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Revisiting field: semantic density in

Ancient History & Biology discourse


ISFC41
Systemic Functional Linguistics and Language Education
[UNC Mendoza, April 14-19 2014]

J R Martin
Department of Linguistics, University of Sydney

Vale la pena organizar todas


aquellas cosas sin las cuales
no vale la pena vivir

- today, Ill be discussing knowledge structure


from the perspective of SFL

proposing that knowledge structure can be


productively explored metafunctionally, from
the perspectives of ideational, interpersonal
and textual meaning

and illustrating how the processes of


distillation, iconisation and aggregation are
instrumental in the construal, enactment and
composition of uncommon sense discourse

1. LCT/SFL dialogue
2. Semantic gravity/presence (review)
3. Semantic density/mass
4. Horizontal discourse
- everyday
- specialised
5. Vertical discourse
- distillation
- iconisation
- aggregation
6. Knowledge structure (trinocular vision)
6

1. SFL/LCT dialogue

Ideas que surgen de un proyecto conjunto de


investigacin basado en la lingstica y la
sociologa
especficamente la Lingstica sistmico
funcional (LSF) y la Teora de cdigo de
legitimacin (TCL)
Se centra en la construccin del
conocimiento en biologa e historia en la
escuela junior secondary en Australia
8

- ms especficamente un dilogo entre


un registro Martiniano de LSF (que se
caracteriza por una semntica discursiva
y un modelo de contexto estratificado
como registro y gnero)

10

en relacin con una aplicacin de este


modelo, en la pedagoga del lenguaje
(la llamada Escuela de Sydney)

12

en dilogo con un registro Matoniano


del realismo social, su TCL (Teora del
cdigo de legitimacin)

- gracias a Vicky por la traduccin!

14

15

16

- from 2002

genre

mode

tenor

field

language

17

+ K Maton, S Hood & S Shay [Eds.] Knowledge-building: educational


studies in legitimation code theory. London: Routledge. in preparation.

19

2. Semantic gravity/presence
- context dependency revisited
(quick review of my ALSFAL 2013 talk)

20

genre

mode

tenor

field

knowledge
structure

language

21

genre

mode

tenor

field

semantic gravity,
semantic density

language

22

Semantic gravity (LCT)


One can conceptualize practices in terms of the
degree to which meaning relates to its context. This
semantic gravity may be relatively stronger or weaker
along a continuum.
When semantic gravity is stronger, meaning is more
closely related to its social or symbolic context of
acquisition or use; when it is weaker, meaning is less
dependent on its context.
[Maton 2014: 110]
23

genre

mode

tenor

field

semantic gravity
[semantic density]

language

24

- raises issue of context dependency in SFL

genre

mode

tenor

field

language

25

- where context dependency is traditionally associated


with the contextual variable mode

genre

mode

tenor

field

language

26

- as Hasan has pointed out, if we privilege


context as a stratum of meaning in SFL, the
idea of context dependency (as it appears in
my writing and that of many SFL scholars in
relation to discussions of mode) becomes
very problematic

27

- so in Santiago I was asking how we make sense of


context dependency in a supervenient model with
context as a higher level of meaning ?

supervenience

28

- note the problem is the same, whether we adopt a


stratified context plane or not

field
tenor
mode

29

- I adopted a metafunctional perspective

interpersonal

textual

ideational

focusing on discourse semantic systems

NEGOTIATION
APPRAISAL

IDENTIFICATION
PERIODICITY

IDEATION
CONJUNCTION

including textual discourse semantic systems

NEGOTIATION
APPRAISAL

IDENTIFICATION
PERIODICITY

IDEATION
CONJUNCTION

implicitness

interpersonal discourse semantic systems

NEGOTIATION
APPRAISAL

IDENTIFICATION
PERIODICITY

IDEATION
CONJUNCTION

negotiability

ideational discourse semantic systems

NEGOTIATION
APPRAISAL

IDENTIFICATION
PERIODICITY

IDEATION
CONJUNCTION

iconicity

- semantic gravity/presence
negotiability

implicitness

iconicity

- anti-gravity/omniscience
factuality

explicitness

abstraction

Martin, J R & E Matruglio 2013 Revisiting mode:


context in/dependency in Ancient History classroom
discourse. Huang Guowen, Zhang Delu & Yang
Xinzhang [Eds.] Studies in Functional Linguistics and
Discourse Analysis V. Beijing: Higher Education Press.
72-95.
[revised for a Spanish translation by Beatriz Quiroz;
Onamazein in press for 2014]

40

- this raises the crucial issue of what anti-gravity is


for
and one important aspect of this is its interaction with
semantic density, which Ill explore metafunctionally
today

41

genre

mode

tenor

field

[semantic gravity]
semantic density

language

42

3. Semantic density/mass
- technicality revisited

43

Semantic density 1 (LCT)


Semantic density (SD) refers to the degree of condensation of meaning
within sociocultural practices (symbols, terms, concepts, phrases,
expressions, gestures, clothing, etc).

The stronger the semantic density (SD+), the more meanings are
condensed within practices; the weaker the semantic density (SD-), the
less meanings are condensed. [Maton 2014: 129]
[The meanings involved may be from formal definitions, empirical
descriptions or feelings, political sensibilities, taste, values, morals,
affiliations, and so forth.]
44

genre

mode

tenor

field

[semantic gravity]
semantic density

language

45

- condensation of meaning in SFL

genre

mode

tenor

field

language

46

where condensation of meaning is traditionally


associated with the contextual variable field

genre

mode

tenor

field

language

47

Field (after Martin 1992) deals with the


phenomenal realm of discourse

- a field is a set of activity sequences


oriented to some global institutional purpose,
alongside the taxonomies of participants
involved in these sequences (organised by
both classification and composition)

- composition...

[from factorial explanation]


mulga tree, branches, leaves, stems, roots
grammaticalised composition:
the branches of the mulga
the mulgas leaves
the mulga tree also has long roots
+ [from conditional explanation]
seeds, flowers

mulga tree

roots branch

stems 0lower seed leaf

- classification...

- divergent classifications (desert environments)


desert ranges &
rocky outcrops

Australias desert environments are:


- desert ranges and rocky outcrops
- mulga plains
- spinifex plains
- saltbush and bluebush plains
- rivers and salt lakes

mulga plains
spinifex plains
saltbush & blue bush plains
rivers & salt lakes

There are three types of desert plains:


- mulga plains
- spinifex plains
- saltbush and bluebush plains

desert ranges &


rocky outcrops

mulga plains

plains

spinifex plains

rivers &
salt lakes

saltbush & blue


bush plains

- activity sequencing

The branching leaves and stems catch the rain and it trickles down to
the soil. This traps more rainfall than if the tree grew straight up. . This
water is stored in the soil to be used by the tree during the next drought.
[branching + leave & stems] +x catch + rain
^
rain + trickles x soil
^
water + stored x soil
^
tree +x use + water x drought

[Branching leaves and stems catch the rain and direct it down to the soil]
[branching + leave & stems] +x catch + rain
^
[branching + leave & stems] +x direct + rain x soil

composition

classification
sequencing

4.1 Horizontal discourse


everyday reality
- everyday fields (common sense)

56

interpersonal

textual

ideational

- everyday composition (ostensive definition)

58

Head and shoulders knees and toes


Knees and toes
Head and shoulders knees and toes
Knees and toes
And eyes and ears
And mouth and nose
Head and shoulders knees and toes
Knees and toes
Feet and tummies arms and chins
Arms and chins
Feet and tummies arms and chins
Arms and chins
And eyes and ears
And mouth and shins
Feet and tummies arms and chins
Arms and chins

59

60

- everyday activity (learn by doing with)

61

62

63

4.2 Horizontal discourse


extended reality
- specialised fields

64

- specialised fields
(the extended reality of trades, crafts, hobbies,
sport, recreation)

65

involving specialised composition

66

67

68

69

- technocality (composition)
[White, P 1998 Extended Reality, Proto-Nouns and the Vernacular:
distinguishing the technological from the scientific. Martin & Veel.
1998 Reading Science. 266-296]

70

71

72

73

- specialised activity
learned through mentoring, apprenticing, training, coaching,
initiating ;
enacted through sustained/recoverable consciousness;
tendency to complement vertical discourse in a region of
practice (mechanic:engineer :: builder:architect ::
trainer:physiologist :: lab assistant:scientist :: nurse:doctor ::
detective:forensic scientist :: accountant/economist :: justice
of the peace:lawyer);
increasing tendency for documentation (procedure/protocol);
increasing tendency to involve at least some institutionalised
learning (technical college, sports academy, boot camp etc.)

75

76

77

- technocality (processing)

78

79

80

5.1 Vertical discourse


alter reality
Uncommon sense knowledge
(epistemic semantic density)
- technicality (distillation)

81

interpersonal

textual

ideational

- Flannery reviewing Gliksons Evolution of the Atmosphere

Elevated CO2 led to acidification of ocean water from 8.2 to


7.5 pH and the extinction of 35-50% of benthic formaminifera
over 1000 years.
This neatly summarises countless hours of research, and describes
an Earth whose atmosphere was so supercharged by greenhouse
gases that the acidifying oceans led to mass extinctions, ecosystem
crises and an ocean floor corroded red with acid. Only when
conditions are reduced to such simple terms can meaningful
comparisons between various crises in Earths history be made.
[Flannery, T 2014: 44]

83

- definitions (distilling uncommon sense);


depends on linguistic, not ostensive, definition

Benthic foraminifera are a phylum of amoeboid protists


characterized by their thin pseudopodia that form an
external net for catching food and an external shell and
living on or within seafloor sediment.

Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of


the Earths oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide
(CO2) from the atmosphere.

84

power words

85

common sense fields


vs
uncommon sense ones

everyday/specialised fields
vs
technical ones

horizontal knowledge structures


vs
vertical ones
86

- involving technical terms (semantic condensation)...

e.g. cilia, pathogens

87

- but there is much more to an understanding of


cilia than thedefinitionof the word...

88

- there is also composition


(part/whole structure)...

89

- location in body (physiology)

90

- decomposing under the microscope...

91

- internal structure...

92

decomposing

composing

93

- we also need to consider classification


(class/sub-class structure)...

94

- classification (type/subtype organisation)


taxonomy

subclassify

classify

95

- organ type...

organelle (eurkaryotic cells)


cilia (proturbence from cell)
motile (undulipodia)
flagella (whip action for propulsion)
cilia (wave motion)
non-motile (primary - sensory antennae)
96

- there may be different principles for classification

97

- alternative classification for immunology


(in terms of lines of defence)...

non-specific
specific
1st

2nd

3rd

98

[Allen & Greenwood 188]

- technical terms can also refer to processes


(in activity sequences)...
e.g.
inflammation
phagocytosis
engulfment

100

- inflammation

[Allen & Greenwood 191]

101

- phagocytosis & engulfment

[Allen & Greenwood 191]

102

[Allen & Greenwood 190]

103

[Allen & Greenwood 191]

104

everyday
vs
specialised
vs
technical

105

- a note on hyper-technicality
featuring symbolisation affording technical
grammar allowing for the distillation of new concepts

108

declarative
informative
S^F

+P; (+C); (+A)

+Whex; Whex/;
#^Whex^S

indicative
major

exclamative

polar

+S; +F

F^S
imperative

interrogative
wh...
+Wh; Wh/; #^Wh^F

positive

negative
+MA:neg; MA^P

+do; do^MA:neg

technical terms
major, indicative, imperative, declarative, informative,
declarative, exclamative, interrogative, polar, wh, positive,
negative
symbols
P, C, A, Wh-, S, F, MA, Whex, neg
- note these are symbols (characters), not abbreviations
Wh- : who, what, where, when, why, how ::
Whex : what a^, how^ ::
Neg : not/nt, hardly, scarcely etc.

110

^
+

; #^

+;+
^
+ ; (+ ); (+ )

...
+ ; /; #^ ^
T

+ ; ^ :

+ : ; ^
111

- SFL hypertechnicality affords the derivation of new


concepts: e.g. metafunction (for MOOD below)

112

- hypertechnicality
expanding physics with math (Yaegan Doran)

113

- symbolisation

The relationship between Force (F), mass (m) and


acceleration (a) is summed by the equation F = ma.
This shows that the force of an object depends on
the combination of its mass and acceleration.
[Zhao 2012 pg. 140]

114

- affording quantification (via math grammar)

- also affording derivation (via math grammar)

- affording derivation of new concepts (i.e. impulse)

- we still have a tremendous amount of work to do on


hypertechnicality, including the role of interacting
semiotic modes (verbiage, symbol, image, artifact)

118

5.2 Vertical discourse


alter sensibility
Uncommon sense feeling
(axiological semantic density)
- values (iconisation)

119

interpersonal

textual

ideational

Earth is revealed in all its manifestations: from an oxygen-free


infant with toxic oceans and precious little land 3 billions years ago,
to an ageing planet destabilised by a plague of bipedal apes.
His description of the ocean during the greenhouse Earth episode
of 55 million year ago offers a good example of this style:
Elevated CO2 led to acidification of ocean water from 8.2 to
7.5 pH and the extinction of 35-50% of benthic formaminifera
over 1000 years.
[Flannery, T 2014: 44]

121

Semantic density 2 (LCT)


Semantic density (SD) refers to the degree of condensation of meaning
within sociocultural practices (symbols, terms, concepts, phrases,
expressions, gestures, clothing, etc). Semantic density may be relatively
stronger (+) or weaker (-) along a continuum of strengths.
The stronger the semantic density (SD+), the more meanings are
condensed within practices; the weaker the semantic density (SD-), the
less meanings are condensed. [Maton 2014: 129]
[The meanings involved may be from formal definitions, empirical
descriptions or feelings, political sensibilities, taste, values, morals,
affiliations, and so forth.]
122

- epistemologial condensation, where the


condensing of meanings (from other concepts or
empirical referents) emphasises empirical relations;
vs
- axiological condensation, where the condensing
of meanings (from affective, aesthetic, ethical,
political and moral stances) emphasizes social
relations.
[Maton 2014: 153]

123

- axiologically charged values (modern history)...

(teacher lets out a big breath) Where are we David


youre sitting there by yourself you can tell us
about COMMUNISM OK.

(David) Dont make me do that. Thats against my


Christian beliefs.

Ss (laugh)

As Bourdieu arguestaste classifies, and it classifies the


classifier(1984: 6): your taste in films, furniture, music,
clothes and so forth, say something about you. Similarly, a
scholars choice of theory, citations, writing style, figures,
titles, punctuation and so forth, offer messages about what
kind of person they are by virtue of the axiologically
charged constellation to which those stances are
assigned...
They show whether your heart is in the right place, your
aesthetic, ethical, moral or political affiliations correct, and
so whether you are one of us or one of them. In other
words, the axiological cosmology generates a hierarchical
knower structure, a ranking of actors based on how moral,
righteous, virtuous, ethical or politically progressive they
are considered to be. [Maton 2014: 163]
125

- cf. Halliday (1977) on ideas about language...


Philosophical-logical tradition

Descriptive-ethnographic tradition

Linguistics as part of philosophy


Grammar as part of logic
Stresses analogy
Prescriptive or normative in orientation
Meaning in relation to truth
Language as thought
Language as rules
Formal analysis of sentences
Grammaticality according to rule
High degree of idealisation
Decontextualised examples
Absolutists

Linguistics as part of anthropology


Grammar as part of culture
Stresses anomaly
Descriptive in orientation
Meaning in relation to rhetorical function
Language as action
Language as resource
Semantic interpretation of discourse
Acceptability according to usage
Lower degree of idealisation
Real examples
Relativists

126

- my elaboration (invoked appreciation!)...


philosophical-logical/descriptive-ethnographic::
rule/resource:: cognitive/social:: acquisition/development::
syntagmatic/paradigmatic:: form/function:: language/parole::
system/process:: psychology&philosophy/
sociology&anthropology:: cognitive/social:: theory/description::
intuition/corpus:: knowledge/meaning:: conceptual/semiotic::
syntax/discourse:: pragmatics/context:: parsimony/
extravagance:: cognitive/critical:: technicist/humanist:: truth/
social action:: performance/instantiation:: categorical/
probabilistic:: contradictory/complementary:: proof/
exemplification:: reductive/comprehensive:: arbitrary/natural::
modular/fractal:: syntax/grammar:: typology/topology::
universalist/relativist:: intuition/corpus:: theoretical/applied...

- theres nothing necessarily epistemological that holds


the polarised clusters of conepts together (Cardiff
grammar for example is well-known in SFL for its
cognitive systemic functionalist stance):
rule, langue, intuition, cognitive, acquisition, form,
syntax, categorical...
resource, parole, corpus, social, development, function,
discourse, probabilististic...

- rather the concepts are aligned axiologically, in terms of


value systems, with sensibilities shaped by the trained
gaze of e.g. the Sydney and Cardiff registers of SFL
128

From the perspective of appraisal theory the


axiologically charged oppositions just reviewed
invoke rather than inscribe attitude;
the more you identify with one camp or another,
the more feeling they afford

129

- concepts accrue value through a process of iconisation...


logogenetically in a text
ontogenetically in the life of an individual
phylogenetically in a sub/culture

130

- iconisation is the process whereby the


everyday meaning of an event or entity is
(potentially) backgrounded and its emotional
significance to the members of a group is
foregrounded
- typically, ideational meaning is discharged
and axiological meaning is charged

131

- the iconisation process is most familiar to us as it


manifests in idioms...
cool as a cucumber (imperturbable)

X
132

- in Caples image nuclear news stories, editors enjoy using


images to re-invest heading idioms with ideational meaning...

133

- the iconisation process is also familiar to us as it


manifests in interpersonal grammatical metaphors
(indirect speech acts)...

Would you like you to do the washing up now?


- OK.
*No, I wouldnt (like to...)

134

Watson: You realize we've only stopped for breath since this
thing started. Has it occurred to you
Sherlock: Probably.
Watson: No, has it occurred to you that the bomber's playing a
game with you. The envelope. Breaking into the other flat.
The dead kid's shoes. It's all meant for you.
Sherlock: Yes, I know.

135

- a note on hyper-iconisation
Over time (text time, lifetime, generational time) axiology
may be supercharged, as what Maree Stenglin calls
bondicons (short for bonding icons)

136

- among well-known bondicons are symbols of peace,


which anchor communities of protest against war

137

- iconisation of an SFL system network at Starbucks in Lisbon...

138

Symbols of this kind illustrate the way in which values can be


materialised as images; but hyper-iconisation can also involve people,
including well-known embodiments of peaceful protest and of liberation
such as Ghandi and Mandela respectively...

Further examples of hyper-iconisation would include ceremonies, proverbs,


slogans, memorable quotations, flags, team colours, coats of arms, mascots
and so on.
139

- inspirationalpassages of discourse
(insert your favorite quotation here)

the heart of discourse is not order but


disorder, not coherence but incoherence,
not clarity but ambiguity, andthe heart
of discourse is the possibility of new
realities.
[Bernstein 1990: 76]

140

- Karls LCT bondicon provides a clear example of


ideational discharge in relation to interpersonal
charge

141

- LCT specialisation
ER+
knowledge
code

lite
code

SR

SR+

relativist
code

knower
code
ER

- specialisation discharged, LCT heritage charged

- iconisation process (branding):


= ideational discharge, axiological charge

145

- Recently Ken Tann has developed a framework for


thinking about iconisation in relation to communal
feeling

146

Tann, K. (2013) The language of identity discourse:


introducing a framework for functional iconography.
Linguistics and the Human Sciences 8(3). 361-391.
Tann, K. (2010) Semogenesis of a Nation: An Iconography of
Japanese Identity. PhD Dissertation. University of Sydney,
Australia.

147

Gemeinschaft constructs identities as communities and


oppositional categories
Doxa constructs identities in terms of communal values
around which the communities rally
Oracle constructs identities as specific people and things that
exemplify the community.

148

- in Ken Tanns terms, Oracles invoking the shared values


(Doxa) which affiliate members into Gemeinschaft

149

- SFL iconography (bondicons)


guru

artifact

scripture
"...the theory itself embodies "shunting"... as crucial to
the interrelation of the categories. In description, all
statements presuppose shunting; the description of the
sentence cannot be complete until the description of the
morpheme is complete, and vice versa." [Halliday 1961]

150

- LCT iconography (bondicons)

guru

artifact

scripture
For every knowledge structure there is
also a knower structure [Maton 2014: 65]
151

152

SFL

RRG

FDG

meaning
is choice
functionalism

153

Bernstein

LCT

knowledge
and knowers
insights
and gazes

Bourdieu

- so alongside epistemologial condensation, where


the condensing of meanings (from other concepts or
empirical referents) emphasises empirical relations
[we also have]
axiological condensation, where the condensing of
meanings (from affective, aesthetic, ethical, political
and moral stances) emphasizes social relations.
[Maton 2014: 153]

155

- iconisation and axiological condensation

As Bourdieu arguestaste classifies, and it classifies the


classifier(1984: 6)
ones intellectual choices classify and they morally
classify the classifier. They show whether your heart is in
the right place, your aesthetic, ethical, moral or political
affiliations correct, and so whether you are one of us or
one of them.
[Maton 2014: 163]

156

5.3 Vertical discourse


alter texture
Uncommon sense composition
- aggregation (packaging)

157

interpersonal

textual

ideational

Elevated CO2 led to acidification of ocean water from 8.2


to 7.5 pH and the extinction of 35-50% of benthic
formaminifera over 1000 years.
This neatly summarises countless hours of research, and
describes an Earth whose atmosphere was so supercharged by
greenhouse gases that the acidifying oceans led to mass
extinctions, ecosystem crises and an ocean floor corroded red
with acid. Only when conditions are reduced to such simple
terms can meaningful comparisons between various crises in
Earths history be made.
[Flannery, T 2014: 44]

159

- exploring textual condensation

160

While Pompeii is one of the most studied of the worlds archaeological sites, it has been
plagued with serious conservation problems, including poor restoration work, damage from
vegetation, pressure from tourism and poor site management.
Much of the restoration work on Pompeii has been done by local firms with no specialised
knowledge of restoration techniques. For example the timber roof on the House of Maeger
was so poorly designed it could not support the weight of the tiles and collapsed. Poor
quality mortar has also been used to protect ancient stonework. Over time this mortar has
cracked, allowing water and vegetation to penetrate.
A second problem is the incursion of uncontrolled weeds which have hastened the decay
of the ruins. Over 30 different varieties have been identified, including ivy, fennel and fig.
As the roots grow they open up further cracks, allowing even more weeds in.
Pompeiis position as an international tourist attraction brings half a million visitors each
year. No special walkways for viewing platforms have been constructed, so tourists walk
along ancient paths and enter buildings that are not roped off. In some places ancient lead
water pipes have been exposed.
Finally, there seems to be no overall management plan for the site. Damaged paths and
walls have not been repaired, frescoes have not been preserved, and mangy dogs roam
the site. Available finance has been poorly managed and no proper conservation and
interpretation program has been put in place.
As a result of these factors, the description of Pompeii as a victim of state neglect and
indifference and an archaeological catastrophe of the first order is an apt one. Its ongoing
destruction since its discovery in the 1590s has arguably resulted in a greater disaster than
its initial destruction by the eruption of Mt Vesuvius one and a half millennia earlier.

- discourse semantic systems

NEGOTIATION
APPRAISAL

textual

IDENTIFICATION
PERIODICITY

IDEATION
CONJUNCTION

- identification (text reference)

164

While Pompeii is one of the most studied of the worlds archaeological sites, it has been
plagued with serious conservation problems, including poor restoration work, damage from
vegetation, pressure from tourism and poor site management.
Much of the restoration work on Pompeii has been done by local firms with no specialised
knowledge of restoration techniques. For example the timber roof on the House of Maeger
was so poorly designed it could not support the weight of the tiles and collapsed. Poor
quality mortar has also been used to protect ancient stonework. Over time this mortar has
cracked, allowing water and vegetation to penetrate.
A second problem is the incursion of uncontrolled weeds which have hastened the decay
of the ruins. Over 30 different varieties have been identified, including ivy, fennel and fig.
As the roots grow they open up further cracks, allowing even more weeds in.
Pompeiis position as an international tourist attraction brings half a million visitors each
year. No special walkways for viewing platforms have been constructed, so tourists walk
along ancient paths and enter buildings that are not roped off. In some places ancient lead
water pipes have been exposed.
Finally, there seems to be no overall management plan for the site. Damaged paths and
walls have not been repaired, frescoes have not been preserved, and mangy dogs roam
the site. Available finance has been poorly managed and no proper conservation and
interpretation program has been put in place.
As a result of these factors, the description of Pompeii as a victim of state neglect and
indifference and an archaeological catastrophe of the first order is an apt one. Its ongoing
destruction since its discovery in the 1590s has arguably resulted in a greater disaster than
its initial destruction by the eruption of Mt Vesuvius one and a half millennia earlier.

- periodicity (higher level Theme & New)

166

Macro-theme
=
Hyper-theme
=
+

Hyper-theme
=
+
Hyper-Theme
=
+
Hyper-theme
=
=
Macro-New

+SD/-SG

-SD/+SG

-SD/+SG

-SD/+SG

-SD/+SG

+SD/-SG

- we also need to consider ideational aggregation


via internal conjunction and metadiscourse (i.e.
semiotic entities; signalling nouns)

170

- discourse semantic systems

NEGOTIATION
APPRAISAL

IDENTIFICATION
PERIODICITY

IDEATION
CONJUNCTION

ideational

While Pompeii is one of the most studied of the worlds archaeological sites, it has been
plagued with serious conservation problems, including poor restoration work, damage from
vegetation, pressure from tourism and poor site management.
Much of the restoration work on Pompeii has been done by local firms with no specialised
knowledge of restoration techniques. For example the timber roof on the House of Maeger
was so poorly designed it could not support the weight of the tiles and collapsed. Poor
quality mortar has also been used to protect ancient stonework. Over time this mortar has
cracked, allowing water and vegetation to penetrate.
A second problem is the incursion of uncontrolled weeds which have hastened the decay
of the ruins. Over 30 different varieties have been identified, including ivy, fennel and fig.
As the roots grow they open up further cracks, allowing even more weeds in.
Pompeiis position as an international tourist attraction brings half a million visitors each
year. No special walkways for viewing platforms have been constructed, so tourists walk
along ancient paths and enter buildings that are not roped off. In some places ancient lead
water pipes have been exposed.
Finally, there seems to be no overall management plan for the site. Damaged paths and
walls have not been repaired, frescoes have not been preserved, and mangy dogs roam
the site. Available finance has been poorly managed and no proper conservation and
interpretation program has been put in place.
As a result of these factors, the description of Pompeii as a victim of state neglect and
indifference and an archaeological catastrophe of the first order is an apt one. Its ongoing
destruction since its discovery in the 1590s has arguably resulted in a greater disaster than
its initial destruction by the eruption of Mt Vesuvius one and a half millennia earlier.

While Pompeii is one of the most studied of the worlds archaeological sites, it has been
plagued with serious conservation problems, including poor restoration work, damage from
vegetation, pressure from tourism and poor site management.
Much of the restoration work on Pompeii has been done by local firms with no specialised
knowledge of restoration techniques. For example the timber roof on the House of Maeger
was so poorly designed it could not support the weight of the tiles and collapsed. Poor
quality mortar has also been used to protect ancient stonework. Over time this mortar has
cracked, allowing water and vegetation to penetrate.
A second problem is the incursion of uncontrolled weeds which have hastened the decay
of the ruins. Over 30 different varieties have been identified, including ivy, fennel and fig.
As the roots grow they open up further cracks, allowing even more weeds in.
Pompeiis position as an international tourist attraction brings half a million visitors each
year. No special walkways for viewing platforms have been constructed, so tourists walk
along ancient paths and enter buildings that are not roped off. In some places ancient lead
water pipes have been exposed.
Finally, there seems to be no overall management plan for the site. Damaged paths and
walls have not been repaired, frescoes have not been preserved, and mangy dogs roam
the site. Available finance has been poorly managed and no proper conservation and
interpretation program has been put in place.
As a result of these factors, the description of Pompeii as a victim of state neglect and
indifference and an archaeological catastrophe of the first order is an apt one. Its ongoing
destruction since its discovery in the 1590s has arguably resulted in a greater disaster than
its initial destruction by the eruption of Mt Vesuvius one and a half millennia earlier.

- interpersonal resources can also be used to


aggregate meaning (regulatory exchanges,
attitudinal prosodies)

174

- discourse semantic systems


interpersonal
NEGOTIATION
APPRAISAL

IDENTIFICATION
PERIODICITY

IDEATION
CONJUNCTION

Da1
A1
A2f

T
Sf
SJ
Sm
T

Who wants to read?


Im sure Jessica would love to.
No (inaudible)
Ill read.
Thank-you.

A1

Sm

Ah THE ELDER PLINY (AD TWENTY-THREE OR TWENTY-FOR SO


SEVENTY- NINE) WAS A DISTINGUISHED WRITER OF EQUESTRIAN
STATUS WHO AS A YOUNG MAN HAD SERVED IN THE ARMY ON THE
GERMAN FRONTIER. ALTHOUGH HE WROTE ON ROMAN MILITARY
HISTORY AND ON ORATORY HE IS REMEMBERED FOR HIS
INVESTIGATION OF SCIENTIFIC MATTERS. HIS NATURAL HISTORY
COVERED TOPICS INCLUDING GEOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY, BOTANY AND
ZOOLOGY. THIS WORK, FINISHED IN AD SEVENTY-SEVEN, WAS
DEDICATED TO TITUS, THE SON OF THE EMPEROR VESPIAN
//Vespasian//
VESPASIAN, WHO HIMSELF SUBSEQUENTLY BECAME EMPEROR IN AD
SEVENTY-NINE. IN AD SEVENTY-NINE PLINY THE ELDER WAS IN COMMAND
OF THE ROMAN NAVAL FLEET THAT WAS STATIONED AT MISENUM
//Misenum//
=MISENUM, THIRTY-TWO KILOMETRES ACROSS THE BAY FROM
VESUVIUS.
Okay.

T
Sm

T
Sm
A2f

Lots of interesting things in that paragraph

While Pompeii is one of the most studied of the worlds archaeological sites, it has been
plagued with serious conservation problems, including poor restoration work, damage
from vegetation, pressure from tourism and poor site management.
Much of the restoration work on Pompeii has been done by local firms with no specialised
knowledge of restoration techniques. For example the timber roof on the House of Maeger
was so poorly designed it could not support the weight of the tiles and collapsed. Poor
quality mortar has also been used to protect ancient stonework. Over time this mortar has
cracked, allowing water and vegetation to penetrate.
A second problem is the incursion of uncontrolled weeds which have hastened the decay
of the ruins. Over 30 different varieties have been identified, including ivy, fennel and fig.
As the roots grow they open up further cracks, allowing even more weeds in.
Pompeiis position as an international tourist attraction brings half a million visitors each
year. No special walkways for viewing platforms have been constructed, so tourists walk
along ancient paths and enter buildings that are not roped off. In some places ancient lead
water pipes have been exposed.
Finally, there seems to be no overall management plan for the site. Damaged paths and
walls have not been repaired, frescoes have not been preserved, and mangy dogs roam
the site. Available finance has been poorly managed and no proper conservation and
interpretation program has been put in place.
As a result of these factors, the description of Pompeii as a victim of state neglect and
indifference and an archaeological catastrophe of the first order is an apt one. Its ongoing
destruction since its discovery in the 1590s has arguably resulted in a greater disaster than
its initial destruction by the eruption of Mt Vesuvius one and a half millennia earlier.

- multimodal aggregation also has an important role


to play

178

[Allen & Greenwood 191]

179

6. Knowledge structure
(trinocular vision)

180

genre

mode

tenor

field

semantic gravity,
semantic density

language

181

interpersonal

textual

ideational

- discourse semantic systems

NEGOTIATION
APPRAISAL

IDENTIFICATION
PERIODICITY

IDEATION
CONJUNCTION

ideational

- ideational mass

distillation

- discourse semantic systems


interpersonal
NEGOTIATION
APPRAISAL

IDENTIFICATION
PERIODICITY

IDEATION
CONJUNCTION

- interpersonal mass
iconisation

- discourse semantic systems

NEGOTIATION
APPRAISAL

textual

IDENTIFICATION
PERIODICITY

IDEATION
CONJUNCTION

- textual mass

aggregation

- semantic density/mass
iconisation

aggregation

distillation

- massive (academic discourse)


radiating

integrated

condensed

- this reminds us that we have to keep in mind the


interaction of mass and presence (in dialogue with
semantic density and semantic gravity in LCT)

191

- semantic gravity/presence
negotiability

implicitness

iconicity

- anti-gravity/omniscience (academic discourse)


factuality

explicitness

abstraction

genre

mode

tenor

field

semantic gravity,
semantic density

language

presence,
mass

194

genre

mode

tenor

field

semantic gravity

language

implicitness,
iconicity,
negotiability

195

genre

mode

tenor

field

epistemological density,
axiological density

language

distillation,
iconisation,
aggregation

196

- well keep talking

genre

mode

tenor

field

language

197

Perhaps Donne is wrong and we can only


peepe through lattices of eyes and hear
through labyrinths of ears. Yet lattices and
labyrinths, whilst they localise both the beholder
and the beheld, and so their meaning for and to
each other, their very particularity may lead
through to a tension, to expand the contexts of
seeing and hearing.
[Bernstein 1995: 422]

198

- thank-you Karl

199

genre

mode

tenor

field

language

200

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