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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT)

Volume 4 Issue 5, May 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

185

A Novel Approach For Secure Image Transmission Using Mosaic Images

Jasira AK

M. Tech. student, Department of ECE, Al Ameen Engineering College, Kulapully, Kerala, India

Anoop V

Assistant Professor, Department of ECE, Al Ameen Engineering College, Kulapully, Kerala, India

Abstract

A novel approach for secure image transmission is presented. Objective of this approach is to increase the quality of the retrieved image. In the proposed technique secret fragment visible mosaic image is automatically generated by using the secret image and the preselected target image. The mosaic image looking similar to the target image and may be utilized as the disguise of the secret image, is created by partitioning the secret image into segments and changing the color characteristics to be those of the relating blocks of the target image. To perform the color conversion many dexterous procedures are developed for retrieving the secret image nearly losslessly. By using a lossless data hiding method, the information needed to retrieve the secret image is implanted to the mosaic image using a key. To show the accuracy of the proposed method experimental results are analyzed.

Index terms: mosaic image, secure image transmission, color conversion, data hiding

I. INTRODUCTION

Nowadays, data transmissions through internet are limited due to various attacks present in it. Applications like confidential enterprise archives, medical imaging, and military image database etc. transfer private or confidential images through internet. So they should be protected from various security problems during data transmission. Two commonly used approaches for secure transmissions are data hiding and image encryption. Image encryption is done by using natural properties of an image such as high redundancy and spatial correlation to get an encrypted image. The noise image is a meaningless file, so that no one can obtain the secret image without the correct key. However, the encrypted image is a noise image which cannot provide any information before decryption and due its randomness may evoke a hacker’s attention during transmission. To avoid this problem data hiding methods are used, that hides secret message into cover image so that no one can realize the presence of the secret data. Main drawback of data hiding method is the difficulty to apply a large amount of message data into single image. To solve the drawback of image encryption and data hiding a new method called secret fragment visible mosaic images are developed, which transforms automatically a large volume secret image into a meaningful mosaic image with the same size and looking similar to the preselected target image. Conversion process is controlled by a secret key and only with the key a person can recover the secret image losslessly. The mosaic image is obtained by

partitioning the given secret image into rectangular blocks called tile images which then fit into similar blocks in the target image according to a similarity criterion based on color variations. Then the color characteristic of each tile image is transformed into that of the corresponding target block in the target image. Relevant techniques are developed to perform nearly lossless recovery of original secret image from the created mosaic image. Existing system for secure image transmission using mosaic images has some limitations; it does not give lossless secret image during retrieval. For creating mosaic images, it uses average standard deviations of tile images and target blocks to fit tiles into target blocks. So during the embedding there is a chance of loss of some accurate information. It caused degradation of quality of the retrieved image. To avoid this limitation we considered standard deviation of each color channels of tile image and target blocks.

In contrast with the other image encryption technique which only creates meaningless noise image, this approach creates a new meaningful mosaic image. This method can transform a secret image into a mosaic image without compression while data hiding method uses a highly compressed version secret image, to hide into the cover image when the secret image and the cover image has the same volume.

II. LITERATURE REVIEW

H.S. Kwok and Wallace K.S Tang have developed a fast image encryption system based on chaotic maps using finite precision representation [1] in 2007. A 32 bit precision representation with fixed point arithmetic is used to achieve a fast throughput and facilitate hardware realization. This encryption system is a pseudo random keystream generator based on cascade of chaotic maps which serves the purpose of sequence generation and random mixing. For retrieving the original image from the encrypted data, a synchronized key which is correlated with the initial conditions and parameters of chaotic maps are embedded. Chi-Kwong Chan, L.M. Cheng proposed an algorithm of hiding data in images by using simple substitution method [2] in 2004. To protect original data from illegal access, important data are embedded into the cover image. Disadvantage of data hiding by substitution method is when the size of the storing message is increased, the image quality of the stego image degraded gradually. To improve the image quality of stego-image with low extra computational complexity, an optimal pixel adjustment process is applied to the stego image.

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT)

Volume 4 Issue 5, May 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

186

Zhicheng Ni, Yun- Qing, Nirwan Ansari, and Wei Su have presented reversible data embedding technique [3] in 2006. In this method the original image can be recover without any distortion from the marked image after the hidden data have been extracted. This technique uses zero or minimum points of the histogram of an image and slightly modifies the pixel gray scale values. Comparing with the other existing reversible data hiding methods, it can embed high quantity data. The PSNR of the marked image to the PSNR of the original image is ensured to be higher than 48 dB which kept a large percentage of visual quality for all natural images. Jun Tian has developed a technique for reversible data embedding using a difference expansion [4] for digital images in 2003. Being reversible the original digital content can be completely restored. It explores the redundancy to obtain very high embedding capacity and distortion low. Yongjian Hu, Heung-kyu Lee, Kaiying Chen and Jianwei Li have proposed a method of difference expansion based reversible data hiding using two embedding directions [5] in 2008. This algorithm utilizes the horizontal and the vertical difference images for data hiding. Also proposes a histogram based difference selection and shifting scheme. Li. X, Yang B and Zeng T have developed an algorithm for efficient reversible watermarking method based on adaptive prediction error expansion and pixel selection [6] in 2011. This approach selects pixels of smooth area for data embedding and leaves rough pixels unchanged. Prediction error expansion can apply large payloads into digital images with low distortion. W. Zhang, X. Hu, X. Li and N. Yu have presented a recursive histogram modification by establishing equivalency between reversible data hiding and lossless data compression [7] in 2013. In this method histogram is modified to embed the message by recursively utilizing decompression and compression processes of an entropy coder.

C. C. Chang, C.C. Lin, C.S. Tseng and W.L. Tai have proposed a technique of reversible hiding in DCT based compressed images [8] in 2007. This method developed a lossless and reversible steganography scheme for hiding data in each block of quantized DCT coefficients in JPEG images. To hide the secret data, two successive null coefficients of medium frequency components in each block are used.

Sunil. Lee, Chang D. Yoo and Ton kalker have presented an algorithm of reversible image watermarking based on integer to integer wavelet transform [9] in 2007. Input image is divided into non overlapping blocks. The watermark is embedded into the high frequency wavelet coefficients of each block. I.J Lai and W.H Tsai have proposed a method for secure image transmission [10] in 2011. In this method a new type of computer art image secret fragment visible mosaic image is presented. The mosaic image is automatically created by composing small fragments of a secret image to become a target image in a mosaic form. A new image similarity measure is used for selecting target image from a database that is most similar to the secret image. To find a similar tile image in the secret image to embed into each target block in the target image a fast greedy search algorithm is developed. This method utilizes a large database to select the target image.

I.J Lai and W.H. Tsai developed a method [11] in 2014 in which target image can be selected freely without any database. The appropriate information is embedded into the mosaic image for the recovery of the secret image.

III. MATERIALS AND METHODS

The proposed method for secure image transmission

using mosaic image has two stages as shown in the fig.1:

1)

Generation of mosaic image

2)

Secret image recovery

In the first stage a meaningful secret fragment visible mosaic image is generated by transforming automatically a given large volume secret image. A target image can be selected arbitrarily, which is used as a camouflage of the secret image. The secret image and the target image are partitioned into tile images and target blocks respectively and find the mean and standard deviation. Then embed the tile images of secret image into blocks of the target image according to the SD of each color channels of each block. Next the color conversion of each tile image in the secret image to become that of corresponding target block in the target image is performed. After the color conversion process, rotate each tile image into a direction with respect to its corresponding target block with minimum RMSE value. Finally the information needed to recover the secret image is embedded into the mosaic image by a lossless data hiding method. In the second stage the secret image is retrieved nearly losslessly. To retrieve the secret image, extract the embedded information from the mosaic image. Then recover all tile images in a raster scan order using the extracted information and compose all the tile images to get the secret

image.

Divide into Find mean Target n target and image blocks standard deviation Fit tile images and
Divide into
Find mean
Target
n target
and
image
blocks
standard
deviation
Fit tile
images and
target blocks
according to
standard
Divide into
Find mean
deviation
Secret
n tile
and
image
images
standard
deviation
Color
Embed
Rotate tile
transformation
relevant
images into
between tile
information
direction with
images and
minimum
target blocks
RMSE
Retrieve
Extract
Mosaic
secret
embedded
image
information
image

Fig.1. Block diagram of the proposed method

IV. LOGICS OF SECRET FRAGMENT VISIBLE MOSAIC IMAGE CREATION

The logics of mosaic image generation are described in this section. A. Color conversion between tiles and target blocks.

In the first phase, split the input secret image into n tile

images {T 1

,T2,T3........T

n } and the preselected target image

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT)

Volume 4 Issue 5, May 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

187

into n target blocks {B 1 , B2,

B3.......

B n }. Next we have to

fit each tile image T into the target block B.

Let the

color

of each pixel

set

in

T

is denoted by

(r i ,g i ,b i ) and that of each pixel in B is denoted by (r i ,g i ,b i ).

At first, the means and standard deviation (SD) of each tile

image and target blocks are found out, by using the following formulas respectively,

where c= r, g or b and c = r , g

or b .

Then we have to compute a new color values for each pixel in T, by using formula,

c i

= q c (c i - µ c ) + µ c

in which q c = σ c ⁄ σ c is the SD quotients. Moreover system has to embed sufficient information about the new tile image. The original pixel values can be computed from the new pixel values by using the formula,

c i = 1 ⁄ q c ( c i

- µ c

) + µ c

B .Rotating the tile images with minimum RMSE value. To select an appropriate target block to fit into the tile image, we use SD of each color channels. The target block and tile image with most similar SD for three channels are fitted. After rotating the tile image into each of the direction 0 0 , 90 0 , 180 0 and 270 0 , compute the RMSE value for each color transformed tile image. Then rotate tile image into the optimal direction with minimum RMSE value.

  • C. Underflow / overflow handling in color conversion

After performing the color conversion process, there may be overflow/underflow of pixel value in each tile image. we convert pixel value greater than 255 to 255 & those less than 0 to 0 and record the value difference as residuals as a part of information associated with new tile image. Next we compute the smallest possible color value c S that larger than 255 and the largest possible value c L that smaller than 0 to record the residual. C S = [(1/q c ) (255 - µ c ) + µ c ], C L = [(1/q c ) (0 - µ c ) + µ c ] For a color value c i , which gives an overflow after the color conversion, we can found the residual as │c i c S and for a c i which gives an underflow after the color conversion the residual is founded by │c L -c i │.

  • D. Information embedding for retrieving secret image

By using a lossless data hiding method, the secret image retrieving information is applied into the mosaic image. Here LSB substitution methods are used to apply secret image recovery data into the created mosaic image. The relevant information for retrieving the tile image includes: 1) Index of B, to represent the index m bit are needed and m is calculated by m = {log [(W S * H S ) ⁄ N T ]}

in which W S and H S are the width and height of the secret image and N T is the size of the target image. 2) The optimal rotation angle, needs two bit to represent it because there four possible rotation directions. 3) The means and SD quotients of all color channels. 48 bit are required to represent means of tile images and target blocks because we use 8 bit to represent mean in each color channel. It needs 21 bit to represent the quotients of tile images and target

blocks because we use 7 bit to represent the quotients for each color channel. 4) The underflow or overflow residual, the total number of required bit for representing all residuals

depends on the number of overflows or underflows.

V.

ALGORITHM

METHOD

FLOW

OF

PROPOSED

The algorithms for mosaic image generation and

secret image recovery are described in this section.

Algorithm 1: mosaic image generation Phase 1: fitting blocks of secret image into blocks of target image. Step 1: select the secret mage S and the target image T. If size of T is different from size of S, then resize T. Step 2: divide S into n tiles and T into n blocks. Step 3: compute the mean and SD of each block. Step 4: create the mosaic image by fitting the tile images into the corresponding target block according to the SD of each three color channels. Phase 2: Performing color transformation between tile images and target blocks. Step 5: Transform the color value into a new color value, for each pixel in each block of mosaic image with color value

c

i . Step 6: Change the new color value to 255 or 0, if the new color value is higher than 255 or smaller than 0 and residual value is recorded. Phase 3: Rotating the tile images. Step 7: After rotating the tile images into each of the direction ϴ = 0 0 , 90 0 , 180 0 and 270 0 , compute the RMSE values of each tile image with respect to its corresponding target block. Step 8: Rotate tile image into the optimal direction with the smallest RMSE value. Phase 4: Embed information for retrieval purpose. Step 9: For each tile image construct a bit stream M that encode: index of corresponding target block, optimal rotation angle, means & SD quotients and underflow/ overflow residuals. Step 10: Compose the bit streams of all tile image in the mosaic image to form a total bit stream M t. Step 11: Encrypt the bit stream M t using a secret key. Step 12: The encrypted bit stream is embedded into the mosaic image.

Algorithm 2: Secret image retrieval.

Phase 1: Extracting the embedded information. Step 1: Extract the bit stream M t and decrypt it using the key. Step 2: Decompose M t into M bit streams. Step 3: Decode M to obtain index, rotation angle, mean & SD quotient and underflow/overflow residuals for each tile images.

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT)

Volume 4 Issue 5, May 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

188

Phase 2: Retrieving the secret image. Step 4: Rotate the block in the reverse direction and fit the resulting block content into T to form an initial tile image. Step 5: Use the extracted mean & SD quotient to compute the original pixel value and parameters c S and c L . Step 6: Scan T to find out pixels with values 255 or 0. Step 7: Add the values c S or c L respectively to the residual values of the found pixels. Step 8: Take the result as the final pixels values forming a final tile image. Step 9: Compose all the final tile images to form the secret image.

VI. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

Many experiments have been conducted to analysis the feasibility of the proposed algorithm using different secret and target image. The mosaic image created is similar the target image and using the proposed method a lossless retrieved secret image is obtained.

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(a) (b)
(a)
(b)
(c) (d)
(c)
(d)

(e)

Fig.2. Experimental result of proposed method. (a) Input secret image (b) preselected target image (c) mosaic image generated with tile image size 8×8 (d) retrieved image using correct key (e) retrieved image using wrong key.

To show the retrieved secret image is identical to the input secret image, parameters called PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio), RMSE (root mean square error) and MSSIM (mean structural similarity) are considered. That is, square

root of the mean square difference between input secret image and retrieved secret image is computed to observe the error value. Peak signal to noise ratio is computed to evaluate the perceptual quality metrics of the retrieved image. The metric of mean structural similarity is adopted to compare the similarity of the retrieved image and input secret image. Consider the experimental result of proposed method as shown in fig.2. Fig.2(c) shows the created mosaic image with tile image size of 8×8 using fig.2 (a) as secret image and fig.2 (b) as target image. From the figure we can seen that the generated mosaic image is identical to the target image. Fig.2 (d) shows the retrieved secret image using the correct key which looks similar to the original secret image. The recovered secret image using a wrong key as shown in fig.2 (e) is noise image. The mosaic image can be generated using different sizes of tile images. When the tile image size is smaller the generated mosaic image retains more details of the target image.

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(a)

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) Volume 4 Issue 5, May 2016, ISSNwww.ijaert.org " id="pdf-obj-3-44" src="pdf-obj-3-44.jpg">

(c)

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) Volume 4 Issue 5, May 2016, ISSNwww.ijaert.org " id="pdf-obj-3-48" src="pdf-obj-3-48.jpg">
(b) (d)
(b)
(d)
(e) (f)
(e)
(f)

Fig.3. Comparison of results of proposed method and existing method. (a) Input secret image (b) preselected target image (c) mosaic image generated using existing method (d) retrieved secret image in the existing method (e) mosaic image generated using proposed method (f) retrieved secret image in the proposed method.

Fig. 3 shows the comparison of experimental result of existing method developed by Lai and Tsai [11] with the proposed method, in which fig.3 (a) is the input secret image, fig.3 (b) shows the selected target image, fig.3(c) & fig.3 (d) shows the created mosaic image and retrieved secret image using existing method, and fig.3 (e) & fig. 3(f) shows the created mosaic image and the retrieved secret image. From these figures, it can be clear that both the mosaic images generated have the same appearance similar to the target image. But the proposed method gives a high

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT)

Volume 4 Issue 5, May 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

189

quality retrieved secret image compared to the existing method. That is, the visibility of retrieved image is good in the proposed method.

 

40

40
 

30

30 proposed

proposed

PSNR

20

method

10

10 existing

existing

 

method

 

0

 
 

8*8

16*16

32*32

 

(a)

 

50

40

40
 

RMSE

RMSE proposed

proposed

30

method

20

 
 

10

10 existing

existing

method

0

 
 

8*8

16*16

32*32

 

(b)

 

1

0.8

0.8
 

MSSIM

MSSIM proposed

proposed

0.6

method

0.4

 
existing

existing

 

0.2

method

0

 
 

8*8

16*16

32*32

(c)

Fig.4. Plots of various parameters of existing and proposed method. (a) PSNR of input secret image and retrieved image. (b) RMSE value of input secret image and retrieved image. (c) MSSIM of input secret image and retrieved image.

Fig.4. shows the plot of PSNR, RMSE, MSSIM value of proposed method and existing method to compare the performance. From the plots it can be seen that the PSNR value of input secret image and retrieved secret image is high in the proposed method comparing to the existing method. When comparing to the existing method, this method gives good PSNR value and MSSIM of secret image and retrieved image, thereby giving a high accuracy retrieved image. Also we can see that, when size of tile image increase, RMSE value increases and the value of PSNR and MSSIM decreases.

Finally, this experiment can be repeated using different images as target image and secret image.

VII. CONCLUSION

A novel approach for secure image transmission has been proposed, which transforms a secret image into mosaic image and provide more image security. Mosaic image

generation has done by partitioning the secret image into blocks and converting their color characteristics to that of corresponding target blocks. The mosaic image is looking similar to the arbitrarily selected target image. Relevant

information for retrieving secret image is embedded into the

mosaic image with a key. Usage of proper pixel color

transformation helps to obtain lossless recovered image. The

result of the proposed method was experimentally analyzed

using RMSE, PSNR and MSSIM. It is clear that, this

method gives a high quality mosaic image and accurate recovered image.

In the future work, the secret image can be recovered more accurately by using color models other than RGB and the color transformation between the tile image

and target block can be improved. The proposed method can

also be done on videos.

REFERENCES

[1] H.S.Kwok and W.K.S.Tang, “A fast encryption system

based on chaotic maps with finite precision representation”,

Chaos, solitons & fractals, vol.32, no.4, 2007.

[2] C.K.Chan and L.M.Cheng, “Hiding data in images by

simple LSB substitution”, pattern recognition, vol.37, pp.

469-474, Mar.2014. [3] Z.Ni, Y.Q.Shi, N.Ansari and W.Su, “Reversible data

hiding”, IEEE transaction on circuit and system for video

technology, vol.16, no.3,March,2006.

[4] J.Tian, “Reversible data embedding using a difference

expansion”, IEEE transaction on circuit and system for

video technplogy, vol.13, no.8, Aug.2003.

[5] Y.Hu, H.K.Lee, K.Chen and J.Li “Difference expansion

based reversible data hiding using two embedding

directions”, IEEE transaction on multimedia, vol.10, no.8,

Dec.2008.

[6] X.Li, B.Yang, and T.Zeng, “Efficient reversible

watermarking based on adaptive prediction error expansion and pixel selection”, IEEE transaction on image processing, Vol.20. no.12, Dec.2011.

[7] W.Zhang, X.Hu, X.Li and N.Yu, “Recursive histogram

modification: Establishing equivalency between reversible data hiding and lossless data compression”, IEEE

transaction on Image processing Vol.22, no.7, July 2013. [8] C.C.Chang, C.C.Lin, C.S. Tseng and W.L.Tai,

“Reversible hiding in DCT based compressed images”,

information science, vol.177, no.13, 2007. [9] S.Lee, C.D.Yoo, and T.Kalker, “Reversible image watermarking based on integer to integer wavelet transform”, IEEE transaction on information forensics security, vol.2, no.3, Sep, 2007.

[10] I.J Lai and W.H. Tsai, “Secret fragment visible mosaic

image- A new computer art and its application to information hiding”, IEEE, transaction information forensics security, vol.6, no.3, Sep.2011.

[11] Lee and Tsai, “A new secure image transmission

technique via secret fragment visible mosaic images by nearly reversible color transformation” IEEE transactions on circuits and system for video technology, vol.24, no. 4, April 2014.

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT)

Volume 4 Issue 5, May 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

190