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Plagiarism Scan Report


Report Genrated Date

08 Sep, 2016

Plagiarism Status

51% Unique

Total Words


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Any Ignore Url Used

Content Checked For Plagiarism:


Severity of plant injury caused by pollutants depends on concentration and duration of exposure

(Godish,, 2015). Some of the damages to the plant include chlorosis (Godish,, 2015),

necrosis (Godish,, 2015), pigment formation (Godish,, 2015), reduction of photosynthesis

and effect on its reproductive potential.

Thus, it is suggested that the leaves and soil samples collected from the ADMU will possess high

amount of air pollutants compare to the leaves and soil samples collected from Bataan.


Air Pollution

The main air pollutants are represented by gases forms, particles in suspension, different ionizing

radiation and noise.The gases forms are: oxidized and reduced forms of carbon (CO2, CO, CH4), of nitrogen (NO2, NO, N2O4, NH3, NH4+), SO2, O3, C6H6 vapours, Hg, volatile phenols, Cl2, etc. ( Florentina et al. 2011) Urbanized and industrialized areas are known to be subjected to high concentrations of air pollutants. Atmospheric pollution is the main result of different components such as heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particulate matter (PM0.1, PM2.5 and PM10) and organic components, which can originate from various sources. The main sources in the urban environment are road traffic and industrial activity. (Zamble et al. 2016) The air quality in the Philippines is still polluted but improving in terms of total suspended particulate (TSP). In 2008 the level of TSP was 99ug/Ncm. In Metro Manila, the air quality is still dirty but also improving in terms of TSP. In 2008, TSP level is 138 ug/Ncm. (Environmental Management Bureau Department of Environment and Natural Resources Philippines. Air Quality in

the Philippines) However, latest records from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources showed that Metro Manila s air quality situation has worsened in terms of total suspended particulates from 106 µg/Ncm from July to December 2014 to 130 µg/Ncm from January to April this year. Both figures are beyond the maximum safe level of 90 µg/Ncm. Particulate Matter of 10microns in diameter (PM10) in Metro Manila s air also jumped from 52 µg/Ncm from July to December 2014 to 62 µg/Ncm during the first four months of the year, two points higher than the standard PM10. Eighty-five percent of the capital s total air emissions come from vehicles, records show. ( Uy et al. 2015) In the Manila Observatory, where there have been PM2.5 readings since 2000, the New Year PM2.5 values have been as much as more than 10 times the normal values (40 mg/m3). New Year PM2.5

values have been the highest PM2.5 measurements of each year, and these are the only

measurements of the year that have reached the very unhealthy and hazardous ranges of the USEPA

Air Quality Index.

More than ten years of monitoring PM2.5 around Metro Manila shows no significant improvement in

the New Year air quality. And this is in addition to the normal state of our air, which by itself already

needs to be improved. ( Ateneo Physics 2014)

Suspended particulate matter (SPM) affect the overall growth and development of plants according

to their physical and chemical nature. Specifically morphology and anatomy of leaves are altered.

(Radhapriya 2012, Shrivastava and Joshi, 2002)

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