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World Trade Organization

Trade Profiles provides the latest information on the trade flows


and trade policy measures of WTO members, observers and other
selected economies. With information for each country provided
in a standardized format, the publication is an invaluable quick
reference tool for anyone looking for essential trade statistics. The
data provided for each country include basic economic indicators
(such as GDP), trade policy indicators (such as tariffs, import duties,
number of disputes, notifications outstanding and contingency
measures in force), merchandise trade flows (broken down by broad
product categories and major origins and destinations), services
trade flows (with a breakdown by major components) and industrial
property indicators. With one page devoted to each country, Trade
Profiles offers a concise overview of global trade.

WTO 2009
Trade
Profiles
Trade Profiles 2009

ISBN 978-92-870-3694-0
2009

9 789287 036940
WTO MEMBERS
(As of 23 July 2008)

Albania Gabon New Zealand


Angola The Gambia Nicaragua
Antigua and Barbuda Georgia Niger
Argentina Germany Nigeria
Armenia Ghana Norway
Australia Greece Oman
Austria Grenada Pakistan
Bahrain, Kingdom of Guatemala Panama
Bangladesh Guinea Papua New Guinea
Barbados Guinea Bissau Paraguay
Belgium Guyana Peru
Belize Haiti Philippines
Benin Honduras Poland
Bolivia Hong Kong, China Portugal
Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela Hungary Qatar
Botswana Iceland Romania
Brazil India Rwanda
Brunei Darussalam Indonesia Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bulgaria Ireland Saint Lucia
Burkina Faso Israel Saint Vincent & the Grenadines
Burundi Italy Saudi Arabia
Cambodia Jamaica Senegal
Cameroon Japan Sierra Leone
Canada Jordan Singapore
Cape Verde Kenya Slovak Republic
Central African Republic Korea, Republic of Slovenia
Chad Kuwait Solomon Islands
Chile Kyrgyz Republic South Africa
China Latvia Spain
Colombia Lesotho Sri Lanka
Congo Liechtenstein Suriname
Costa Rica Lithuania Swaziland
Côte d’Ivoire Luxembourg Sweden
Croatia Macao, China Switzerland
Cuba Madagascar Chinese Taipei
Cyprus Malawi Tanzania
Czech Republic Malaysia Thailand
Democratic Republic of the Congo Maldives Togo
Denmark Mali Tonga
Djibouti Malta Trinidad and Tobago
Dominica Mauritania Tunisia
Dominican Republic Mauritius Turkey
Ecuador Mexico Uganda
Egypt Moldova Ukraine
El Salvador Mongolia United Arab Emirates
Estonia Morocco United Kingdom
European Communities Mozambique United States of America
Fiji Myanmar Uruguay
Finland Namibia Viet Nam
Former Yugoslav Republic Nepal Zambia
of Macedonia (FYROM) Netherlands Zimbabwe
France

This report is also available in French and Spanish


(Price: CHF 30.00)
To order, please contact:
WTO Publications
World Trade Organization
154, rue de Lausanne
CH-1211 Geneva 21
Tel: (41 22) 739 52 08
Fax: (41 22) 739 54 58 ISBN 978-92-870-3694-0
Email: publications@wto.org © World Trade Organization 2009
INTRODUCTION

These Trade Profiles combine information on trade flows and trade policy measures of
Members, Observers and other selected economies. The information is retrieved from
various WTO Divisions and external sources and presented in standardized format for quick
reference.

The indicators are divided into five categories:

I. Basic economic indicators – population, GDP, current account balance, etc.

II. Trade policy indicators – specific WTO relevant information, including tariff binding
information, import duties collected in total tax revenue, the number of dispute rulings
(complainant, defendant), notifications outstanding and contingency measures in force.

III. Merchandise trade indicators (customs-based statistics) – information on total trade


flows broken down by broad product categories and major origins and destinations.

IV. Commercial services indicators (balance of payments based statistics) – trends in total
trade flows and a breakdown by major components.

V. Industrial property indicators – annual number of patents granted and marks registered
in the name of residents and non-residents in the economy.

Data are currently provided for as many Members and Observers for which adequate
information is available in the WTO Secretariat and other national and international bodies.
For updates, see the WTO Online Database at the WTO Statistics Gateway (www.wto.org,
choose Resources, Trade statistics). Depending on data availability, missing trade profiles will
be completed or added.

For sources and methodology, please refer to the Technical Notes at the end of the
publication.

The definition of economies in this booklet does not imply an expression of opinion by the
Secretariat concerning the status of any country or territory, the delimitation of its frontiers,
nor regarding the rights and obligations of any WTO Member in respect of WTO Agreements.
Throughout this report, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, the Republic of Korea and
the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu are referenced as
Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela, Korea, Republic of and Taipei, Chinese respectively.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 i


Acknowledgements are due to the International Monetary Fund, the International Trade
Center, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Statistical Office
of the European Communities, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development,
the United Nations Statistics Division, the World Bank and the World Intellectual Property
Organization. The assistance of all these organizations in supplying statistics as well as other
information has greatly facilitated the work of the Secretariat.

Symbols and abbreviations


... Not available or not reported GATS General Agreement on Trade in
- Not applicable Services
AOA WTO Agreement on Agriculture GDP Gross Domestic Product
CRN Central Registry of Notifications ITS WTO International Trade Statistics
DSU Dispute Settlement Understanding MFN Most Favoured Nation
EIA Economic Integration Agreement PPP Purchasing Power Parity
EU European Union RTA Regional Trade Agreement

Annual average percentage changes are calculated using a geometric average.

Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.

Tables include in general information for the period 2000 - latest available year.

Unless otherwise indicated, (i) all value figures are expressed in United States dollars; (ii)
merchandise trade figures are on a customs basis; (iii) trade in commercial services data
are on a balance of payments basis; and (iv) merchandise exports are valued f.o.b. and
merchandise imports c.i.f.

Comments and enquiries on this booklet should be addressed to statistics@wto.org.

Closing date 15 October 2009.

ii TRADE PROFILES 2009


CONTENTS

Afghanistan – AF 3 Czech Republic – CZ 48


Albania – AL 4 Denmark – DK 49
Algeria – DZ 5 Djibouti – DJ 50
Angola – AO 6 Dominica – DM 51
Antigua and Barbuda – AG 7 Dominican Republic – DO 52
Argentina – AR 8 Ecuador – EC 53
Armenia – AM 9 Egypt – EG 54
Australia – AU 10 El Salvador – SV 55
Austria – AT 11 Equatorial Guinea – GQ 56
Azerbaijan – AZ 12 Eritrea – ER 57
Bahamas – BS 13 Estonia – EE 58
Bahrain – BH 14 Ethiopia – ET 59
Bangladesh – BD 15 European Union (27) – E27 60
Barbados – BB 16 Fiji – FJ 61
Belarus – BY 17 Finland – FI 62
Belgium – BE 18 France – FR 63
Belize – BZ 19 FYR Macedonia – MK 64
Benin – BJ 20 Gabon – GA 65
Bhutan – BT 21 Gambia – GM 66
Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela – VE 22 Georgia – GE 67
Bolivia – BO 23 Germany – DE 68
Bosnia and Herzegovina – BA 24 Ghana – GH 69
Botswana – BW 25 Greece – GR 70
Brazil – BR 26 Grenada – GD 71
Brunei Darussalam – BN 27 Guatemala – GT 72
Bulgaria – BG 28 Guinea – GN 73
Burkina Faso – BF 29 Guinea-Bissau – GW 74
Burundi – BI 30 Guyana – GY 75
Cambodia – KH 31 Haiti – HT 76
Cameroon – CM 32 Honduras – HN 77
Canada – CA 33 Hong Kong, China – HK 78
Cape Verde – CV 34 Hungary – HU 79
Central African Republic – CF 35 Iceland – IS 80
Chad – TD 36 India – IN 81
Chile – CL 37 Indonesia – ID 82
China – CN 38 Iran, Islamic Rep. of – IR 83
Colombia – CO 39 Iraq – IQ 84
Comoros – KM 40 Ireland – IE 85
Congo – CG 41 Israel – IL 86
Congo, Dem. Rep. of – CD 42 Italy – IT 87
Costa Rica – CR 43 Jamaica – JM 88
Côte d’Ivoire – CI 44 Japan – JP 89
Croatia – HR 45 Jordan – JO 90
Cuba – CU 46 Kazakhstan – KZ 91
Cyprus – CY 47 Kenya – KE 92

TRADE PROFILES 2009 1


Korea, Republic of – KR 93 Rwanda – RW 139
Kuwait – KW 94 Saint Kitts and Nevis – KN 140
Kyrgyz Republic – KG 95 Saint Lucia – LC 141
Lao People’s Dem. Rep. – LA 96 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – VC 142
Latvia – LV 97 Samoa – WS 143
Lebanon – LB 98 Sao Tome and Principe – ST 144
Lesotho – LS 99 Saudi Arabia – SA 145
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya – LY 100 Senegal – SN 146
Lithuania – LT 101 Serbia – RS 147
Luxembourg – LU 102 Seychelles – SC 148
Macao, China – MO 103 Sierra Leone – SL 149
Madagascar – MG 104 Singapore – SG 150
Malawi – MW 105 Slovak Republic – SK 151
Malaysia – MY 106 Slovenia – SI 152
Maldives – MV 107 Solomon Islands – SB 153
Mali – ML 108 South Africa – ZA 154
Malta – MT 109 Spain – ES 155
Mauritania – MR 110 Sri Lanka – LK 156
Mauritius – MU 111 Sudan – SD 157
Mexico – MX 112 Suriname – SR 158
Moldova – MD 113 Swaziland – SZ 159
Mongolia – MN 114 Sweden – SE 160
Montenegro – ME 115 Switzerland – CH 161
Morocco – MA 116 Syrian Arab Republic – SY 162
Mozambique – MZ 117 Taipei, Chinese – TW 163
Myanmar – MM 118 Tajikistan – TJ 164
Namibia – NA 119 Tanzania – TZ 165
Nepal – NP 120 Thailand – TH 166
Netherlands – NL 121 Togo – TG 167
New Zealand – NZ 122 Tonga – TO 168
Nicaragua – NI 123 Trinidad and Tobago – TT 169
Niger – NE 124 Tunisia – TN 170
Nigeria – NG 125 Turkey – TR 171
Norway – NO 126 Turkmenistan – TM 172
Oman – OM 127 Uganda – UG 173
Pakistan – PK 128 Ukraine – UA 174
Panama – PA 129 United Arab Emirates – AE 175
Papua New Guinea – PG 130 United Kingdom – GB 176
Paraguay – PY 131 United States – US 177
Peru – PE 132 Uruguay – UY 178
Philippines – PH 133 Uzbekistan – UZ 179
Poland – PL 134 Vanuatu – VU 180
Portugal – PT 135 Viet Nam – VN 181
Qatar – QA 136 Yemen – YE 182
Romania – RO 137 Zambia – ZM 183
Russian Federation – RU 138 Zimbabwe – ZW 184

2 TRADE PROFILES 2009


AFGHANISTAN

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2007) 10 170 Merchandise 157 132
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2007) 30 602 excluding intra-EU trade 131 106
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) ... Commercial services 159 173
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) ... excluding intra-EU trade 133 147
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) ...
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected (%, 2006-2007)
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue 49.0
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 1-0
All goods - 5.6 Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - 5.8 Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - 5.5 Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 610 20 22 23
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 3 350 14 9 19
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.02
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products ... Agricultural products ...
Fuels and mining products ... Fuels and mining products ...
Manufactures ... Manufactures ...
By main destination By main origin
1. Pakistan 55.0 1. Pakistan 17.2
2. India 11.8 2. China 15.4
3. Iran, Islamic Rep. of 2.5 3. Japan 12.1
4. Saudi Arabia 1.7 4. Iran, Islamic Rep. of 8.1
5. China 0.3 5. India 4.8
Unspecified destinations 28.7 Unspecified origins 38.6
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) ... ... ... ...
Commercial services imports (million US$) ... ... ... ...
2008 2008
Share in world total exports ... Share in world total imports ...
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation ... Transportation ...
Travel ... Travel ...
Other commercial services ... Other commercial services ...

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

TRADE PROFILES 2009 3


ALBANIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 3 143 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 12 295 Merchandise 140 111
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 24 251 excluding intra-EU trade 114 86
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 1 924 Commercial services 84 91
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 2 837 excluding intra-EU trade 58 66
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 82.7
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 153 5 6 6
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 225 11 8 7
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 310 15 28 12

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.022


WTO accession date 8 September 2000 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date ... in total tax revenue 7.6
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 2.8
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 4
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-0
All goods 7.0 5.2 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 9.4 7.8 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 6.6 4.8 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 13.4 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 43.6 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 108 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 1 355 23 35 26
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 5 251 22 37 25
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.03
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 7.7 Agricultural products 17.3
Fuels and mining products 22.1 Fuels and mining products 18.6
Manufactures 70.1 Manufactures 63.6
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 79.7 1. European Union (27) 60.7
2. Serbia 8.3 2. China 7.4
3. FYR Macedonia 2.9 3. Turkey 6.0
4. China 2.8 4. Serbia 4.7
5. Montenegro 2.1 5. Russian Federation 4.4

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 2 419 24 30 26
Commercial services imports (million US$) 2 361 24 22 25
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.06 Share in world total imports 0.07
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 8.8 Transportation 14.8
Travel 70.8 Travel 65.9
Other commercial services 20.4 Other commercial services 19.3

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... 3 270 3 270

4 TRADE PROFILES 2009


ALGERIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 34 362 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 173 882 Merchandise 42 56
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 276 016 excluding intra-EU trade 28 38
Current account balance (million US$, 2003) 9 780 Commercial services 79 61
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 3 141 excluding intra-EU trade 53 42
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 75.1
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 137 4 3 3
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 124 3 -1 5
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 187 8 8 12

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue 5.1
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 6.2
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-0
All goods - 18.6 Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - 23.3 Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - 17.8 Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods 0.6 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 79 298 17 10 32
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 39 479 20 29 43
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.49 Share in world total imports 0.24
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 0.2 Agricultural products 23.0
Fuels and mining products 98.8 Fuels and mining products 3.0
Manufactures 1.0 Manufactures 74.0
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 43.6 1. European Union (27) 51.9
2. United States 30.1 2. China 8.6
3. Canada 7.8 3. United States 7.7
4. Turkey 3.4 4. Japan 3.9
5. Brazil 3.0 5. Argentina 3.3

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 3 101 16 10 25
Commercial services imports (million US$) 7 194 23 45 58
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.08 Share in world total imports 0.21
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation ... Transportation ...
Travel ... Travel ...
Other commercial services ... Other commercial services ...

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... 214 ... ... 2 372 2 372

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 5


ANGOLA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 18 021 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 83 383 Merchandise 46 72
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 106 296 excluding intra-EU trade 31 50
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) 9 402 Commercial services 147 46
Trade per capita (US$, 2003-2005) 1 668 excluding intra-EU trade 121 29
Trade to GDP ratio (2003-2005) 125.4
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 268 13 20 15
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.134


WTO accession date 23 November 1996 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 14, 16 February 2006 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 36
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-0
All goods 59.2 7.3 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 52.8 10.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 60.1 6.9 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 5 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 67 100 31 39 51
Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) 21 100 27 56 54
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.42 Share in world total imports 0.13
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 0.1 Agricultural products ...
Fuels and mining products 99.1 Fuels and mining products ...
Manufactures 0.7 Manufactures ...
By main destination By main origin
1. ... ... 1. ... ...
2. ... ... 2. ... ...
3. ... ... 3. ... ...
4. ... ... 4. ... ...
5. ... ... 5. ... ...

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2007 2000-2007 2006 2007
Commercial services exports (million US$) 311 2 ... ...
Commercial services imports (million US$) 11 610 26 11 69
2007 2007
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.37
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 5.4 Transportation 21.6
Travel 72.4 Travel 1.8
Other commercial services 22.2 Other commercial services 76.6

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

6 TRADE PROFILES 2009


ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 86 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 1 225 Merchandise 182 174
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 1 824 excluding intra-EU trade 156 148
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 402 Commercial services 130 161
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 17 424 excluding intra-EU trade 104 135
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 131.9
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 92 -4 ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 96 -2 ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 5, 7 November 2007 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 97.9 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 42
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-2
All goods 58.7 9.7 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 105.0 15.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 51.4 8.9 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 1-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 13.8 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 1-0
in non-agricultural goods 4.7 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 1-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 32 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-1

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 80 6 3 5
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 770 8 17 6
2008 b 2008 b
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 1.7 Agricultural products 20.4
Fuels and mining products 55.3 Fuels and mining products 36.9
Manufactures 42.5 Manufactures 42.7
By main destination By main origin
1. Netherlands Antilles 30.9 1. United States 58.2
2. United States 23.6 2. European Union (27) 12.3
3. European Union (27) 10.6 3. Japan 4.3
4. Barbados 8.2 4. Netherlands Antilles 4.1
5. Dominica 6.1 5. Trinidad and Tobago 3.9

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 509 3 4 5
Commercial services imports (million US$) 296 9 14 4
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 16.4 Transportation 36.1
Travel 69.9 Travel 18.1
Other commercial services 13.7 Other commercial services 45.8

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... 9 ... ... 1 031 1 031

a Refers to 2002 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2002.
b Breakdowns by commodity group refer to 2005 and by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 7


ARGENTINA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 39 876 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 328 385 Merchandise 45 47
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 571 537 excluding intra-EU trade 30 29
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 7 588 Commercial services 47 47
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 3 070 excluding intra-EU trade 29 30
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 45.2
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 139 4 9 7
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 161 7 9 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 138 5 21 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.315


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2002-2004)
Trade Policy Review date 12, 14 February 2007 in total tax revenue 2.8
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 3.8
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 12
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-1
All goods 31.9 11.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 69
Agricultural goods (AOA) 32.5 10.3 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 31.8 11.9 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 1
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 11.3 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 15 - 16
in agricultural goods (AOA) 4.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 3-6
in non-agricultural goods 21.7 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 2-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 63 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 70 023 13 20 26
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 57 423 11 31 28
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.44 Share in world total imports 0.35
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 53.1 Agricultural products 5.6
Fuels and mining products 12.5 Fuels and mining products 10.9
Manufactures 30.6 Manufactures 82.9
By main destination By main origin
1. Brazil 18.9 1. Brazil 31.3
2. European Union (27) 18.8 2. European Union (27) 15.7
3. China 9.1 3. China 12.4
4. United States 7.9 4. United States 12.2
5. Chile 6.7 5. Paraguay 3.1
Unspecified destinations 2.0 Unspecified origins 3.2
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 11 870 12 30 16
Commercial services imports (million US$) 12 579 4 28 19
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.31 Share in world total imports 0.36
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 15.2 Transportation 31.2
Travel 39.0 Travel 35.8
Other commercial services 45.8 Other commercial services 33.0

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2000 Trademark registrations by office, 2003
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
145 1 442 1 587 39 231 17 032 ... 56 263

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

8 TRADE PROFILES 2009


ARMENIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 3 077 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 11 917 Merchandise 145 119
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 18 678 excluding intra-EU trade 119 93
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 1 383 Commercial services 123 127
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 1 718 excluding intra-EU trade 97 101
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 57.6
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 245 12 14 7
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 201 9 -3 -14
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 226 11 13 8

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 5 February 2003 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date ... in total tax revenue 4.6
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 1.7
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 7
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 8-0
All goods 8.5 2.9 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 14.7 6.9 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 7.5 2.2 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 30.1 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 82.8 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 106 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 1 069 18 17 -7
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 4 412 22 49 35
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.03
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 20.4 Agricultural products 18.2
Fuels and mining products 25.3 Fuels and mining products 16.8
Manufactures 52.5 Manufactures 54.5
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 54.6 1. European Union (27) 29.7
2. Russian Federation 20.3 2. Russian Federation 20.4
3. Georgia 7.3 3. China 9.2
4. United States 4.9 4. Ukraine 7.6
5. Iran, Islamic Rep. of 2.3 5. Turkey 6.5

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 636 22 20 11
Commercial services imports (million US$) 952 23 29 23
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.02 Share in world total imports 0.03
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 21.7 Transportation 49.3
Travel 52.0 Travel 34.1
Other commercial services 26.3 Other commercial services 16.7

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
210 3 213 672 492 2 996 4 160

TRADE PROFILES 2009 9


AUSTRALIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 21 374 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 1 015 217 Merchandise 23 21
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 762 559 excluding intra-EU trade 17 14
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 44 040 Commercial services 24 21
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 18 699 excluding intra-EU trade 12 12
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 46.1
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 129 3 3 4
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 123 3 4 4
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 190 8 9 13

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 1.145


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 5, 7 March 2007 in total tax revenue 1.8
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 2.5
Tariff binding coverage (%) 97.0 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 18
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 7-5
All goods 9.9 3.5 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 36
Agricultural goods (AOA) 3.3 1.3 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 1
Non-agricultural goods 11.0 3.9 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.3 0.3 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 7 - 10
in agricultural goods (AOA) 48.9 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 5-2
in non-agricultural goods 49.5 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-2
Services sectors with GATS commitments 103 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 187 259 14 15 32
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 200 338 14 19 21
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 1.17 Share in world total imports 1.22
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 13.9 Agricultural products 5.4
Fuels and mining products 59.7 Fuels and mining products 17.2
Manufactures 15.5 Manufactures 71.5
By main destination By main origin
1. Japan 22.8 1. European Union (27) 21.0
2. China 14.6 2. China 15.6
3. European Union (27) 10.5 3. United States 12.0
4. Korea, Republic of 8.3 4. Japan 9.0
5. India 6.1 5. Singapore 7.2

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 45 601 11 22 15
Commercial services imports (million US$) 45 491 12 22 18
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 1.21 Share in world total imports 1.30
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 19.5 Transportation 33.3
Travel 55.2 Travel 34.9
Other commercial services 25.3 Other commercial services 31.8

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
1 086 10 150 11 236 25 868 9 063 8 855 43 786

10 TRADE PROFILES 2009


AUSTRIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 8 344 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 416 380 Merchandise 25 22
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 318 350 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 14 269 Commercial services 21 25
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 49 161 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 110.2
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 117 2 3 2
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 154 6 9 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 140 5 7 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 1.366


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 31
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 28 - 5
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 81 - 65
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 24
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 114 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 180 966 13 20 11
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 183 441 12 19 13
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 1.13 Share in world total imports 1.12
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 8.9 Agricultural products 8.9
Fuels and mining products 6.2 Fuels and mining products 16.1
Manufactures 83.3 Manufactures 73.3
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 72.1 1. European Union (27) 73.5
2. United States 4.4 2. Switzerland 4.4
3. Switzerland 4.2 3. China 4.2
4. Russian Federation 2.5 4. United States 2.9
5. China 1.6 5. Russian Federation 2.1

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 61 673 13 20 12
Commercial services imports (million US$) 42 578 13 17 9
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 1.63 Share in world total imports 1.22
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 21.7 Transportation 32.1
Travel 35.4 Travel 26.8
Other commercial services 42.8 Other commercial services 41.1

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
1 327 237 1 564 ... ... 5 613 12 082

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 11


AZERBAIJAN

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 8 679 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 46 259 Merchandise 62 100
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 76 072 excluding intra-EU trade 44 75
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 16 454 Commercial services 102 73
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 3 774 excluding intra-EU trade 76 50
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 96.9
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 351 17 25 11
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 543 24 43 15
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 495 22 14 21

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 4-0
All goods - 9.1 Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - 13.8 Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - 8.4 Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - 1.1 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) 34.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods 10.1 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 30 586 43 63 44
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 7 575 26 15 25
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.19 Share in world total imports 0.05
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 1.7 Agricultural products 16.5
Fuels and mining products 96.1 Fuels and mining products 3.8
Manufactures 2.0 Manufactures 78.6
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 56.5 1. European Union (27) 28.4
2. United States 12.6 2. Russian Federation 18.8
3. Israel 7.6 3. Turkey 11.3
4. India 5.1 4. Ukraine 7.9
5. Indonesia 3.0 5. China 6.7

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 1 454 26 39 24
Commercial services imports (million US$) 3 826 30 19 15
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.04 Share in world total imports 0.11
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 54.6 Transportation 17.8
Travel 13.1 Travel 8.9
Other commercial services 32.3 Other commercial services 73.2

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 1996 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
79 2 81 ... ... 3 145 3 145

12 TRADE PROFILES 2009


BAHAMAS

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 335 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 6 935 Merchandise 148 137
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) ... excluding intra-EU trade 122 111
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 1 002 Commercial services 83 114
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 23 250 excluding intra-EU trade 57 88
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 117.0
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 116 2 3 1
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 101 0 ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 100 0 ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected (%, 2003-2005)
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue 47.5
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 13.4
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-2
All goods - 29.9 Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - 23.6 Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - 30.9 Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - 0.1 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) 37.8 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods 15.3 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 989 7 16 23
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 3 123 5 8 6
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.02
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 13.7 Agricultural products 18.1
Fuels and mining products 27.1 Fuels and mining products 27.9
Manufactures 52.6 Manufactures 52.8
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 69.9 1. United States 87.2
2. European Union (27) 12.7 2. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 5.2
3. Canada 5.2 3. Netherlands Antilles 2.0
4. Nigeria 2.3 4. European Union (27) 1.2
5. Turks and Caicos Islands 1.9 5. Trinidad and Tobago 1.1

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 2 503 3 7 -2
Commercial services imports (million US$) 1 254 3 -1 -17
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.07 Share in world total imports 0.04
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 2.1 Transportation 28.3
Travel 86.0 Travel 24.6
Other commercial services 11.9 Other commercial services 47.2

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Refers to 2004 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2004.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 13


BAHRAIN

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 767 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2006) 15 828 Merchandise 73 84
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2005) 20 344 excluding intra-EU trade 51 60
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 2 257 Commercial services 76 97
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 41 915 excluding intra-EU trade 51 71
Trade to GDP ratio (2004-2006) 171.3
Annual percentage change
2005 2000-2005 2004 2005
Real GDP (2000=100) 134 6 6 8
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.081


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2003-2005)
Trade Policy Review date 18, 20 July 2007 in total tax revenue 42.8
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 2.8
Tariff binding coverage (%) 73.6 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 36
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-1
All goods 34.4 5.2 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 38.9 8.6 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 33.4 4.7 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.2 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 24.1 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 1.9 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 22 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 18 150 14 12 33
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 12 500 13 9 9
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.11 Share in world total imports 0.08
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 0.5 Agricultural products 5.6
Fuels and mining products 90.5 Fuels and mining products 59.1
Manufactures 8.9 Manufactures 35.2
By main destination By main origin
1. Saudi Arabia 5.3 1. European Union (27) 11.4
2. United States 2.7 2. Australia 6.3
3. European Union (27) 2.4 3. Japan 5.2
4. United Arab Emirates 1.5 4. Saudi Arabia 4.8
5. India 1.0 5. China 4.2
Unspecified destinations 79.1 Unspecified origins 51.0
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) b 3 740 ... 6 6
Commercial services imports (million US$) b 2 030 ... 6 19
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.10 Share in world total imports 0.06
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 20.4 Transportation 44.6
Travel 31.2 Travel 24.8
Other commercial services 48.5 Other commercial services 30.6

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2004 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... 26 ... ... 2 341 2 341

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.


b Break in series for commercial services: 2004.

14 TRADE PROFILES 2009


BANGLADESH

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 160 000 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 78 992 Merchandise 76 69
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 213 504 excluding intra-EU trade 54 47
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 1 032 Commercial services 115 75
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 217 excluding intra-EU trade 89 52
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 49.1
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 157 6 6 6
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 241 12 13 9
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 219 10 16 15

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.101


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 13, 15 September 2006 in total tax revenue 39.1
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 11.8
Tariff binding coverage (%) 15.5 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 32
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 5-0
All goods 169.2 14.8 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 192.0 17.6 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 34.4 14.3 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.5 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 1-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 75.1 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 4.7 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 9 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 15 357 12 6 23
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 23 838 13 16 28
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.10 Share in world total imports 0.15
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 10.2 Agricultural products 28.6
Fuels and mining products 2.2 Fuels and mining products 13.1
Manufactures 87.6 Manufactures 51.4
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 51.2 1. China 15.6
2. United States 25.7 2. India 13.2
3. India 4.0 3. European Union (27) 9.7
4. Canada 3.5 4. Kuwait 7.2
5. China 1.7 5. Indonesia 5.1

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 891 15 14 30
Commercial services imports (million US$) 3 684 12 27 38
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.02 Share in world total imports 0.11
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 12.5 Transportation 87.4
Travel 10.2 Travel 5.0
Other commercial services 77.3 Other commercial services 7.6

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Trademark registrations by office, 2006
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
16 146 162 32 149 ... 181

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 15


BARBADOS

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 255 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2007) 3 409 Merchandise 163 150
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2005) 4 950 excluding intra-EU trade 137 124
Current account balance (million US$, 2005) - 385 Commercial services 91 129
Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) 16 565 excluding intra-EU trade 65 103
Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 130.6
Annual percentage change
2002 2000-2002 2001 2002
Real GDP (2000=100) 96 -2 -2 -2
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 91 -4 -3 -6
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 93 -4 -5 -2

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2003-2004)
Trade Policy Review date 17, 19 September 2008 in total tax revenue 10.6
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 5.4
Tariff binding coverage (%) 97.9 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 40
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-2
All goods 78.1 13.5 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 111.1 31.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 72.9 10.8 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.5 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 12.4 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 4.0 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 21 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 395 5 8 -17
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 1 892 6 5 11
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 23.1 Agricultural products 19.1
Fuels and mining products 23.1 Fuels and mining products 21.3
Manufactures 53.0 Manufactures 59.0
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 21.0 1. United States 36.8
2. European Union (27) 11.8 2. Trinidad and Tobago 19.8
3. Trinidad and Tobago 9.5 3. European Union (27) 13.4
4. Saint Lucia 5.4 4. Japan 3.6
5. Jamaica 3.9 5. China 3.5
Unspecified destinations 19.7 Unspecified origins 0.0
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2007 2000-2007 2006 2007
Commercial services exports (million US$) 1 729 7 9 12
Commercial services imports (million US$) 755 7 7 11
2007 2007
Share in world total exports 0.05 Share in world total imports 0.02
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 2.1 Transportation 33.4
Travel 69.3 Travel 13.1
Other commercial services 28.6 Other commercial services 53.5

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 1999 Trademark registrations by office, 1999
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... 3 3 50 701 ... 751

16 TRADE PROFILES 2009


BELARUS

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 9 681 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 60 302 Merchandise 60 55
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 118 695 excluding intra-EU trade 42 37
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 5 049 Commercial services 70 84
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 6 284 excluding intra-EU trade 45 59
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 128.4
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 189 8 9 10
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 187 8 7 8
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 201 9 0 10

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue 5.4
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 2.9
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 4-0
All goods - 10.8 Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - 13.3 Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - 10.5 Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - 12.1 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) 8.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods 9.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 32 902 21 23 36
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 39 483 21 28 38
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.20 Share in world total imports 0.24
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 8.0 Agricultural products 8.7
Fuels and mining products 38.0 Fuels and mining products 39.1
Manufactures 52.3 Manufactures 48.7
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 43.9 1. Russian Federation 59.8
2. Russian Federation 32.2 2. European Union (27) 21.6
3. Ukraine 8.5 3. Ukraine 5.4
4. Brazil 3.3 4. China 3.6
5. China 1.9 5. United States 1.2
Unspecified destinations 0.0 Unspecified origins 1.6
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 4 224 20 37 30
Commercial services imports (million US$) 2 583 22 23 29
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.11 Share in world total imports 0.07
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 70.8 Transportation 50.0
Travel 8.6 Travel 26.0
Other commercial services 20.5 Other commercial services 24.0

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
1 015 115 1 130 1 404 706 6 028 8 138

TRADE PROFILES 2009 17


BELGIUM

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 10 704 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 497 586 Merchandise 8 9
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 369 213 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 12 015 Commercial services 13 14
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 74 923 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 177.2
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 116 2 3 1
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 123 3 4 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 123 3 5 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 2.563


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 33
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 28 - 5
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 81 - 68
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 24
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 475 550 12 18 10
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 469 486 13 17 14
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 2.96 Share in world total imports 2.86
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 10.0 Agricultural products 9.3
Fuels and mining products 12.7 Fuels and mining products 19.8
Manufactures 76.5 Manufactures 70.1
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 77.1 1. European Union (27) 70.3
2. United States 4.8 2. United States 5.5
3. India 1.5 3. China 4.1
4. Switzerland 1.4 4. Japan 2.6
5. Russian Federation 1.2 5. Russian Federation 1.7

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 86 139 ... 29 16
Commercial services imports (million US$) 81 942 ... 34 17
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 2.28 Share in world total imports 2.35
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 32.6 Transportation 28.2
Travel 14.5 Travel 23.2
Other commercial services 52.9 Other commercial services 48.6

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
405 114 519 ... ... ... ...

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

18 TRADE PROFILES 2009


BELIZE

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 311 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 1 367 Merchandise 166 170
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 2 155 excluding intra-EU trade 140 144
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 154 Commercial services 144 170
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 5 360 excluding intra-EU trade 118 144
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 126.7
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 142 4 1 3
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 163 7 -6 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 103 0 0 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 12, 14 July 2004 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 98.0 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 44
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-2
All goods 58.2 10.8 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 101.4 20.7 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 51.5 9.3 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.5 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 33.9 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 15.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 17 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 310 4 -3 16
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 837 6 4 22
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 55.2 Agricultural products 13.3
Fuels and mining products 38.3 Fuels and mining products 16.6
Manufactures 1.4 Manufactures 47.6
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 45.0 1. United States 34.2
2. European Union (27) 26.8 2. Netherlands Antilles 11.9
3. Costa Rica 16.8 3. Mexico 9.4
4. Trinidad and Tobago 2.6 4. Panama 8.9
5. Mexico 1.6 5. China 8.1

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 358 13 9 -3
Commercial services imports (million US$) 161 4 11 1
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 7.0 Transportation 43.2
Travel 78.5 Travel 25.4
Other commercial services 14.5 Other commercial services 31.4

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... 7 7 ... ... ... ...

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 19


BENIN

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 8 662 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 6 680 Merchandise 147 149
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 12 715 excluding intra-EU trade 121 123
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 535 Commercial services 133 139
Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) 313 excluding intra-EU trade 107 113
Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 53.2
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 138 4 5 5
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 116 3 ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 111 2 ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 22 February 1996 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 28, 30 June 2004 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 39.4 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 36
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-0
All goods 28.3 11.9 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 61.8 14.5 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 11.4 11.5 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 6.9 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 12 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 1 050 13 19 20
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 1 990 16 30 24
2008 b 2008 b
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 41.7 Agricultural products 34.2
Fuels and mining products 0.6 Fuels and mining products 21.4
Manufactures 6.2 Manufactures 44.1
By main destination By main origin
1. China 24.0 1. European Union (27) 36.6
2. European Union (27) 10.8 2. China 8.5
3. Nigeria 8.7 3. Côte d'Ivoire 6.9
4. India 8.6 4. Ghana 6.8
5. Niger 7.2 5. Togo 5.3

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2007 2000-2007 2006 2007
Commercial services exports (million US$) 281 12 10 43
Commercial services imports (million US$) 491 15 28 43
2007 2007
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.02
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 4.5 Transportation 60.2
Travel 73.5 Travel 14.6
Other commercial services 22.0 Other commercial services 25.2

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Refers to 2005 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2005.
b Breakdowns by commodity group refer to 2005 and by destination/origin refer to 2006.

20 TRADE PROFILES 2009


BHUTAN

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 687 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 1 359 Merchandise 160 180
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 3 266 excluding intra-EU trade 134 154
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) ... Commercial services 179 177
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 1 537 excluding intra-EU trade 153 151
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 94.8
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 200 9 14 14
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected (%, 2002-2004)
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue 4.8
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 0.9
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-0
All goods - 21.9 Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - 41.4 Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - 18.9 Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 521 22 63 -23
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 543 15 25 3
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 48.3 Agricultural products 18.4
Fuels and mining products 50.2 Fuels and mining products 25.2
Manufactures 1.4 Manufactures 56.2
By main destination By main origin
1. India 95.1 1. India 74.0
2. Bangladesh 2.8 2. Japan 4.7
3. Nepal 0.9 3. European Union (27) 4.1
4. Hong Kong, China 0.5 4. Singapore 3.9
5. Japan 0.3 5. China 3.6

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 53 13 16 -13
Commercial services imports (million US$) 108 11 -1 1
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation ... Transportation ...
Travel ... Travel ...
Other commercial services ... Other commercial services ...

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... 837 837

TRADE PROFILES 2009 21


BOLIVARIAN REP.
OF VENEZUELA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 27 943 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 313 799 Merchandise 38 49
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 357 795 excluding intra-EU trade 24 31
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 39 211 Commercial services 94 59
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 4 603 excluding intra-EU trade 68 40
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 52.3
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 142 5 8 5
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 93 -1 -6 5
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 288 14 34 14

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.316


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2003-2005)
Trade Policy Review date 27, 29 November 2002 in total tax revenue 8.7
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 6.3
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 68
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-0
All goods 36.5 13.3 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 55.7 16.8 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 33.6 12.8 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 1-2
in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 1-0
in non-agricultural goods 4.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 63 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 93 542 14 6 35
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 49 640 15 37 8
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.58 Share in world total imports 0.30
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 0.2 Agricultural products 16.0
Fuels and mining products 95.6 Fuels and mining products 2.5
Manufactures 3.5 Manufactures 71.8
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 40.4 1. United States 26.4
2. Netherlands Antilles 20.2 2. Colombia 15.0
3. European Union (27) 8.5 3. European Union (27) 12.9
4. Taipei, Chinese 4.0 4. China 9.4
5. Brazil 2.7 5. Brazil 9.0

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 1 708 6 6 10
Commercial services imports (million US$) 7 821 8 25 8
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.05 Share in world total imports 0.22
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 26.6 Transportation 50.8
Travel 52.4 Travel 20.5
Other commercial services 21.0 Other commercial services 28.7

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2000 Trademark registrations by office, 2000
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
14 742 756 9 744 8 710 ... 18 454

22 TRADE PROFILES 2009


BOLIVIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 9 684 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 16 674 Merchandise 96 114
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 41 431 excluding intra-EU trade 72 89
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 2 015 Commercial services 135 122
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 1 031 excluding intra-EU trade 109 96
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 71.4
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 135 4 0 6
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 215 10 3 16
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 166 7 5 15

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.024


WTO accession date 12 September 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 2, 3 November 2005 in total tax revenue 4.5
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 3.4
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 18
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-0
All goods 40.0 8.3 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 40.0 9.8 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 40.0 8.1 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 9.3 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 36 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 6 448 23 15 45
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 4 987 13 23 44
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.04 Share in world total imports 0.03
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 16.1 Agricultural products 10.2
Fuels and mining products 76.4 Fuels and mining products 10.8
Manufactures 6.7 Manufactures 78.9
By main destination By main origin
1. Brazil 43.8 1. Brazil 18.4
2. Korea, Republic of 11.8 2. Argentina 14.5
3. Argentina 7.1 3. United States 10.5
4. United States 6.9 4. Japan 9.9
5. European Union (27) 6.1 5. European Union (27) 8.3

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 482 11 5 0
Commercial services imports (million US$) 1 018 11 9 15
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.03
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 13.1 Transportation 41.6
Travel 57.0 Travel 27.6
Other commercial services 29.9 Other commercial services 30.8

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 1995 Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
8 39 47 ... ... ... ...

TRADE PROFILES 2009 23


BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 3 773 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 18 452 Merchandise 103 85
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 31 656 excluding intra-EU trade 79 61
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 2 764 Commercial services 97 138
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 4 294 excluding intra-EU trade 71 112
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 106.1
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 153 5 7 6
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 202 9 13 8
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 130 3 14 9

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected (%, 2006-2007)
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue 0.1
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 0.0
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-0
All goods - 6.8 Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - 12.4 Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - 6.0 Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - 3.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) 13.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods 26.5 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 5 064 21 25 22
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 12 282 19 33 26
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.03 Share in world total imports 0.07
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 12.7 Agricultural products 17.0
Fuels and mining products 24.6 Fuels and mining products 20.2
Manufactures 61.2 Manufactures 62.0
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 55.0 1. European Union (27) 48.0
2. Croatia 17.2 2. Croatia 17.1
3. Serbia 15.1 3. Serbia 10.6
4. Montenegro 3.4 4. Turkey 5.3
5. Switzerland 2.6 5. China 4.6

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 1 658 18 28 14
Commercial services imports (million US$) 632 12 29 7
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.04 Share in world total imports 0.02
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 19.9 Transportation 43.4
Travel 49.8 Travel 33.3
Other commercial services 30.3 Other commercial services 23.3

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
38 234 272 120 550 3 977 4 647

24 TRADE PROFILES 2009


BOTSWANA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 1 905 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 12 969 Merchandise 105 112
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 25 511 excluding intra-EU trade 81 87
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) 2 434 Commercial services 111 120
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 5 458 excluding intra-EU trade 85 94
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 84.9
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 137 4 4 -1
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 138 4 9 3
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 134 4 14 12

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.034


WTO accession date 31 May 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 23, 25 April 2003 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 96.6 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 36
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-0
All goods 18.9 7.8 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 38.8 9.4 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 15.7 7.6 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 2.3 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 27.1 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 55.7 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 19 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 4 875 8 14 -6
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 5 165 12 32 28
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.03 Share in world total imports 0.03
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 3.1 Agricultural products 12.7
Fuels and mining products 19.5 Fuels and mining products 19.0
Manufactures 74.9 Manufactures 65.8
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 60.4 1. South Africa 78.6
2. South Africa 20.3 2. European Union (27) 10.4
3. China 4.9 3. China 2.8
4. Zimbabwe 4.5 4. Israel 1.7
5. Israel 3.1 5. United States 1.2

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 992 16 20 8
Commercial services imports (million US$) 1 076 9 16 11
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.03 Share in world total imports 0.03
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 8.5 Transportation 42.9
Travel 55.7 Travel 26.1
Other commercial services 35.8 Other commercial services 31.0

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... 595 595

TRADE PROFILES 2009 25


BRAZIL

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 191 972 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 1 612 539 Merchandise 22 24
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 1 976 632 excluding intra-EU trade 16 16
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 28 192 Commercial services 31 22
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 1 854 excluding intra-EU trade 18 13
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 26.2
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 132 4 6 5
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 183 8 7 -1
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 183 8 21 18

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.897


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 9, 11 March 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 13
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 4-1
All goods 31.4 13.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 56
Agricultural goods (AOA) 35.5 10.2 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 1
Non-agricultural goods 30.8 14.1 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 1
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 24 - 14
in agricultural goods (AOA) 1.8 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 11 - 3
in non-agricultural goods 31.5 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 2-2
Services sectors with GATS commitments 43 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 3-2

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 197 942 17 17 23
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 182 408 15 32 44
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 1.23 Share in world total imports 1.11
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 31.0 Agricultural products 5.6
Fuels and mining products 22.2 Fuels and mining products 23.9
Manufactures 43.7 Manufactures 70.5
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 23.5 1. European Union (27) 20.9
2. United States 14.0 2. United States 14.9
3. Argentina 8.9 3. China 11.6
4. China 8.3 4. Argentina 7.7
5. Japan 3.1 5. Japan 3.9

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 28 822 16 26 27
Commercial services imports (million US$) 44 396 14 28 28
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.76 Share in world total imports 1.27
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 18.8 Transportation 23.4
Travel 20.1 Travel 24.7
Other commercial services 61.2 Other commercial services 51.9

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
233 2 232 2 465 ... ... ... 128 540

26 TRADE PROFILES 2009


BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 397 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2006) 11 471 Merchandise 82 143
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2007) 19 540 excluding intra-EU trade 59 117
Current account balance (million US$, 2006) 5 232 Commercial services 113 113
Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) 27 851 excluding intra-EU trade 87 87
Trade to GDP ratio (2004-2006) 97.2
Annual percentage change
2007 2000-2007 2006 2007
Real GDP (2000=100) 116 2 4 1
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 101 0 4 -10
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 135 4 4 13

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.039


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 25, 27 February 2008 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 95.3 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 37
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 4-3
All goods 25.4 2.5 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 31.0 0.1 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 24.5 2.9 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.3 0.3 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 91.7 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 67.6 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 22 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 11 100 14 0 45
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 2 300 10 25 9
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.07 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 0.1 Agricultural products 17.2
Fuels and mining products 96.4 Fuels and mining products 3.0
Manufactures 3.3 Manufactures 79.3
By main destination By main origin
1. Japan 30.6 1. Malaysia 21.6
2. Indonesia 19.8 2. Singapore 17.4
3. Korea, Republic of 15.1 3. Japan 12.8
4. Australia 12.2 4. European Union (27) 10.8
5. United States 6.7 5. United States 9.0

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2007 2000-2007 2006 2007
Commercial services exports (million US$) 821 23 21 10
Commercial services imports (million US$) 1 128 6 10 9
2007 a 2007 a
Share in world total exports 0.02 Share in world total imports 0.04
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 51.2 Transportation 35.6
Travel 30.1 Travel 39.5
Other commercial services 18.7 Other commercial services 24.9

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office, 1997
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... 1 051 ... 1 051

a Breakdowns by commodity group and by destination/origin refer to 2006. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 27


BULGARIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 7 623 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 49 900 Merchandise 68 58
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 94 476 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 12 577 Commercial services 57 63
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 7 765 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 147.4
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 155 6 6 6
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 209 10 5 14
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 256 12 10 12

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.142


WTO accession date 1 December 1996 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 58
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 28 - 5
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 81 - 65
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 24
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 80 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 22 470 21 23 21
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 37 261 24 29 24
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.14 Share in world total imports 0.23
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 13.8 Agricultural products 8.0
Fuels and mining products 32.6 Fuels and mining products 29.6
Manufactures 52.3 Manufactures 61.6
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 59.9 1. European Union (27) 62.1
2. Turkey 8.8 2. Ukraine 8.0
3. Serbia 4.7 3. Russian Federation 6.2
4. Russian Federation 2.7 4. Turkey 6.1
5. FYR Macedonia 2.3 5. China 3.3

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 8 000 18 23 23
Commercial services imports (million US$) 6 696 19 34 22
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.21 Share in world total imports 0.19
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 28.9 Transportation 32.6
Travel 47.5 Travel 35.6
Other commercial services 23.6 Other commercial services 31.9

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
65 199 264 4 241 1 101 4 675 10 017

28 TRADE PROFILES 2009


BURKINA FASO

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 15 209 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 7 948 Merchandise 159 152
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 17 662 excluding intra-EU trade 133 126
Current account balance (million US$, 2001) - 291 Commercial services 176 148
Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) 148 excluding intra-EU trade 150 122
Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 35.4
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 153 5 4 4
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 178 10 ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 143 6 ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 3 June 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006)
Trade Policy Review date 28, 30 June 2004 in total tax revenue 15.4
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 7.3
Tariff binding coverage (%) 39.2 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 33
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-0
All goods 41.9 11.9 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 98.1 14.5 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 13.1 11.5 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2004) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 5.8 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 2 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 550 13 6 -12
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 1 800 14 23 11
2008 b 2008 b
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 72.4 Agricultural products 12.5
Fuels and mining products 2.7 Fuels and mining products 25.0
Manufactures 6.5 Manufactures 62.0
By main destination By main origin
1. Togo 41.0 1. European Union (27) 33.3
2. Ghana 16.6 2. Côte d'Ivoire 17.9
3. European Union (27) 13.7 3. Togo 11.2
4. Côte d'Ivoire 10.5 4. Benin 6.8
5. Switzerland 9.4 5. Ghana 5.8

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2007 2000-2007 2006 2007
Commercial services exports (million US$) 70 14 12 -1
Commercial services imports (million US$) 433 19 10 14
2007 b 2007 b
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 3.0 Transportation 58.4
Travel 74.8 Travel 14.4
Other commercial services 22.2 Other commercial services 27.2

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006.
b Breakdowns by commodity group refer to 2004 and by destination/origin refer to 2005. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 29


BURUNDI

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 8 074 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 1 163 Merchandise 184 182
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 3 090 excluding intra-EU trade 158 156
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 223 Commercial services 190 169
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 66 excluding intra-EU trade 164 143
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 50.9
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 127 3 4 4
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 23 July 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 2, 4 April 2003 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 21.8 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 13
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 1-0
All goods 68.3 12.7 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 95.1 10.5 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 26.6 13.1 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 0.1 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 22 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 57 2 -9 8
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 403 13 -26 26
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 62.3 Agricultural products 10.0
Fuels and mining products 15.3 Fuels and mining products 3.0
Manufactures 22.4 Manufactures 64.9
By main destination By main origin
1. United Arab Emirates 43.6 1. European Union (27) 40.5
2. Switzerland 15.3 2. Uganda 9.6
3. European Union (27) 11.7 3. Kenya 8.8
4. Kenya 5.3 4. China 7.3
5. Congo, Dem. Rep. of 4.2 5. India 5.0

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 3 6 18 -50
Commercial services imports (million US$) 173 22 -13 3
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 27.3 Transportation 38.6
Travel 40.8 Travel 52.4
Other commercial services 31.9 Other commercial services 9.0

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 1996 Trademark registrations by office, 2002
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
1 4 5 20 132 ... 152

30 TRADE PROFILES 2009


CAMBODIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 14 700 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 9 574 Merchandise 111 105
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 27 997 excluding intra-EU trade 87 80
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 1 060 Commercial services 99 126
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 836 excluding intra-EU trade 73 100
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 143.6
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 201 9 10 5
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 287 16 10 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 261 15 12 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.034


WTO accession date 13 October 2004 Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006)
Trade Policy Review date ... in total tax revenue 26.7
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 2.9
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 30
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-1
All goods 19.0 14.2 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 28.1 18.1 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 17.7 13.6 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2004) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 6.0 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 94 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 4 300 15 16 5
Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) 6 600 17 14 22
2008 b 2008 b
Share in world total exports 0.03 Share in world total imports 0.04
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 2.8 Agricultural products 5.7
Fuels and mining products 2.2 Fuels and mining products 14.1
Manufactures 94.4 Manufactures 46.9
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 46.9 1. Hong Kong, China 19.9
2. Hong Kong, China 22.0 2. China 16.5
3. European Union (27) 21.2 3. Taipei, Chinese 11.8
4. Canada 3.4 4. Thailand 11.2
5. Viet Nam 1.5 5. Viet Nam 8.2

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 1 606 18 21 6
Commercial services imports (million US$) 958 15 17 8
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.04 Share in world total imports 0.03
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 14.3 Transportation 63.5
Travel 76.0 Travel 11.3
Other commercial services 9.7 Other commercial services 25.2

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office, 2006
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... 499 1 941 ... 2 440

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.
b Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2004.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 31


CAMEROON

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 18 898 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 23 396 Merchandise 110 120
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 41 860 excluding intra-EU trade 86 94
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 547 Commercial services 126 105
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 570 excluding intra-EU trade 100 79
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 51.1
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 133 4 3 4
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 120 2 -12 25
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 193 9 6 42

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.028


WTO accession date 13 December 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 1, 3 October 2007 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 13.3 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 47
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-0
All goods 79.9 17.8 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 80.0 22.3 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 50.0 17.1 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 46.7 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 7.1 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 3 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 4 350 11 1 21
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 4 360 14 17 18
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.03 Share in world total imports 0.03
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 26.2 Agricultural products 21.5
Fuels and mining products 65.2 Fuels and mining products 29.5
Manufactures 3.0 Manufactures 49.0
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 74.3 1. European Union (27) 35.0
2. United States 6.4 2. Nigeria 23.3
3. China 3.4 3. China 6.3
4. Congo, Dem. Rep. of 2.8 4. Equatorial Guinea 3.5
5. Chad 0.8 5. United States 2.9
Unspecified destinations 2.8 Unspecified origins 0.1
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 552 -1 -14 16
Commercial services imports (million US$) 1 708 8 0 21
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.05
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 38.7 Transportation 49.7
Travel 37.2 Travel 22.5
Other commercial services 24.1 Other commercial services 27.8

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2006. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2007.

32 TRADE PROFILES 2009


CANADA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 33 311 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 1 400 091 Merchandise 11 11
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 1 213 991 excluding intra-EU trade 6 6
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 27 281 Commercial services 20 12
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 28 681 excluding intra-EU trade 10 6
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 70.9
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 120 2 3 0
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 104 1 ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 123 3 ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 3.361


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 21, 23 March 2007 in total tax revenue 0.8
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 0.8
Tariff binding coverage (%) 99.7 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 16
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 6-3
All goods 6.5 4.7 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 38
Agricultural goods (AOA) 14.5 11.5 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 7
Non-agricultural goods 5.3 3.7 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 2.6 2.9 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 32 - 15
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.9 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 14 - 11
in non-agricultural goods 55.5 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 6-5
Services sectors with GATS commitments 105 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 1-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 456 464 6 8 9
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 418 311 7 9 7
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 2.84 Share in world total imports 2.55
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 11.8 Agricultural products 7.7
Fuels and mining products 35.3 Fuels and mining products 16.0
Manufactures 46.8 Manufactures 75.5
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 77.6 1. United States 52.4
2. European Union (27) 7.5 2. European Union (27) 12.5
3. Japan 2.3 3. China 9.8
4. China 2.2 4. Mexico 4.1
5. Mexico 1.2 5. Japan 3.5

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 64 795 6 8 2
Commercial services imports (million US$) 86 644 9 14 6
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 1.72 Share in world total imports 2.48
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 18.4 Transportation 23.5
Travel 23.6 Travel 31.5
Other commercial services 58.1 Other commercial services 45.0

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
1 809 16 741 18 550 11 583 13 515 ... 25 098

a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 33


CAPE VERDE

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 499 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 1 730 Merchandise 190 171
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 1 747 excluding intra-EU trade 164 145
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 197 Commercial services 128 157
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 3 145 excluding intra-EU trade 102 131
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 106.0
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 153 5 7 6
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 318 16 14 13
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 229 11 16 12

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 23 July 2008 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2006)
Trade Policy Review date ... in total tax revenue 12.2
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 3.9
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 17
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 1-0
All goods 15.8 10.4 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 19.3 12.1 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 15.2 10.2 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 13.7 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 40.8 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 99 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 32 14 -7 66
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 825 17 38 10
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 14.2 Agricultural products 30.4
Fuels and mining products 47.9 Fuels and mining products 10.9
Manufactures 37.9 Manufactures 58.7
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 60.3 1. European Union (27) 78.7
2. Côte d'Ivoire 30.7 2. Brazil 6.2
3. Morocco 1.2 3. Japan 3.6
4. Brazil 1.0 4. Thailand 1.9
5. United Arab Emirates 0.7 5. China 1.6
Unspecified destinations 3.8 Unspecified origins 0.8
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 528 23 30 13
Commercial services imports (million US$) 333 17 18 17
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 25.2 Transportation 41.3
Travel 66.6 Travel 42.5
Other commercial services 8.2 Other commercial services 16.2

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Breakdowns by commodity group refer to 2006 and by destination/origin refer to 2007.

34 TRADE PROFILES 2009


CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 4 423 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 1 970 Merchandise 173 187
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 3 254 excluding intra-EU trade 147 161
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) ... Commercial services 185 168
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 140 excluding intra-EU trade 159 142
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 35.5
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 106 1 4 3
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 103 0 13 7
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 98 0 13 10

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 31 May 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 11, 13 June 2007 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 62.5 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 40
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 1-0
All goods 36.2 17.9 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 30.0 21.9 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 37.9 17.3 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2005) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 0.6 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 17 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 195 2 13 10
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 310 13 23 24
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 38.1 Agricultural products ...
Fuels and mining products 15.7 Fuels and mining products ...
Manufactures 32.8 Manufactures ...
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 55.9 1. European Union (27) 20.8
2. Switzerland 13.7 2. Cameroon 15.7
3. Cameroon 11.9 3. Congo, Dem. Rep. of 6.1
4. Israel 5.0 4. Japan 3.9
5. Hong Kong, China 2.6 5. Congo 3.6
Unspecified destinations 5.9 Unspecified origins 41.0
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 29 16 18 11
Commercial services imports (million US$) 175 6 21 20
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 7.4 Transportation 49.9
Travel 56.1 Travel 30.6
Other commercial services 36.5 Other commercial services 19.5

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Breakdowns by commodity group and by destination/origin refer to 2005. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2001.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 35


CHAD

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 11 067 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 8 361 Merchandise 106 151
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 16 106 excluding intra-EU trade 82 125
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) ... Commercial services 174 88
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 741 excluding intra-EU trade 148 63
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 110.5
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 200 9 0 0
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 522 23 -19 -12
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 195 9 -14 -2

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 19 October 1996 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 22, 24 January 2007 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 13.5 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 33
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 1-0
All goods 79.9 17.9 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 80.0 21.9 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 75.0 17.3 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 2 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 4 650 50 7 27
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 1 830 25 11 22
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.03 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products ... Agricultural products ...
Fuels and mining products ... Fuels and mining products ...
Manufactures ... Manufactures ...
By main destination By main origin
1. ... ... 1. ... ...
2. ... ... 2. ... ...
3. ... ... 3. ... ...
4. ... ... 4. ... ...
5. ... ... 5. ... ...

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 93 20 12 11
Commercial services imports (million US$) 2 455 34 10 19
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.07
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 5.0 Transportation 53.0
Travel 71.2 Travel 17.4
Other commercial services 23.8 Other commercial services 29.6

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Breakdowns by services items refer to 2001.

36 TRADE PROFILES 2009


CHILE

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 16 758 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 169 458 Merchandise 48 45
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 242 398 excluding intra-EU trade 33 27
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 3 440 Commercial services 48 51
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 7 766 excluding intra-EU trade 30 33
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 80.5
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 139 4 5 3
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 159 6 8 2
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 230 11 14 13

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.333


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2000-2002)
Trade Policy Review date 7, 9 October 2009 in total tax revenue 6.3
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 3.8
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 4
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 18 - 13
All goods 25.1 6.0 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 0
Agricultural goods (AOA) 26.0 6.1 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 25.0 6.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 10 - 13
in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 2-3
in non-agricultural goods 0.4 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-1
Services sectors with GATS commitments 42 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-1

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 66 456 17 15 -2
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 61 903 16 23 31
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.41 Share in world total imports 0.38
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 23.5 Agricultural products 7.4
Fuels and mining products 63.9 Fuels and mining products 28.8
Manufactures 12.2 Manufactures 55.0
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 24.5 1. United States 17.0
2. China 15.2 2. European Union (27) 14.0
3. United States 12.8 3. China 11.4
4. Japan 10.8 4. Brazil 10.5
5. Korea, Republic of 5.9 5. Argentina 10.1

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 10 645 13 14 20
Commercial services imports (million US$) 11 143 12 18 15
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.28 Share in world total imports 0.32
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 59.9 Transportation 60.2
Travel 16.5 Travel 12.3
Other commercial services 23.6 Other commercial services 27.5

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
58 348 406 16 992 8 775 ... 25 767

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 37


CHINA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 1 325 640 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 3 860 039 Merchandise 2 3
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 7 903 235 excluding intra-EU trade 2 3
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 426 100 Commercial services 5 5
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 1 796 excluding intra-EU trade 3 4
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 73.4
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 217 10 13 9
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 457 21 20 8
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 324 16 14 4

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 5.898


WTO accession date 11 December 2001 Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006)
Trade Policy Review date 21, 23 May 2008 in total tax revenue 6.6
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 1.9
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 16
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 8-5
All goods 10.0 9.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 110
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.8 15.6 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 9.1 8.7 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 6 - 17
in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.8 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 1-4
in non-agricultural goods 51.6 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 93 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 1 428 332 24 26 17
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 1 132 488 22 21 18
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 8.89 Share in world total imports 6.90
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 3.0 Agricultural products 7.7
Fuels and mining products 3.8 Fuels and mining products 27.1
Manufactures 93.1 Manufactures 64.8
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 20.5 1. Japan 13.3
2. United States 17.7 2. European Union (27) 11.7
3. Hong Kong, China 13.4 3. Korea, Republic of 9.9
4. Japan 8.1 4. Taipei, Chinese 9.1
5. Korea, Republic of 5.2 5. China 8.2

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 146 446 22 33 20
Commercial services imports (million US$) 158 004 20 29 22
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 3.88 Share in world total imports 4.53
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 26.2 Transportation 31.9
Travel 27.9 Travel 22.9
Other commercial services 45.9 Other commercial services 45.3

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
31 945 36 003 67 948 215 161 19 159 13 877 248 197

38 TRADE PROFILES 2009


COLOMBIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 44 534 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 242 268 Merchandise 58 54
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 395 663 excluding intra-EU trade 41 36
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 6 713 Commercial services 74 62
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 1 648 excluding intra-EU trade 49 43
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 35.5
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 143 5 8 3
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 153 5 11 8
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 211 10 14 3

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.194


WTO accession date 30 April 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 22, 24 November 2006 in total tax revenue 10.7
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 7.6
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 27
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 4-1
All goods 42.9 12.5 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 10
Agricultural goods (AOA) 91.8 16.9 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 35.4 11.8 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 5-3
in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-1
in non-agricultural goods 5.3 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 57 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 37 626 14 23 25
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 39 669 17 26 21
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.23 Share in world total imports 0.24
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 17.8 Agricultural products 11.5
Fuels and mining products 48.0 Fuels and mining products 7.1
Manufactures 31.5 Manufactures 80.2
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 38.0 1. United States 29.2
2. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 16.2 2. European Union (27) 13.5
3. European Union (27) 12.8 3. China 11.5
4. Ecuador 4.0 4. Mexico 7.9
5. Switzerland 2.5 5. Brazil 5.9

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 3 967 9 8 11
Commercial services imports (million US$) 7 108 10 14 15
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.11 Share in world total imports 0.20
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 31.2 Transportation 42.3
Travel 46.5 Travel 24.5
Other commercial services 22.3 Other commercial services 33.2

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
20 207 227 10 635 7 504 ... 18 139

TRADE PROFILES 2009 39


COMOROS

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 644 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 530 Merchandise 200 193
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 752 excluding intra-EU trade 174 167
Current account balance (million US$, 1995) - 19 Commercial services 180 183
Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) 347 excluding intra-EU trade 154 157
Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 50.9
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 118 2 0 1
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 94 -1 6 8
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 140 4 8 2

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 1-0
All goods - 11.3 Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - 5.6 Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - 12.2 Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 13 -1 31 0
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 180 20 21 29
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 40.7 Agricultural products 32.1
Fuels and mining products 0.3 Fuels and mining products 0.7
Manufactures 1.3 Manufactures 40.8
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 16.1 1. United Arab Emirates 38.6
2. Singapore 1.3 2. European Union (27) 12.8
3. India 1.2 3. Pakistan 4.0
4. United Arab Emirates 0.6 4. China 3.7
5. Yemen 0.3 5. Tanzania 2.9
Unspecified destinations 80.0 Unspecified origins 25.8
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2007 2000-2007 2006 2007
Commercial services exports (million US$) 46 3 10 8
Commercial services imports (million US$) 59 15 18 10
2007 a 2007 a
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 10.8 Transportation 63.7
Travel 63.2 Travel 20.2
Other commercial services 26.0 Other commercial services 16.1

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Breakdowns by commodity group refer to 2004 and by destination/origin refer to 2007. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2006.

40 TRADE PROFILES 2009


CONGO

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 3 615 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 10 699 Merchandise 88 138
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 14 265 excluding intra-EU trade 64 112
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 2 181 Commercial services 142 74
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 3 655 excluding intra-EU trade 116 51
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 149.3
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 136 4 -2 6
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.024


WTO accession date 27 March 1997 Import duties collected (%, 2003-2005)
Trade Policy Review date 27, 29 September 2006 in total tax revenue 20.0
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 3.4
Tariff binding coverage (%) 16.1 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 49
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 1-0
All goods 27.3 17.9 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 30.0 21.9 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 14.6 17.3 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 4 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 9 050 18 -5 58
Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) 2 990 26 43 5
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.06 Share in world total imports 0.02
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products ... Agricultural products ...
Fuels and mining products ... Fuels and mining products ...
Manufactures ... Manufactures ...
By main destination By main origin
1. ... ... 1. ... ...
2. ... ... 2. ... ...
3. ... ... 3. ... ...
4. ... ... 4. ... ...
5. ... ... 5. ... ...

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 364 14 20 20
Commercial services imports (million US$) 3 767 23 45 7
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.11
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 4.0 Transportation 15.0
Travel 18.0 Travel 4.8
Other commercial services 78.0 Other commercial services 80.2

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 1996 Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... 13 13 ... ... ... ...

a Breakdowns by services items refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 41


CONGO, DEM. REP. OF

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 64 205 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 11 588 Merchandise 113 123
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 20 638 excluding intra-EU trade 89 97
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) ... Commercial services 140 121
Trade per capita (US$, 2002-2004) 62 excluding intra-EU trade 114 95
Trade to GDP ratio (2002-2004) 57.4
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 147 5 6 6
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 172 7 10 6
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 347 17 9 6

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 1 January 1997 Import duties collected (%, 2000-2002)
Trade Policy Review date ... in total tax revenue 32.6
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 8.5
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 38
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 0-0
All goods 96.2 12.0 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 98.1 12.8 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 95.9 11.9 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 12 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 3 950 22 14 49
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 4 100 25 20 24
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.02 Share in world total imports 0.02
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products ... Agricultural products ...
Fuels and mining products ... Fuels and mining products ...
Manufactures ... Manufactures ...
By main destination By main origin
1. ... ... 1. ... ...
2. ... ... 2. ... ...
3. ... ... 3. ... ...
4. ... ... 4. ... ...
5. ... ... 5. ... ...

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2004 2000-2004 2003 2004
Commercial services exports (million US$) 172 25 45 19
Commercial services imports (million US$) 494 20 12 24
2004 2004
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.02
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation ... Transportation ...
Travel ... Travel ...
Other commercial services ... Other commercial services ...

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office, 1996
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... 205 374 ... 579

42 TRADE PROFILES 2009


COSTA RICA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 4 527 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 29 834 Merchandise 87 80
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 50 884 excluding intra-EU trade 63 56
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 1 578 Commercial services 72 99
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 6 035 excluding intra-EU trade 47 73
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 102.8
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 147 5 8 3
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 154 6 10 -1
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 159 6 4 5

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.086


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 7, 9 May 2007 in total tax revenue 6.3
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 1.7
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 8
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 6-4
All goods 42.8 6.4 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 2
Agricultural goods (AOA) 42.5 12.5 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 1
Non-agricultural goods 42.9 5.4 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 4-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 35.9 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 1-0
in non-agricultural goods 30.7 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 20 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 9 504 6 14 2
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 15 372 12 12 19
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.06 Share in world total imports 0.09
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 34.7 Agricultural products 9.6
Fuels and mining products 2.3 Fuels and mining products 16.4
Manufactures 63.0 Manufactures 73.3
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 38.2 1. United States 38.2
2. European Union (27) 17.4 2. European Union (27) 11.2
3. China 6.3 3. Mexico 6.2
4. Nicaragua 4.1 4. China 5.7
5. Hong Kong, China 4.0 5. Japan 5.4

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 4 164 10 22 16
Commercial services imports (million US$) 1 966 6 12 9
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.11 Share in world total imports 0.06
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 9.8 Transportation 32.7
Travel 54.1 Travel 34.4
Other commercial services 36.0 Other commercial services 32.8

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

TRADE PROFILES 2009 43


CÔTE D’IVOIRE

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 20 591 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 23 414 Merchandise 86 101
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 34 001 excluding intra-EU trade 62 76
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 488 Commercial services 118 89
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 904 excluding intra-EU trade 92 64
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 90.1
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 105 1 2 2
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 151 5 -10 7
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 128 3 1 0

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.062


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 4, 5 July 1995 in total tax revenue 31.4
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 10.9
Tariff binding coverage (%) 33.1 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 42
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-0
All goods 11.1 11.9 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 14.9 14.5 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 8.6 11.5 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 39.9 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 29 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 10 100 13 0 19
Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) a 7 150 ... 15 16
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.06 Share in world total imports 0.04
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 47.4 Agricultural products 22.3
Fuels and mining products 36.5 Fuels and mining products 31.2
Manufactures 11.5 Manufactures 46.5
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 48.0 1. Nigeria 29.3
2. United States 9.7 2. European Union (27) 27.5
3. Nigeria 6.4 3. China 6.9
4. Ghana 4.6 4. Thailand 4.5
5. Burkina Faso 4.2 5. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 3.6

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 845 9 10 9
Commercial services imports (million US$) 2 444 10 8 8
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.02 Share in world total imports 0.07
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 28.2 Transportation 59.4
Travel 13.5 Travel 15.5
Other commercial services 58.3 Other commercial services 25.1

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...
a Break in series for merchandise: 2001 for imports.

44 TRADE PROFILES 2009


CROATIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 4 434 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 69 332 Merchandise 78 64
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 84 621 excluding intra-EU trade 56 42
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 6 397 Commercial services 42 69
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 12 400 excluding intra-EU trade 25 47
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 93.3
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 141 4 5 2
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 152 5 4 2
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 180 8 6 4

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.167


WTO accession date 30 November 2000 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date ... in total tax revenue 2.4
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 1.1
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 17
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 4-0
All goods 6.2 4.8 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 10.8 10.3 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 5.5 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 1.8 1.9 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 0-1
in agricultural goods (AOA) 22.9 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 54.3 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 126 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 14 112 16 19 14
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 30 728 19 20 19
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.09 Share in world total imports 0.19
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 13.1 Agricultural products 9.2
Fuels and mining products 17.2 Fuels and mining products 20.3
Manufactures 69.4 Manufactures 70.4
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 60.9 1. European Union (27) 64.1
2. Bosnia and Herzegovina 15.4 2. Russian Federation 10.4
3. Serbia 5.5 3. China 6.1
4. United States 2.5 4. Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.7
5. Marshall Islands 1.4 5. United States 2.1

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 15 164 18 16 21
Commercial services imports (million US$) 4 513 12 11 17
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.40 Share in world total imports 0.13
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 11.8 Transportation 22.9
Travel 74.3 Travel 24.6
Other commercial services 13.9 Other commercial services 52.6

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
40 107 147 955 785 6 985 8 725

TRADE PROFILES 2009 45


CUBA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 11 247 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) ... Merchandise 114 82
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) ... excluding intra-EU trade 90 58
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) ... Commercial services 52 102
Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) 1 875 excluding intra-EU trade 33 76
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) ...
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.062


WTO accession date 20 April 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date ... in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 30.9 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 12
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-0
All goods 21.3 10.7 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 37.0 10.9 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 9.4 10.7 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 7.7 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 5.4 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 50 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 3 500 10 27 -12
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 14 500 15 6 33
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.02 Share in world total imports 0.09
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 20.0 Agricultural products 16.4
Fuels and mining products 54.9 Fuels and mining products 30.2
Manufactures 25.1 Manufactures 53.2
By main destination By main origin
1. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 12.8 1. European Union (27) 21.8
2. European Union (27) 9.8 2. China 13.4
3. Russian Federation 3.2 3. United States 4.5
4. Bolivia 1.6 4. Canada 3.5
5. Mexico 1.2 5. Brazil 3.1
Unspecified destinations 62.8 Unspecified origins 36.7
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 9 129 17 19 6
Commercial services imports (million US$) ... ... 5 ...
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.24 Share in world total imports ...
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation ... Transportation ...
Travel ... Travel ...
Other commercial services ... Other commercial services ...

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
37 33 70 374 673 1 614 2 661
a Breakdowns by commodity group and by destination/origin refer to 2006.

46 TRADE PROFILES 2009


CYPRUS

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 864 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2007) 21 277 Merchandise 133 88
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2007) 21 186 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 4 479 Commercial services 50 68
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 25 729 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 96.8
Annual percentage change
2007 2000-2007 2006 2007
Real GDP (2000=100) 127 4 4 4
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.066


WTO accession date 30 July 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 48
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 28 - 5
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 81 - 65
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 24
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 25 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 1 599 7 5 15
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 10 616 14 24 23
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.06
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 20.8 Agricultural products 13.9
Fuels and mining products 29.3 Fuels and mining products 21.4
Manufactures 48.7 Manufactures 64.1
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 49.6 1. European Union (27) 66.9
2. Lebanon 2.7 2. Israel 8.0
3. Russian Federation 2.1 3. China 5.3
4. United Arab Emirates 1.7 4. Japan 2.6
5. Japan 1.7 5. United States 1.7
Unspecified destinations 19.9 Unspecified origins 0.1
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 10 218 13 23 23
Commercial services imports (million US$) 4 572 14 28 26
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.27 Share in world total imports 0.13
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 30.4 Transportation 36.7
Travel 27.1 Travel 34.2
Other commercial services 42.5 Other commercial services 29.1

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2005 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
6 62 68 318 2 411 1 477 4 206

TRADE PROFILES 2009 47


CZECH REPUBLIC

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 10 428 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 216 485 Merchandise 30 29
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 257 696 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 6 631 Commercial services 36 38
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 26 063 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 151.8
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 140 4 6 3
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 218 12 15 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 206 11 14 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.695


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 37
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 28 - 5
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 82 - 67
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 24
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 86 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 146 321 22 29 19
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 141 493 20 27 20
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.91 Share in world total imports 0.86
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 5.5 Agricultural products 6.5
Fuels and mining products 5.4 Fuels and mining products 14.2
Manufactures 89.0 Manufactures 79.2
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 85.2 1. European Union (27) 67.0
2. Russian Federation 2.7 2. China 8.8
3. United States 1.7 3. Russian Federation 6.4
4. Switzerland 1.4 4. Japan 3.3
5. Ukraine 1.0 5. United States 2.1

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 22 179 16 23 29
Commercial services imports (million US$) 17 256 16 21 21
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.59 Share in world total imports 0.49
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 28.1 Transportation 25.7
Travel 34.8 Travel 26.6
Other commercial services 37.1 Other commercial services 47.7

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
227 976 1 203 7 316 895 4 235 12 446

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

48 TRADE PROFILES 2009


DENMARK

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 5 498 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 342 672 Merchandise 34 32
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 201 249 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 6 938 Commercial services 17 17
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 58 406 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 102.9
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 111 1 2 -1
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 134 4 4 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 155 7 6 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.984


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 31
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 28 - 5
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 81 - 66
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 24
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 116 759 11 11 14
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 110 827 12 15 12
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.73 Share in world total imports 0.67
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 20.2 Agricultural products 14.6
Fuels and mining products 13.3 Fuels and mining products 9.3
Manufactures 63.9 Manufactures 74.7
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 68.5 1. European Union (27) 72.5
2. Norway 6.0 2. China 5.9
3. United States 5.5 3. Norway 4.7
4. Japan 2.0 4. United States 3.2
5. China 1.9 5. Russian Federation 1.7

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 71 960 15 19 17
Commercial services imports (million US$) 62 269 15 19 16
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 1.90 Share in world total imports 1.78
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 66.1 Transportation 54.3
Travel 9.4 Travel 15.7
Other commercial services 24.5 Other commercial services 30.0

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
151 70 221 4 055 755 3 378 8 188

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 49


DJIBOUTI

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 848 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 875 Merchandise 183 178
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 1 814 excluding intra-EU trade 157 152
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 171 Commercial services 169 172
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 877 excluding intra-EU trade 143 146
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 89.4
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 131 3 4 4
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 138 6 ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 138 6 ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 31 May 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 27 February, 1 March 2006 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 42
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 0-0
All goods 41.0 27.8 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 48.4 21.1 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 39.9 28.8 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 13 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 69 10 5 18
Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) 580 14 41 23
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products ... Agricultural products ...
Fuels and mining products ... Fuels and mining products ...
Manufactures ... Manufactures ...
By main destination By main origin
1. ... ... 1. ... ...
2. ... ... 2. ... ...
3. ... ... 3. ... ...
4. ... ... 4. ... ...
5. ... ... 5. ... ...

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 115 7 -5 25
Commercial services imports (million US$) 137 10 23 39
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 80.8 Transportation 78.4
Travel 6.5 Travel 2.4
Other commercial services 12.7 Other commercial services 19.1

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006.

50 TRADE PROFILES 2009


DOMINICA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 73 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 364 Merchandise 187 192
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 636 excluding intra-EU trade 161 166
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 90 Commercial services 173 185
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 5 056 excluding intra-EU trade 147 159
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 108.4
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 117 2 5 3
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 63 -7 ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 101 0 ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 5, 7 November 2007 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 94.8 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 35
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-2
All goods 58.7 9.9 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 112.2 20.5 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 50.0 8.3 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 18.5 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 13.1 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 20 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 40 -3 -11 9
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 225 5 17 15
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 39.1 Agricultural products 24.5
Fuels and mining products 13.6 Fuels and mining products 16.6
Manufactures 47.3 Manufactures 58.9
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 27.1 1. United States 39.7
2. Jamaica 16.3 2. Trinidad and Tobago 21.3
3. Antigua and Barbuda 15.2 3. European Union (27) 9.6
4. Trinidad and Tobago 8.8 4. Japan 4.3
5. Guyana 5.2 5. Canada 2.7

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 101 2 0 2
Commercial services imports (million US$) 62 3 14 7
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 3.7 Transportation 50.4
Travel 71.5 Travel 17.3
Other commercial services 24.7 Other commercial services 32.3

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 51


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 9 838 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 45 790 Merchandise 94 77
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 80 841 excluding intra-EU trade 70 55
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 2 068 Commercial services 65 103
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 2 799 excluding intra-EU trade 42 77
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 66.4
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 150 5 8 5
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 115 2 2 3
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 125 3 12 4

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.093


WTO accession date 9 March 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006)
Trade Policy Review date 24, 26 November 2008 in total tax revenue 10.8
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 4.1
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 7
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-2
All goods 34.9 7.1 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 39.6 12.8 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 34.2 6.2 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation 0-3
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-1
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 60 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 6 949 2 8 -3
Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) 16 095 7 12 18
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.04 Share in world total imports 0.10
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 10.1 Agricultural products 12.7
Fuels and mining products 7.5 Fuels and mining products 27.7
Manufactures 81.4 Manufactures 59.5
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 40.2 1. United States 44.8
2. European Union (27) 18.8 2. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 13.4
3. Haiti 8.8 3. European Union (27) 10.9
4. Korea, Republic of 3.7 4. Mexico 6.7
5. Canada 2.4 5. Japan 3.9
Unspecified destinations 15.4 Unspecified origins 1.6
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 4 883 6 5 3
Commercial services imports (million US$) 1 775 4 12 5
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.13 Share in world total imports 0.05
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 7.5 Transportation 66.6
Travel 85.9 Travel 18.6
Other commercial services 6.6 Other commercial services 14.7

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2001.

52 TRADE PROFILES 2009


ECUADOR

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 13 479 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 52 572 Merchandise 72 73
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 107 946 excluding intra-EU trade 50 51
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) 1 598 Commercial services 104 82
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 2 510 excluding intra-EU trade 78 57
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 71.7
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 148 5 2 6
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 147 5 -2 1
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 217 10 6 5

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.091


WTO accession date 21 January 1996 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 15, 17 June 2005 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 23
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-0
All goods 21.7 11.3 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 25.6 15.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 21.2 10.7 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 3-3
in agricultural goods (AOA) 2.2 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 2-0
in non-agricultural goods 31.3 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 2-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 66 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-1

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 18 511 18 13 29
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 18 686 22 15 34
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.12 Share in world total imports 0.11
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 28.3 Agricultural products 9.0
Fuels and mining products 63.7 Fuels and mining products 18.5
Manufactures 7.6 Manufactures 65.7
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 45.3 1. United States 14.9
2. European Union (27) 11.3 2. China 12.2
3. Peru 9.2 3. Colombia 9.5
4. Chile 8.1 4. European Union (27) 8.6
5. Panama 4.8 5. Japan 5.0
Unspecified destinations 0.4 Unspecified origins 13.4
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 1 288 6 13 19
Commercial services imports (million US$) 2 888 11 10 16
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.03 Share in world total imports 0.08
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 29.8 Transportation 56.6
Travel 59.2 Travel 18.8
Other commercial services 11.0 Other commercial services 24.6

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
2 31 33 4 928 7 253 ... 12 181

TRADE PROFILES 2009 53


EGYPT

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 81 527 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 162 818 Merchandise 66 50
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 441 584 excluding intra-EU trade 46 32
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) 412 Commercial services 33 41
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 1 217 excluding intra-EU trade 19 24
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 72.9
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 146 5 7 7
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 358 17 23 28
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 298 15 29 24

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.248


WTO accession date 30 June 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 26, 28 July 2005 in total tax revenue 9.5
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 3.8
Tariff binding coverage (%) 99.3 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 33
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 6-0
All goods 36.8 16.7 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 28
Agricultural goods (AOA) 96.1 66.4 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 27.7 9.2 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 1
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.2 0.2 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation 0-4
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-1
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 44 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 23 995 21 15 25
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 47 540 16 36 28
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.15 Share in world total imports 0.29
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 11.5 Agricultural products 19.7
Fuels and mining products 47.7 Fuels and mining products 19.6
Manufactures 34.3 Manufactures 57.2
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 35.3 1. European Union (27) 26.7
2. India 6.6 2. United States 10.9
3. United States 4.8 3. China 8.4
4. Saudi Arabia 4.6 4. Saudi Arabia 6.1
5. Japan 3.4 5. Russian Federation 4.3
Unspecified destinations 6.2 Unspecified origins 0.4
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 24 674 12 24 26
Commercial services imports (million US$) 16 322 11 27 25
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.65 Share in world total imports 0.47
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 33.1 Transportation 44.8
Travel 43.7 Travel 17.9
Other commercial services 23.2 Other commercial services 37.3

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
80 220 300 ... ... 3 029 3 029

54 TRADE PROFILES 2009


EL SALVADOR

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 6 134 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 22 115 Merchandise 107 94
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 41 675 excluding intra-EU trade 83 69
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 1 119 Commercial services 101 100
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 2 524 excluding intra-EU trade 75 74
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 75.6
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 125 3 5 3
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 146 5 4 7
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 150 5 8 5

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.054


WTO accession date 7 May 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 3, 5 February 2003 in total tax revenue 7.7
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 0.3
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 25
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 5-4
All goods 36.5 5.9 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 42.2 12.3 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 35.7 4.9 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 23.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 61.0 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 29 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 4 549 6 8 14
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 9 755 9 14 12
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.03 Share in world total imports 0.06
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 20.3 Agricultural products 16.4
Fuels and mining products 5.2 Fuels and mining products 20.1
Manufactures 73.9 Manufactures 63.2
By main destination By main origin
1. Guatemala 23.1 1. United States 30.6
2. United States 20.3 2. Mexico 10.1
3. Honduras 16.1 3. Guatemala 9.4
4. European Union (27) 10.5 4. European Union (27) 7.0
5. Nicaragua 9.0 5. China 4.3

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 1 482 10 5 2
Commercial services imports (million US$) 1 958 10 15 15
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.04 Share in world total imports 0.06
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 23.7 Transportation 48.2
Travel 60.3 Travel 31.9
Other commercial services 16.0 Other commercial services 19.9

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 1995 Trademark registrations by office, 1997
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
1 60 61 1 303 4 157 ... 5 460

TRADE PROFILES 2009 55


EQUATORIAL GUINEA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 659 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 18 525 Merchandise 75 133
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 22 329 excluding intra-EU trade 53 107
Current account balance (million US$, 1996) - 344 Commercial services 183 110
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 14 755 excluding intra-EU trade 157 84
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 69.8
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 457 21 21 11
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 1-0
All goods - 17.9 Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - 21.9 Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - 17.3 Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 16 300 40 24 60
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 3 270 28 37 18
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.10 Share in world total imports 0.02
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products ... Agricultural products ...
Fuels and mining products ... Fuels and mining products ...
Manufactures ... Manufactures ...
By main destination By main origin
1. ... ... 1. ... ...
2. ... ... 2. ... ...
3. ... ... 3. ... ...
4. ... ... 4. ... ...
5. ... ... 5. ... ...

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 33 17 15 26
Commercial services imports (million US$) 1 419 13 33 26
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.04
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 2.8 Transportation 17.0
Travel 49.9 Travel 3.5
Other commercial services 47.3 Other commercial services 79.5

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Breakdowns by services items refer to 2000.

56 TRADE PROFILES 2009


ERITREA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 4 996 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 1 654 Merchandise 196 181
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 3 158 excluding intra-EU trade 169 155
Current account balance (million US$, 2000) - 105 Commercial services 157 189
Trade per capita (US$, 2000-2002) 175 excluding intra-EU trade 131 163
Trade to GDP ratio (2000-2002) 100.8
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 116 2 1 2
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 81 -3 -2 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 81 -3 -2 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Non-member and non-observer Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2006 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 1-0
All goods - 7.9 Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - 10.0 Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - 7.6 Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - 0.3 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 17 -9 43 13
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 530 1 3 4
2008 b 2008 b
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 65.0 Agricultural products 46.5
Fuels and mining products 2.5 Fuels and mining products 1.7
Manufactures 32.5 Manufactures 51.7
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 36.1 1. European Union (27) 25.9
2. Sudan 19.4 2. United States 15.9
3. Singapore 12.4 3. United Arab Emirates 12.2
4. India 7.2 4. Saudi Arabia 10.5
5. Russian Federation 2.9 5. India 6.3

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2002 2000-2002 2001 2002
Commercial services exports (million US$) 118 48 109 4
Commercial services imports (million US$) 25 3 18 -9
2002 b 2002 b
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 18.2 Transportation 27.6
Travel 64.2 Travel 49.5
Other commercial services 17.6 Other commercial services 22.9

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.
b Breakdowns by commodity group and by destination/origin refer to 2003. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2000.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 57


ESTONIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 1 341 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 23 089 Merchandise 79 79
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 27 701 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 2 192 Commercial services 64 77
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 24 337 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 162.0
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 165 6 6 -4
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 163 6 0 -1
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 190 8 4 -8

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.088


WTO accession date 13 November 1999 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 32
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 28 - 5
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 81 - 65
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 24
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 103 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) a 12 451 ... 14 13
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) a 16 028 ... 17 2
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.08 Share in world total imports 0.10
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 14.7 Agricultural products 12.7
Fuels and mining products 16.3 Fuels and mining products 17.4
Manufactures 68.7 Manufactures 69.4
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 63.4 1. European Union (27) 59.7
2. Russian Federation 15.1 2. Russian Federation 10.1
3. United States 5.7 3. China 5.7
4. Norway 3.0 4. Belarus 3.8
5. Ukraine 1.9 5. Japan 3.1

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 5 048 17 25 16
Commercial services imports (million US$) 3 352 18 26 11
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.13 Share in world total imports 0.10
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 39.6 Transportation 38.8
Travel 24.0 Travel 23.6
Other commercial services 36.4 Other commercial services 37.6

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
13 1 043 1 056 876 302 2 991 4 169
a Break in series for merchandise: 2004.

58 TRADE PROFILES 2009


ETHIOPIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 80 713 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 26 487 Merchandise 132 99
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 70 069 excluding intra-EU trade 107 74
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 1 822 Commercial services 93 90
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 125 excluding intra-EU trade 67 65
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 48.2
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 187 8 11 11
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 220 10 10 3
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 226 11 4 7

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected (%, 2001-2002)
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue 49.8
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 17.0
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 1-0
All goods - 17.3 Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - 22.4 Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - 16.6 Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.1 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods 22.4 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 1 602 16 24 25
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 7 700 25 20 34
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.05
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 85.5 Agricultural products 13.9
Fuels and mining products 0.5 Fuels and mining products 12.8
Manufactures 9.0 Manufactures 73.2
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 35.0 1. China 20.2
2. Saudi Arabia 7.7 2. European Union (27) 18.7
3. United States 7.2 3. Saudi Arabia 14.2
4. Switzerland 6.2 4. United Arab Emirates 8.4
5. China 5.3 5. India 7.3

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 1 770 21 33 50
Commercial services imports (million US$) 2 371 22 50 37
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.05 Share in world total imports 0.07
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 59.2 Transportation 68.1
Travel 21.1 Travel 6.6
Other commercial services 19.7 Other commercial services 25.4

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2000 Trademark registrations by office, 1995
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... 1 1 239 103 ... 342

TRADE PROFILES 2009 59


EUROPEAN UNION (27)

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 496 754 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2007) 16 847 194 Merchandise - -
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2007) 14 817 619 excluding intra-EU trade 1 1
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 373 591 Commercial services - -
Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) 8 523 excluding intra-EU trade 1 1
Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 27.9
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 117 2 3 1
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 144 5 5 2
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 144 5 5 1

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue 0.6
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 1.2
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 28
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 27 - 4
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 81 - 65
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 24
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 1 924 912 12 17 13
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 2 282 239 12 16 16
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 15.91 Share in world total imports 18.33
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 6.6 Agricultural products 7.6
Fuels and mining products 8.7 Fuels and mining products 33.5
Manufactures 81.4 Manufactures 56.4
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 19.1 1. China 16.0
2. Russian Federation 8.0 2. United States 12.0
3. Switzerland 7.6 3. Russian Federation 11.2
4. China 6.0 4. Norway 5.9
5. Turkey 4.1 5. Switzerland 5.2

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 743 195 ... 22 11
Commercial services imports (million US$) 620 710 ... 19 13
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 26.86 Share in world total imports 23.90
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 26.3 Transportation 26.1
Travel 14.6 Travel 22.7
Other commercial services 59.2 Other commercial services 51.2

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
- - - 39 910 17 170 12 046 69 126

60 TRADE PROFILES 2009


FIJI

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 839 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 3 527 Merchandise 149 144
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 3 676 excluding intra-EU trade 123 118
Current account balance (million US$, 2006) - 715 Commercial services 120 143
Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) 4 352 excluding intra-EU trade 94 117
Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 114.3
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 109 1 -7 0
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 14 January 1996 Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006)
Trade Policy Review date 25, 27 March 2009 in total tax revenue 18.5
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 6.2
Tariff binding coverage (%) 52.3 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 34
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-0
All goods 41.8 11.7 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 47.2 23.7 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 40.0 9.9 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.3 2.8 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 27.6 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 5.4 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 1 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 923 6 11 22
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 2 266 13 0 26
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 49.1 Agricultural products 17.1
Fuels and mining products 27.0 Fuels and mining products 31.2
Manufactures 19.5 Manufactures 42.9
By main destination By main origin
1. Singapore 18.6 1. Singapore 34.2
2. European Union (27) 15.5 2. Australia 22.8
3. United States 14.7 3. New Zealand 17.7
4. Australia 13.3 4. China 3.3
5. New Zealand 6.9 5. United States 3.2

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2007 2000-2007 2006 2007
Commercial services exports (million US$) 733 9 -6 -1
Commercial services imports (million US$) 497 6 2 -3
2007 a 2007 a
Share in world total exports 0.02 Share in world total imports 0.02
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 33.6 Transportation 57.8
Travel 58.6 Travel 19.7
Other commercial services 7.8 Other commercial services 22.4

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...
a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 61


FINLAND

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 5 313 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 271 282 Merchandise 37 35
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 188 219 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) 10 121 Commercial services 34 35
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 39 327 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 86.0
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 125 3 4 1
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 140 5 5 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 146 6 4 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.639


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 31
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 28 - 5
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 81 - 65
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 24
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 99 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 96 455 10 17 7
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 91 781 13 18 12
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.60 Share in world total imports 0.56
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 6.2 Agricultural products 8.4
Fuels and mining products 10.6 Fuels and mining products 24.8
Manufactures 78.0 Manufactures 65.5
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 55.9 1. European Union (27) 54.3
2. Russian Federation 11.6 2. Russian Federation 16.3
3. United States 6.3 3. China 7.0
4. China 3.1 4. United States 3.0
5. Norway 3.0 5. Norway 2.6

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 24 229 15 32 5
Commercial services imports (million US$) 23 119 14 19 5
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.64 Share in world total imports 0.66
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 14.6 Transportation 25.7
Travel 12.9 Travel 18.9
Other commercial services 72.5 Other commercial services 55.4

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
643 278 921 2 352 474 2 837 5 663
a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

62 TRADE PROFILES 2009


FRANCE

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 62 048 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 2 853 062 Merchandise 6 5
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 2 112 426 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 52 910 Commercial services 4 6
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 23 010 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 55.2
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 114 2 2 0
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 120 3 3 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 134 4 6 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 4.716


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 31
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 28 - 5
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 81 - 67
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 24
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 605 403 8 11 10
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 705 577 10 14 14
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 3.77 Share in world total imports 4.30
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 12.6 Agricultural products 9.3
Fuels and mining products 7.5 Fuels and mining products 19.5
Manufactures 77.7 Manufactures 70.4
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 63.6 1. European Union (27) 60.3
2. United States 5.9 2. China 6.5
3. Switzerland 3.0 3. United States 5.5
4. China 2.2 4. Russian Federation 2.9
5. Russian Federation 1.7 5. Switzerland 2.3

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 160 464 9 15 11
Commercial services imports (million US$) 139 359 11 15 8
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 4.25 Share in world total imports 3.99
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 25.6 Transportation 30.1
Travel 34.3 Travel 30.2
Other commercial services 40.1 Other commercial services 39.7

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
9 748 2 364 12 112 ... ... 6 381 6 381
a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 63


FYR MACEDONIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 2 038 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 9 521 Merchandise 112 104
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 20 460 excluding intra-EU trade 88 79
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 1 210 Commercial services 112 125
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 4 832 excluding intra-EU trade 86 99
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 124.0
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 124 3 6 5
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 129 3 12 10
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 134 4 15 5

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.024


WTO accession date 4 April 2003 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date ... in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 26
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 6-0
All goods 7.2 7.7 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 13.2 13.7 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 6.3 6.8 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 1.3 1.5 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 19.1 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 56.3 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 3 978 15 40 19
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 6 852 16 39 31
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.02 Share in world total imports 0.04
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 12.9 Agricultural products 11.9
Fuels and mining products 9.1 Fuels and mining products 26.0
Manufactures 77.7 Manufactures 62.1
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 65.1 1. European Union (27) 49.5
2. Serbia 19.1 2. Russian Federation 12.3
3. Croatia 4.9 3. Serbia 8.6
4. Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.6 4. China 4.6
5. Albania 2.2 5. Turkey 3.7

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 992 17 37 24
Commercial services imports (million US$) 970 18 37 30
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.03 Share in world total imports 0.03
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 33.0 Transportation 41.8
Travel 23.0 Travel 14.0
Other commercial services 43.9 Other commercial services 44.1

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2004 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
23 83 106 ... ... 4 675 4 675
a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

64 TRADE PROFILES 2009


GABON

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 1 448 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 14 435 Merchandise 90 142
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 21 037 excluding intra-EU trade 66 116
Current account balance (million US$, 2005) 1 983 Commercial services 164 109
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 7 898 excluding intra-EU trade 138 83
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 94.8
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 119 2 6 2
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 87 -2 4 0
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 168 7 22 13

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.024


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 1, 3 October 2007 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 36
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 1-0
All goods 21.4 17.8 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 60.0 21.8 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 15.5 17.1 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 2.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 7.0 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 15 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 8 700 16 21 32
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 2 450 13 16 23
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.05 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 8.3 Agricultural products 17.0
Fuels and mining products 87.6 Fuels and mining products 5.0
Manufactures 4.0 Manufactures 77.3
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 58.4 1. European Union (27) 66.9
2. European Union (27) 12.1 2. United States 7.3
3. China 10.6 3. Cameroon 3.5
4. Singapore 5.3 4. Japan 3.0
5. Switzerland 2.6 5. China 2.6

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 149 -2 13 16
Commercial services imports (million US$) 1 467 7 18 18
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.04
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 22.0 Transportation 31.4
Travel 7.7 Travel 26.9
Other commercial services 70.3 Other commercial services 41.7

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...
a Breakdowns by commodity group and by destination/origin refer to 2006. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2005.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 65


GAMBIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 1 660 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 782 Merchandise 199 186
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 2 262 excluding intra-EU trade 173 160
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 53 Commercial services 167 182
Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) 321 excluding intra-EU trade 141 156
Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 93.8
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 148 5 6 6
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 99 0 7 9
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 97 0 9 -1

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 23 October 1996 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 4, 6 February 2004 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 13.7 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 33
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 1-0
All goods 102.0 19.0 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 103.5 18.9 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 56.1 19.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 23.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 1.5 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 111 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 14 -1 9 11
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 329 7 24 3
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 63.7 Agricultural products 31.9
Fuels and mining products 15.4 Fuels and mining products 20.7
Manufactures 20.9 Manufactures 47.4
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 42.8 1. European Union (27) 42.1
2. India 17.4 2. United States 10.9
3. Senegal 17.4 3. China 10.8
4. Singapore 4.8 4. Côte d'Ivoire 8.9
5. United Arab Emirates 4.1 5. Brazil 4.3

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2007 2000-2007 2006 2007
Commercial services exports (million US$) 114 9 16 24
Commercial services imports (million US$) 77 3 107 -18
2007 2007
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 17.4 Transportation 47.2
Travel 65.3 Travel 9.6
Other commercial services 17.3 Other commercial services 43.2

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

66 TRADE PROFILES 2009


GEORGIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 4 364 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 12 793 Merchandise 135 108
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 21 370 excluding intra-EU trade 109 83
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 2 851 Commercial services 107 118
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 2 028 excluding intra-EU trade 81 92
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 87.1
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 179 8 12 2
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 161 6 10 5
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 201 9 22 9

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.020


WTO accession date 14 June 2000 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date ... in total tax revenue 3.7
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 1.3
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 14
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 8-0
All goods 7.4 1.4 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 13.6 8.3 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 6.5 0.3 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.3 0.3 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 41.8 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 98.4 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 125 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 1 498 21 25 21
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 6 058 31 42 16
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.04
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 18.3 Agricultural products 15.9
Fuels and mining products 23.2 Fuels and mining products 20.0
Manufactures 51.7 Manufactures 63.5
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 22.3 1. European Union (27) 27.4
2. Turkey 17.6 2. Turkey 15.1
3. Azerbaijan 13.7 3. Ukraine 10.8
4. Ukraine 9.0 4. Azerbaijan 10.0
5. Canada 8.8 5. Russian Federation 7.0

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 1 159 24 22 19
Commercial services imports (million US$) 1 152 23 27 32
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.03 Share in world total imports 0.03
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 53.2 Transportation 55.7
Travel 38.5 Travel 17.7
Other commercial services 8.3 Other commercial services 26.6

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
38 33 71 301 638 3 699 4 638

TRADE PROFILES 2009 67


GERMANY

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 82 140 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 3 652 824 Merchandise 1 2
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 2 925 220 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 243 550 Commercial services 3 2
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 34 994 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 87.4
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 110 1 2 1
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 163 7 8 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 140 5 5 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 8.802


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 31
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 28 - 5
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 81 - 65
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 24
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 1 461 853 13 19 11
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 1 203 787 12 16 14
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 9.10 Share in world total imports 7.33
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 6.0 Agricultural products 9.0
Fuels and mining products 5.8 Fuels and mining products 18.9
Manufactures 86.2 Manufactures 70.6
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 63.7 1. European Union (27) 58.5
2. United States 7.2 2. China 7.2
3. Switzerland 4.0 3. United States 5.6
4. China 3.4 4. Russian Federation 4.4
5. Russian Federation 3.2 5. Switzerland 3.8

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 241 590 15 18 11
Commercial services imports (million US$) 283 028 10 16 11
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 6.39 Share in world total imports 8.11
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 24.4 Transportation 23.0
Travel 16.6 Travel 32.4
Other commercial services 59.0 Other commercial services 44.6

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
12 977 4 762 17 739 51 749 2 785 6 104 60 638

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

68 TRADE PROFILES 2009


GHANA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 23 351 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 16 123 Merchandise 101 90
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 33 907 excluding intra-EU trade 77 65
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 2 151 Commercial services 100 98
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 698 excluding intra-EU trade 74 72
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 109.3
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 153 5 6 6
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 133 4 3 5
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 178 7 9 9

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.042


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 28, 30 January 2008 in total tax revenue 20.0
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 6.8
Tariff binding coverage (%) 14.3 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 33
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-0
All goods 92.5 13.0 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 97.1 17.4 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 34.7 12.3 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 1.6 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 33.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 30 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 5 275 15 13 26
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 10 261 17 20 27
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.03 Share in world total imports 0.06
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 49.3 Agricultural products 14.0
Fuels and mining products 15.8 Fuels and mining products 13.4
Manufactures 7.8 Manufactures 60.8
By main destination By main origin
1. South Africa 44.0 1. European Union (27) 27.8
2. European Union (27) 26.4 2. China 11.7
3. India 5.3 3. Nigeria 8.7
4. Malaysia 3.2 4. United States 7.7
5. United States 2.8 5. India 4.3

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 1 579 16 28 -2
Commercial services imports (million US$) 1 977 18 25 9
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.04 Share in world total imports 0.06
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 19.4 Transportation 47.3
Travel 56.3 Travel 30.9
Other commercial services 24.3 Other commercial services 21.8

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Breakdowns by services items refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 69


GREECE

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 11 238 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 356 796 Merchandise 65 42
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 329 963 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 51 312 Commercial services 23 34
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 14 961 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 53.5
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 138 4 4 3
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 118 2 6 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 132 4 7 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.483


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 31
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 28 - 5
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 81 - 67
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 24
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 25 242 10 14 7
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 79 049 11 20 4
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.16 Share in world total imports 0.48
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 23.2 Agricultural products 13.2
Fuels and mining products 20.2 Fuels and mining products 14.8
Manufactures 53.9 Manufactures 71.8
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 64.0 1. European Union (27) 54.9
2. United States 5.1 2. Russian Federation 7.3
3. Turkey 3.6 3. China 5.5
4. FYR Macedonia 2.6 4. Iran, Islamic Rep. of 3.3
5. Russian Federation 2.4 5. Turkey 2.8
Unspecified destinations 2.6 Unspecified origins 1.4
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 50 377 13 21 17
Commercial services imports (million US$) 24 392 11 24 23
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 1.33 Share in world total imports 0.70
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 56.2 Transportation 56.3
Travel 34.6 Travel 16.1
Other commercial services 9.2 Other commercial services 27.6

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
355 3 890 4 245 ... ... 3 688 3 688

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

70 TRADE PROFILES 2009


GRENADA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 106 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 638 Merchandise 191 184
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 901 excluding intra-EU trade 165 158
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 222 Commercial services 165 176
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 5 400 excluding intra-EU trade 139 150
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 97.7
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 121 2 15 2
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 22 February 1996 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 5, 7 November 2007 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 41
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-2
All goods 56.8 10.2 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 101.0 16.9 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 50.0 9.2 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 15.5 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 12.1 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 19 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 31 -5 32 -9
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 363 5 22 0
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 58.6 Agricultural products 23.1
Fuels and mining products 0.3 Fuels and mining products 20.0
Manufactures 41.1 Manufactures 56.9
By main destination By main origin
1. Dominica 16.4 1. United States 30.9
2. United States 16.3 2. Trinidad and Tobago 24.9
3. European Union (27) 16.1 3. European Union (27) 10.7
4. Saint Lucia 11.2 4. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 7.0
5. Barbados 9.4 5. Japan 3.6

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 145 0 14 -1
Commercial services imports (million US$) 109 3 10 5
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 8.3 Transportation 47.2
Travel 74.4 Travel 10.0
Other commercial services 17.3 Other commercial services 42.8

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

TRADE PROFILES 2009 71


GUATEMALA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 13 676 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 38 977 Merchandise 93 81
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 65 100 excluding intra-EU trade 69 57
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 1 862 Commercial services 98 96
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 1 706 excluding intra-EU trade 72 70
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 66.2
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 135 4 6 4
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 128 3 11 8
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 148 5 7 12

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.067


WTO accession date 21 July 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006)
Trade Policy Review date 4, 6 February 2009 in total tax revenue 12.1
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 3.4
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 16
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-2
All goods 42.2 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 9.9 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 40.8 4.9 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 7-2
in agricultural goods (AOA) 30.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 2-2
in non-agricultural goods 59.1 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 20 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) a 7 738 ... 15 12
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) a 14 549 ... 14 7
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.05 Share in world total imports 0.09
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 41.8 Agricultural products 13.8
Fuels and mining products 11.3 Fuels and mining products 20.8
Manufactures 46.9 Manufactures 65.1
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 39.4 1. United States 36.7
2. El Salvador 12.6 2. Mexico 9.7
3. Honduras 9.5 3. European Union (27) 6.6
4. Mexico 6.6 4. China 5.8
5. European Union (27) 5.6 5. El Salvador 4.7

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 1 649 11 15 2
Commercial services imports (million US$) 2 125 13 15 5
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.04 Share in world total imports 0.06
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 11.4 Transportation 54.3
Travel 64.8 Travel 28.5
Other commercial services 23.8 Other commercial services 17.2

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2006
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
3 107 110 ... 4 184 ... 4 184

a Break in series for merchandise: 2002.

72 TRADE PROFILES 2009


GUINEA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 9 833 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 4 266 Merchandise 139 155
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 11 839 excluding intra-EU trade 113 129
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 456 Commercial services 182 160
Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) 235 excluding intra-EU trade 156 134
Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 60.3
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 132 4 2 8
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 123 3 6 8
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 102 0 2 8

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 25 October 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 12, 14 october 2005 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 38.9 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 37
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-0
All goods 20.1 11.8 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 39.7 14.2 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 10.0 11.5 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 9 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 1 360 9 7 19
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 1 600 13 26 33
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 5.0 Agricultural products 16.2
Fuels and mining products 52.6 Fuels and mining products 39.5
Manufactures 10.4 Manufactures 44.2
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 49.6 1. European Union (27) 53.5
2. Switzerland 19.5 2. China 6.7
3. Russian Federation 10.6 3. United States 5.2
4. United States 6.7 4. Australia 3.9
5. Canada 4.0 5. Brazil 2.9

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2007 2000-2007 2006 2007
Commercial services exports (million US$) 44 7 6 29
Commercial services imports (million US$) 248 4 14 12
2007 2007
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 13.6 Transportation 38.9
Travel 0.4 Travel 11.7
Other commercial services 86.0 Other commercial services 49.5

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

TRADE PROFILES 2009 73


GUINEA-BISSAU

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 1 575 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 430 Merchandise 181 196
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 847 excluding intra-EU trade 155 170
Current account balance (million US$, 2004) 14 Commercial services 187 186
Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) 170 excluding intra-EU trade 161 160
Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 76.7
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 94 -1 1 3
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 135 4 5 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 105 1 9 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 31 May 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date ... in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 97.8 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 40
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-0
All goods 48.6 11.9 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 40.0 14.5 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 50.0 11.5 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 2 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 98 6 15 15
Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) b 160 ... 7 18
2008 c 2008 c
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products ... Agricultural products ...
Fuels and mining products ... Fuels and mining products ...
Manufactures ... Manufactures ...
By main destination By main origin
1. India 86.6 1. European Union (27) 46.9
2. Singapore 12.1 2. Senegal 40.9
3. European Union (27) 0.8 3. Thailand 7.0
4. Panama 0.2 4. China 2.4
5. Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of 0.2 5. Gambia 1.6

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2007 2000-2007 2006 2007
Commercial services exports (million US$) 11 13 -15 187
Commercial services imports (million US$) 48 8 -5 21
2007 c 2007 c
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 12.7 Transportation 56.9
Travel 71.4 Travel 39.3
Other commercial services 15.9 Other commercial services 3.9

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.
b Break in series for merchandise: 2001 for imports.
c Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2005. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2006.

74 TRADE PROFILES 2009


GUYANA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 763 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 1 158 Merchandise 154 161
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 1 940 excluding intra-EU trade 128 135
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 166 Commercial services 155 158
Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) 2 398 excluding intra-EU trade 129 132
Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 197.2
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 102 0 -2 3
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 99 0 ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 98 -1 ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 8, 10 July 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 26
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-2
All goods 56.7 10.9 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 100.0 21.7 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 50.0 9.3 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 37.4 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 16.8 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 19 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 799 6 19 14
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 1 300 11 19 23
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 47.0 Agricultural products 15.2
Fuels and mining products 24.5 Fuels and mining products 39.8
Manufactures 9.1 Manufactures 44.9
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 30.1 1. Trinidad and Tobago 29.0
2. Canada 22.5 2. United States 26.6
3. United States 17.4 3. European Union (27) 7.9
4. Ukraine 5.4 4. Netherlands Antilles 6.5
5. Jamaica 4.8 5. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 5.6

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2007 2000-2007 2006 2007
Commercial services exports (million US$) 173 0 0 17
Commercial services imports (million US$) 273 5 22 11
2007 2007
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 5.0 Transportation 31.4
Travel 29.2 Travel 21.1
Other commercial services 65.8 Other commercial services 47.5

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Refers to 2002 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2002.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 75


HAITI

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 9 780 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 6 953 Merchandise 162 147
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 11 509 excluding intra-EU trade 136 121
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 80 Commercial services 156 145
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 297 excluding intra-EU trade 130 119
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 46.0
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 104 1 3 1
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 30 January 1996 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 4, 6 November 2003 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 89.2 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 26
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 1-1
All goods 18.7 2.8 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 21.3 5.7 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 18.3 2.4 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 9.3 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 16 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 490 6 3 -6
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 2 148 10 13 16
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 8.0 Agricultural products 30.7
Fuels and mining products 0.0 Fuels and mining products 28.8
Manufactures 92.0 Manufactures 40.5
By main destination By main origin
1. ... ... 1. ... ...
2. ... ... 2. ... ...
3. ... ... 3. ... ...
4. ... ... 4. ... ...
5. ... ... 5. ... ...

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 193 3 2 27
Commercial services imports (million US$) 558 9 30 17
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.02
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation ... Transportation ...
Travel ... Travel ...
Other commercial services ... Other commercial services ...

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 1999 Trademark registrations by office, 1999
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... 7 7 82 812 ... 894

76 TRADE PROFILES 2009


HONDURAS

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 7 242 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 14 077 Merchandise 97 89
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 28 709 excluding intra-EU trade 73 64
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 1 225 Commercial services 114 115
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 2 280 excluding intra-EU trade 88 89
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 131.1
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 148 5 6 4
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 158 6 4 3
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 163 6 8 2

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.035


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 29 September, 1 October 2003 in total tax revenue 7.4
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 1.5
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 17
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-2
All goods 32.6 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 32.3 10.7 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 32.6 4.9 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 6-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 32.4 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 2-0
in non-agricultural goods 61.1 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 17 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 6 046 8 6 8
Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) 10 389 13 17 21
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.04 Share in world total imports 0.06
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 26.6 Agricultural products 11.4
Fuels and mining products 4.3 Fuels and mining products 16.2
Manufactures 56.7 Manufactures 58.9
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 42.8 1. United States 40.0
2. European Union (27) 20.3 2. Guatemala 8.3
3. Guatemala 9.2 3. European Union (27) 6.6
4. El Salvador 8.1 4. Mexico 6.0
5. Mexico 4.4 5. El Salvador 4.4

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 902 8 9 23
Commercial services imports (million US$) 1 203 7 6 17
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.02 Share in world total imports 0.03
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 5.8 Transportation 60.0
Travel 68.8 Travel 28.6
Other commercial services 25.4 Other commercial services 11.4

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2002 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
6 41 47 1 119 4 147 ... 5 266

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 77


HONG KONG, CHINA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 6 978 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 215 355 Merchandise 13 13
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 306 487 excluding intra-EU trade 8 7
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 30 532 Commercial services 12 20
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 119 905 excluding intra-EU trade 6 11
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 406.5
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 143 5 6 2
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 188 8 8 3
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 176 7 9 2

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 2.846


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006)
Trade Policy Review date 13, 15 December 2006 in total tax revenue 0.6
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 0.0
Tariff binding coverage (%) 45.8 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 4
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 1-1
All goods 0.0 0.0 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 0.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 0.0 0.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 1-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 100.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 100.0 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 68 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 370 242 8 8 6
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 392 962 8 10 6
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 2.30 Share in world total imports 2.39
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 1.8 Agricultural products 4.2
Fuels and mining products 2.0 Fuels and mining products 5.8
Manufactures 94.0 Manufactures 88.8
By main destination By main origin
1. China 48.2 1. China 46.1
2. European Union (27) 13.7 2. Japan 10.0
3. United States 12.5 3. European Union (27) 7.6
4. Japan 4.2 4. Singapore 6.4
5. Taipei, Chinese 2.0 5. Taipei, Chinese 6.3

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 92 318 11 16 9
Commercial services imports (million US$) 45 849 8 15 8
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 2.44 Share in world total imports 1.31
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 30.8 Transportation 32.5
Travel 16.5 Travel 34.6
Other commercial services 52.7 Other commercial services 32.8

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
57 4 782 4 839 6 324 13 070 ... 19 394

78 TRADE PROFILES 2009


HUNGARY

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 10 038 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 154 668 Merchandise 36 33
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 194 023 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 12 980 Commercial services 37 37
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 21 402 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 158.8
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 131 3 1 1
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 221 10 16 5
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 204 9 13 5

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.607


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 33
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 28 - 5
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 86 - 67
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 24
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 102 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 107 709 18 27 13
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 107 910 16 22 13
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.67 Share in world total imports 0.66
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 8.1 Agricultural products 5.8
Fuels and mining products 5.2 Fuels and mining products 15.3
Manufactures 84.8 Manufactures 77.5
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 78.3 1. European Union (27) 68.3
2. Russian Federation 3.6 2. Russian Federation 9.3
3. United States 2.3 3. China 5.6
4. Ukraine 2.0 4. Japan 2.6
5. Croatia 1.6 5. United States 1.8

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 19 958 17 28 18
Commercial services imports (million US$) 18 469 19 33 20
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.53 Share in world total imports 0.53
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 19.9 Transportation 19.7
Travel 30.2 Travel 21.9
Other commercial services 49.9 Other commercial services 58.4

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
112 525 637 3 127 884 4 380 8 391

TRADE PROFILES 2009 79


ICELAND

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 317 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 16 658 Merchandise 100 107
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 11 656 excluding intra-EU trade 76 82
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 6 607 Commercial services 86 87
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 48 730 excluding intra-EU trade 60 62
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 85.3
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 134 4 4 0
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 148 6 18 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 158 7 -1 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.046


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 7, 9 June 2006 in total tax revenue 1.0
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 0.8
Tariff binding coverage (%) 95.0 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 46
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 19 - 7
All goods 23.5 7.3 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 109.1 40.5 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 9.6 2.3 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 3.1 2.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 67.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 79.0 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 113 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 5 382 14 38 13
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 6 205 12 9 -7
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.03 Share in world total imports 0.04
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 38.6 Agricultural products 10.0
Fuels and mining products 41.1 Fuels and mining products 24.8
Manufactures 19.0 Manufactures 64.5
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 76.2 1. European Union (27) 53.6
2. United States 5.6 2. Norway 11.2
3. Japan 4.4 3. United States 8.0
4. Norway 4.4 4. China 6.6
5. China 2.2 5. Australia 4.4

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 2 134 11 24 -3
Commercial services imports (million US$) 2 498 10 16 -15
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.06 Share in world total imports 0.07
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 43.7 Transportation 32.2
Travel 27.1 Travel 44.2
Other commercial services 29.2 Other commercial services 23.6

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
11 127 138 630 739 3 044 4 413
a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

80 TRADE PROFILES 2009


INDIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 1 139 965 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 1 217 490 Merchandise 27 16
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 3 388 473 excluding intra-EU trade 19 10
Current account balance (million US$, 2006) - 9 415 Commercial services 9 13
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 467 excluding intra-EU trade 5 7
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 47.6
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 179 8 9 7
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 256 12 8 0
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 302 15 8 0

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 1.243


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2002-2004)
Trade Policy Review date 23, 25 May 2007 in total tax revenue 19.5
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 10.9
Tariff binding coverage (%) 73.8 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 39
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 8-1
All goods 49.0 13.0 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 169
Agricultural goods (AOA) 114.2 32.2 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 34.7 10.1 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 5.3 5.1 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 18 - 20
in agricultural goods (AOA) 6.8 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 9-6
in non-agricultural goods 9.0 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 1-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 37 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-1

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 177 499 20 22 21
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 293 374 24 25 35
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 1.10 Share in world total imports 1.79
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 12.0 Agricultural products 4.0
Fuels and mining products 24.4 Fuels and mining products 45.6
Manufactures 63.2 Manufactures 43.3
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 21.6 1. European Union (27) 13.9
2. United States 11.8 2. China 10.0
3. United Arab Emirates 10.5 3. United States 7.8
4. China 5.6 4. Saudi Arabia 7.3
5. Singapore 4.9 5. United Arab Emirates 6.2

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) a 102 648 ... 23 17
Commercial services imports (million US$) a 83 599 ... 22 18
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 2.72 Share in world total imports 2.40
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 10.8 Transportation 49.5
Travel 11.5 Travel 11.5
Other commercial services 77.7 Other commercial services 39.0

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Trademark registrations by office, 2006
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
1 907 5 632 7 539 ... ... ... 109 361
a Break in series for commercial services: 2004, 2005.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 81


INDONESIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 228 249 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 514 389 Merchandise 31 30
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 907 264 excluding intra-EU trade 21 20
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 606 Commercial services 43 32
Trade per capita (US$, 2001-2003) 562 excluding intra-EU trade 26 20
Trade to GDP ratio (2001-2003) 60.4
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 150 5 6 6
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 181 8 9 9
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 197 9 9 10

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.742


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2001-2003)
Trade Policy Review date 27, 29 June 2007 in total tax revenue 4.6
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 2.0
Tariff binding coverage (%) 96.6 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 56
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 4-2
All goods 37.1 6.9 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 20
Agricultural goods (AOA) 47.1 8.5 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 35.6 6.7 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 1
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.2 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 4-4
in agricultural goods (AOA) 37.5 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 2-4
in non-agricultural goods 66.5 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 1-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 45 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 139 278 10 14 18
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 126 160 14 15 36
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.87 Share in world total imports 0.77
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 23.6 Agricultural products 10.6
Fuels and mining products 36.3 Fuels and mining products 28.5
Manufactures 37.8 Manufactures 60.9
By main destination By main origin
1. Japan 20.2 1. Singapore 16.9
2. European Union (27) 11.3 2. China 11.8
3. United States 9.5 3. Japan 11.7
4. Singapore 9.4 4. European Union (27) 8.2
5. China 8.5 5. Malaysia 6.9

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2003 2000-2003 2002 2003
Commercial services exports (million US$) 5 143 1 22 -21
Commercial services imports (million US$) 17 171 4 8 2
2003 2003
Share in world total exports 0.28 Share in world total imports 0.96
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 16.6 Transportation 28.1
Travel 78.5 Travel 18.0
Other commercial services 4.9 Other commercial services 54.0

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 1996 Trademark registrations by office, 2006
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
16 615 631 ... ... ... 24 677

82 TRADE PROFILES 2009


IRAN, ISLAMIC REP. OF

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 71 956 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 385 143 Merchandise 35 48
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 839 438 excluding intra-EU trade 23 30
Current account balance (million US$, 2000) 12 481 Commercial services 59 49
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 2 421 excluding intra-EU trade 37 32
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 57.7
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 158 6 8 6
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 136 4 3 1
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 250 12 5 7

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected (%, 2006-2008)
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue 21.1
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 7.2
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-0
All goods - 26.0 Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - 28.9 Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - 25.6 Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods 0.0 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 113 401 19 15 28
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 57 411 19 10 28
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.71 Share in world total imports 0.35
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 3.2 Agricultural products 13.7
Fuels and mining products 84.2 Fuels and mining products 9.7
Manufactures 9.9 Manufactures 70.5
By main destination By main origin
1. Japan 23.9 1. European Union (27) 9.0
2. Taipei, Chinese 22.5 2. China 6.0
3. European Union (27) 19.8 3. India 3.7
4. United Arab Emirates 2.9 4. Japan 2.6
5. Iraq 2.9 5. Malaysia 0.8
Unspecified destinations 0.3 Unspecified origins 74.8
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 6 763 21 8 10
Commercial services imports (million US$) 12 011 24 14 13
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.18 Share in world total imports 0.34
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 44.3 Transportation 22.7
Travel 23.6 Travel 56.4
Other commercial services 32.1 Other commercial services 20.9

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2001 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
529 ... 529 ... ... 3 221 3 221
a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 83


IRAQ

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 1999) 23 901 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2003) 12 602 Merchandise 53 62
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) ... excluding intra-EU trade 38 41
Current account balance (million US$, 2006) 2 681 Commercial services 137 60
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) ... excluding intra-EU trade 111 41
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) ...
Annual percentage change
2004 2000-2004 2003 2004
Real GDP (2000=100) 74 -7 -41 46
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-0
All goods - ... Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - ... Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - ... Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - ... Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 59 700 14 30 51
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 31 200 11 3 45
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.37 Share in world total imports 0.19
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 0.1 Agricultural products 11.9
Fuels and mining products 97.7 Fuels and mining products 0.7
Manufactures 0.0 Manufactures 26.5
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 33.7 1. ... ...
2. Taipei, Chinese 29.6 2. ... ...
3. European Union (27) 17.4 3. ... ...
4. Japan 2.3 4. ... ...
5. Syrian Arab Republic 0.2 5. ... ...

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2006 2000-2006 2005 2006
Commercial services exports (million US$) 353 ... ... 2
Commercial services imports (million US$) 5 030 ... ... -7
2006 2006
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.19
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 57.8 Transportation 51.3
Travel 40.8 Travel 7.8
Other commercial services 1.4 Other commercial services 40.8

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 1996 Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
28 18 46 ... ... ... ...

84 TRADE PROFILES 2009


IRELAND

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 4 460 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 281 776 Merchandise 33 39
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 197 111 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 12 686 Commercial services 11 8
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 85 122 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 146.6
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 143 5 6 -2
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 135 5 ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 131 5 ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 1.253


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 31
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 28 - 5
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 81 - 68
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 25
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 124 101 6 12 2
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 83 177 6 15 -1
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.77 Share in world total imports 0.51
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 10.0 Agricultural products 10.7
Fuels and mining products 2.2 Fuels and mining products 13.2
Manufactures 84.6 Manufactures 69.5
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 62.3 1. European Union (27) 63.6
2. United States 19.3 2. United States 11.7
3. Switzerland 3.0 3. China 6.8
4. Japan 2.0 4. Norway 2.3
5. China 1.9 5. Japan 2.0

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 99 235 24 30 12
Commercial services imports (million US$) 106 189 17 20 12
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 2.63 Share in world total imports 3.04
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 3.8 Transportation 2.6
Travel 6.5 Travel 10.0
Other commercial services 89.8 Other commercial services 87.5

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
261 53 314 1 114 970 2 539 4 623

a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 85


ISRAEL

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 7 308 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 199 498 Merchandise 52 44
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 201 323 excluding intra-EU trade 37 26
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 1 596 Commercial services 35 36
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 20 114 excluding intra-EU trade 20 22
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 85.4
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 128 3 5 4
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 133 4 9 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 124 3 12 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.478


WTO accession date 21 April 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 1, 3 February 2006 in total tax revenue 1.0
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 0.7
Tariff binding coverage (%) 75.1 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 34
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 7-0
All goods 22.0 6.8 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 4
Agricultural goods (AOA) 73.3 17.9 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 11.2 5.1 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 5.9 4.7 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 67.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 76.7 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 58 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 60 825 9 16 12
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 67 656 8 17 15
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.38 Share in world total imports 0.41
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 3.5 Agricultural products 7.5
Fuels and mining products 2.3 Fuels and mining products 21.2
Manufactures 92.7 Manufactures 67.1
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 32.6 1. European Union (27) 34.5
2. European Union (27) 29.0 2. United States 12.3
3. Hong Kong, China 6.8 3. China 6.5
4. India 3.8 4. Switzerland 6.1
5. Turkey 2.6 5. Japan 3.4
Unspecified destinations 3.0 Unspecified origins 17.0
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 23 763 6 10 13
Commercial services imports (million US$) 19 600 7 20 11
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.63 Share in world total imports 0.56
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 22.2 Transportation 34.8
Travel 15.3 Travel 17.5
Other commercial services 62.4 Other commercial services 47.6

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
372 2 117 2 489 2 112 5 517 ... 7 629
a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

86 TRADE PROFILES 2009


ITALY

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 59 855 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 2 293 008 Merchandise 7 8
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 1 840 902 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 78 029 Commercial services 8 7
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 20 323 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 57.9
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 107 1 1 -1
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 115 2 5 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 122 3 4 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 3.866


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 31
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 28 - 5
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 81 - 65
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 24
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 538 028 11 20 8
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 554 909 11 16 8
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 3.35 Share in world total imports 3.38
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 7.5 Agricultural products 10.8
Fuels and mining products 6.9 Fuels and mining products 25.2
Manufactures 84.2 Manufactures 63.0
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 57.9 1. European Union (27) 53.1
2. United States 6.3 2. China 6.3
3. Switzerland 4.0 3. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 3.8
4. Russian Federation 2.9 4. United States 3.1
5. Turkey 2.0 5. Switzerland 3.0
Unspecified destinations 1.5 Unspecified origins 6.3
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 121 890 10 13 10
Commercial services imports (million US$) 131 748 12 21 11
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 3.23 Share in world total imports 3.78
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 14.4 Transportation 23.3
Travel 37.9 Travel 23.4
Other commercial services 47.6 Other commercial services 53.3

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
5 257 1 251 6 508 ... ... 6 620 6 620
a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 87


JAMAICA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 2 689 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 15 068 Merchandise 118 98
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 20 720 excluding intra-EU trade 93 73
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) - 1 744 Commercial services 80 92
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 4 930 excluding intra-EU trade 54 67
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 98.6
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 113 2 1 -1
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.044


WTO accession date 9 March 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 17, 19 January 2005 in total tax revenue 9.3
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 4.0
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 19
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-2
All goods 49.6 7.5 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 1
Agricultural goods (AOA) 97.1 17.9 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 42.4 5.9 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 29.2 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 46.4 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 48 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 2 703 10 9 25
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 8 549 13 14 32
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.02 Share in world total imports 0.05
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 13.1 Agricultural products 12.9
Fuels and mining products 76.1 Fuels and mining products 42.9
Manufactures 10.1 Manufactures 44.2
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 40.3 1. United States 39.4
2. European Union (27) 29.8 2. Trinidad and Tobago 17.5
3. Canada 10.6 3. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 11.6
4. Russian Federation 5.2 4. European Union (27) 6.0
5. Iceland 3.2 5. China 3.8

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 2 735 4 2 3
Commercial services imports (million US$) 2 341 7 12 6
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.07 Share in world total imports 0.07
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 16.2 Transportation 47.6
Travel 72.4 Travel 11.5
Other commercial services 11.4 Other commercial services 40.9

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Trademark registrations by office, 2002
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
9 34 43 287 1 208 ... 1 495

88 TRADE PROFILES 2009


JAPAN

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 127 704 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 4 909 272 Merchandise 4 4
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 4 354 550 excluding intra-EU trade 4 4
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 156 632 Commercial services 6 4
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 12 252 excluding intra-EU trade 4 3
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 34.3
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 111 1 2 -1
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 146 6 ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 126 4 ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 5.299


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006)
Trade Policy Review date 18, 20 February 2009 in total tax revenue 1.0
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 1.4
Tariff binding coverage (%) 99.6 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 10
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 10 - 10
All goods 5.4 5.4 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 2
Agricultural goods (AOA) 24.0 23.6 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 1
Non-agricultural goods 2.5 2.6 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 3.5 6.3 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 13 - 15
in agricultural goods (AOA) 46.8 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 9-7
in non-agricultural goods 82.1 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 1-1
Services sectors with GATS commitments 112 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-1

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 782 047 6 10 9
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 762 589 9 7 23
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 4.87 Share in world total imports 4.64
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 1.1 Agricultural products 10.6
Fuels and mining products 4.8 Fuels and mining products 42.8
Manufactures 88.6 Manufactures 44.9
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 17.8 1. China 18.8
2. China 16.0 2. United States 10.4
3. European Union (27) 14.1 3. European Union (27) 9.2
4. Korea, Republic of 7.6 4. Saudi Arabia 6.7
5. Taipei, Chinese 5.9 5. Australia 6.2

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 146 440 10 10 15
Commercial services imports (million US$) 167 443 6 11 13
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 3.88 Share in world total imports 4.80
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 32.0 Transportation 32.2
Travel 7.4 Travel 16.7
Other commercial services 60.6 Other commercial services 51.1

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
145 040 19 914 164 954 79 828 10 183 5 023 95 034
a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 89


JORDAN

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 5 906 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 20 013 Merchandise 92 75
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 31 200 excluding intra-EU trade 68 53
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 2 425 Commercial services 69 72
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 4 464 excluding intra-EU trade 44 49
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 149.1
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 165 6 7 6
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 186 8 1 7
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 179 8 7 10

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.071


WTO accession date 11 April 2000 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 10, 12 November 2008 in total tax revenue 12.0
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 3.3
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 13
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 5-2
All goods 16.3 10.8 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 23.7 18.1 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 15.2 9.8 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 1
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.1 0.1 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.6 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 45.6 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 110 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 7 785 19 10 36
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 16 942 18 18 24
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.05 Share in world total imports 0.10
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 13.8 Agricultural products 18.0
Fuels and mining products 8.6 Fuels and mining products 24.6
Manufactures 76.0 Manufactures 55.1
By main destination By main origin
1. Iraq 16.5 1. Saudi Arabia 21.6
2. India 16.5 2. European Union (27) 20.9
3. United States 13.5 3. China 10.4
4. Saudi Arabia 7.0 4. United States 4.6
5. United Arab Emirates 4.7 5. Egypt 4.3
Unspecified destinations 8.5 Unspecified origins 0.0
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 4 291 13 16 30
Commercial services imports (million US$) 3 913 13 17 18
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.11 Share in world total imports 0.11
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 19.5 Transportation 57.0
Travel 68.6 Travel 25.7
Other commercial services 12.0 Other commercial services 17.4

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 1997 Trademark registrations by office, 1997
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
44 ... 44 2 159 1 926 ... 4 085

90 TRADE PROFILES 2009


KAZAKHSTAN

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 15 675 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 132 229 Merchandise 43 57
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 177 354 excluding intra-EU trade 29 39
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 6 978 Commercial services 75 52
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 6 359 excluding intra-EU trade 50 34
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 92.9
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 204 9 9 3
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 162 6 9 1
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 186 8 26 9

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue 4.5
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 2.1
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 8-0
All goods - 6.0 Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - 13.2 Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - 4.9 Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - 8.5 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) 13.7 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods 46.5 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 71 172 30 25 49
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 37 889 29 38 16
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.44 Share in world total imports 0.23
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 4.5 Agricultural products 8.4
Fuels and mining products 80.9 Fuels and mining products 15.9
Manufactures 13.8 Manufactures 73.4
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 42.9 1. Russian Federation 36.4
2. Switzerland 15.9 2. European Union (27) 22.7
3. China 10.8 3. China 12.1
4. Russian Federation 8.7 4. Ukraine 5.6
5. Israel 3.1 5. United States 5.1

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 3 936 20 25 21
Commercial services imports (million US$) 10 794 25 32 -5
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.10 Share in world total imports 0.31
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 56.9 Transportation 21.9
Travel 25.7 Travel 9.5
Other commercial services 17.4 Other commercial services 68.6

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2003 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
1 251 115 1 366 ... ... 3 613 3 613

TRADE PROFILES 2009 91


KENYA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 38 534 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 34 507 Merchandise 104 87
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 61 267 excluding intra-EU trade 80 63
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 1 978 Commercial services 82 106
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 442 excluding intra-EU trade 56 80
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 59.4
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 141 4 7 4
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 155 6 6 -4
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 197 9 13 8

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.045


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 25, 27 October 2006 in total tax revenue 8.2
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 4.1
Tariff binding coverage (%) 14.6 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 37
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-0
All goods 95.7 12.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 100.0 19.9 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 54.1 11.5 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.2 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 36.0 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 69.6 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 40 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 4 972 14 17 22
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 11 074 17 24 23
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.03 Share in world total imports 0.07
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 55.8 Agricultural products 13.0
Fuels and mining products 6.8 Fuels and mining products 29.3
Manufactures 37.4 Manufactures 57.7
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 31.4 1. European Union (27) 27.7
2. Uganda 10.8 2. United Arab Emirates 13.1
3. Tanzania 7.5 3. India 10.3
4. United States 5.7 4. China 7.3
5. Egypt 3.9 5. South Africa 5.3

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 2 520 17 22 5
Commercial services imports (million US$) 1 663 12 20 12
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.07 Share in world total imports 0.05
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 51.0 Transportation 51.7
Travel 29.9 Travel 16.0
Other commercial services 19.2 Other commercial services 32.3

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
7 17 24 ... ... 1 564 1 564

92 TRADE PROFILES 2009


KOREA, REPUBLIC OF

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 48 607 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 929 121 Merchandise 12 10
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 1 358 037 excluding intra-EU trade 7 5
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 6 349 Commercial services 16 10
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 18 249 excluding intra-EU trade 9 5
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 90.5
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 141 4 5 2
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 212 10 13 6
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 187 8 12 4

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 2.589


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 8, 10 October 2008 in total tax revenue 4.8
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 1.9
Tariff binding coverage (%) 94.6 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 20
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 6-3
All goods 17.0 12.2 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 31
Agricultural goods (AOA) 59.3 49.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 10.2 6.6 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.5 0.6 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) Requests for consultation 13 - 13
in agricultural goods (AOA) 1.5 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 9-8
in non-agricultural goods 27.8 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-1
Services sectors with GATS commitments 98 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-1

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 422 007 12 14 14
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 435 275 13 15 22
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 2.63 Share in world total imports 2.65
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 1.8 Agricultural products 6.1
Fuels and mining products 11.3 Fuels and mining products 40.3
Manufactures 86.5 Manufactures 53.3
By main destination By main origin
1. China 22.1 1. China 17.7
2. European Union (27) 15.1 2. Japan 15.8
3. United States 12.4 3. United States 10.5
4. Japan 7.1 4. European Union (27) 10.3
5. Hong Kong, China 5.0 5. Saudi Arabia 5.9

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 74 107 12 28 20
Commercial services imports (million US$) 91 768 14 21 12
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 1.96 Share in world total imports 2.63
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 58.8 Transportation 40.5
Travel 12.2 Travel 18.7
Other commercial services 29.0 Other commercial services 40.9

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
91 645 32 060 123 705 48 266 12 095 2 809 63 170
a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 93


KUWAIT

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 2 728 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2007) 112 116 Merchandise 39 67
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2006) 121 068 excluding intra-EU trade 25 45
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) 64 741 Commercial services 49 48
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 40 369 excluding intra-EU trade 31 31
Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 88.9
Annual percentage change
2006 2000-2006 2005 2006
Real GDP (2000=100) 159 8 11 6
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 121 5 ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 142 9 ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.259


WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Import duties collected (%, 2006-2008)
Trade Policy Review date ... in total tax revenue 66.8
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 2.3
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 41
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-0
All goods 100.0 4.7 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 100.0 5.2 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 100.0 4.7 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 0.2 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 61 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 87 090 21 12 39
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 24 874 17 18 22
2008 b 2008 b
Share in world total exports 0.54 Share in world total imports 0.15
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 0.3 Agricultural products 16.6
Fuels and mining products 95.2 Fuels and mining products 4.3
Manufactures 4.5 Manufactures 76.2
By main destination By main origin
1. United Arab Emirates 0.8 1. European Union (27) 28.5
2. India 0.6 2. China 11.5
3. Saudi Arabia 0.5 3. United States 11.3
4. United States 0.4 4. Japan 8.5
5. Qatar 0.3 5. Saudi Arabia 6.0
Unspecified destinations 94.5 Unspecified origins 0.2
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 10 301 26 21 13
Commercial services imports (million US$) 12 149 14 19 16
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.27 Share in world total imports 0.35
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 37.4 Transportation 35.3
Travel 2.5 Travel 62.3
Other commercial services 60.1 Other commercial services 2.4

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...
a Refers to 2004 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2004.
b Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

94 TRADE PROFILES 2009


KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 5 278 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 4 420 Merchandise 131 124
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 11 549 excluding intra-EU trade 106 98
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 631 Commercial services 116 124
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 1 030 excluding intra-EU trade 90 98
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 147.1
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 145 5 8 8
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 143 5 25 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 264 15 31 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 20 December 1998 Import duties collected (%, 2006-2007)
Trade Policy Review date 9, 11 October 2006 in total tax revenue 16.7
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 3.1
Tariff binding coverage (%) 99.9 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 34
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 9-0
All goods 7.5 4.7 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 13.0 7.8 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 6.7 4.2 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.5 0.3 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) 31.6 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods 47.0 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 138 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 1 642 16 43 45
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 4 072 28 41 68
2008 b 2008 b
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.02
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 19.8 Agricultural products 13.7
Fuels and mining products 40.2 Fuels and mining products 34.8
Manufactures 27.7 Manufactures 51.5
By main destination By main origin
1. Russian Federation 20.7 1. Russian Federation 40.5
2. Switzerland 19.9 2. China 14.7
3. Kazakhstan 18.0 3. Kazakhstan 12.9
4. Afghanistan 10.4 4. European Union (27) 9.4
5. Uzbekistan 7.6 5. Uzbekistan 5.0

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 884 41 86 35
Commercial services imports (million US$) 988 27 27 71
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.02 Share in world total imports 0.03
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 16.6 Transportation 49.5
Travel 58.2 Travel 30.8
Other commercial services 25.3 Other commercial services 19.7

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
84 ... 84 36 246 3 005 3 287
a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.
b Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 95


LAO PEOPLE’S DEM. REP.

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 6 205 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 5 195 Merchandise 144 160
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 13 243 excluding intra-EU trade 118 134
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) 107 Commercial services 149 164
Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) 494 excluding intra-EU trade 123 138
Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 83.2
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 170 7 8 8
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 15 -21 -5 12
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 15 -21 25 6

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 4-1
All goods - 9.7 Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - 19.5 Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - 8.2 Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - 0.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 1 095 16 5 19
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 1 302 12 0 22
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products ... Agricultural products ...
Fuels and mining products ... Fuels and mining products ...
Manufactures ... Manufactures ...
By main destination By main origin
1. ... ... 1. ... ...
2. ... ... 2. ... ...
3. ... ... 3. ... ...
4. ... ... 4. ... ...
5. ... ... 5. ... ...

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2007 2000-2007 2006 2007
Commercial services exports (million US$) 299 10 -3 54
Commercial services imports (million US$) 229 15 18 25
2007 2007
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 10.1 Transportation 76.8
Travel 77.9 Travel 3.7
Other commercial services 12.0 Other commercial services 19.6

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office, 2003
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... 45 675 ... 720

96 TRADE PROFILES 2009


LATVIA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 2 266 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 33 783 Merchandise 85 78
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 38 750 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 4 354 Commercial services 68 79
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 12 332 excluding intra-EU trade - -
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 102.1
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 175 7 10 -5
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 186 9 12 ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a 249 14 17 ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.068


WTO accession date 10 February 1999 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 31
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 28 - 5
All goods 5.5 5.6 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) 143
Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) 10
Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 4.8 5.4 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) Requests for consultation 81 - 65
in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 33 - 24
in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 4-4
Services sectors with GATS commitments 121 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 4-3

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 10 112 24 35 22
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 16 090 22 33 5
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.06 Share in world total imports 0.10
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 27.1 Agricultural products 15.0
Fuels and mining products 7.4 Fuels and mining products 16.7
Manufactures 65.4 Manufactures 68.0
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 73.0 1. European Union (27) 75.9
2. Russian Federation 10.0 2. Russian Federation 10.6
3. Norway 2.6 3. Belarus 3.3
4. Belarus 2.2 4. China 2.3
5. Peru 1.6 5. Switzerland 1.1

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 4 508 19 39 24
Commercial services imports (million US$) 3 169 21 37 18
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.12 Share in world total imports 0.09
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 51.3 Transportation 25.8
Travel 17.8 Travel 36.1
Other commercial services 30.8 Other commercial services 38.1

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
81 39 120 965 407 3 452 4 824
a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 97


LEBANON

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 4 139 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 28 660 Merchandise 108 76
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 47 891 excluding intra-EU trade 84 54
Current account balance (million US$, 2008) - 3 056 Commercial services 38 45
Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) 10 211 excluding intra-EU trade 21 28
Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 166.2
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 141 4 8 8
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 251 12 7 30
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 158 6 9 10

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007)
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue 9.7
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports 1.7
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 3-0
All goods - 6.8 Anti-dumping -
Agricultural goods (AOA) - 19.5 Countervailing duties -
Non-agricultural goods - 4.9 Safeguards -
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) - 6.0 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation -
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports -
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) -
Services sectors with GATS commitments - Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) -

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) a 4 454 ... 27 25
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 16 754 13 27 37
2008 b 2008 b
Share in world total exports 0.03 Share in world total imports 0.10
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 12.3 Agricultural products 13.8
Fuels and mining products 17.6 Fuels and mining products 16.9
Manufactures 68.7 Manufactures 69.3
By main destination By main origin
1. European Union (27) 10.6 1. European Union (27) 28.4
2. Switzerland 8.2 2. United States 7.1
3. United Arab Emirates 5.3 3. China 5.0
4. Syrian Arab Republic 5.2 4. Egypt 4.2
5. Saudi Arabia 3.7 5. Turkey 3.0
Unspecified destinations 39.5 Unspecified origins 25.0
COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Commercial services exports (million US$) 18 928 ... 12 46
Commercial services imports (million US$) 13 392 ... 14 34
2008 2008
Share in world total exports 0.50 Share in world total imports 0.38
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 2.6 Transportation 14.2
Travel 38.0 Travel 26.6
Other commercial services 59.4 Other commercial services 59.2

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office Trademark registrations by office
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

a Break in series for merchandise: 2001 for exports.


b Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

98 TRADE PROFILES 2009


LESOTHO

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 2 017 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 1 622 Merchandise 150 148
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 3 202 excluding intra-EU trade 124 122
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) 212 Commercial services 177 178
Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) 1 143 excluding intra-EU trade 151 152
Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 149.8
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 135 4 5 4
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 223 11 4 -22
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) 267 13 12 8

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) 0.015


WTO accession date 31 May 1995 Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date 23, 25 April 2003 in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry 38
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 4-0
All goods 78.6 7.8 Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) ...
Agricultural goods (AOA) 200.0 9.4 Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) ...
Non-agricultural goods 60.0 7.5 Safeguards (28 October 2008) 0
Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) 0.0 2.6 Number of disputes (complainant - defendant)
MFN duty free imports Requests for consultation 0-0
in agricultural goods (AOA) ... Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports 0-0
in non-agricultural goods ... Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) 0-0
Services sectors with GATS commitments 80 Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) 0-0

MERCHANDISE TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) 900 19 16 12
Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) 2 040 12 16 17
2008 a 2008 a
Share in world total exports 0.01 Share in world total imports 0.01
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)
Agricultural products 5.0 Agricultural products ...
Fuels and mining products 0.0 Fuels and mining products ...
Manufactures 94.9 Manufactures ...
By main destination By main origin
1. United States 68.5 1. South Africa 78.2
2. South Africa 17.6 2. Taipei, Chinese 6.3
3. European Union (27) 9.9 3. Hong Kong, China 5.7
4. Switzerland 2.8 4. China 4.0
5. Canada 0.6 5. European Union (27) 2.3

COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value Annual percentage change


2007 2000-2007 2006 2007
Commercial services exports (million US$) 68 9 15 34
Commercial services imports (million US$) 88 12 -15 18
2007 2007
Share in world total exports 0.00 Share in world total imports 0.00
Breakdown in economy's total exports Breakdown in economy's total imports
By principal services item By principal services item
Transportation 1.0 Transportation 78.5
Travel 63.0 Travel 18.5
Other commercial services 36.0 Other commercial services 3.1

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Patent grants by patent office, 1996 Trademark registrations by office, 2007
Residents Non-residents Total Direct residents Direct non-residents Madrid Total
1 ... 1 ... ... 931 931

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2004.

TRADE PROFILES 2009 99


LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA

BASIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands, 2008) 6 277 Rank in world trade, 2008 Exports Imports
GDP (million current US$, 2008) 99 926 Merchandise 50 86
GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) 96 675 excluding intra-EU trade 35 62
Current account balance (million US$, 2007) 28 454 Commercial services 127 83
Trade per capita (US$, 2004-2006) 6 999 excluding intra-EU trade 101 58
Trade to GDP ratio (2004-2006) 101.9
Annual percentage change
2008 2000-2008 2007 2008
Real GDP (2000=100) 141 4 7 7
Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...
Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) ... ... ... ...

TRADE POLICY Contribution to WTO budget -


WTO accession date Observer Import duties collected
Trade Policy Review date - in total tax revenue ...
Tariffs and duty free imports to total imports ...
Tariff binding coverage (%) - Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force
MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2006 Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry -
Simple average of import duties Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO 2-0
All goods - 0.0 Anti-dumping