Sie sind auf Seite 1von 55

A Solution for Every

Multiphase Challenge

Sreedevi Krishnan
Confidence by Design Workshop
Chicago, IL June 14, 2012
June 14, 2012
1

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Multiphase Flows
Flow of two or more
immiscible materials
Interaction
Not fluids that mix at
molecular level
Combinations of
multiphase flow can be:
Gas/Liquid
Gas/Solid
Liquid/Liquid
Liquid/Solid
Gas/Liquid/Solid

Gas -Liquid

Liquid-Liquid
2

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Gas-Solid

Liquid-Solid

In real life
Many industrial processes involve multiphase flow
Gasoline sprays in automobile combustion engines
Gasification and coal combustion in power plants
Fluid catalytic cracking in refineries
Aeration / sparging in water treatment plants
Free surface flows
Icing on aircrafts
Breathing of dust particles
And many more

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Modeling Multiphase Flows


What is the engineering
problem of interest?

What is the flow regime?


Length scale of interface in
relation to the domain?
Regime change?
Is it dilute or dense?
Other important physics?
Mass Transfer?
Heterogeneous and
homogeneous reactions?

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Multiphase Flow Regimes


Bubbly flow: Discrete gaseous

bubbles in a continuous liquid


Droplet flow: Discrete fluid droplets
in a continuous gas
Particle-laden flow: Discrete solid
particles in a continuous fluid
Slug flow: Large bubbles in a
continuous liquid
Annular flow: Continuous liquid
along walls, gas in core
Stratified/free-surface flow:
Immiscible fluids separated by a
clearly-defined interface

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

slug flow

bubbly flow
droplet flow
particle-laden flow

annular flow

free-surface flow

Estimate of Length Scales


Length scale of equipment : L
Length scale of flow that is resolved (mesh) : l

Interfacial length scale (droplet or bubble size)


d
l >> d: Dispersed flow
Droplets, bubbles or particles unresolved!
Need to model interactions (momentum, heat
and mass)
l << d or d L: Separated flow
Interfacial interactions resolved as part of
solution

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Stokes Number
The Stokes number is defined as a ratio of the particle response
time to the characteristic time of the flow.
p
p d p2
St
p
D
18
The St gives a measure of temporal correlation between particle
velocity and the fluid velocity
If St <<1 , the particle follows bulk macroscopic flow
The particle are in quasi equilibrium with the surrounding flow
If St = 1, the particle tend to substantially modify the bulk
macroscopic flow
If St>>1, the particle motion is weakly affected by the motion

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Dilute or Dense Flow


A dilute flow is a flow in which the particles (bubble) move as
individual entities and their motion is controlled by the drag
and lift forces.
A dense flow is flow in which the particle (bubble) motion is
controlled by the collisions.
The Interaction Stokes number is defined as a ratio of a
particle response time to the collision time

p
St I
c
if StI << 1, particles are weakly affected by the particle interaction
If StI ~ 1 particle motion is substantially modified by particle
interactions
If StI >> 1 are strongly affected by the particle interactions
8

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Coupling Regimes
Four types of coupling regimes bewteen particles motion and surrounding
can happen in a multiphase flow
One-way coupling :
Particle motion affected by the continuous-phase but not vice-versa.
e.g. drag on an isolated particle, droplet or bubble caused by surface
forces
Two-way coupling :
Particles also affects the continuous-phase through fluid coupling
e.g. upward entrainment of liquid induced by a plume of bubbles.
Three-way coupling :
Particle flow disturbances affect the motion of nearby particles
e.g. a particle drafting behind another particle
Four-way coupling :
Contact dynamics significantly influence overall particle motion.
e.g. small rain drops colliding and coalescing to form larger rain drops
9

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Volume/ Void Fraction


A particle or droplet is defined as a
relatively small object immersed in a
continuous phase flow (liquid or gas).

dVc

A collection of these particle dispersed


throughout the flow is called a
dispersed phase

Volume fraction of dispersed phase is


given by
dVd
d lim
dV
dV dV 0

Similarly, the volume fraction of


continuous phase is given by
dVc
c lim
dV dV dV
0

10

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

dVd

dV

Choose the right model!


Multiphase flow

Dispersed flow
Yes

11

No

Eulerian tracking

Lagrangian tracking

Eulerian tracking

DPM, DEM

Eulerian, Mixture

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

VOF, Immiscible fluid


model

Applicability of Models

12

Eulerian
Model

DPM

Mixture Model

VOF Model

DDPM model

Flow Regime

Bubbly flow,
droplet flow,
slurry flow,
fluidized
beds,
particleladen flow

Bubbly
flow,
droplet
flow,
particleladen flow

Bubbly, droplet,
and slurry flows

Slug flow,
stratified/free
-surface flow

Fluidized beds

Particle
Loading

Dilute to
dense

Dilute
(VF<12%)

Dilute to
Dilute to
moderately dense dense

Dense

Phase
Coupling

Weak to
strong
Coupling
between
phases

Weak to
strong
coupling
between
phases

Weak coupling
between phases

Weak to
moderate
coupling
between
phases

Moderate to
strong
coupling

Stokes
Number

All ranges

All ranges
of Stokes
number

St <<1

All ranges

All ranges

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Eulerian Model

13

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Eulerian Model Overview


Most general purpose model
Used to model particles (or bubbles/droplets) in a

continuous phase.
Allows for mixing and separation of phases
Solves momentum, enthalpy, turbulence and continuity
equations for each phase and tracks volume fractions
Uses a single pressure field for all phases
The interaction between the mean flow of both phases
is modeled via interaction terms
Application examples

Gas-Liquid/Liquid-Liquid
Bubble column reactor,
emulsion flows
Gas-Solid
High particle loading flows,
Fluidized beds, riser, cyclone
Liquid-Solid
Slurry flows, Sedimentation,
Packed bed reactors components

14

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Phase Interactions
Drag: is caused by relative motion between phases and the most important
interfacial force
Particle diameter is used in interaction drag calculations.
Virtual Mass Force: Caused by relative acceleration between phases
Lift: Caused by the shearing effect of the fluid onto the particle
Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer: Cavitation, Boiling, EvaporationCondensation, Heterogeneous reactions, User defined mass transfer,
Nucleation and growth in population balance models
Surface Tension and Wall adhesion

15

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Example: Bubble Column


Liquid is sparged by bubbles emitted at the bottom
Original liquid level rises from h0 to h due to the displacement and
drag of rising bubbles.
Averaged bubble VF determines the liquid holdup, 1 (h0/h)
44cm diameter, 116 cm initial water column, bubble size of 5 mm
Unstructured grid, 37,800 cells
g
Superficial gas velocity 10 cm/s
RNG k turbulence model
QUICK scheme is used for all variables

Comparison
of time
averaged
air volume
fraction

Comparison
of time
averaged
axial liquid
velocity

16

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Gas

Bubble Column

Instant,
500 sec
Instant,
500 sec

Average,
500 sec

Average,
500 sec

Gas Volume Fraction


(Lateral Distribution)

17

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Gas Volume Fraction


(Axial Distribution)

Dispersed Phase Diameter

Particle diameter is used in interaction


drag force calculations

There are three ways to input dispersed


phase diameter
Constant if you know the
representative size of the dispersed
phase describing your size distribution
User-defined if you know some
correlation for your particle size as
function of local flow parameters
(velocity, temperature, pressure)
Using IAC or the Population Balance
Model (Sauter mean diameter)

18

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

IAC model
Interfacial area concentration is

defined as the interfacial area


between two phases per unit
mixture volume.
The interfacial area
concentration model solves a
single transport equation per
secondary phase. It is
specifically applicable to bubbly
flows in liquid at this stage.
Sauter-mean is default for
diameter calculation.
Kernels available for
coalescence and breakage.

19

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Population Balance Model (PBM)

PBM is the most

comprehensive model to
simulate bubble size
distributions.
Includes solution of
additional equations
which describe particle
size evolution due to
coalescence, breakup,
nucleation and mass
change phenomena.
Accuracy of the model
depends on the kernels
used to model size
evolution.

20

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Example: IAC and PB model: Bubble Column

Ug=40 cm/sec
10 mm

PB

IAC

PB

IAC

13 mm

1 mm
0.7 mm

Instant d32

Instant VF
21

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

IAC with coalescence and


breakup kernels by Ishii-Kim
adequately predicts complex
heterogeneous bubble
columns
IAC is much faster that PB
IAC under predicts bubble
diameter in comparison with
PB
IAC predicts correct increase in
bubble diameter as gas flow
rate increases (not shown)

Submodel: Boiling
Three boiling model options are available:
RPI Boiling Model
Applicable to subcooled nucleate
boiling
Non-equilibrium Boiling
Extension of RPI to take care of
saturated boiling
Critical Heat Flux
Extension of RPI to take care of boiling
crisis

22

Interfacial transfer models include:


A range of sub-models for drag and lift,
and turbulent dispersion
Liquid-vapor interface heat and mass
transfer models
2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Contours of vapor volume fraction


in a nuclear fuel assembly

Submodel: Multi-Fluid Free Surface


Combination of interface sharpening schemes
(such as Geo-Reconstruct, CICSAM, HRIC..) in
a framework of the Eulerian multiphase
model
Access to non-shared velocity and
temperature fields for the problems involving
sharp interface treatment
Typical applications
Bubble entrapment modeling, phase
Surface
separation
tension term
Interface shear dominated flows film
formation, coating applications
Granular phase (s) with free surface
modeling

Gas assist injection


molding modeled by
the Immiscible Euler
model
23

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Submodel: Granular Model


Models packed beds and transition

24

between fluidized and packed bed


(viscous regime)
Granular model is a result of dense
gas theory.
Colliding molecules are replaced
by colliding particles.
Kinetic transport during free flight
between collision
Collisional transport during
collisions

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Example: Bubbling Fluidized Bed


Eulerian Model with Granular Model for
Secondary Phase

Porosity (2.5 cm from center)

Porosity (10 cm from center)

Y= 10 cm

2 cm, 10 cm, 17 cm
25

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Porosity (17 cm from center)

Solids Y Velocity (at 10 cm)

Volume Of Fluid (VOF)

26

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Introduction
VOF model is used to model immiscible
fluids with a clearly defined interface.
VOF is not appropriate if interface length is
small compared to the computational grid
Accuracy of VOF decreases as the
interface length scale approaches the
computational grid scale
Typical problems:
Liquid sloshing
Tank filling
Jet breakup
Motion of large bubbles in a liquid
Motion of liquid after a dam break
Steady or transient tracking of any
liquid-gas interface
27

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Volume of Fluid Model Inputs


Phases
Any number of phases is allowed
Define the phase with less presence in the
domain as the secondary phase
Phase interaction in VOF model:
Mass exchange
Heterogeneous reactions
Surface tension with optional wall
adhesion effect
Implicit body force (designed for flows with
large body forces)
Gravity acting on phases with large
density difference
Flows with large rotational accelerations
(such as centrifugal separators and/or
rotating machinery)
28

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Volume of Fluid Model Schemes


Explicit
VOF

Implicit
VOF

29

Features and Advantages

Disadvantages

Transient
Sharp interface capture with
Geo-Reconstruct scheme
Problems where Surface
tension effects are
important
Accurate curvature
calculation
Courant number limitation
small time step

Poor convergence
for skewed
meshes.

Phase continuity equation


(volume fraction) iteratively
solved with momentum and
pressure.
Steady and unsteady
Can be run with large time
steps
Can be used with poor mesh
quality and for complex
flows

Diffuse interface
Not accurate for
flow where
surface tension is
imporant

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Poor convergence
if phases are
compressible

Zonal Discretization
Zonal Discretization Option
This option provides diffusive or
sharp interface modeling in different
fluid (cell)zones based on the value of
zone dependent slope limiter.

(Zone 1)

30

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

(Zone 2)

June 18, 2012

(Zone 3)

Slope Limiter (Beta)

Scheme

Beta = 0

First Order Upwind

Beta = 1

Second order upwind

Beta = 2

Compressive

0 < Beta < 1 ,


1 < Beta < 2

Blended scheme

Phase localized Compressive Scheme


Phase localized compressive scheme facilitates diffusive and sharp

modeling of distinct interfaces.


Could be effectively used for the cases where HRIC/Compressive
schemes produce undesirable behavior.
Available with VOF model and Eulerian multiphase using immiscible
fluid model option.
Phase-0

Phase localized compressive scheme with all slope limiters = 2,


is same as Compressive scheme.

31

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Phase-1

Phase-2

Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion


The pressure difference across the phase

interface is a function of the surface tension


coefficient and the surface curvature
Wall adhesion
Wall adhesion force is a measure of the
cohesive forces acting between the fluid and
walls.
Adhesion is important when modeling
meniscus shapes and/or wettability.
Jump Adhesion
contact angle specification at porous jump
boundary

Surface Tension
Coefficient

P1

1
1
P2 P1
R1 R2

P2
R2

R1

Gas
Radius of
curvature

32

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

w 7

Liquid

Example: Water Jacket Filling

Fill required at each start cycle

Cavity is drained after each


engine use

Initial fill is idle engine


condition for a duration of 30
seconds

Then, full throttle acceleration


ramp for an additional 30
seconds

Cavity volume = 4.4 liters

Courtesy of Volvo Penta


33

Original Design

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Modified Design

Example: Oil Splashing

Oil Splashing in Gear Systems

Sliding Mesh/ Moving


Deforming Mesh (MDM) is
used along with VOF
Model
VOF Scheme: Implicit
Compressive scheme
Similar Examples
Gear lubrication
Cooling of
piston/clutch/break

oil splashing off crank shaft and oil pan walls


34

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Example: Sloshing

Reference : Simulation of Fuel Sloshing- Comparative Study, Matej


Vesenjek, Heiner Mullerschon, Alexander Hummel, Zoran Ren,

Free surface level ( t = 0.08 s)

Experimental result represented by the dotted line


Total pressure vs. time at Point 1, comparison
of CFD predictions with experiment
35

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Solidification/ Melting
FLUENT provides the following capabilities for modeling
solidification and melting:
Calculation of liquid-solid solidification/melting in pure metals
as well as in binary alloys.
Modeling of continuous casting processes (i.e., pulling of solid
material out of the domain).
Modeling of the thermal contact resistance between solidified
material and walls (e.g., due to the presence of an air gap).
Modeling of species transport with solidification/melting.

Of the general multiphase models (VOF, mixture, and


Eulerian), only the VOF model can be used with the
solidification/melting model.

36

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Example: Deicing
Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer solution, using Solidification
/ Melting model
Fluid Zones

Passenger compartment
Control panel domain
Ice layer

Solid Zone

Glass windows

Ice initially covers entire outside surface of windshield

Courtesy Visteon Automotive Systems - Germany


37

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Deicing Validation Results

Courtesy Skoda Auto


38

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Mixture Model

39

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Mixture Model : General Overview


The mixture model is a simplification of the Eulerian multiphase

model.
Main difference is that this model is applicable when there is
only a weak coupling between the phases and St << 1
Solves one set of momentum, turbulence and energy equation with
mixture properties and tracks volume fraction of each fluid throughout
domain.
Mixture model allows the phases to be interpenetrating.
the mixture model allows the phases to move at different
velocities using the concept of slip (or drift) velocities
Typical Applications :
Hydrocyclones, Bubble column reactors, suspensions, Gas
sparging
Cavitation Model :
- Fuel Injector Cavitation
- Cavitating Flow in a Centrifugal Pump
- Cavitation in a Gerotor
Homogeneous Boiling Model
-Engine Jacket Boiling

40

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Discrete Phase Model


(DPM)

41

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Spray Nozzle

Introduction
Many engineering flows involve

interaction between a gas phase and


lightly loaded particles/droplets, such
as:
Cyclone separators
Pulverized coal/oil fired boilers
Internal combustion engines
Spray dryers, etc.
This interaction is computed by the
Discrete Phase Model (DPM) in
ANSYS CFD

Boiler

Scrubber
Cyclones

ICE

Courtesy of Lurgi

42

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

DPM in ANSYS CFD


Trajectories of particles/droplets are

computed in a Lagrangian frame


Exchange energy, mass, and momentum with
Eulerian gas or liquid phase

Continuous phase
flow field calculation

Discrete phase volume fraction < 10%


Mass loading can be large (+100%)
No particle-particle interaction

Turbulent dispersion modeled by


Stochastic tracking
Particle cloud model

Ideally suited for situations where

particles enter and leave computational


domain

43

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Particle trajectory
calculation

Update
continuous phase
source terms

Example: Spray Dryer


Goal:
Characterize the effect of liquid feed location
and/or angle on particle trajectories to reduce
the potential of fouling
Various combinations tested
Vane angle
Spray nozzle locations
Nozzle angle settings

10 m/s injection

Moisture contours
for 2.5 m/s injection
2.5 m/s injection

Particle tracks colored by particle mass

Temperature
contours
Air flow patterns
44

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Moisture
content

Example: Spray calibration for Nonevaporating sprays


Spray Penetration Length

Finer Mesh show mesh


independent results

Time-step dependence Study SSD Model

Mesh Dependence Study SSD Model

Kumzerova, E. and Esch, T., Extension and Validation of the CAB Droplet Breakup Model to a Wide Weber Number Range, Proc. of the 22nd Europ.
Conf. on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Paper ILASS08-A132, Como Lake, 2008.
45

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Example: Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)


Modeling :

Model available through


Fluent GUI

New multi-component
evaporation Law

Diffusion controlled

Diffusion controlled

Convection / Diffusion controlled

Convection/Diffusion
controlled

46

DPM Enhancements

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Display by particle diameter

Submodel: Discrete Element Method (DEM)


The DEM model accounts for particleparticle interaction especially for
granular phases (e.g sand)
The particle interactions are based on
soft sphere model put forward by
Cundall and Stack (1979)
Spring- dashpot model
The spring accounts for the
repulsive force
The dashpot accounts for nonconservativeness in kinetic energy
Friction model
The friction accounts for the motion
between surfaces
47

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Supermodel: Dense Discrete Phase (DDPM)

Coupled DPM and the Eulerian Multiphase

48

Model
Track particle in Lagrangian framework,
calculate cell volume fraction and use it in
Eulerian momentum equation of primary
phase
Accounts for volume blockage due to
particles
Applicable to high dispersed phase volume
fraction applications
Particle-Particle interaction options with
- Kinetic theory
- DEM : Soft-sphere collision model
Typical applications
Cyclone separator
Fluidized bed
Riser
2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Example: Flow of solids in a riser

49

16 m tall and ID of 0.35 m

FCC particles are of 75 microns diameter

At steady state about 1.5 million parcels are


handled

Approximately 1s of flow time simulated in a day


in a single processor

Each parcel represents 20000 particles

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Riser Flow

50

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Riser Flow: Pressure Profiles Compared

51

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Eulerian Wall Film Model


Solves for film mass, momentum, heat transfer
Particle/Phase collection, film formation,
transportation, Splashing, Separation, Stripping.
Eulerian wall film can be coupled with EulerianLagrangian (DPM) and Eulerian-Eulerian
multiphase frame work.
Assumption:
EWF model assumes that film always flows parallel to the
surface so normal
component of film velocity is zero.
The film is assumed to have:
A parabolic velocity profile &
A bilinear temperature profile
across its depth.
52

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Example: Rain Water Management


DPM Particle Tracking with EWF

Expt

Fluent

53

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Summary

54

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012

Summary

55

ANSYS multiphase flow modeling platform offers a


rich collection of multiphase models.

These models can be used to simulate a large


variety of industrial problems ranging from freesurface to particle-laden flows.

The models come with a large number of out of


the box capabilities and are also fully
customizable, making it possible to model complex
phenomena.

The models are extensively validated against


experimental data whenever possible.

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 18, 2012