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Chapter-II

DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION
AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
A CONCEPTUAL STUDY
The notion of Sustainable Development is relatively a new one
though the history of human civilization has been closely interwoven with
the history of environment (through faith, religion, traditions etc.) taken
in its broadest sense. It really assumed importance since the late 1980.
Sustainable development appeared on the scene as a serious analytical
subject.
Sustainable Development is a collection of methods to create
and sustain development and also require expending both the breath of
actors involved in creating and implementing policy and the depth of
their involvement which seeks to relieve poverty, create equitable
standards of living, satisfy the basic needs of all people, produce
sustainable economic growth and establish sustainable political practices
all the while taking the steps necessary to avoid irreversible damages to
natural capital in the long term in turn for short term and benefits by
reconcilling development projects with the regenerative capacity of the
natural environment.
Sustainable Development is a new concept of development of
the late eighties.

But after the Second World War the concept of

development though not new yet it is still in an incipient stage. Since the
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beginning of civilization it has been growing in scope and substance, and


the present nature of development greatly differs from that of the early
period. Serious attempts have been made by scholars of different
disciplines, (particularly after the Second World War) to define the
concept of development. Development never will be, and never can be
defined to universal satisfaction. states the Brundtland Commission
Report.

Thus development is a complex phenomenon comprising many

dimensions - social, political, economic, administrative and so on.


Fred W. Riggs defines development in terms of rising
levels of autonomy or discretion (of social system) in the sense of ability
to choose among alternatives, not of course in the sense of conation or
modernation.

He introduces the concept of development as an

increase in the level of discretion of social system. His definition


stresses on growth, values, justice, restructuring of social system and
levels of diffraction. The "growth" is made possible by the autonomy
of

the

social

systems

which

can

transform

or

reshape

the

environment. Similarly, "Performance Values" emphasises on increasing


efficiency, reducing costs, improving the machinery of production of
government and administration.

The justice, values of freedom,

independence, equality and change are other spheres which have been
mentioned by Riggs in a bid to restructure the social system. It involves
levels of diffraction which is a necessary condition for achieving
autonomy.2

1.

H. Brundtland : "Our Common Future", A Report of World Commission on


Environment and Development, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987.

2.

Fred W. Riggs : The Idea of Development Administration in Development


Administration in Asia By Edward W. Weidner (Ed.), Duke University Press,
Durham, N.C., 1970, p. 27.
18

According to Riggs, development also involved the ability to


choose whether or not to increase outputs, whether or not to raise levels
of percapita income, or to direct energies to other goals, to the more
equitable distribution of what is available to aesthetic or spiritual values
or the qualitatively different kinds of outputs.

At the beginning of the 1950, the United Nations and its allied
agencies began to focus attention on development problems and issues.
As this new work unfolded, it became clear that public administration and
finance play a major role in facilitating socio-economic development. In
general, in addition to a focus on overall economic growth attention is
being drawn on specific human concerns such as the reduction in the
level of poverty, the promotion of employment and the satisfaction of the
basic needs of all the people, especially people in the developing
countries.

As observed by Eva T.H. Brann, an American Scholar, the


whole world is caught up in the concept of development there seems to
5

be no escaping it. It is the issue which has drawn the attention of


International community to the twin problems of nation building and
3.

Fred W. Riggs : "The Idea of Development Administration" in Development


Aadministration in Asia By Edward W. Weidner (Ed.), Duke University Press,
Durham, N.C., 1970, p. 72.

4.

Most countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America are labelled as developing
countries or Poor countries or less developed countries or emerging nations or
third world and likewise, because they relatively young, because they are
confronted with similar development problems because they are engaged in the
developmental tasks of nation building and socio economic progress because
their national income per capita is less, because they are technologically less
advanced and finally they are socially backward.

5.

Eva T. H. Brann : The Condition of Exchange", International Educational and


Cultural Exchange, Vol. XX., Spring 1977, p. 4.
19

socioeconomic progress. International peace and security and


international economic and social order will remain insignificant until the
6

problems of under-development and maldevelopment is solved. There is


national resurgence, self realization and aspiration for self assertion
and rapid socio economic progress. A new outlook is pregnant in the
developing world. But its major task is the reconstruction of national
development. To quote from a United Nations Publication, There is
great pressure on government to accelerate national development, make
use of uptodate and relevant technological innovations, adopt and
facilitate necessary institutional changes, increase national production,
make full use of human and their resources and improve the level of
living.

They have to struggle hard to develop their economy, to sustain

improvement in social system, to increase the capacity of political system


and to revitalize public administration system with a view to achieve
countrys development as development is the center of politics, especially
of developing world.

Hahn Been Lee defines development as a

process of acquiring a sustained growth of a systems capability to cope


with new, continuous changes, towards the achievement of progressive
political, economic and social objectives. Lee sees development as both
process and purpose.

6.

Radha Krishnan Sapru : Nature, Needs and Strategy of Development in


Developing Countries, Indian Journal of Economics, Vol. LX, Part III, No. 238,
1980, p. 293.

7,

Development Administration : Current Approaches and Trends in Public


Administration for National Development, A Publication of United Nations
Development of Economics and Social Affairs (U.N. Publication. Sales No. E-76
II H.1) p.9.

8.

Hehn Bee Lee : The Role of Higher Civil Service Under Rapid Social and
Political Change in Development Administration in Asia, By Edward
W. Weidner (Ed), Duke University Press, Durham, N.C., 1970, p.108.
20

Chi-Yuen Wu defines development as a process of societal


transformation from a traditional society to a modern society and such a
transformation is also known as modernization.9
It may be, however, stated that it is not possible to draw a line
of demarcation between the economic, political and social components of
development. All these components tend to come into play when
development is seen taking place through cumulative circular causation
process.
Development, modernization and modernity are interrelated concepts but they have various implications in their use. They are
mainly used in reference to bringing about transformation be it social,
economic, political or administrative.
Here the emphasis is on modernization and modernity.
Daniel Lerner defines the concept of modernization as a
systematic

process

involving

complementary

changes

in

the

demographic economic political, communication and cultural sectors of a


society.

10

Joseph G. Jabbra and Nancy W. Jabbra prefer to use the term


modernization over modernity. They write, Since we cannot know the
future we cannot know modernity either, we can only know the becoming

9.

Chi Yuen Wu : The Nature of Modern Development : Challenge of


Underdevelopment and Maldevelopment. in Changing Conceptions of
Development : An Analytical Search for a Missing Dimension, By S.L. Sharma
(ed), Rawat Publications, Jaipur, 1986, Vol. 1, p. 2.

10. Daniel Lerner : The Passing of Traditional Society, Free Press of Glencoe,

New York, 1958 p - 401.


21

which is modernization. To them modernization refers to massive


structural change involving of entire society.

11

Features of Development
1.

Development is a continuously changing concept. It is neither static


nor uniform. Its nature constantly changes with the change of time.
The nature of development as seen in the early 20th century greatly
differs from that seen in the early 20th century. As such history of
modern times is a history of national development.

2.

Development is a multidimensional process. According to Palmer it


is an overall process with significant social, cultural, political and
12

human as well as economic dimension.

Its use seems to equal the

more prosaic, growth or change or transformation and has


become increasingly complex in its application. Economic, social,
political, cultural, human administrative and so on are viewed as
emerging from development without being development. Thus
development has multidimensional aspects.
3.

Development is a goaloriented process. It is equated with economic


growth,

social transformation

and

nationbuilding. National

development is the major goal of most developing countries. This


single goal subsumes myriads of goals such as economic and social
progress, political modernization, nation building, mobilization of
11.

Joseph G. Jabbra and Nancy W. Jabbra : "Problems of Modernisation", in


Changing Conceptions of Development : An Analytical Search for a Missing
Dimension by S.L. Sharma (Ed.), Rawat Publications, Jaipur, 1986, Vol. 2, p.
93-94.

12.

Norman D. Palmer : Development : The Need for an Effective Dialogue in


Changing Conceptions of Development : An Analytical Search for a Missing
Dimension, By S.L. Sharma (Ed.), Rawat Publications, Jaipur 1986, Vol. 1 p.96.
22

human and natural resources, reducing the levels of unemployment


and poverty etc. The developing societies are goaloriented societies
heading towards modernization.
4.

Another common feature of development is growth. All societies developing as well as developed are growing expanding and
advancing although the degree, size and substance of development
differs from society to society. Again present societies are complex
societies with high degree of interdependency between them. On the
one hand, the world is becoming more and more interdependent, as
jet transport improved methods of communication and mutual
economic dependence are uniting nations almost into a single entity
or a small number of entities on the other hand politically, the
world is divided into different group.

5.

Modern development is characterized by technological innovations


which have altered the nature of development and greatly
complicated its objectives. The computer, the nuclear technology,
the space technology and many other sophisticated precision
technologies have greatly influenced all aspects of society and
human life. Riggs says that the Spread of modern technology has
created the ecumene i.e. a globally - interdependent social system.

13

Most developing societies are now undergoing a process of


technological revolution.
6.

Another common feature of development is rationality. But as it is


evidenced that the traditional societies offer resistance to rationality

13.

Fred W. Riggs : Technology and Development in Changing Conceptions of


Development : An Analytical Search for a Missing Dimension, By S.L. Sharma
(Ed.), Rawat Publications, Jaipur, 1986, Vol. 2, p. 14.
23

on the other hand a modern society is a rational society. While all


societies have rational and irrational elements, modern society is
rational in the sense that it is not dominated by superhuman factors
or by tradition and that it assigns high value to making decisions on
the basis of reasons and to performing tasks in accordance with
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rational methods and procedures.


7.

Among other features of modern development are those of political


stability and maintenance of order and security. Without these
developments as a sustained goal in the direction of nation
building. the socioeconomic progress in the developing countries
cannot be achieved. Strategies of development require that
environmental factors do not intervene to make the attainment of any
15

set of goals difficult.

Indiscipline, disobedience to rules and

regulation, widespread corruption, laxity arbitrariness are some of


features of maldevelopment. Wu says that a modern state is that
which has successfully moved from a soft state to a disciplined state.
Fundamentally, the main explanation of the soft state is that all the
power is in the hands of upper class who can afford egalitarian laws
and policy measures but are in an unchallenged positions to prevent
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their implementation.

14.

Chi-Yuen Wu : "The Nature of Modern Development : Challenges of Underdevelopment and Maldevelopment" in Changing Conceptions of Development :
An Analytical Search for a Missing Dimension, By S.L. Sharma (Ed.), Rawat
Publications, Jaipur, 1986, Vol. 1, p. 3.

15.

Edward W. Weidner : The Goals, Strategy and Environment of Development",


in Changing Conceptions of Development : An Analytical Search for a Missing
Dimension, By S.L. Sharma (Ed.), Rawat Publications, Jaipur, 1986, Vol. 2,
p. 45.

16.

Gunnar Myrdal : The Challenges of World Poverty, Pantheon, New York, 1970,
p. 222.
24

8.

The process of development also involves institutional and cultural


changes. Changes instrumental to development are necessary to
reflect the view of the development process. For instance among the
reasons for the creation of planning bodies is to emulate the
developed societies and to help a society appear modern.
The common feature described above are a few dominant

features of development and do not necessarily constitute conditions for


development. T.N.Charturvedi concludes. The dynamics of development
would not flow from the legacy of timidity but from realism of
perception, economic insight, imaginative sympathy, sustained efforts,
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social sensitivity, community involvement and social vision.


Nature of Development

At the outset it may be emphasised that development is a


dynamic concept. It is not static rather continuously changing. The
present nature of development differs greatly from that of the early
nineteenth century. As such development in one sense is the history of
national development. The concept of sustainable development emerged
out in 1980s. Therefore, the problem of development is approached by
comparing its present nature with that in the nineteenth century and upto
the second half of the 1980s and to formulate the future goals of
development on the basis of lessons emerging from the development
trends experienced in recent years.
Development Issues in the 1980s
The Third United Nations Development Decade beginning from
1981 is in the middle of its takeoff. The developing countries are facing
17.

T.N. Charturvedi : "Development : The Dynamics Thorns and Thistles," in


Dynamics of Development : An International Perspective, By Sudesh Kumar
Sharma (Ed.) Concept, Delhi, 1978, Vol. 2, p. 709.
25

the same problems as they did during the 1970s. How to achieve national
development is the major task. These countries face the challenge of
accelerating economic and social development. They aspire to modernity.
These is high ambition for development. However, ambition alone does
not solve the problems facing these countries in achieving an accelerated
rate of progress which they aspire to.
Hence, in the Third Development Decade there is continued
need for accelerating the rate of economic growth, improving the state of
social welfare and increasing the capacity of the political system with a
view to achieve the main goals of national development or
modernization. Wu warns No item on the agenda of the world would be
assigned a higher priority than development. Permanent peace would be
impossible until the problem of underdevelopment and maldevelopment
18

is solved."

Developing countries need, therefore, not only economic

development but also social development. The objective of socio


economic development includes not only increase in national income per
capita but also removal of poverty, more equitable distribution of wealth
and income, full use of human and material resources, protection of
human and natural environment and raising standard of living by means
of technological innovations and institutional changes.
The turnmoil of the 1970s and the rapid, dynamic and
environmental changes that occurred at the close of the decade have
generated a series of debates that have drawn attention to some of the
major lessons that should guide formulation of development strategy in

18.

Chi-Yuen Wu : "The Nature of Modern Development : Challenges of Underdevelopment and Maldevelopment" in Changing Conceptions of Development :
An Analytical Search for a Missing Dimension, By S.L. Sharma (Ed.), Rawat
Publications, Jaipur, 1986, Vol. 1, p. 1.
26

the third decade. In general, the focus of attention on the development


needs should be on socioeconomic progress and nation building. Milton
J. Esman defines - socioeconomic progress as the sustained and
widely diffused improvement in material and social welfare and Nation
building as the deliberate fashioning of an integrated Political
community within fixed geographic boundaries in which the nation
state is the prominent political institution".

19

These two major goals subsume myriads of objectives which


the developing nations strive to achieve. The targets adopted by the
General Assembly for the Second United Nations Development Decade
were concerned with agriculture, industry, foreign trade, savings aid and
the acceleration of economic growth, especially in the second half of the
decade.
Needs in the 1980 Decade
The developing countries now need emphasis on 1.

Limiting the population growth rate.

2.

Giving adequate attention to agriculture.

3.

Rapid industrialization

4.

Advanced technology

5.

Equitable distribution of wealth and income

6.

Full utilization of manpower

7.

Better utilization of natural resources

8.

Enhancement of the quality of the environment.

9.

Economic cooperation among developing countries.

10. Satisfaction of basic needs of the people


19.

Milton J. Esman in "Approaches to Development, Politics, Administration and


Change", Edited by J.D. Montgomery and William J. Siffin, McGraw Hill,
New York, 1966, p. 59-60.
27

Development Strategy for the 1980s


In the 1970s the leading development objectives were as
follows -1.

Equitable distribution of wealth and income

2.

Full utilization of manpower

3.

Better utilization of natural resources.

4.

Protection of the human environment.


Apart from economic development, social development was

also accorded increasing importance with emphasis on reducing poverty,


diseases and other social ills.
In the 1980, development strategy remains more or less the
same as was increasingly emphasised in the 1970s. National Development
or modernization is the major task of developing countries. Although
there has been a considerable degree of improvement in the socio
economic status of the developing world yet there is also widening of
economic disparities In order to reverse the widening of economic
disparities among developing countries, both trade and aid policies need
to be increasingly focused on the countries facing acute poverty and
unemployment.20
Development Goals for the 1980s

20. A Report on United Nations Conference on Technical Cooperation Among


Developing Countries, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978 (U.N. Publication, Sales
No. E. 78 II A 11), p. 67.
28

The priorities of the 1980s were set to lessen the international


imbalance which were in existence. The United Nations proposed the
following longterm goals with respect to three specific imbalances
1.

To reduce the extremes of economic inequality between countries


by accelerating economic growth in the developing countries,
especially in the poorer countries and to eliminate the worst aspects
of poverty by the end of the century.

2.

To bring about structural change to ensure a more rational balance


within and between countries in the further development within
certain key sectors, such as energy and food and to avoid excessive
and threatening overextension of other sectors such as armaments
production and military activities.

3.

To further development and strengthen the institutions of


international economic management and to provide a continuing
and orderly process of structural adjustments.
Among several agencies available for development efforts,

public administration is an important asset. Public administration has


been considered an important instrument of achieving the goals and tasks
of developing nations. Governments today use its authority to achieve
these tasks by formulating, organizing and implementing largescale
action programmes. To carry out these action programmes, instruments of
political organizations, massmedia, organizational interest groups and
administrative system are needed. Esman says These complex
instruments must usually be employed in concert in order to promote and
protect development plans in their aggregate as well as to maximize the

29

impact of individual programs".

21

Thus in order to meet the emerging

needs related to nation building and economic and social development,


major administrative reforms should be adopted for building efficient and
effective bureaucracy. The Public Administration system in todays
world must also be able to adopt itself to rapid changes in the
environment in government policies and in administrative functions
which may be anticipated or unanticipated, planned or unplanned. There
must be continuous adjustments. It is only through such adjustments that
an administrative system is able to respond to changes. Public
Administration must be recreated, renewed and revitalized to produce
the changes and achievements required in the transformation of
societies.22
A recent United Nations Publication emphasises the need of
strengthening Public administration for development and states The
demands on the Public administration and systems in developing
countries will continue to grow in parallel with their economic and social
needs and developments.23 It is again stressed that development is the
target of developing countries which has multidimensional aspects
political, economic, administrative and social. It is a continuously
changing concept and the agent for development in the development or
public administration which would bring about transformation in the
society be it social, economic or political.

Development in the last

21.

Milton J. Esman in "Approaches to Development, Politics, Administration and


Change", Edited by J.D. Montgomery and William J. Siffin, McGraw Hill, New
York, 1966, p. 107.

22.

Public Administration in the Second United Nations Development Decade A


Report (U.N. Publication Sales No E 71, II H 3), p. 322.

23.

Strengthening Public Administration and Finance for Development in the 1980 :


Issues and Approaches A Report (U.N. Publication Sales No E 78 II H 6) p. 2
30

analysis aims at ensuring wellbeing of the people and securing them


justice, equality, liberty and security in the society. In this task Public
administration / development administration plays an instrumental role in
three ways.
1.

The general argument is as follows : Development then, can be


defined as the dynamic change of a society from one state of being
to another. It is also a carrier of innovating values. As the term is
commonly used it embraces the array of new functions assumed by
developing countries embarking on the path of modernization and
industrialization. Regardless of the objective of the country or of
the scope and character of plans and programmes an essential
component to development is administration. Broadly, development
administration is concerned with achieving national development.
The goals, values and strategies of change may vary but there
always are generic processes through which agreement on goals is
reached and plans, policies, programmes and projects (the four Ps)
are formulated and implemented. Development administration,
therefore, is concerned primary with the tasks and processes of
formulating and implementing the four Ps in respect to whatever
24

mixture of goals and objectives may be politically determined.


There

are

some

typical definitions in

development

administration but there are two main choices. The first is well
expressed by Leslie Fainsod : Development administration is a
carrier of innovating values. As the term is commonly used it
embraces the array of new functions assumed by developing
countries
24.

embarking

on

the

path

of

modernization

and

Donald C. Stone : Introduction to Education for Development Administration,


International Institute of Administrative Sciences, Brussels, 1966, p. 12.
31

industrialization. Development administration ordinarily involves


the establishment of machinery for planning economic growth and
mobilizing and allocating resources to expand national income.
New administrative units, frequently called nation building
departments, are set up to foster industrial development, manage
new state economic enterprises, raise agricultural output, develop
natural resources, improve the transportation and communication
network reform the educational system and achieve developmental
government.25
Thus development administration is seen very largely as the
new apparatus required in a situation where the government is
involved in development planning and assuming a preponderant
role in achieving the aims of the plan, development itself being
closely allied to, but not necessarily restricted by economic growth.
2.

A second definition would be wider, There are or should be, many


important,

clearly

recognisable

differences

between

public

administration in a poor country striving to attain selfgenerated


economic growth and public administration in high income
countries.

26

Again the background is economic growth, but the

concept of development administration is wider in that there is no


specific emphasis on development planning structures and methods.
Swerdlow goes on to say that officials must make enough different
activities to warrant the distinctive designation. The distinction is
between what poor countries should do and what rich countries may
do.
25.

Leslie Fainsod in "Development Administration : "Concepts and Problems",


Edited by Irving Swerdlow, Syracuse University Press, USA, 1963.

26.

Irving Swerdlow : "Development Administration : Concepts and Problems",


Syracuse University Press, USA, 1963.
32

3.

A third definition could be good Public administration of


developing countries but here the danger is felt to be that the special
problems of developed and developing (or under developed or
poor) countries may not be sufficiently pinpointed, and the need for
new structures and methods may be under explained. In the end
however this may be the most practical and realistic definition.
All these definitions however, require us to understand what

development is, and what development plans are Development, in the context of developing countries, is defined
generally as an increase in social and economic betterment, involving
pronounced government intervention and planning over wide areas of
social and economic activity. This broadly is the basis on which
governments prepare their development plans, the overall and specific
targets and timescale varying in the best plans according to local
circumstances. On such a basis, development administration becomes
either the overall machinery of governments adapted to the process of
social and economic development or more selectively, it can be those
activities of administration which are related directly to the development
process.
According to Edward W.Weidner, development administration
is concerned with maximizing innovation for development. He defines
innovation for development as the process of planned or intended change
in the direction of modernity on nation building and socioeconomic
change.

27 .

27

Edward W. Weidner : "Development and Innovational Roles" in Development


Administration in Asia, Edited by Edward W. Weidner, Duke University Press,
Durham, N.C., 1970, p. 399.
33

Fred W.Riggs defines development administration as organized


efforts to carry out programmes or projects through by those involved to
serve developmental objectives. Further, placing an emphasis on
administration of development and development of administration, Riggs
observes

that

development

administration

refers

not

only

to

governments efforts to carry out programmes designed to reshape its


physical, human and cultural environment, but also to the struggle to
28

enlarge a governments capacity to engage in such programmes.

Looking at various definitions, it is found that the primary


objectives of

development administration

is

to

strengthen

the

administrative machinery which would bring about sociopolitical


economic development. In brief, development administration is the
process of carrying out development programmes and projects in the
direction of nation building and socioeconomic progress through an
administrative organization. It is through public as well as nonpublic
organizations and their proper management that a developing country can
carry development policy measures for the realization of national goals
and objectives.

DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS
It may be emphasized that the concept of development
administration has two major aspects. One aspects of it refers to
development of administration. This means to develop administration. It
involves strengthening and improving administrative capabilities as a
mean
28.

for

achieving

development

goals.

The

other

aspect

is

Fred W. Riggs : "The Context of Development Administration", in Frontiers


of Development Administration, Edited by Fred W. Riggs and Fred W. Riggs,
Duke University Press, Durham, N.C. 1970, p. 73-75.
34

administration of development. According to this interpretation, we


expect development administration (administrative organization) to act as
an instrument in the implementation of development programmes projects
and policies. This may involve raising the standards of education,
transforming social systems, improving public health, raising national
income, stabilizing political system, conserving national resources,
improving communication system, constructing dams, power plants and
undertaking many other developmental tasks of national importance. In
this context Fred W. Riggs very aptly remarks : The reciprocal
relatedness of these two sides involves a chicken and egg type of
causation. Administration cannot normally be improved very much
without changes in the environmental constraints (the infrastructure) that
hamper its effectiveness and the environment itself cannot be changed
unless

the

administration

of

developmental

programmes

is

29

strengthened.

Unless the administrative effectiveness of government is


increased the developmental objectives which a developing country may
aspire for fulfillment cannot be achieved.30
National development is the major task with emphasis on nation
building and socioeconomic progress in the Third World. ChiYuen
Wu very aptly remarks : No item now on the agenda of the world should
be assigned a higher priority than development. Permanent peace would
be

impossible

until

the

problem

29.

Fred W. Riggs : The Idea of Development Administration, in Development


Administration in Asia, Edited by Edward W. Weidner, Duke University Press,
Durham, N.C., 1970, p. 32 33.

30.

Radhakrishnan Sapru : Development Administration - An Overview, Thai


Journal of Development Administration, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1981, p. 590.
35

of

under

development

and

maldevelopment is solved. Human happiness, hunger and starvation,


population explosion, energy crisis, deterioration of the human
environment, extension of our frontier, space and deep sea exploration,
etc. are all parts of the problem of development or modernization in a
broad sense.31 Once development is recognized as the centre of politics,
the functions of government grow not only in size, magnitude and
importance but also in complexity because many undertakings and issues
relating to development can only be handled by the government or with
its support. Public administration has an important assest in achieving to
task of national development. By identifying the role of public
administration and improving administrative capabilities, the task
becomes easy. As concluded by United Nations Publication. It would be
disastrous if the importance of public administration were not recognized
by those responsible for national development or if public administration
were not fully developed and made to contribute its utmost to the
development of the developing countries.32
The study of development administration has been recognized
to focus its attention to the continuing problems of developing countries
relating to development. Yet the study does not appear to be sufficiently
developed to meet this challenge. Caiden aptly remarks in an article: It
seems that after killing many myths in the field and experimenting with a
variety of models, development administration has in recent years lost
31.

ChiYuen Wu : The Nature of Modern Development : Challenges of


Underdevelopment and Maldevelopment in Dynamics of Development : An
International Perspective, Edited by Sudesh Kumar Sharma, Concept, Delhi,
1978, Vol. 1, p. 1

32.

Development Administration : Current Approaches and Trends in Public


Administration for National Development, A Publication of United Nations
Department of Economics and Social Affairs (U.N. Publication Sales No. E 76
II H 1), p. 189.
36

its impetus without making any significant intellectual breakthrough or


33

coming to proper grips with the complexities of the subject. Similarly,


J. Fred Springer also notes that development administration is starved
for theories which will guide the pooling of empirical knowledge, orient
new research and recommend administrative policy. Need and
opportunity beckon, performance falls short.34 Apparently, the study of
development administration oriented to development goals of nation
building and socioeconomic progress does fail to fulfill its promises.
As already maintained in the beginning, development is the
centre of politics of nearly every developing country of the world but the
problems that confront the developing countries as they strive to
accelerate economic and social progress, are tremendous and without
parallel in the recent social and economic history. Whereas for the
developed countries these problems represent a temporary phenomenon
for the developing countries. The present crises of population explosion,
poverty, energy, unemployment, hunger and starvation could well mean
the abortion of germinating hopes. However, many of the problems can
be solved if proper economic and administrative planning in done.35 The
developing countries need not be deterred by a prophesy of doom or that
they must remain poor. On the contrary the developing countries should
continue to struggle for significant economic and social improvement.
These countries must strive to accelerate national development, make use
33.

Gerald E. Caiden : "International Consultants and Development


Administration", International Reviews of Administrative Sciences, Vol. XLII
No. 1, 1976, p. 5.

34.

J. Fred Springer : Empirical Theory and Development Administration :


Prologues and Promises, Public Administration Review, Vol. 36, No. 6, 1976,
p. 636.

35.

S. P. Verma and S. K. Sharma (Eds) : Development Administration, Indian


Institute of Public Administration, 1984, p. 9.
37

of uptodate and relevant technological innovations, adopt and adapt


necessary institutional changes make full use of human and natural
resources and raise the standard of living. In short, development should
be the main task of the third world. To meet this challenge national
governments must take a concerted action to improve their administrative
capabilities for socioeconomic progress. The United Nations and its
allied agencies and developed countries of the world can help a lot in this
sphere but the momentum must come from within the third world
countries rather than from outside.
As the development dreams in the traditional style have
increasingly been realized as nightmares for a large number of
populations, the very process of development has been questioned. The
development process, which has been identified with widening income
disparities, displacing people, increasing waterborne diseases, disrupting
natural life and increasing natural disasters, has led many researchers to
think in a different way and has given birth to the concept of Sustainable
Development. This is a much wider concept which includes not only the
traditional indicators such as rising per capita income of people, but also
include indicators like better health and educational opportunities, giving
everyone the chance to participate in public life and helping to ensure
clean environment.

ORIGINS OF THE WORLD SUMMIT ON


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
While many definitions of the term Sustainable Develoopment
have been introduced over the years, the most commonly cited definition
comes from the report Our common future more commonly known as

38

the Brundtland Report in 1987, which states that "Sustainable


development is development that meets the need of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
It focuses upon the relationship between man and environment and
indicates a warning that man can push development but not beyond the
sustaining powers of nature. And therefore sustainable development must
promote the conservation and the preservation of natural resources,
protection of the environment and better management of energy, waste
and transportation. Sustainable Development is based on the patterns of
production and consumption that can be pursued into the future without
degrading the human or natural environment.
If sustainable development involves such a rich mix of
considerations of which economic growth is only one, then how do we
bring it about ? Well, in one sense, it is a highly complex business and
will require as Ashbys Law indicates a highly complex response. In
another sense however, by breaking it up into manageable parts it is not
all that difficult. There are actually only two things you have to do to get
on the sustainable development path. The first is to make consumption
patterns (or life styles) sustainable and the second is to make your
production systems (or livelihoods) sustainable. Thats all Really, if you
do these two things, you are well on the way to a sustainable future and
also sustainable development is to break it into its components, lifestyles
and livelihoods and design interventions at the global, national and local
levels to make these sustainable. This shows how despite Ashbys law of
Requisite Variety such a strategy could lead to better outcomes for all,
now and in the future. But there is actually, a substantially simpler way
that can lead to effective operational solutions, which are even easier to
understand and implement.
39

The simplest and with a little public familiarity the most


effective way to arrive at a sustainable future is to take care of the two
primary preconditions of sustainable development
1. Meet the basic needs for all
2. Protect the environment. Conserve natural resources.
Agenda 21
Agenda 21 is a comprehensive 40 chapter action plan for
sustainable development. It addresses both social and economic
dimensions of sustainable development as well as the conservation and
management of specific natural resources and ecosystems. Agenda 21
promotes a strongly bottomup participatory approach involving a wide
range of different civil society groups. Local government has played a
particularly constructive role in developing and implementing Agenda 21
at the community level through the local Agenda 21 process.
After and in the midst of the literary ferment arising from the
Brundtland Commission Report, including some powerful deep ecology
work by poets and essayists, like Wendell Berry and Gary Snyder and
novelists and essayists like Edward Abbey, the earth Summit was
proposed and planned by the United Nations, called the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). It was held
from June 3 through June 14 in 1992 in Riode. Janeiro (Brazil). One
hundred and fifty nations sent representatives, 1,400 non-governmental
organizations were in attendance, 8,000 journalists covered the event and
thousands of Brazilians attended one or more sessions. At the same time a
major gathering of nongovernmental organizations conducted what was

40

billed as The Global Forum only 40 kilometers from where the Earth
Summit was held.
The major accomplishments of UNCED centered around the
creation of United Nations Organizations formed either at the Summit or
as the result of the process of preparing for the conference. The most
important of these bodies is the Sustainable Development Commission
that was given the task of futhering the work of creating sustainable
development

policies

and

procedures

throughout

the

world.

These particular organizations are to be dedicated to developing


scientific and technical advice related to the development and
implementation of international treaties. The basic ideas are that treaties
entered into by the worlds nations should, in the future, make sure that
treaty provisions do not contribute to climate changes that have the
potential to harm life on the planet earth and should help protect the
planets biodiversity. The planet Earth Council and the Business Council
for Sustainable Development were also created as a result of the Summit.
The Summit also adopted the Rio Declaration that includes 27
principles. These principles, though very general, are especially
significant

since

they

represent

series

of

difficulttoreach

compromises. Industrialized countries have used up worlds a lot of


natural resources in their pursuit of development and now wish to protect
what natural resources are remaining at the expense of the possibility of
economically improving the lot of poor nations. These principles, then
provide a framework for the worlds diplomats in their efforts to improve
both environmental and economic conditions around the world. The Rio
declaration are as follows-

41

Rio Declaration On Environment and Development


The United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development held met at Rio-de-Janerio from 3 to 14 June 1992,
reaffirmed the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the
Human Environment adopted at Stockholm on 16 June 1972 and sought
to build upon it, with the goal of establishing a new and equitable global
partnership through the creation of new levels of cooperation among
states, key sectors of societies and people.
Working towards international agreement which respect the
interests of all and protect the integrity of the global environmental and
developmental systems, Recognizing the integral and interdependent
nature of the Earth, our home.
27 Principles Proclaimed by Earth Summit are as under :
Principle 1
Human beings are at centre of concerns for sustainable
development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in
harmony with nature.
Principle 2
States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United
Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right
to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental
and developmental policies and the responsibility to ensure that activities
within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the
environment of other states or of areas beyond the limit of national
jurisdiction.
42

Principle 3
The right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably
meet developmental and environmental needs of present and future
generations.
Principle 4
In order to achieve sustainable development environmental
protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and
cannot be considered in isolation from it.
Principle 5
All states and all people shall cooperate in the essential task of
eradicating poverty as an indispensable requirement for sustainable
development in order to decrease the disparities in standards of living and
better meet the needs of the majority of the people of the world.
Principle 6
The special situation and needs of developing countries,
particularly the least developed and those most environmentally
vulnerable, shall be given special priority. International actions in the
field of environment and development should also address the interest
and needs of all countries.
Principle 7
States shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to
conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earths
ecosystem. In view of the different contributions to global environmental
degradation, states have common but differentiated responsibilities. The
43

developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the


international pursuit to sustainable development in view of the pressures
their societies place on the global environment and of the technologies
and financial resources they command.
Principle 8
To achieve sustainable development and a higher quality of life
for all people, states should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns
of production and consumption and promote appropriate demographic
policies.
Principle 9
States should cooperate to strengthen endogenous capacity
building

for

sustainable

development

by

improving

scientific

understanding through exchanges of scientific and technological


knowledge and by enhancing the development, adaptation, diffusion and
transfer of technologies, including new and innovative technologies.
Principle 10
Environmental issues are best handled with participation of all
concerned citizens, at the relevant level. At the national level, each
individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning the
environment that is held by public authorities, including information on
hazardous materials and activities in their communities, and the
opportunity to participate in decision making processes. States shall
facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by making
information

widely

available. Effective

access to

judicial and

administrative proceedings, including redress and remedy, shall be


provided.
44

Principle 11
States

shall

enact

effective

environmental

legislation.

Environmental standards management objectives and priorities should


reflect the environmental and development context to which they apply.
Standards applied by some countries may be inappropriate and of
unwarranted economic and social cost to other countries, in particular
developing countries.
Principle 12
States should cooperate to promote a supportive and open
international economic system that would lead to economic growth and
sustainable development in all countries to better address the problems of
environmental degradation. Trade policy measures for environmental
purpose should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable
discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade. Unilateral
actions to deal with environmental challenges outside the jurisdiction of
the importing country should be avoided. Environmental measures
addressing transboundary or global environmental problems should, as
far as possible, be based on an international consensus.
Principle 13
States shall develop national law regarding liability and
compensation for the victims of pollution and other environmental
damage. State shall also cooperate in an expeditious and more determined
manner to develop further international law regarding liability and
compensation for adverse effects of environmental damage caused by
activities within their jurisdiction or control to areas beyond their
jurisdiction.
45

Principle 14
States should effectively cooperate to discourage or prevent the
relocation and transfer to other states of any activities and substances that
cause severe environmental degradation or are found to be harmful to
human health.
Principle 15
In order to protect the environment the precautionary approach
shall be widely applied by states according to their capabilities. Where
there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific
certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing costeffective
measures to prevent environmental degradation.
Principle 16
National authorities

should

endeavour to

promote the

internationalization of environmental costs and the use of economic


instruments, taking into account the approach that the polluter should, in
principle, bear the cost of pollution with due regard to the public interest
and without distorting international trade and investment.
Principle 17
Environmental impact assessment as a national instrument,
shall be undertaken for proposed activities that are likely to have a
significant adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a
decision of a competent national authority.
Principle 18
States shall immediately notify other states of any natural
disasters or other emergencies that are likely to produce sudden harmful
46

effects on the environment of those states. Every effort shall be made by


the international community to help states so afflicted.
Principle 19
States shall provide prior and timely notification and relevant
information to potentially affected states on activities that may have a
significant adverse transboundary environmental effect and shall consult
with those states at an early stage and in good faith.
Principle 20
Women have a vital role in environmental management and
development. Their full participation is, therefore, essential to achieve
sustainable development.
Principle 21
The creativity, ideals and courage of the youth of the
world should be mobilized to forge a global partnership in
order to achieve sustainable development and ensure a better future
for all.
Principle 22
Indigenous people and their communities and other local
communities have a vital role in environmental management and
development because of their knowledge and traditional practices. States
should recognize and duly support their identify, culture and interests and
enable their effective participation in the achievement of sustainable
development.

47

Principle 23
The environment and natural resources of people under
oppression, domination and occupation shall be protected.
Principle 24
Warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development state
shall, therefore, respect international law providing protection for the
environment in times of armed conflict and cooperate in its further
development, as necessary.
Principle 25
Peace,

development

and

environmental

protection

are

interdependent and indivisible.


Principle 26
States shall resolve all their environmental disputes peacefully
and by appropriate means in accordance with the charter of the United
Nations.
Principle 27
States and people shall cooperate in good faith and in a spirit of
partnership in the fulfillment of the principles embodied in this
declaration and in the further development of international law in the
field of sustainable development.
These principles, though very general, are especially significant
since they represent a series of difficult to reach compromises between
industrialized and developing countries. These principle also provide a
framework for the worlds diplomats in their efforts to improve both
48

environmental and economic conditions around the world, but the most
important principle to cumulative the development in the national interest
of Rio are a states sovereign right to exploit its own resources in
accordance with its own policies without harming the environment
elsewhere (principle 2), the right to development (principle 3),
environmental protection as an integral part of development (principle 4);
sustainable development that requires reducing unsustainable patterns of
production and consumption and that promotes appropriate demographic
policies (principle 8); access to information and citizen participation
(principle 10) and the polluter pays principle, including the
internationalization of costs and the use of economic instruments
(principle 16).
Sustainable development is vital. Therefore, it must be for all
men and women of present and future generations. It is the sustainable
development which primarily focuses on the basic needs of the people in
a continuing sense. National and international conferences and meetings
have been and are being held on regular basis to tackle this issue in the
most effective way.

World Summit on Sustainable Development


In this process the World Summit on Sustainable Development
(WSSD) took place in Johannesburg from 26 Aug. to 4 Sep., 2002. It
involved over 21,000 participants including representatives of 191
governments and 104 heads of state or governments. The aim of the
Summit was to complete a ten-year review of implementation of the
resolutions of 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development (UNCED) or the Rio Earth Summit and to reinvigorate
global commitment to sustainable development. The three overarching
49

objectives of the summit were eradicating poverty protecting the


natural resource base of economic and social development and changing
unsustainable patterns of production and consumption.
In the runup to the Summit, there were calls for the
negotiations to focus on just a few multidisciplinary areas. This proved
difficult to achieve in practice; but informally some focus was achieved
through to WEHAB Agenda proposed by the UN Secretary General.
This stands for water and sanitation, energy, health, agriculture and
biodiversity and formed; the basis for thematic sessions in Johannesburg.
One negotiated outcome to the summit was a 54 pages plan of
implementation that builds on the achievements in sustainable
development made since 1992. WSSD also adopted a political statement,
the Johennasburg declaration on sustainable development; in which world
leaders committed themselves to expedite the achievement of the time
bound socioeconomic and environmental targets contained in the
Johannesburg plan of Implementation. (JPOI).
The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation is grounded in the
outcomes of the 1992 UNCED. It included well over 20 new targets of
recent international meetings into a sustainable development framework.
These include the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); the
Monterray consensus in financing for development; the WTO Doha
Agenda; the Dakar framework for action on education of All; the World
Summit on social development; the Third United Nations Conference on
the least developed countries; and numerous multilateral environmental
agreements and regional sustainable development initiatives and
strategies.

50

The Rio Summit focused on environment and development


and helped to elaborate both the concept of and practical approach to
sustainable development through the integration of the three components
of sustainable development (economic development, social development
and environmental protection).
WSSD recognized that much more has to be done to bring
about this integration, strengthening the focus on poverty, social concerns
and implementation of Agenda 21. WSSD sets the framework for
sustainable development over the first decades of the 21st century.

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