) Present Tense
2) Past Tense
3) Future
Tense
Tense
In each tense there is 4 Sub-Tense. For ex.
Obj]
1) Present Tense
Tense
i.
Simple Present Tense
ii.
Present Continious Tense
[Sub+was\were+M.V(1)+ing+Obj]
iii.
Present Perfect Tense
iv.
Present Perfect Continious Tense
2) Past Tense
i.
Simple Past Tense
had+M.V(3)+Obj]
ii.
Past Continious Tense
iii.
Past Perfect Tense
Tense
iv.
Past Perfect Continious Tense
3) Future Tense
been+Mv(1)+ing+Obj]
ii.
Simple Future Tense
iii.
Future Continious Tense
iv.
Future Perfect Tense
v.
------------------------

2) Past Tense
a) Simple past
[Sub + M.V(2) +
b) Past Continious

c) Past Perfect Tense


[Sub +

d) Past Perfect Continious

[Sub+had

3) Future Tense
a) Simple Future Tense

Formulas for each Tense


[sub+ will+M.V(1)+Obj]

1)Present Tense
Tense
i.

b) Future Continious

Simple Present Tense


[sub+will be+ M.V(1)+ing+Obg]

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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU
[Sub+M.V(1)+Obj]

c) Future Perfect

Present Continious Tense


+M.V(3)+Obj]

[Sub+will have

Tense
ii.

[Sub+is\am\are+M.V.(1)+ing+Obj]
Continious Tense
iii.

Present Perfect Tense


been+M.V(1)+ Ing+Obj]

d) Future Perfect
[Sub +will have

[Sub+has\have+M.V(3)+Obj]
iv.

Present Perfect Continious Tense


[Sub+has\have+been+M.V(1)+ing+Obj]

CHANGE THE VERB ( ACTIVE VERB\


PASSIVE VERB)
TENSE

Simple Present
Tense

ACTIVE TENSE

PASSIVE TENSE

Pesent Tense

[In Passive Verb (BY) is


coming compulsory
Before Subject]

[Sub+M.V(1)+Obj]

[Obj+is\am\are+M.V(3)+
bySub]

Geeta write a letter.

A letter is written by Geeta.


Present
Continious
Tense

[Sub+is\am\are+M.V.
(1)+ing+Obj]

[Obj+is\am\are+being+M
V(3)+Sub]

Geeta is writing a letter.

A letter is being written by


Geeta.

Present Perfect
Tense

[Sub+has\have+M.V(3)+Obj]

[Obj+has\havebeen+MV(
3)+Sub]

Geeta has written a letter.

A letter has been eritten by

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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU
Geeta.

Present Perfect
Continious

[Sub+has\havebeen+MV(1)
+ing+Obj]

[Obj+has\havebeen+bein
g+MV(3)+Sub]

Geeta has been writing a


letter.

A letter has been being


written by Geeta.

PAST TENSE
Simple past
Tense

[Sub + M.V(2) + Obj]


Geeta wrote a letter.

[Obj+was\were+MV(3)+S
ub]
A letter was written by
Geeta.

Past continuous
Tense

Past Perfect
Tense

[Sub+was\were+M.V(1)+in
g+Obj]

[Obj+was\were+being+
MV(3)+Sub]

Geeta was writing a letter.

A letter was being written


by Geeta.

[Sub + had+M.V(3)+Obj]

[Obj+had
been+MV(3)+Sub]

Geeta had written a letter.

A letter had been written by


Geeta.

Past Perfect
Continious

[Sub+had
been+Mv(1)+ing+Obj]
Geeta had been writing a
letter.

[Obj+had
been+being+MV(3)+Sub
]
A letter had been being
written by Geeta.

Future Tense
Simple Future
Tense

[sub+
will\Shall+M.V(1)+Obj]

[Obj+will\shall be
+MV(3)+Sub]

Geeta will write a letter.

A letter will be written by


Geeta.

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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU
Future
Continious
Tense

[sub+will
be+MV(1)+ing+Obj]

[Obj+will
be+being+Mv(3)+Sub]

Geeta will be writing a


letter.

A letter will be being written


by Geeta.

Future Perfect
Tense

[Sub+will have
+M.V(3)+Obj]

[Obj+ will have


been+MV(3)+Sub]

Geeta will have written a


letter.

A letter will have been


written by Geeta.

[Sub+willhavebeen+M.V(1)
+ Ing+Obj]

[Obj+will have been


+being +MV(3) +Sub]

Geeta will have been writing a


letter.

A letter will have been


being written by Geeta.

Future Perfect
Continious

PARTS OF SPEECH
1. Noun
5. Adverb

2. Pronoun
6. Preposition

3. Adjective
7. Conjuction

4. Verb
8. interjection

1. Noun
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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU

There is a 5 types of noun such as


a) proper noun b) Common noun c) Collective noun d) Material
noun
e) Abstract noun
Proper noun = any perfect name or place
Eg: 1) Allahbad is a holly city. ( Allahbad )
2) Ashoka was a great king. ( Ahoka )

Common noun = one common field , place or thing.


Eg: 1) Allahbad is a holly city. ( City )
2) Ashoka was a great king. ( king )

Collective noun = any group or many of thing together.


Eg: Crowd, Army, Family, Nation, Team, etc..

Material noun = Any things which are made.


Eg: Gold, Silver, Stone, Iron, Glass, Copper, etc..
Abstract noun = this noun show Quality, Action, death, etc
Quality = Goodness, kindness, darkness, honesty, hardness, etc..
Action = Movement, judgment, laughter, etc

GENDER
1) Male
= Boy, Father, husband, uncle, sir, poet, hero
2) Female = Girl, mother, wife, aunt, madam, poetess, heroine
Preposition = The preposition is a word used before a
noun or pronoun.
EX: In, into, on, upon, at, between, among, above, over, under,
from, with, after, before, as, since, etc
Conjunction = The conjunction is a word which is used for joint
the 2 different sentence . such as, But, And, Or, As well as, not
onlybut also, eitheror, etc..
Interjection = It is a word which express sudden emotion such
as, hurrah! , Oh!,
Ha! , What! , Hellow! , etc

VERB

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SMART ACADAMY

Present left
Past
Shrikant SAHU

INFINITIVE :
form of the verb. The
"learn" is "to learn." You
infinitive as the subject,
the object of a sentence

FORMULA : [ TO +
For EX. : To do, To
write, To play, To eat,
1) She wanted to
2) He likes to read
3) Raj is able to

GERUNDS

:
A
made from a verb by
gerund form of the verb
You can use a gerund as
complement,
or
the

VERB

EX.
Reading,
Eating,
Writing,
1. Reading helps
2. Her
favorite
3. I

Arise
Arose
Arisen
Tense
&grammer
Beat
beat
Beat
Become became Become
Bite
bit
Bitten

Breck
Bring
Build
Burn
Buy
Deal
Do
Draw
Dream
Drink
Drive
Eat
Fall
Feel
Fight
Find
Fly
Forget
Forgive

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Left
3rd Form

Get
Give
Go
Grow
Know
Learn
Leave
Make
May
Mean
Show
Sing

brock
brought
built
burnt
bought
dealt
did
drew
Dreame
d
drank
Drove
ate
fell
felt
fought
found
flew
forgot

Brocken
Brought
Built
Burnt
Bought
Dealt
Done
Drawn
Dreame
d
Drunk
Driven
Eaten
Fallen
Felt
Fought
Found
Flown
Forgott
en
forgave Forgive
n
Got
Got
gave
Given
went
Gone
grew
Grown
knew
Known
learnt
Learnt
made
might
meant
showe
d
Sang

Infinitives are the "to"


infinitive form of
can also use an
the complement, or

VERB(1) ]
make, To read, To
etc.
marry me.
books.
run fast. Etc.

gerund is a noun
adding "-ing." The
"read" is "reading."
the
subject,
the
object of a sentence.

FORMULA
ING ]
Making, Playing,
Speaking,
Listening, etc.
you learn English.
hobby is reading.
enjoy reading.

Made
Might
Meant
Showed
SMART ACADAMY

Sung

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU

QUESTION TAG ( Q.T )


FORMULA :
QN. [ SUB + H.V +
Q.T.

HELPING VERB(H.V) +
NOT
DO

ISNT

WAS

WASNT

DOES

WERE

WERENT

IS

DOESN
T
ISNT

HAD

HADNT

AM

ARENT

WILL

WONT

ARE

ARENT

SHALL

SHANT

HAS

HASNT

HAVE

HAVEN
T
DIDNT

SHOUL
D
WOULD

SHOULD
NT
WOULDN
T
COULDN
T

DID

COULD

M.V + OBJ. ]

[ SUB+H.V+M.V+OBJ+( , )+H.V+NOT+SUB+? ]
EX. 1. Geeta sings well.
Ans: Geeta sings well, doesnt she?
2. Its raining.
Ans: Its raining, isnt It?
3. Ajit is a good boy.
Ans: Ajit is good boy, isnt he ?
4. Geeta has gone to play Kho-kho.
Ans: Geeta has gone to play Kho-kho, hasnt she?
5. It will not rain today.
Ans: It will not rain today , will it?

YES/NO Type question


Example : 1. They are American.--- Ans.( Are they American? )
2. She is nice.
----Ans. (Is she nice ? )
FORMULA
Qn. [ sub + h.v + m.v + obj. ]
Ans : [ H.v + sub + m.v + obj. ]
1. If the main verb of the sentence is "to be", simply invert the subject and the verb to be:

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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU
Examples:

They are American. Are they American?

They are nice. Are they nice?

2. If the sentence includes a main verb and another or other helping (auxiliary) verb(s), invert the
subject and the (first) helping (auxiliary) verb.
Examples:

They are visiting Paris. Are they visiting Paris?

She has done the housework. Has she done the housework

Nancy has been working all night long. Has Nancy been working all night long?

He will be reading the book. Will he be reading the book?

3. If the sentence includes a verb which is not the verb "to be" and doesn't include a helping
(auxiliary) verb, the transformation is more complex.
a. If the verb is in the present tense, add either do or does and put the main verb in its base
form:

do if the subject is the first person singular, second person singular, first person
plural, second person plural and third person plural (I, you, we, they)
Examples:
I like apples. Do you like apples?
They go to a high school. Do they go to a high school?

does if the subject is the third person singular (he, she, it).
Examples:
Nancy reads a lot. Does Nancy read a lot?
He hates basketball. Does he hate basketball?

b.If the verb is in the past tense, add did and put the main verb in its base form:
Examples:

He discovered the truth. Did he discover the truth?

She wrote a nice essay. Did she write a nice essay?

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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU

They did the homework. Did they do the homework?

WH TYPE QUESTION ( START WITH W OR H )


QN WORD MEANING

EXAMPLES

WHO

PERSON

Who's that? That's Nancy.

WHERE

PLACE

Where do you live? In Boston

WHY

REASON

Why do you sleep early? Because I've got to get up early

WHEN

TIME

When do you go to work? At 7:00

HOW

MANNER

How do you go? By car

WHAT

OBJECT,IDEA

What do you do? I am an engineer

WHICH

CHOICE

Which one do you prefer? The red one.

WHOSE

POSSESSION

Whose is this book? It's Alan's.

WHOM

OBJECT

Whom did you meet? I met the manager.

WHAT TIME

TIME

What time did you come home?

HOW MANY

QUANTITY

How many students are there? There are twenty.

HOW MUCH

AMOUNT

How much time have we got? Ten minutes

1.If you ask about the subject of the sentence, simply add the question word at the beginning:
Example:
James writes good poems. Who writes good poems?
2.If you ask about the predicate of the sentence (the part of a sentence which contains the verb
and gives information about the subject), there are three options:

If there is a helping (auxiliary) verb that precedes the main verb ( for example: can, is,
are, was, were, will, would...), add the question word and invert the subject and the
helping (auxiliary) verb.
Examples:

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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU
He can speak Chinese. What can he speak?
They are leaving tonight. When are they leaving?

If you ask about the predicate and there is no helping (auxiliary) verb and the verb is "to
be", simply add the question verb and invert the subject and the verb.
Example:
The play was interesting. How was the play?

If there is no helping (auxiliary) verb in the the predicate and the main verb is not "to be",
add the auxiliary "do" in the appropriate form.
Examples:
They go to the movies every Saturday. Where do they go every Saturday?
He wakes up early. When does he wake up?
They sent a letter. What did they send?

Either/or and neither/nor


1.Either / or - used in a sentence in the affirmative sense when referring to a choice
between two possibilities
We can either eat now or after the show - it's up to you.
2. Neither / nor - used in a sentence in the negative sense when you want to say that
two or more things are not true
Neither my mother nor my father went to university.
Singular or plural
When using either/or and neither/nor, note the following rules:
1. If both elements are singular, then the verb is singular too.
Either the father or the mother has to attend the meeting.
(father and mother are singular; so the verb has is singular too)
Neither Leila nor Nancy is going to write the report.
(Leila and Nancy are singular; so the verb is is singular too)
2. However, if one of the elements is plural, then use a plural verb.

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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU

Either Sue or the girls are going to prepare dinner tonight. (the
girls is plural; so the verb are is plural too)
Neither the teacher nor the students were in the classroom this
morning. (the students is plural; so the verb were is plural too)

Figures of Speech (Stylistic Devices)


What is a simile?
A simile is a figure of speech comparing two unlike things, often introduced with the word "like"
or "as". It takes the form of:

X is (not) like Y

X is (not) as Y

X is (not) similar to Y

Examples of simile:

He fights like a lion.

He swims as fast as a fish.

He slithers like a snake.

"My dad was a mechanic by trade when he was in the Army, When he
got the tools out, he was like a surgeon."

What is a metaphor?
Unlike simile, metaphor (from the Greek language: meaning "transfer") is language that directly
compares seemingly unrelated subjects. It is a figure of speech that compares two or more things
not using like or as. In the simplest case, this takes the form:
X - is - Y

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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU

Examples of metaphor:
All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances;
What is hypophora?
Hypophora is a figure of speech in which the speaker raises a question and then answers it.
Hypophora is different from rhetorical questions. In a rhetorical question the answer is not
provided by the writer. In hypophora, however, the writer poses the question and answers it
immediately after. Hypophora is also called anthypophora or antipophora.
Examples
Here are some examples of hypophora:

"You ask, what is our policy? I will say: It is to wage war, by sea, land,
and air, with all our might and with all the strength.." Winston
Churchill, 4 June 1940.

What is an alliteration?
Alliteration is the repetition of initial sounds in neighboring words.
Alliteration draws attention to the phrase and is often used for emphasis.The initial consonant
sound is usually repeated in two neighboring words although sometimes the repetition occurs
also in words that are not neighbors.
Examples:

sweet smell of success,

a dime a dozen,

bigger and better,

jump for joy

share a continent but not a country

Here is an example of alliteration in a poem by Wordsworth:


And sings a solitary song That whistles in the wind.

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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU

Remember
1. Only the repetition of the same sound is valid in an alliteration not the consonants themselves.
Examples:

keen camarad.

philosophy fan.

A neat knot need not be re-knotted.

Although they start with different consonants, they constitute perfect instances of alliteration;
2. By contrast, if neighboring words start with the same consonant but have a different initial
sound, the words are not alliterated.
Examples:

a cute child

highly honored (pay attention to the h in honored; it is silent)

What is irony?
Irony is a figure of speech in which there is a contradiction of expectation between what is said
what is really meant. It is characterized by an incongruity, a contrast, between reality and
appearance. There are three types of irony: verbal, dramatic and situational.
Types of irony
1. Verbal irony:
It is a contrast between what is said and what is meant
2. Dramatic irony:
It occurs when the audience or the reader knows more than the
character about events. In other words, what the character thinks is
true is incongruous with what the audience knows.
3. Situational irony:
This refers to the contrast between the actual result of a situation and
what was intended or expected to happen.

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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU

Examples of irony

His argument was as clear as mud.

The two identical twins were arguing. One of them told the other:
"You're ugly"

The thieves robbed the police station

What is lilotes?
Lilotes is a figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed
by negating its opposite. For example, instead of saying that someone is mean, you can say he is
not very generous.
Examples of lilotes
He's not a very generous man.
She is not very beautiful.
He is not the friendliest person I 've met.
Don't be too wicked.
It won't be an easy trip
He is not unaware of his wife's foolishness.

What is metonymy?
Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is not called by its own name, but
by the name of something intimately associated with that thing or concept.
Examples:
Here are some examples of metonymy:

Crown. (For the power of a king.)

The White House. (Referring to the American administration.)

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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU

Dish. (To refer an entire plate of food.)

The Pentagon. (For the Department of Defense and the offices of the
U.S. Armed Forces.)

Pen. (For the written word.)

Sword - (For military force.)

Hollywood. (For US Cinema.)

Hand. (For help.)

Climax (figure of speech)


Climax refers to a figure of speech in which words, phrases, or clauses are arranged in order of
increasing importance.
Examples of climax
These are some examples:
1.
Beauty is but a vain and doubtful good;
A shining gloss that vadeth suddenly;
A flower that dies when first it gins to bud;
A brittle glass that's broken presently:
A doubtful good, a gloss, a glass, a flower,
Lost, vaded, broken, dead within an hour.
Anticlimax (figure of speech)
Anticlimax refers to a figure of speech in which statements gradually descend in order of
importance. Unlike climax, anticlimax is the arrangement of a series of words, phrases, or
clauses in order of decreasing importance.
Examples of anticlimax
These are some examples of anticlimax:
1. She is a great writer, a mother and a good humorist.
2. He lost his family, his car and his cell phone.

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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU

EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE ( ! )..


Exclamatory sentence means are a sentence which express humans
feelings and expression.
To change Assertive sentence into exclamatory sentence to take subject
as WHAT or HOW.

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SMART ACADAMY

Tense &grammer
Shrikant SAHU

If in Assiertive sentence, There is a word (A) or (AN) we use WHAT in


exclasmation , Otherwise we take HOW in exclamation.
In exclamation we use ADVERB after WHAT or HOW. And remove words
like as VERY, GREAT Etc.
In exclamation we use (!) sign in end of the sentence.
SOME EXAMPLES :
1 . It is very fine shot.
Ans: what a fine shot it is !
2 . Ajit is a great student.
Ans: What a student Ajit is !

EXERCISE QUESTIONS
1. Mahatma Gandhi is very great.
2 . His teeth were very dirty
3 . It is a pity that he has lost his wife.

3 . Mamta is very intelligent.


Ans: How intelligent Mamta is !
4 . Chokobar is very tasty.
country.
Ans : How tasty it is !

4 . It is really a great victory.


5 . Hindustan is very wonderful
6 . They were very much worried.

5 . Swati sings very sweetly.


Ans : How sweetly Swati sings !
6 . Rohit was very lucky.
Ans : How lucky Rohit was !

7 . The scenes were very lovly.


8 . Those girl are very clever.

9 . Survi is a very simple girl.


7 . Kashmir is very wonderful place.
Ans : What a wonderful place Kashmir is !
10 . Sapana is running very
fast.
8 . He was a great philosopher.
editor.
Ans : What a Philosopher he was !

11 . Ghanshyam is a great photo

9 . This night is very cold.


Ans : How cold this night is !

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SMART ACADAMY

Adjectives Synonyms
Big
Large
Blank
Empty
Shrikant SAHU
Broad
Wide
Center
Middle
cunning
Clever
dangerous
Risky
Eatable
Edible
False
Untrue
Fertile
Fruitful
Gay
Cheerful
Glad
Happy
Hard
Difficult
High
Tall
Huge
Enormous
intelligent
Clever
Lazy
Indolent
Little
Small
Loving
Fond
Loyal
Faithful
Mad
Crazy
New
Modern
Nice
Kind
Noisy
Rowdy
Old
Ancient
Oral
Verbal
Polite
Courteous
Poor
Destitute
Quick
rapid/fast
Rare
Scarce
Ready
Alert
Real
Genuine
Rich
Wealthy
Rude
Impolite
Sad
Unhappy
Safe
Secure
Sleepy
Drowsy
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Slim
Slender
Thin
Lean

Tense &grammer

SMART ACADAMY