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26 Heinrich Schenker Long after his major writings on harmony, counterpoint and analysis began to appear, Heinrich Schenker (1868-2935) remains one of the most important and influential ‘theorists in the history of Western music. His achievements have often been compared to those of eminent thinkers ofhis age working in other fields gis Viennese com- patriots Sigmund Freud in psychology and Albert Einstein in physics. His influence, ‘modest (though not negligible) in his own lifetime, has grown steadily since the middle of the lat century and shows no signs of abating. Already a paradigmatic figure in North American universities by the 1970s, he has since exerted a powerful infuence in British and, more recently, European academiccircles. Indeed, the interest shown in his life's work is, in some respects, comparable to that of some of the twentieth century’s leading composers, and in this respect his reputation as theorists unequaled “That which is called “Schenkerian theory” isa complex set of regulatory principles ‘that were initially intended to explain the tonal musicoftheeighteenth and nineteenth centuries; i is at the same time a synthesis of many traditions, embracing Fuxian ‘counterpoint, the thorough-bass teaching of Caz! Philipp Emanuel Back and late nine ‘eenth-century harmonic theory It is at once a sophisticated explanation of tonality, bbutalso an analytical system of immense empirical power. Schenker’s ideas and work ‘ouch on, oF have implications for, virtually very topic addressed in this volume. ‘This chapter includes a synopsis of Schenker’s life and works,an explanation of the rudiments ofhis theory, remarks on its historical background, anda survey ofits recep- tion both asa pedagogical tool and asa basis for Furcher investigation of a wide range of music." Life and writings "The few sources for Heinrich Schenker’s childhood and adolescence suggest that he ‘came from a poor but intellectually supportive Jewish family in Galicia (Poland), 1 Related aspects of Schences's theory are diteusedin numerous other chapter the volume: fn pat ‘ucla see Chaper 3. 89-90 (on Sedeniersepistemolog), Chapter 22, PP 703 bf Schenkesan tot forthe analysis of yan nd meter) and Chapter23, pp. 741-42 (om Sehenke's Iroader views of vrai). Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 Heinvch Schenker uy attended the Gymnasium in the capital city of Lemberg (Livin present-day Ukraine) and completed his schooling in Brezetany, where he also had musi lessons from the celebrated Chopin pupil Kar] Mikal. After taking the Matwra examinations, be enrolled asa law student atthe University of Viena in 1884, gaining a doctorate in aw there sx yeats later. In his ast three yeas a university, he also attended clases a the Vienna Conservatory, wherc his feacersinchided Anton Brickner ‘After graduation, Schenker embarked on a musical career which included compos tion, journalism and accompanying, He gave up composing while inhi aly tires, after realizing that he would never be able to equal the achievements ofthe masters whom he admired above all else, and for most of his life he earned living asa piano teacher in Vienna, devoting himself in his fre time to msc theory and analysis, His publications were financially supported by fiends, and by people whom be taught or ‘with whom he shared thoughts on music, and this enabled hms to abandon his work in ins jurnalism and to write ima more seriows way from the carly years of the rwen- tieth century until the end of his ie ispublished work inces critical ditions, atrestiseon ornamentation and com mmentaris for facsimile editions ofommposer autographs. Butts by his detailed anal yes of musi and the working out ofa comprehensive theory of tonality ~ the two !ypes of writing commingle in textbooks, monographs, pamphlets, yearbooks, and critical commentaries ~that he has become widely known, Schenker analyses exe plitiovera broad range of the literature and in considerable detail avew ofc that has gained suficient esteem in North America (nd more recently in part of Earope) to establish itselfas one ofthe foremost approaches to sical structure Although Schenker is best known fora highly specie view of music, anda method for describing how msi behaves, his writings cover abroad range of approaches and embrace editorial technique, performance practice, and criticism. A theoretical project but around the foursvolme Neve masktcke Therion und Panta, pane 2 thiryyear period yet shows a remarkable degree of consitency. The first three volumes in the series ae based on the tational disipines of hamony and counter point: Harmnielehre (1908) ané a rwo-olume Kontrpunkt (19%, 1933). The fourth volume, Defi Sat (1935), was initially conceived as the third volume of Koran ‘but marke a more radical break with the traditional sadly ofthe contrapuntal species with ference oa cant rma t i more book about analysis method than com- position technique “The texts devoted primarily tothe analysis of whole poses nckide a monograph on Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (1912) and the periodical publications Der Tonle (1923-24) and Das Meistrwerk in der Masit(s925-30). Though Tomvlleané Mesterser are largely devoted to smal o medim-lengthstaies, sometimes of shor keyboard 4 To date, the illest account of Schenker’ life i contained in the opening chapter of Federer, Hesih Shee, ack Tegobcterc ied Brien, pp. 1-47. Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 pieces or sonata movements chey also contain longer analyses of three major works from the Classical symphonic repertory: Beethoven's Fifth Symphony (1921-23), Mozart’s Symphony in G minor, x.550 (1926), and Beethoven's Eroica Symphony (1930). Two ofthese ae, in effect, Beethoven symphony monographs which, together ‘with the book on the Ninth, constitute a trilogy on the symphonic output ofthe com- poser he esteemed aboveall others. ‘As itwas primarily aga piano teacher that Schenker earned a living, one should not be surprised to find his work addressed as much to practical musicians as to the world (of scholarship, The majority of his longer essays include detaled suggestions on per formance; these invariably follow, and are derived from, the analysis of the score, some- ‘ies supported by the evidence of the sources. Schenker frequently stated that an inspired performance of a work could only be obtained by way of following its compo- sitional growth from the background to the foreground. tis clea, ftom his extant remarks on performance, that this did not amount to an “analytical” style of playing, ‘whereby elements ofa structural “background” are brought out crudely. (The oppo- site is closer tothe truth: foreground dissonances require greater weight than the con- ‘sonances from which they are derived») Sehenker’s long: projected Kicnst des Vortrags, never completed but recently brought out in English translation as The Ave of Performance, expresses cancers as much in tune with his earlier writings as with the later theoretical formulations If Schenkerian analysis entails a profound and derailed understanding of the rela~ tionship ofthe notes ofa piece to one another, then an essential condition of an analy- sisi an accurate text ofthe piece. This was a problem of life-long concern: inthe days in which the texts of musical works were overlaid by editors with additional dynamic and articulation marks,and when the notes themselves were often changed arbitrarily, the understanding of a work could begin in earnest only aftr it had been established ‘what the composer had actually writen. (In this activity Schenker was assisted by his pupils Otto Erich Deutsch and Anthony van Hoboken, both of whom followed distin- {guished careers as musicologists) The search forthe best musica text, a salient feature of the Brlésteruygsauggaben of Bach's Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue and four of Beethoven's late sonatas, extends to Schenker’s other editorial work, his commentary ‘ona facsimile reproduction of the “Moonlight” Sonata, and the essays on Mozart's G rminor Symphony and Beethoven's Broa. With Beethoven and, to a lesser extent, Haydn, an additional measute of the composer's purported intentions was sometimes provided by the transcription and interpretation of sketches, ‘The practical texts 5, Refetng tothe Bach © major Prelude, he wrote ws pupil ha “the dssonances should always ie played louder than the consonances" ee Drabkin, “A Lesson in Composition p. 247. See 80 Rothstein, "Schenker san Interprets of Beethoven's Piano Sonatas” 4 Recent scodies in his eld include Burkhart, “Sehenke's Theory of Level; Schucher, “Twentieth Century analy.” 5 “Ths ater strate brief in Tile vot pp.4-25 and vo vp. 58-40, and at reser lengt Inthe ey" Weg mit der Phraserangsbogen” in eiterer, 0 Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 Heinrich Sehenker bs include a commentary on ornamentation in eighteenth-century music, an edition of the complete Beethoven piano sonatas, and a two-volume selection of keyboard works bby Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, "The parsing ofthis prodigious cewvve should not, however, obscure the fact that, for ‘Schenker, many aspects of music theory, analysis, performance, manuscript study, and ‘the preparation of editions - were interrelated and hence discussible in an integrated format. For contemporary musicians outside the academy, eg., concert pianists and piano teachers, the Evliuterungsouggaben were is most important contributions to the literature of music, providing inanintegrated format anauthoritativetext ofthemusic, an analysis, commentary on the autograph score and other primary textual sources, remarks on performance, and discussion of the secondary literature, Their musical insights were recognized by performers with no particular theoretical ideology ‘Where not accompanied by the musical text, atypical analytical essay nevertheless includes some orall of the following: observations on the text of the piece (including, ‘where relevant, alternative readings inthe autograph score and early sketches), sugges tions for performance that aise from the analysis, remarks on modern editions and arrangements,and a survey ofthe secondary literature. As Schenker's stature asa theo- Fist grew and he became more convinced of the rightness of his views on music, he became less concerned with attacking the writings of other scholars. The Ninth ‘Symphony monograph (3912) was expressly concerned with the opinions of earlier commentators, s its subtitle makes clear” but the Briea essay (1930) mentions only ‘wo studies peripherally concerned with the work's structure, and does so only briefly. In both his published writings and private communications, Schenker decried the mixing of politics with music; the immortality of great music was itself proof that political beliefs had litle to do with musical values. Yer the notion of hierarchy, of strict ordering of the tones of a composition, is so thoroughly consistent with his deeply conservative outlook on lifeand culvure that tis difficult uncouplehis theory entirely from two of his most consistently expressed ideological stances: (3) the cen trality ofthe German people in European culture, underscored by their preeminence in music, and (2) the steady decline of culture and political order in Europe since the Inte eighteenth century, ultimately resulting in the complete demise of musical art by ‘the beginning of the twentieth century. Schenker admitted only two foreign compos- crsinto the pantheon of German music, Chopin and Domenico Scarlatti. Although he ‘encouraged his private pupils in composition, he found nothing favourable in ether mainstream modern music or the tonally accessible azz and popular music of his time. 5 See forexample, Paul Bsdurs-Skods, “ATi,” inwhich Schenker’ analysis afthe Pano Sonata in Ab, (Op to, is championed, chreequaees ofa century afer its publication, 5 "a monument of precision and insight, by far the best analysis ever made of one of the ase Beethoven sonatas" (9.87) 17 Bone Dara des mailer ales ter fan Bercy ech 4s Vorggs wad der Lizyter (3 represencation of te musi content, together with 3 running commentary on perfor. mance ad the erie iteratare). Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 a6 wittiaM DRABKIN He reserved his harshest polemics for the atonal composers, yet made no qualitative distinction between the work of contemporary composers as stylistically diverse as Debussy, Strauss, Schoenberg, and Hindemith.* "That Der frie Satz is not only his eps ultimo but also a posthumous work - it was published some months after his death in January 1935 ~ has had important conse- quences for our understanding of Schenker's work. Although itis the text on whieh his reputation is based, and remains the basis of explanations of his theory and of the analytical and graphing techniques that arise from it, it would be a mistake to regard it as the definitive formulation of Schenkerian theory. For one thing, itis generally reckoned as incomplete especially with regard to the discussion of form, metrics and rhythm, and style and genre. Second, the earlier writings, though they are formatted differently and use terminology in a different way (especially the words Unlinie and 4g), shed a great deal of light on Schenker’s analytical technique; they are sometimes preferred to the later writings, whose insights can sometimes seem tangled inside an tlaborate theoretical web. This means that single account of Schenker’s contribution ‘to music theory is anillasory goal, even if Der fee Satz remains the largest repository ‘oF his analytical work and is probably the best vantage-point from which to view Outline ofthe theory If one were to attempt to reduce Schenker’s understanding of music to a single ‘concept, “hierarchy” would perhaps be the best choice. For Schenker, music ~ great music ~is tonal, and hencea composition is governed ultimately by ts principal chord, the tonic triad all other harmonic functions are subordinate ta the tonic, and analysis rust always make a distinction between essential and pasting harmonies. Similaey, ‘thenotes ofa melody can be described as either essential or transitional. Moreover, the notion of essential versus passing, of harmonic versus non-harmonic, applies not only 10 the surface of the music but informs the deeper levels, too: a harmony might be ‘essential t one level but transitional at another, a passing note at one level might be the start ofan important “linear progression” at another. 8 Only wo modern works were subjected to analyse by counterexamples passage from Stavinsky’s Piano Concert andthe whole of Reger Varios and Fugue ona ere of Bae, Op 6 Both peat indesterser ol ‘Schenkers polemics proved an cmburassncne to hs disciples, many of whom wer forced to ee [Nazi Germany inthelie tpyos Afler 94s, Schenker’ deslogiea postion was untenabletoa German nation tying ta come to term with the horrors tha recent peretats, and for slong time afer ‘wards the offending pasoges rom hsterts were excised rom ater etions and ransacons ofiswee Ings, or tegatedto an appendix: The mote virulent pars oFhis published work, abot al the sections sf vill spa Mesterver devoted 9 macelineous"ehoughtsohatesnd ts eatonshpstothe gener. seheme of thing have une reenty been ignored altogether though some writers have arsed tit Schenker’ polemics areinsepuabe fiom isteory se Cook, “Schenker's Theor of Msc as Exhics Henrich Schenker, Polemilst Bent “Sthenket el sane det genio genmanico”™ Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 eintch Schenker uy Example 26.1. Harmowislehve Example 153: Analysis ofaria “Bu und Reu? from Bach’s St Mathew Pasion AS, ~ 5 p— sine SS SS SS Fiemol:¥ — oT wan Yo oT I shal outline the essentials of Schenker’s theory using four further concepts: Stufe, Schick, Prolongaion (Auskomponieruyg), and linearity. Additional terms will be intro {duced in relation to these stufe "This term is often translated as “scale degree” or “scale step,” expressions that havea melodic connotation. But Sty isa harmonic concept, one which provides means of distinguishing important harmonies from transitional ones (Durchadnge); thus it pro- vides a means of assigning different values to what might otherwise appear to be instances ofthe same chord. Ie makes an early appearance in Sehenker’s writings ~in ‘the Harmonielekre af 1906 ~ and represents an important milestone in his development (of a hierarchical view of musical structure. In discussing the ritornello of an avia from Bach's St. Matthew Passion (see Example 26.2), Schenker showed how only one of two C$ major chords could be understood as true dominant of Fé minor, 3 “¥. Seure"? Av wesee the appearance ofa complete triad on Ce, which could represent the dom ‘nantharmony (die V. Sule”), but the listener would havebeen directed mostspecifcally| by the rhythm of the filling fifths I-1V-VII-II ete. to viewing this triad as merely & passing configuration ofUnee voices even if we were vo ignote the fet that the iver son ofthefifthe supports thie view, and thatthere sno need invakea Vhere since one appears exffioin the very next measure, there is no question ofithaving the weight of 1 Hara, p.187;5e sso Fedshofer, bdo and Stina, p. 65-87 Cambie Hstses Online © Cambie Usiversiy Pes, 2008 Stuf. Each ofthe three voices infact has is own reason for passing this point. The D inthe bass pases through C# to Basa possible [root of] 1V; the suspended fourth Gin the soprano pussesthrough Bt enrouteto its resolution, Pad fnlly the suspended E inthe inner voice moves through Gt Ain parallel sxths with the soprano, Thus theit coming together must be taken for what truly is: contrapuntal accident. “The example shows a clearly hierarchical view of musical design: what is transitional must, by definition, be dependent on the points enclosing it. The starred Cf major chord cannot be mistaken fora true dominant, since itacts as passing chord between two chords along the eycle of falling fifths, Von the first beatand IV” (substituting for )on the thie. In Schenker’s later writings, the status ofa chord is dependent on the perspective from which iis viewed. A passing harmony at a higher structural level (Schic eould gain the weight of Stuf ata lower level, In the analyses the roman numbers are often laid out simultaneously in differing degrees of detail, sometimes with parentheses enclosing a lower-level progression (sce Examples 26.5 and 26.6, below). Schicht “Musical content is ereated by an unfurling of the tonic triad, referred to in some of Schenker’s writings asthe Klang in der Natur the “chord of Nature,” i.e. harmony it itsnacural state. isis achieved in the firstinstance by “horizontalizing” the contents of this chord as simple two-voice setting. The upper voice, called the Uvlinie, makesa diatonic stepwise descent from a note inthe tonic triad tots root, and hence traverses ‘the interval ofa third, a ffth or an octave (see Example 26.2). "The lower voice, called the Bassbrechurg (“bass arpeggiation”), starts with the root and moves to the fifth degree and back tothe root, Its no accident, for Schenker, that the roots of both the rmediane (the “relative major” in minor keys) and the dominant belong to the tonic triad: this enables Schenker ro argue even more forcefully that the ronie triad not only represents harmony in its natural state but also contains the essentials of harmonic rmotion, Le., what other theorists would have called the “principal modulations.” ‘The configuration of Urlinie supported by bass arpeggiation is called the Ursatz It not only represents the melody in its most rudimentary form, the scale but also the basic harmonic progression underlying most cighteenth- and nineteenth-century ‘music: I-V-I in roman numeral terms, (In this respect, the Ursatz is a stronger abstraction of tonal music than Fuxian note-against-note counterpoint, which prefers stepwise motion in bath parts, especially atthe cadence) 10 The use of eatetedaabicnumbes fr medic steps is analogous vo that of roman numeral forthe harmon St ab explained in footnote to an anal graph in Toil vo. The Twill anayees show sibel ac of hee symbole, with ear show by diferent ier of amber, by he ‘ume of Der te Sate, there wis nly one fundamental descene ofthe Ulin, cone descending line Indicted by eteted umber Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 Heinrich Sehenker 9 Examplea6a The on) forms of the Schenkerian Usat (ef, Der fie Sat, figs. 3, a "The Unatz, which represents the contents of a tonal work at the most basic level, called the background (Hintergrund), gives rise to more elaborate harmonic-contrapun- tal designs. These in turn generate further development, in stages, until the fnalelab ‘oration is reached, which is the piece itself with all ts details of rhythm and tempo, dynamics and articulation, and scoring. This level is called the foreground of a compo- sition (Vordergrand). Between the extremities of background and foreground lies the midaleground (Mittlgrand), an area whose scope and complexity is dependent on the size and nature of the composition, top staves of Examples 26.22-c show that the linear descent inthe upper voice of the Ursats traverses the space ofa third, 2 fifth, or an entire octave. Because of the perfect alignment of the upper and lower voices in Example 26.2a, this form of the Ursatzis given pride of place in most explanations of Schenkerian theory. Indeed, the Ursatz from 3 most clearly illustrates the notion of hierarchy (see Example 26,3). The tonic triad, Schenker’s chord of Nature, is given in Example 26.33; itis stretched out (or “horizontalized”) by the successive presentation of ts root and third (26.3b) and by the filing of the space between these with a passing note (26.30). The passing note, which is initially dissonant against the prevailing harmony, is converted to a Cambie Hstses Online © Cambie Usiversiy Pes, 2008 fo witiaM oRanKnN Example as.s Derivation ofthe Uret from 3 Fem the conic C major chord of wo © @ consonance by the arpeggiation of the bass from of the sale (26.3d), The resultant harmony - the dominant ~ thus acquires the status ofa finda: ‘mental harmony ~ Stafé~and is then able to generate further elaborations. At subse- {quent levels these processes are repeated: passing notes are given consonant support and become harmonies in their own right. [As Schenker himself explained: ‘The dissonant passing tone... 90 long a8 i retsins its dissonant quality. cannot the same time give rite toa furtner elaboration; only the transformation ofa dissonance into a consonance can make elaboration possible... The Ustz exhibits the fist rans- formation ofa dissonant Ure tone into a consonance: above al, is changed in consonance 3’ by the counterpointing bass arpeggistion ofthe tonic tad Although Schenker’s terminology implies a tripartite division, each term ~ back~ round, middleground, foreground ~ in fact embraces more than one distinct structu- ral level, His statement early in Dey fice Satz that “the background in music is represented by a contrapuntal structure which I call the Ursat2” i already’a simplifi cation; 2s we have seen (Example 26.3) there is 2 musical construction ~ the tonic chord ~ that i conceptually prio to the Usatz. At the other end, the “foreground” of a plece isthe totality ofits notes and associated markings, Le, the score; but the term is conventionally used to describe a simplification of the piece in which the melodic contour, harmony, and phase rhythm are clearly discernible. Example 26.4b, which reproduces part of Schenker's most detailed analytical “graph” ofthe fist movernent ‘of Mozart's G minor Symphony, can easily be read asa simplification of the startof the symphony ina way that line (@) from Example 26.4a, which itelaborates, cannot." The motion of the upper voice is, with few exceptions, reduced to quatter-notes and half notes; the piece is presented in a two-stave piano format, with some indications of scoring, To distinguish between the two notions of musical foreground, Schenker gen- cally used the term Uvlni-Tafl forthe graph ofthe foreground inthis simplified nora- tion, and Ausf or letzte Ausidong (“final elaboration,” “realization”) when teferring to the actual score, ‘Tharthe middleground also comprises several hierarchically conceived layers is clear 11 Defi Ste, $$159-70. 14 Ibid Pare, Chapter section 3.15 Metover vo. Cambie Hstses Online © Cambie Usiversiy Pes, 2008 Heinrich Sehenker wa both from Schenker's analyses and from his terminology: In Example 26.43, ines (a), (0, and (@ each represent a middleground layer; had he published this analysis 2 few years later, he would have labeled them “1. Schicht” (= “frst [middleground] layer”), “a. Schicht,” “3. Schicht,” and “4. Schicht respectively. In the well-known, ‘graphic analysis of Bach’s Prelude in C from the Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1,§ the initial elaboration of the Usstz is still marked “1. Schicht,” even though no further ‘middlegeound layers intervene between it and the Urliie-Tyel." Prolongation and Auskomponierung “Though thes termsare central to histheory, Schenker never proved lear definitions of either, nor did he atempe to distinguish between them. Prologation suggests the creation of conten by stretching out the consiszen element (representing specifi smusical evens) na given layer. Inthe analysis ofthe Bach prelude, fr instance, the fal ofan octave fom eto isa prolongation ofthe fst note, or “primary tone? of the Uri, = 3. Auskomponiring itera, “composing ox”) isthe processby which prolongation is achieved: the word, constructed by analogy with the German aasarbe- ‘ten (“to work out, develop”), implies that temporal events have the potential to gen- crate ferther content thai material contained in or implied by) an event in higher level canbe “unlocked” by the process of elaboration, Inthe Bach prelude, the 8 that isinlly prolonged by the drop ofan octave i Further elaborated By bing filled with stepwise motion: the lina descent “composes out” the octave Linked tothe concepts of Pralgation and Asskomponirang isa fivorite metaphor of Schenker's, Sat-Brte, by which musical sructare is made analogous to organic rowth: fom seed to harvest? The commentary on the first movement of Mozar’s {Gminor Symphony makes reference toto instances: theinteral ofa sixth, “planted” inthe viola paren m. 2, “germinates” inthe first violin in mm. 3 and 7 (his relation ship is shown in che Unni: se the square bracket in Example 26.40); in mm, 10-11 the descending third from 3° tof sclf the inversion ofthe orginal sixth, resolves co the fourth inthe next measure. With the key-note, gi the upper voice, this forth isthe “harvest” ofthe original planing * Another term used in this connection is Dimination. By this Schenker sought to emphasize the historical validity of his theoretical work, through the connection 14 See, for example, Cook, Guide to Musial Ata Drabhin eta, Ana scheteriaa, Derivative ‘tamplesatefoundin Jonas, igh, Pore and Gilder, ntodston lo Scene Aral Nesmeyer and Tepping, Guide To Scheie Ava; Cadwallader and Gagné, Anais of Tne! St. See aso Drabkin, “A Lesson Analysis” which includes Schenker’ preliminary sketches frei graph. 45 Another Schenkeran graph usrating level f mie struetre (nts eaze of + ayn plano sonata) mayby sen in Pat 23.2,P-743. There the subsumption of middleground modulations within ATbuckground vie leading structures clety to besten ‘Mesnard vol. p38 Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 Example264 Extracts of graphic analyses from “Mozart: Sinfonie G-moll.” ‘Das Meisterwerk in der Musi vol (a) from ig. 2, layer analysis of frst movement Cambie Historie Online © Carbide UnveniyPsee, 2008 Heinrich Schenker Bs : : me 18: Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 ay WwIntian oRARKIN Example 26 (cont) (b) from the Uninc 1a ofthe frst movement Cambie Hstses Online © Cambie Usiversiy Pes, 2008 ich Schenker bas Cambie Hstses Online © Cambie Usiversiy Pes, 2008 6 WIELian oRAREIN Example 26.5 Derfeie Sate, fg. 87/5: Mozart, Sonata in A, 331, fist movement, mm.1-8 between structure and detail. If “diminution” means, for historians of seventeenth- and cighteenth-century music, the practice of ornamentation or the elaboration of framework (¢-g.,an Adagio written skeletally in long note values) ora chord progres- sion (¢., the fealiation of a cadenza oF the improvising of a prelude), then Auskomponieneg could be understood as diminution, with the additional requirement that the elaborations must not be applied arbitrarily but are needed to promote the overall unity of composition (or, in Schenker’s preferred term, its “synthesis”)27 In ‘the Bach prelude, for instance, the rising fourths e-a° and dg? (in mm. 4-7) are dim- Inutions of the upper-voice movement from eto d*. The fourth inthe bassin min. §-9, ‘though it gives the illusion of V-T in G major, isalsoa diminution ofa conceptual step ‘wise descent, from ato g; synthesis is promoted by the repetition of the same interval, D rising toa G, in different voices. In Der ieie Sate much is also made of “concealed repetition,” achieved by making a short figure or an interval in the foreground the basis ofan extensive elaboration later inthe piece. Schenker’s essays sometimes refer specifically to “diminution motives,” i.e. figures that are consistently applied at various structural levels. In his essay on the G minor Symphony, the upward leap ofa sixth and its inversion, the descending third, are identified as motives characteristic ofthe foreground of the frst movement (repre sented in Example 26.4b). At higher levels the stepwise descent ofa second, in pairs, is achatacteristic diminution technique (compate the star oflevels(?) and (é)in Example 26.42); the original neighbor figure inthe melody, Bs starred to Din the violin parts is also an expression ofthis ewo-note linearity.” Prolongation can also be achieved by repeating material, and musical form is often created by the repetition of portions of the Ursatr itself. A technique of fundamental importance in this respect is Unterbrechung, the “interruption” ofthe progress of the Ursatz at 31V, whic necessitates a new beginning, All constructions based on antece- dent and consequent phrases can be understood as elaborations of interrupted struc- 17 Pordiscusion-anillurations~of diminution echniquesinearir music theory se Chapter 7, Pp. sata 18 The term Dimbsiosaty appears as sich only in the analysis of Bach's Largo for slo violin (Weitere, vl 1), ie pint informs ott analyser. Inthe Morare symphony esa or inetanee, Schenker cexrbes the Dincon of the various sacar eel as having Weir “oorh speci metic dazactrisus) Mestarvert, vl, p-117) Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 Heinrich Sehenker wy Example 26.6 Sonstaform movements as elaborations of ncerrupeed Uninen (a) Der fee Satz, fg. 154153: Beeshoven, Pastoral Symphony, rst movement to may 3 dt bn _™ ‘ures. In che first-movement theme from Mozart's Sonata in A, K. 331,mm. 1-5 show a linear progression from e that is expected to end ata itis interrupted after four ‘measures, and must begin again in order to reach its goal (see Example 26.5). Since the first arival of 3/V marks the halfway point in the strucvure, Schenker refers to it as the teilende Dominante (“dividing dominant”) of simply Teler (divider) Indoing o, he invites comparison with themes that, though they do not have an interrupted structure in the upper voice, are similarly constructed in two halves with the first ending on a dominant. One such example is the second-group ‘theme of the first movement of Mozatt’s G minor Symphony, at mm. 44~51: the dom- inant in m. 47 is marked “Teiler” or “I inthe analytical graphs (Example 26.4), sinee itlacks the harmonic weight ofa Stufe ag Derfie Sate. 430: Thess ofthe team Teerin both contexts suggests tha, for Schenker, the recod halfofasymmet= ‘aly designed temas greater structural weigh The dosted ln linking he toes in Example 36.5 father mpl tha th fis four tessues ofthe Mozat theme elaborate the pimay tone of eines descent ie thee inantthiswould mean hat the fst rival on V hae lee staceual weight than he Votthe¥-Teadenceinm..Thisend-onented view of nteription isconstene wich Sener theory In general, and witt his explanation and use of the term Tle. I's contadcted, however, by othet ‘taps in Dorf Sat and bythe te (90) which iulate that ona inerapted srt the fst Ertl onthe dominant isthe mote important ofthe we, The editors af the English edition of Derfie Sut srerpr an explanation of thi diet we Pee Composton, p37, note 6) fora feller dieuerion (ofthe problem of hierarehy i imterrupeed seructre, se Smith, “Musial Form and Pundamencl Strutt," pp. 267-59. Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 eat wittiaM DRABKIN _Ata higher level, «gina complete two-part song form, the entte fist pat may be represented asa descent to 3 supported by I-V, withthe second par aversing the same ground but ending onthe 1/1 In sonata form, the Fest arrival on 3/V marks the tart ofthe conventionally termed “second group”; the development section will then convert this dominant to 3%, fr instance by elaborating the space of third lying immediately above the fifth of the dominant (V7), asin Example 26.64 (a middle round graph ofthe opening movement of Beethoven’ Pastoral Symphony), ot a a passing seventh of an 8-7 progression superimposed above 3, a n Example 26.60 (a ridleground graph of Mozart's Sonata in GK. 545, frst movernen) In both eases the resulting seventh cat also be understood a8 an upper neighbor note tothe Form canals be created with the large-scale application of prolongation techniques normally associated with the foreground. Por instance, a minut or scherzo movement, with trio section nthe parallel key, could beunderstod in terms oF Michung (“modal mixture": elaboration ofthe tonic by alternation with its tonic minor, .e,a5a 15° progression.” Silay a trio section cast in the subdominant key could be explained as a prolongation of the tonic by a neighbor note and its supporting [Nebennoterbarmonie “neighbor-note harmony”), g4 (supported by V) elaborating 346-) oncither sides ‘Musical elaboration is also assisted by changes of register. Inthe Bach Prelude in © tnajr, the descent of the upper voice of the Ursatz is the shortest line between two notes ofthe tonic trad, thir, But atthe next structural level an octave descent toc? and an ascent from d} are shown to unfold from the original upper voice. These pro- cesses, which involve a change of the register governing prolongation, ae called Tieferlegung and Hoherlegung, commonly rendered as “descending register transfer” and “ascending register transfer” respectively. When the two ae employed in pais, registral linkage is created, called Koppel (“coupling”), In a short, suminarizing graph of the Prelude in Der freie Satz, Fig. 49/1, shown here as Example 26.7, the reg- ister transfers are indicated by the “crossed” beaming ofc! and d'-d*butae not so labeled, Nor are the registers specifically marked as having been “coupled,” though this selFevident from the symmetry ofthe graph. 21 Der five Ste fig. 25452. and fig 47. Tn Example 36.6, the represeneation of sonata form 833 || -(Nbm) -3-1 sz hybrid orm of prolongation, a confusion of eruption and neighbor noteel> ration; bs" (= Nba iste speaking, a incomplete neighbor tthe" tht flows tbat aking 2 larger view ofthe apy, refer aloe the» athe sear af the graph TnExample 6.6, the outlines fonataform ae ineisted in paenthesibenesth the hcmonic ana ysis Schenker dats the ecapizlaion (°RP” fr Azpri) not fom the eps ofthe opening theme Unconventinaly sn Fajr. 42), but fom the debate etn ofthe tone which flows 35 Dorf Steg 283.35 Tid figs 35/1 a8 4 24 Inche more formal analyssot che Prelude, published in he Ry Une Til, Schenker confosing'y Table the descending and ascending reste tansters"Koppllung] sbw(arts|” and "Kopp flu) aufirare| respectively, te, desending and sending “coupling” At that tine, he had sll net ‘worked outa lear eltionship between the concepts keep, Tein and Repel. Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 Heinrich Sehenker 9 Example 26.7 Der fieie Sat, fg. 49/t= new middleground graph of Bachs Prelude inc we ay (ep Ff we ‘The principle of hierarchy is, however, stil in force, with one register taking prece dence over the cher: Inthe Bach prelude, the upper voice starts on e* and ends on c+, 50 its higher actave predominates in the background, despitethe long progression into the lower register and the extensive elaboration of the interval d!~P, Schenker called this the obligate Lage “obligatory register”) ‘The Mozart piano sonata movernent (Example 26.60, above) also shows how regis ‘ter can promote musica synthesis by eveating a long-range connection, In the exposi- tion the second group is set ina higher register, its upper voice governed by the linear progression dg". The dominant of the second group is claborated as a dominant seventh in the development, g* passing through P, When this seventh resolves, the original starting point, eis regained, and in chis way Mozart recarns tothe initial reg- ister without actually making an exact recapitulation ofthe opening theme. Linearity “The notion that “coherence” and “connection” are closely related (in German, the word Zisammenhang canbe used for both) finds a special resonance in Schenker’s view of musical strucare: even those writers who have kept a respect distance from Schenkerian analysis or have categorically rejected its principles have nevertheless been artracted by the search for connections between msc events resulting from pitch ideniyor proximity. A succession of diatonic steps oining two voces ina chord or inadjcent chords called Zag (plural ie; the crmismoxt commonly tansated as “linear progression or simply “progression”). In the first elaboration of the chord of Nature, the upper, voice the Uvfini~ ia Zig, snc it joins two notes of ce tonic triad. And when the passing d ofane*d-c Unni (oe Example 26.39 is turned intoaconsonance bythe supportofginthebas, ie. 2 supported by',iiscapable of enerating arthercontent by the application ofa new liner progression. This shown in Schenker’s analysis of the Mozart sonata movement (Example 26.65, above) che 3, after being transfered to higher ote, aefbecomesthe staring point of Hear progression oecmpasing Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 830 WIELian oRAREIN 4 fifth, The new progresion, an eaboration of the dominant harmony (askoponierang dr V. Stuf, is Schenket’s way of saying that the second group (nm, 14-28) ofthe exposition isin she dominant key of G major. Schenker qualified his linear progressions bythe sizeof interval they embraced. The Usliniof tae Mozart sonata movement isa Terzzug Cthird-progression”) the ine from 3 iscalled a Quinte (“fRh-progresson”). As isthe case for many techniques of pro- longution, nar progressions may exist at any structural evel, and they are sometimes transformed from one eve tothe next. In the fist movement ofthe G minor Sym- phony (ee Example 26.4, above), the Utne embraces a fifth, dg". The first subject {antecedent phrase, mmm, 1-23) is graphed a fourth-progiesion at level (9, whichis extended to asixth in, Since linear progressions join regisral spaces, they give the effect ofa play among ‘the polyphonic voices, An elementary way in which this works is at the beginning ofa composition, where an ascending line may lead up tothe primary tone of the Unni, c.g. 1-5-3 of 3-4-3, and thus fl the space between the “alto” and “soprano” ofthe opening harmony; Schenker called ths progression an Anstigg (usually translated as “initial ascent”). Another common technique is Ubergreifn, a kind of egistral leap: fiogging by the superposition of one or more descending linear progressions to form a series of steps, Ubergreifen (now translated by most English-speaking theorists as “reaching over" enables a composer to reach higher register, orto regain the primary tone ofan eatlir linear progression orto crcateanascending line fiom ascrics of short descending progressions. In the Mozare symphony movernen, the modulation t0 Bs in mm. 22742 is assisted by a series of short Ubengreiftige finishing with a neighbor- note figure, The overall effect is an elaboration of the thd, de (se also Example 46.43, level d) and Example 26.48) measure: 222g 26285438 poe PF ond aoe Because theit points of origin and their goals are clea, linear progressions show “unity in musical movement. But linearity in a Schenkerian sense canalso mean the con- nection between widely spaced occurrences ofthe same note, e.g. thed? at the start of the Mozart symphony movement and the d* in m. 16, 2t the frst forte or even the d* at 'm.4ginthe second group. Whereas ealier theorists demonstrated musical relatedness sore by thematic similarity or the derivation of one theme from another, Schenker demonstrated that single note, correctly positioned and supported, might be enough ‘to confer synthesis over a large rnusical time-span. It is this aspect of Schenker’s work 25 Although the term Obey contain the word Zap cha "progrestion” often consists of just ‘ho notes, rather tn the minima of three needed For inesr progression thst scton their own, Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 Heinvch Schenker us in particular that has attracted the attention of many twentieth-century theorists who are not wholly sympathetic to layered view of musical structure, orate mistrustful of what chey perceive ta be an excessive reliance on graphic epresentation.** Historical and intellectual background ‘Schenker’s published writings tellus litle abour the source of his insights into music. ‘On the contrary they give every indication that he regarded them very much ashis sole property, developed over years of private engagement with the canonie repertory of ‘Western music, without recourse tothe academy or the contemporary music scene “This is well encapsulated in a postscript to some analyses of short keyboard works by Bach, which includes the following statement: lessed by the grace of our greatest, I have held up 2 mirror to music, as no ancient, ‘medieval or modern philosopher, no musician, music historian or aesthetician ~ or any ofthese considered together ~has been able co do. Lam the fist to explain its internal laws, to comprehend the wvacious ear ofthe German masters and thet eapacity for invention and synthesis. 1 have explained their daring invention in the realm of ‘hearing, ashad previously been experienced only in the realm of the other senses. And T have, soto speak, revealed forthe frst time by verbal communication the realm of| Iheaing, a our masters understood it, and so have enriched human existence by a new dimension“? "These sentiments are expressed more succinctly inthe inseription on his gravestone inthe Central Cemetery in Vienna: “Here ies the man who perceived the soul of music, and who proclaimed its laws as the masters understood them, as no one had done before” (On the assumption that every intellectual idea has its genealogy, scholars have attempted to trace Schenker’s conception of music theory back to its cultural, pile sophical and musical roots, According toa lifelong fiend, Moriz Violin the music of Mozart and Beethoven and the literature of Schiller and Goethe were an inyportant part of his childhood upbringing.** Schenker’s extensive quotations of eighteenth and nineteenth-century German writers bear witness to an intellectual background ‘that may have been as much literary as itwas musical. Extracts from the works of Goethe figure in almost every publication; Schenker {quoted him more often than any other writer, and le may have found inspiration for theconceptofa structural background in Goethe's scientific writings; indeed, the very ‘word Unsatr has strong resonance with the Urpflanze of Goethe's botanical studies. ‘Wiliam Pastlle has suggested that che relationship of species counterpoint to the 16 Rosen, The Glas! Sl Meyer, Explanig Msi, Narmous, Been Sherer, 37 Tamu vol g,p.55. 28 Federnofer,Heierih Scene ack Tgebicher nd Br, 4 Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 sy WIELian oRAREIN behavior of parts in “real” music, crucial to Schenker’s view of musical structure, recalls Goethe’s concept ofthe Urphdromen; and, further, that Schenker’s long-range, or “seructaral” hearing is closely related to Goethe's mare visionary type of perception ~ Anschauaoyg ~ that comes from beholding things within a theoretical framework rather than noting ther surface features.» Concerning philosophical infuences, one notes above all Schenker's indebtedness to Immanuel Kant, As Kevin Korsyn has shown, there isa strong kinship between the Kantian notion of causality and Sehenker's Synthese, 2 “synthesis” by which the ‘musical mind conceives tones as bound to one another in much the same way as the philosophical mind comprehends events as following one another in a particular order The familiar criticism of Schenker, that his theoretical program and particu- larly his analytical graphing technique ignore the function of time in music, falls away if one accepts that Schenkerian synthesis implies time-consciousness; ehus true musical perception isa form of Kantian “transcendental apperception,” in which tem poral ordering isan indispensable ingredient.s* Both Kant and Schenker also shared a view of genii as the means “through which Nature gives rules to att”; for Schenker the gift of genius was innate, God-given, ‘The influence of Arthur Schopenhauer is more elusive, and has not been researched syscematically. Quotations from his writings are scarce; one was used as a prop on ‘which to hang the ant-imperalist sentiments vented by Schenker in the aftermath of | ‘the First World War. The idea of musical tones having a “will” and that they are intrinsically bound to behave in a certain way, is expressed in the frst volume of Kontrapunkt(2910)and enshrined in the series title Der Tenwille, which marks the start of Schenker’s most ambitious project in analysis. That he saw in Schopenhauer (and, by extension, in Kierkegaard and Nietzsche) kindred spirit is suggested by two quo- tations from The World as Willand Representation, which are drawn together to provide an analogy between the true creative artist, who is able to achieve insight with direct ‘expression, and the scholar who strives for truth and wisdom for its own sake, unme= diated by the authority conferred by academic stature or other such approval ratings Schenker's unshakable fith in his own theories of music led him to denigrate the ‘writings of most of his contemporaries. Ths led to a general view of Schenker as an iconoclast, a theorist working entirely outside of tradition, a point that is reinforced by his isolation from Viennese academic musical lf. His contemptuous references to le Theorie” in a pal of essays on sonata form and fugue from 1926 underscore his 25 Pantie, "Music and Morphology” sep. pp-34-38 50 Koreyn, “Schenker and Kantian Epistemology 33 Tbid,pp.34-3s. 33 Ibid, p.7. 33 Tome vol, 9-23 5a “Thus tones cannot produce any dsted fect just Because ofthe wish of Ue individual who sts ‘her, for nobody haste power overtones inthe sense hat he able to demand from tet something ‘onerary to thet naare ven ones mse do what they mise do! Corp 01, p tg, THe ene feties concert of Schenker’ views explored farther in Chapter 30,p. 936-38. 55 Him, ols 8g, p485se ss Fedetholer, eiwich Shear ah geben Bri, p85, Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 Heinvch Schenker ys isolation from mainstream theory teaching as exemplified, for instance, inthe work of Hugo Riemann and the series of handbooks published by Max Hesse in Berlin, whieh featured Riemann’s writings.) His surveys of the secondary literature, 2 regular feature of his analytical essays ofthe 19108 and 19208, ae taken up by extensive quo- tation from and ridicule of contemporaty scholatship and journalism, The few authors ‘who are singled out for praise ~and then only briefly ~ were either personal friends, such as Otto Vreslander and August [alin or witers with only loose links to theoret™ ical sradiions: thus E. T. A, Hoffmann is lauded for his declaration of interest in Beethoven for the sake ofthe music alone, the Beethoven scholar Gustav Nottebohm for making the contents of the sketchbooks accessible to a wider public. Otherwise, ‘one must go back to eighteenth-century music theory for palpable connections. Jean-Philippe Ramesu’s notion thatall modulations arisein relation toa single tonic isan important forerunner to the concept of Tonalitat, the “home key” to which all the fandamental harmonies, oF Stufer, re ultimately related” on the other hand, the ‘extraction ofa basse fondarental as a synthesis of vertical organization and chord pro- _gression must have seemed inimical to someone concerned above all with linear con- nections, in both melodic and bass lines. Rameau accepted the seventh above the fandamental as a component of a chord, whereas Schenker followed the precept of Johann Joseph Fux chatall dissonance in music must be introduced and resolved prop- erly! And as Schenker came to view his concept of musical structure in nationalist terms, Rameaw’s Frenchness became an unalterable blot on his character. Fux’s Grads ad Parnassun was widespread in Europe, and was known to have figured prominently in the musical training ~ and teaching ~ of Schenker’s heroes, including Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Brahms (see the extensive discussion in Chapter 18, 'pp.579-84). [tis thus hardly surprising to find him coming to terms with it in the two volumes of Kontrapun. But while Schenker praised the Gradus for its insights into vocal music, he was critical of wat he perceived as Fux’s distrust of instrumental music, with its creative uses of voice leading principles, coupled with a fulure to dis tinguish clearly between counterpoint asa pedagogical discipline and composition as acreativeact. Indeed, itis Schenker's profound insights into the relationship between the contrapuntal species and what happens in “real” music, from Bach to the end of ‘the nineteenth century, that represent his greatest triumph as an analyst. His defense ‘of consecutive major thirds ina Wagner Letmotvas the “lovely fruit ofthe composing- ‘out of scale degrees! is not merely emblematic of his view of insteumental part writing as counterpoint, but simply and perfectly encapsulates the need to reconcile the rules governing harmony in short stretches with the opportunities for synthesis offered by musical linearity. (It is also a useful counter-example to the widespread 36 The essays, am the subject of sonata form and fogu,appea in Mestre. Hee alo pubs ‘she analyser by ago Leienentit of the male of Chopin these were ridicaled in the two Chopin cssuysindeiterserdwo-t. 37 Christensen, Ramen, p.177, 00202, 38 Meitererh vol utp.17. 39 Wid pp. 13-3 Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 oe Wwintian DAREN Example26.8 Counterpoint, vol. 1, Example 205: extract from Wagner's Rlengod, scene Vin Vint tT Brine Treva) belief that Schenker had little sympathy for Wagner’s music.) As Example 26.8, ‘hows, the persistence of gf above the Neapolitan sixth chord shows that the home key prevails in spite of the lower-order demands for a flattening of this note to avoid an augmented fourth (false relation) between the moving parts" Perhaps the most important of all of Schenke:'s predecessors was Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, above all for his Versuck ber die wahre Art dos Klavier zu spiclon of 11753-6x, with its emphasis upon linearity in continuo playing and the need “to hold the register together” in the realization ofa chotd progression. But when it came to offeringa tribute to Bach’s role in musical art, it was not his advice to the accompanist but his skills as an improviser and composer that Schenker dwelt on at length, by showing how Bach’s suggestions for improvisation technique are firmly underpinned by such concepts as arpeggiation, voice-exchange, and what he called “parallelism,” the consistent application of motivie patterns to the middleground, By subjecting the fice Fantasia in D printed atthe end of che Versuch, and other short pieces, to the same type of voice-leading analysis he used elsewhere, Schenker granted Bach the same canonical status he conferzed on only a handful of other masters Nearer to his own time, Schenker may have been influenced by the lively debate sparked by the republication of Eduard Hanslick’s The Beautiful in Music in 1885, Alan. Keiler has suggested that Schenker’scaly views on the origin of music were influenced by critiques of Hanslick by two younger scholars attached tothe University of Vienna, Friedrich von Hausegger and Robert [lirschfeld. Hausegger’s Die Musik als Ausdruck in particularhas strong resonances in Schenker'sviews on the origins of musicand its sig- nificance forthe study of history, as expounded in an important ealy essay, “Der Geist der musikelischen Technik” (895). «4 Onthe possibeindebtednes af Schenkerian theory othe witng of Wagner, see Cook, “Heinrich Schenker, Perici” 141 Por further tlusteations and 2 ler explanation of Schenker’s contrapuntal agenda, se Dubil, "When You Ate Beethoven” pp. 291-340 Also ste he discussion i Chaplet 18, PP 39-94. 4 Meiterverd vl p81 {Toll vol 4, pp 19-255 Meiterser, wo. , pp. 13-30. Schenker aso honored Bach i aso ‘Solum edition oftelered keyboaré works 14s Kader, “Origins of Seheners Though” op pp. 292-94 Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 Heinrich Schenker bs Reception and influence ‘Schenker seems to have enjoyed a considerable following in his own lferime (fora long. ‘time posterity underestimated it), but itwas nothing like the renown his theories were to bring him after his death in 193: textbooks, courses, seminars, and conferences on ‘Schenkerian theory; the establishment of major research archives based round his private papers; and a seemingly endless supply of voice-leading graphs in journals and ‘books, supporting a ange of theoretical, analytical, and historical viewpoints. Schenker’s final years saw the rise of National Socialism; three years after his death, Hitlers troops marched into Vienna and supervised the annexation of Austria to the ‘Third Reich, Amidst the most difficult circumstances, two of Schenker’s pupils, Oswald Jonas and Felix Salzer, kept the Schenkerian flame alive through theit own ‘writings? the leading article of a short-lived periodical chey co-edited perpetuates the notion of *mission” Schenker had expressed years earlier in the inaugural issue of Der Tonwile* The efforts of Professor Reinhard Oppel to disseminate Schenkerian theory at the Leipzig Conservatory, and of Felix-Ebethard von Cube to establish 2 thriving ‘Schenker Institutein Hamburg, quickly ran aground as the Nazis closed in on Jewish- based teaching. Faced with the imminent annihilation of European Jewry, and with it European Jewish thought, Jonas and Salzer emigrated to America where another pupil of Schenker’s, Hans Weise, had established an outpost of Schenkerian teaching at the David Mannes School of Music in New York, Transplanted to the New World, ‘Schenkerian analysis began ¢o thrive in the teaching programs of conservatories and "university musie €epartments, and in the research ofa new generation of theorists and ‘heir pupils” Much of the early activity was concentrated around pedagogy. There had been ‘concern among Schenker’ circle that his writings were too difficult: Jonas’ first book, published while Schenker was still alive, bears the subtitle “Introduction tothe teach- ing of Heinrich Schenker," and was intended for readers without prior knowledge of his methods * The publication of Salzer's Structural Hearing in 1952 represented a ‘greater milestone, in that it made available to English readers literally hundreds of voice-leading graphs together with brief analyses covering a wide repertorys it became 4 Jonas, Das Wes des masikalchn Raster (9) ler, in ud Wen (939). Around histime ‘Adele Katz, a pupil of Hans Weise, wrote the fs exposition of Schenken analysis n English (°Schenkers Mechod”), and later expanded his heoresn Book form, Challenge fo Mate Taiton (a945) 48 That Sehenket's “Die Sendung des deutschen Genle” of 1921 Deesme “Die hstoracheSendung Feinreh Schenker” in 3997 47 For abreFhstory of Schenkerism in North Americ, ste Rothstein, “Americaniation” for acom- Drehensve survey ofthe erature on Schenbetian anals une 1985, see David Beach's ibliogt=ph Garis, 48 Das Wien des musachn Kuster cine infra nde Leb enrich Scherer, The ne ad {able were reversed when the Book was esned im Geemunin 972, nd rans into English fen yee ie Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 36 wittiaM DRABKIN the principal Schenker textbook for the postwar generation. The long-awaited trans- lation of Schenker’s last work in 1979, under the bilingual title Free Composition (Der “frie Satz), helped standardize Schenkerian terminology in English; but because this bbook was heralded as marking a breakthrough in North American Schenker pedagogy, its polemic passages were relegated to an appendix, and a number of established Schenkerians were enlisted to help clarify the more difficult parts of the theory and to suggest routes into the text" The utility of Fee Compasition was, however, overest- mated, and the pasttwo quartercenturies have witnessed a rapid, unabated growth in the number of explanatory textbooks on Schenkerian analysis. ‘Not surprisingly, the attempt to render Schenker's work accessible has also led to new developments in his theories. Although Schenker himself stressed that his work ‘was artistic, not scientific, succeeding generations of theorists felt the need foritto be more internally consistent. One sees net only a more scientific approach, 28 early as Forte's seminal essay of 1959, butalso numerous attemptsto.cometo terms with ambi- guities and inconsistencies inthe theory. Both the sanctity ofthe two-voiee Ursate and ‘the primacy ofthe descending 3-3-1 Urtnie ave been challenged and theorists now generally accept the possibility ehata piece may admit more than one valid Schenkerian reading. * Forte's essay identified the study of rhythm in relation to voice-leading analysis asa ‘major area in need of investigation. Some fruitful work in this area was undertaken by Arthur Komar and Maury Yeston but it was with Carl Schachter’s three-part study ‘of rhythm and linear analysis that Schenkerian voice-leading graphs were first har> nessed systematically with rhythmic analyses. Subsequent developments in this field hhave been made by Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoffin their investigations into group. ing and meter, and in William Rothstein's study of phrase rhythm. ‘The number ofvoice-leading analyses ofinstrumentsl works is legion, but that ofthe operatic, choral, and solo song repertory has been much more restricted, Schenker ‘4g Inaddition wo the tranlator's prefce, cher ia randation of Jona’ preface tothe second German ‘iva, an “introduction” to the English edition by Allen ort, a range of elacifestory footnotes by John Rotageb supplementing those by Jonas and Oster and a plossaty of tecknial ems. See w50 Schachter, "Commentary on Pe Compson” So These incl Westeraad,atduction Tonal Tear: Neumeyer 2h Tepping Cail Scheeerian ‘ral Cadwallader nd Gagne, Aras of Tal Muse The mort widely zee retbook hasbeen Forte nd Gilbert, Picton te Sheeran nalts largely tot seope, onganaaon, ane systematic Serofsudencexeiies, together witha companion stor Mena hich provides siutonsto many of the errs ‘The tgb0r sso saw the proliferation of textbooks on satis method in which the explication of Schenke's theories Agutes prominently Gook, ride fo Masel Ams Bent, Aas; Dunsby and \Whitl, twe dna, Por nore an Schenkersinfuence onthe peeagogy of tse Cory in Noreh America see Chapter, 9.7, 51 Neumayer, “The Asending Uli’ “The Three Pat Unt “The Unie from 8 Bese, The Fundamental Line fom Seale Degree 8"; Chee, "Te Spice of Masi” 2 Pedethoer, Aldon sl Stimnfibans, Chapeer 4; Diab et Schachter, "Ether Dabiin, "Consonant Passing Note” 53 Koma, Theo efSuipesonsYeston, The Satan of Maile, 54 Lerdahl and jckendof 4 Genet Theory of Tol Mase, Rothstein, Phase Rythme Tonal Mas. See also Chapter, pp- 99-10 ahd Chaper 22,99. 795-18 ali schonron, pp. 93-933 Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 Heinvch Schenker 7 himself published few analyses of works in these genres, though a brief comment on ‘Schubert's An Meer offers one of the cleatest examples ofthe relationship of words to music from a Schenkerian viewpoint 55 Some of Schenker’s closest followers have ‘made major contributions to the bearing of a sung text on the analysis of music, ‘though in much of the best work in the feld, the Schenkerian approach is one of a number of coordinated methods.” Justasan adequate theory of the relationship between voice-leading and rhythm had ‘0 await the reception of Schenkerian theory by a younger generation of scholar, 50 ‘the matters concerning musical form have been integrated into voice-leading theory only recently. 1fSchenker’s ideas on form were, characteristicaly, fll of insight, his ‘graphic representations were inconsistent even ~ as Charles Smith persuasively showed -within an ostensibly unified presentation such as the music examples for Der _fieie Satz5* In particular, Schenker had failed to clarify the relative status of the two ‘parts ofan interrupted structure, and was inconsistent in his mapping ofthe conven- tionally termed parts of a form (“second group,” “recapitulation” etc) onto graphic representations of the middleground ‘Another project that Schenker barely touched on in his writings was the overall coherence of multi-movement work, or a set of variations, ie. pieces in which a sep- arate Ursate could be said to govern individual components, Recent writers have attempted to make sense of variation sets as “single pieces” in a Schenket and some have gone so far as to show how an entire sonata might be embraced by 2 single Ursate,or how set of bagatelles or character pieces forma coherent sequence in terms of their voice-leading. ‘The field of contrapuntal music has proved more resistant to voice-leading analysis, (Schenker’sown studies of fagues by Bach and Brahms notwithstanding), and has only. recently begun to receive the attention that it deserves.** Schenker provided substan- ‘ial analyses neither of string quartets nor of solo concertos; given the preeminence of these gentes in the ocuvre of Schenker’s composers of “genius” i is surprising that litle Schenkerian research has been undertaken in these repertories, Schenker’s deeply held belie that music was in decline was mainly expressed in general attacks on contemporary society. The shorter of his analytical counter-exam- ples, voive-leading analysis of an extract from Stravinsky's Piano Concerto, proved something of a model for later writers, including Adele Katz and Felix Salzer, whose influential Structural Hearing includes voice-leading analyses of works by Bark, Hindemith, Prokofiey, Ravel and Stravinsky. The linearity of mach late nineteenth and twentieth-century composition may have been a significant itor. On the other 55, Meisener va, 9p. 199-200, 56 Jonas, Dat Wen der manaichen Kuntwerks contains an important analysis of Schubert's Der Lnderbai, cease Schacter,"Moteand Text.” 57 Seeinpatiular Webster Mozat’s Aris” 58 Smit, "Musial Form and Fundamental Structure 59 Siler, "Mosir’sDivetimentox 63" Marston, “Analysing Vacations” {0 Duns, "Mulnpiece Marston, “Tefes or MaltTrfe™,Bethver Seats in OP 209, 9. 253, St Renwick, ascii gue," Hidden gal Paths.” Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 yt WIELian oRAREIN hand, changes to the concepts of consonance and dissonance around 1900 make the principe of tonal hierarchy far more dial to apply systematically to this repertory. ‘Thaslinear connections are made more onthe basis of temporal proximity with duet tion a key factor in deternining the starting points and goals of progressions. And background stracturestake onnew “dissonant” guration, ¢g,af2-5-2-1 Urine for the frst movement of Bartk’s Fourth Quartet “Thelinear analysis of “pre-Baroque” music has longer and lle histor, beginning daring Schenker’ life with the study of medieval ané Renaissance polyphoay by bis pupil Felix Salzer‘ The changes 2 Schenkcerian doctrine necestated bythe surice designs of early repertores ae no les extensive than those for contemporary msi. For early medieval polyphony the concepts of consonance, dissonance and part ‘ikng resule in much graphic analysis underpinned by chains of consecutive fifths or octaves, something which Schenker would have found inimical. Yetithas been claimed forth late secla songs of Gillsume de Macha that “cadence (act) athe focus of directed progressions extended over considerable stretches of musi" ‘With consonance and dissonance treatment broadly codified in che Renaissance, the analysis of much sixtsenth-cetary mas ison rer ground, and examples of sensitive Schenkerian readings have appeared with some frequency. There remains, however, the problem of large-scale unity in works that are conceived in acordance withthe syntax of «sacred text. As Donald Tovey pot it ina trenchant discussion of High Renaissance polyphonic texture, “Sixtenth-cencury music i aesthetically equivalent tothe decorating of pace butnotosnictureon an architect scale” an tiscon- sequently a mistake to “expect high note in one place to produce a corresponding one long afer Palestrina has effected all that he meant by it and directed his mind els were" Schenker's admiration of the music of Johann Strauss and his efforts to promote it by providing voice lading graphs ofhs more famous waltzes in Derfee Satz suggests chat, his outright dismissal of jazz and other forms of popular msc noowithstand- ing.” he saw the diference between good and bad as greater than that between serious and popslas The applicstion of Schenkerian theory to jazz, American popular song, and non-Western music has Rourised in recent year; remains tobe seen how post modernist arguments against the contemplation of music ouside its cultural context affect Schenkerian and other theoretically based approaches toll repertries of mesic in the twenty-first century. 6 Travis, "Batbk’s Routh Quartet” 65 Sauer, Sie and Ween 54 Lech Wilkinson," Macha’ Ras p35 5 See for example Bergquist, "Mode nd Polyphony": Novack, “Fusion ofDesign and Tonal Order" ‘Miccel, "Laso's Prophet Sibylarumn” 66 Tovey Musa exes, p. 30°31 57 Mestoner, lI P1075 90118 p18 158 The fie Schenkeisn study of s non-Western repertory was Loeb, “Japanese Koto Musi” For {approaches to popular musi, see for example Ober, The Masi of Cem Pore, Amerie Popular ‘Balls Breet, "The Beatess Composers” The sues concen Schenkeian ans Of 25005 ate aired in Larson, "Schenkerlan Analy of Madern Jaa.” Cambridge Historie Online © Cambridge Univers Pses, 2008 Heinrich Schenker 9 Bibliography Primary sources: Schenker’s principal writings Bin Beitrag sur Omtamentit, Vienna, Universal, 904; rev. and edn, 1908; trans, H. Siegel a8 “A Contribution to the Study of Ornamentation,” Music orm 4 (2076), Pp. 3-139 Harmoniclhre(Newe mustache Theorienuxd Phontasien 1), Seutgart, Cotta, 1906; reprint Vienna, Universal, 1978; abridged trans. E. M. Borgese, ed, O. Jonas as Hanrony, University of Chicago Press, 1954 4.8. Bach, Chromatiscke Phantase und Page: kitsch Ausgabe, Vienna, Universal, 1930; trans. 1, Slegel as. S. Backs Chromatic Fantasy end Page: Creal Belton witk Commentary New York, Longman, 1984 Kontrapznkt (Neue mustkaiscke Theviex und Phantasce 1), 2 vols., Vienna, Universal, 110-22; trans and ed. J. Rothgeb, tans. J. Thym as Counterpeint,2 vols., New York, Schirmer, 1987 ‘Beethovensneunte Sinfonie, Vienna, Universal, 19125 tans, J. Rothgeb 28 Beethoven’s North Symphony, New Haven, Yale University ress, 1992 Beethoven: Die letzten fief Sonaten: rtsce Ausgabe mit Binfdoyg woud Brléutenag, Vienna, Universal, 2913 (Op. 109), 1914 (Op. 110), 1915 (Op. 131), 1920 (Op. 101); rev. and