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Transformer is an ac machine that transfers electrical energy from

one electrical circuit to another without changing frequency by
the principle of electro magnetic induction.Since its basic
construction requires no moving
parts so it is often called the static transformer and it is very
rugged machine requiring the minimum amount of repair and
maintenance.Owing to the lack of rotating parts there are no
friction or winding losses.Further ,the other losses are very low so
that the efficiency should be high.The efficiency varies from 97%
to 99%.

The action of a transformer is based on the principle that energy
may be efficiently transferred by induction from one set of coils to
another by means of varying magnetic flux , provided that both
the sets of coils are on a common magnetic circuit.The emfs are
induced by the variation in the
magnitude of flux with time.It is based on Faradays law of
electromagnetic induction.

On the bases of use transformer are two
1.power transformer
2.distribution trans former

The term is used to include all transformers of large sizes(250kva
and above) used in generating stations and substations for
transforming the voltage at each end of a power transmission
line.They may be single or three phase and voltage rating of
220/11kv or in high voltage range.They
are put in operation during load hours and disconnected during
light load hours or operated on full load.So power transformer are
desined to have maximum efficiency at full load(i.e.with iron loss
to full load copper loss ratio of 1:1).

Transformer of rating upto 200kva,used to step down the
distribution voltage to a standard service voltage are known as
distribution transformer.They are kept in operation all the 24
hours a day.In such transformer iron loss occur for all the time
where copper loss occur only when they are
loaded.Therefore,distribution transformers should be designed
with iron loss smaller in comparision to full load copper loss(say
with iron loss to full load copper loss ratio 1:3)



Parts of a Transformer

Oil filter valve


Oil drain valve



Jacking boss

Buchholz relay



Oil filter valve


Foundation bolt

Pressure-relief vent


Grounding terminal

High-voltage bushing


Skid base

Low-voltage bushing



Suspension lug


Coil pressure plate

B C T Terminal






Terminal box for protective devices


De-energized tap changer


Rating plate


Tap changer handle


Dial thermometer


Fastener for core and coil




Lifting hook for core and coil




End frame


Lifting hook


Coil pressure bolt


Dial type oil level gauge

Steel tank :
It is a main part of transformer. It is steel made box. Transformer core is placed
inside this tank. Windings and other helpful devices are placed inside this tank. It is
filled with insulating oil ( mineral oil ). It have usually cylindrical or cubical shape
depending on transformer construction. It is coated internally and externally with
colour for safety point of view. Colour coating also provide protection in case of
winding connection with tank accidentally.

Core of transformer :
Core is made with laminated steel sheet in all type of transformers to provide
continuous magnetic path and also to provide minimum air gap. For this purpose
silicon enriched steel is used. Sometimes heat treatment is also used on steel to
increase permeability of steel. hysteresis losses also decreased in core with increase
in permeability. By making core laminated eddy current losses also reduced in core.
Laminations of core also insulated from each other through varnish.
Two phase transformers consists of two legs and three-phase transformers are
usually consists of three legs. Cores are usually circular or rectangular in shape.
laminated cores tight with bolts to avoid vibration in core.

Windings :
Single phase transformer have one primary and one secondary winding. But threephase transformer consists of three primary and three secondary windings which
connects to each other with proper methods. Low voltage winding is always placed
inner side of core. High voltage is placed above the low voltage winding. Both
windings are electrically insulated from each other through insulation material.
There is also a proper distance between two windings for movement of oil. Oil acts
as a cooling agent. Because windings become hot with the flow of current in
windings. To make cooling better, windings also make with many circular discs.
Windings also design like a helical coils. Helical windings are used in high current
transformers. According to capacity of transformer three types of coils are usually

Square wound
Disk wound

Coils are heat bonded with special varnish to increase mechanical strength of coils.
Coils are usually concentric in core type transformers.

Conservator tank :
It is a small tank which used in high power transformers. It is connected above the
main tank of transformer. It has cylindrical shape.Main tank and conservator tank
connected to each other through a pipe. Buchholz relay is used between

conservator tank and main tank in transformers having capacity more than one
MVA. Conservator tank have following functions in transformer :

It provide place for hot transformer oil to expand. It also provide oil in
transformer after oil become cool.
It also use to decrease oxidation by reducing area of oil around air.
Oxidized oil remain in conservator tank. Mirror tube is also connected with
conservator tank to read oil level in transformers. A pre marked gauge is also
present in mirror tube. It is necessary to have cool oil level up to mark of gauge.

conservator tank
With change in temperature oil level keep decreasing and increasing. Because
insulating oil have co-efficient of expansion. Whoever if large cavity is provide in
upper part of main tank, contact area increases between air and oil which decrease
dielectric strength of oil. To reduce this effect, we use a separate small tank through
a pipe. It have less oil than main tank. This tank is called conservator tank. With the
help of conservator tank, contact area reduced between oil and air. Oil also remain
ineffective due to oxidation. Oxidation do not occur in main tank due to conservator
tank. Hot oil move to conservator tank through pipe. Oxidation occur only in
conservator tank. Due to oxidation sludge only remain in conservator tank. Sludge
do not enter in main tank.

Breather :

Breather is a device which used for Breathing of transformer. Its mean air go in or
out from transformer with the help of breather. Now the Question is why we need
breather in transformer ? Because when hot oil expand, air go out from transformer
and when oil contracts after cooling, air enters in transformer. Breather one side is
connected with conservator tank. A mirror tube is placed inside breather. This mirror
tube filled with calcium chloride or silica gel. When air enters in transformer, this air
contain moisture. Silica gel absorb moisture and only allow dry air to enter in
transformer. In this way breather with the help of silica get stop moisture contain air
to pass into transformer and avoid oxidation in transformer main tank. With the
time silica gel colour changes from blue to pink after absorbing specifing quantity of
moisture from air. We can reuse this silica gel after warming it.


Thermometer :
Thermometer is also used in above 50KVA transformers. It is used to measure
temperature of oil. In high power transformers, thermometer is also used inside
windings which measure temperature of windings. Whenever temperature increase
up to dangerous level, it activates alarum signal.
Dial type thermometers are usually used for activation of alarms in abnormal
conditions. It give reading directly through a sensor. Whenever oil temperature
increases to specific level, it provide signal to alarm circuit. Thermometer usually

placed close to transformer name plate. Usually If dial type thermometer trip the
transformer, when oil temperature becomes greater than 105.

pressure relief vent :

It is a curve type mirror tube connected with main tank of transformer. It provide
protection to transformer from greater pressure. Sometime greater pressure is
developed inside a transformer due to decomposition of oil. It is necessary part of
high power transformer. Transformer can also burst without pressure relief vent.
Transformer burst above 1.01kg/cm pressure.

Valves :
Valves are used for filling and draining of transformer oil. It is also used for filtering
and sampling. Usually three valves are available in transformer.

Buchholz relay
This relay is connected to a pipe between main tank and conservator tank. It is gas
actuated realy. It is very important part of transformer. I will post a separate article
on this. Because it is difficult to explain buchholz relay working in this article. In
short buchholz relay provide protection for low oil level and high temperature.

Buchholz relay

Bushings :
Bushings are used to bring windings terminals out of tank and also use for
insulation. For example porcelain, oil filled and capacitor type bushings. Arching
horns are also connected to bushings to provide protection from lightning. In above
34 KV transformer, completely sealed condenser type bushings are used. In less
than 25KV transformer plain bushings are used.

Tap changing switch

Tap changer switch is used to regulate secondary voltage in case of low voltage in
primary side of transformer. Two type of tap changing switches are used:

Off load tap changer


Off load switch : It is used to change winding voltage ratio. Tap changing
switch are connected with high voltage side of transformer. As it name suggest
off load tap changing switch used only in transformer off condition.
On Load Switch : On load tap changer switch can be used with on load

Oil gauge :
Oil gauge is used for the measurement of oil in transformer. It displays oil level. Oil
gauge is usually of dial type. Pointer on dial type gauge used to measure oil level. It
is used with medium level to high voltage transformers.

oil guage of transformer

Radiator :
In 50KVA above transformers, radiators are used with main tank of transformer for
cooling purpose. It is like a pipes or tubes. It increases the surface area of
transformer. Radiator makes cooling in transformer more effective. This method of
cooling is called ONAN ( oil natural air natural).

Cooling fans :
In 26MVA and above transformers, cooling fans are also used on radiator. Oil
temperature gauge provide on or off signal for cooling fans. When temperature
becomes greater than 75, temperature oil gauge turn on cooling fans. This method
of cooling is called ONAF ( oil natural and air forced ).

Oil pumps :
In 26 MVA above transformers oil pumps are also used along with cooling fans and
radiator.oil pumps used to rotate oil in transformer. This method of cooling is
called OFAF ( oil forced and air forced) .

Basic Construction Of Transformer

Basically a transformer consists of two inductive windings and a laminated steel core. The coils
are insulated from each other as well as from the steel core. A transformer may also consist of a
container for winding and core assembly (called as tank), suitable bushings to take our the
terminals, oil conservator to provide oil in the transformer tank for cooling purposes etc. The
figure at left illustrates the basic construction of a transformer.

In all types of transformers, core is constructed by assembling

(stacking) laminated sheets of steel, with minimum air-gap between them (to achieve continuous
magnetic path). The steel used is having high silicon content and sometimes heat treated, to
provide high permeability and low hysteresis loss. Laminated sheets of steel are used to reduce
eddy current loss. The sheets are cut in the shape as E,I and L. To avoid high reluctance at joints,
laminations are stacked by alternating the sides of joint. That is, if joints of first sheet assembly
are at front face, the joints of following assemble are kept at back face.

Limitation of the Transformer

To understand the main points, we have to discuss some basic terms related to transformer
operation. So lets back to basic for a while.
A transformer is an AC machine that steps up or steps down an alternating voltage or current. A
transformer being an AC machine however cannot step up or down a DC voltage or DC current.
It sounds a bit weird though. You might be thinking so are there not DC transformers?
To answer the two questions whether there are or there are not DC transformers and know why
transformer cannot step up or step down a DC voltage its necessary we know how electric
current and magnetic field interact with each other in transformer operation


Applications of Transformers
Transformers have many applications in power transmission and electronics:
They may be used to minimise energy losses due to voltage drop in transmitting
electricity over long distances.
They match loads with internal resistance so that there is maximum power
They couple signals between electronic stages.

The most important uses and application of Transformer are:

It can rise or lower the level of level of Voltage or Current ( when voltage
increases, current decreases and vice virsa because P =V x I, and Power is
same ) in an AC Circuit.

It can increase or decrease the value of capacitor, an inductor or resistance in an

AC circuit. It can thus act as an impedance transferring device.

It can be used to prevent DC from passing from one circuit to the other.

it can isolate two circuits electrically.

Transformer is the main reason to transmit and distribute power in AC instead of DC,
because Transformer not work on DC so there are too difficulties to transmit power in
DC. in the DC Transition and distribution, the level of voltage Step up by Buck and
Boost Converter but it is too costly and not suitable economically.
The main application of Transformer is to Step up ( Increase) or Step down (Decrease)
the level of Voltage.
in other words, Increase or decries the level of Current, while Power must be same.
Other Uses and application of Transformer:
It step up the level of voltage at generation side before transmission and distribution.
in distribution side, for commercial or domestic use of electricity, transformer step down
( decries) the level of voltage for example form 11kV to 220 V single phase and 440 V
three phase.
The Current Transformer and Potential Transformer also used power system and in the
industry. Also, it is used for impedance matching. So these were the simple uses and
application of transformer.


. IS2026 :2011------------SPECIFICATION FOR POWER