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# CIVL 4146 Hydraulics

## Fall 2016 Semester

Tutorial 1
Solve the following problems from your textbook (Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering
Systems, 4th Ed.):
3.3.7
Determine the magnitude and direction of the reaction force at a 90 pipe bend that is passing a
mass flow rate of 985 kg/sec. The diameter of the bend is 60 cm, and the pressure head is 10m just
upstream of the bend and 9.8 m downstream of the bend. (Assume that the water is flowing in a
positive x-direction entering the bend and a positive y-direction leaving the bend.)
[F = 43.6kN, = 44.4o]
3.5.7
Two sections, A and B, are 4.5 km apart along a 4-m-diameter riveted-steel pipe in its best
condition. A is 100m higher than B. If the water temperature is 20C and the pressure heads
measured at A and B are 8.3 m and 76.7 m, respectively, what is the flow rate? Assume minor
losses are negligible.
[Q = 78.8m3/s]
3.5.10
Water at 20C is transported through a 200-m-long wrought iron pipe with a head loss of 9.8 m.
Determine the diameter of the pipe required to convey 10 L/ sec.
[D = 80mm]
3.5.15
An old water-supply pipeline contains a long segment that is horizontal and 30 cm in diameter (cast
iron). A leak along an inaccessible portion of the buried pipeline is highly likely. A pair of pressure
gauges located upstream of the leak indicate a pressure drop of 23,000 N/m2. Another pair of
pressure gauges located downstream of the leak indicate a pressure drop of 20,900 N/m2. The
distance between the gauges in each pair is 100 m. Determine the magnitude of the leak. Assume
minor losses are negligible and that the water temperature is 20C.
[Leakage = 8 L/s]
3.7.5
Use the Hazen-Williams equation and the Manning equation to calculate the flow rate for Problem
3.5.7, which was solved using the Darcy-Weisbach equation and yielded Q = 78.8 m3/sec. Compare
the results and discuss the differences. Assume minor losses are negligible and verify your results
with computer software.
[Hazen-Williams, Q = 80.6 m3/s, Mannings, Q = 61.8 m3/s]