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PERFORMANCE OF HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE

INCORPORATING MINERAL BY-PRODUCTS*

By
Tarun R. Naik
Director, Center for By-Products Utilization

Viral M. Patel
Research Associate, Center for By-Products Utilization
and
Larry E. Brand
Former Graduate Student

Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics


College of Engineering and Applied Science
The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
P.O. Box 784
Milwaukee, WI 53201
Telephone: (414) 229-6696
Fax: (414) 229-6958

___________________________________________________________
* Paper submitted for presentation and publication for the Research
in Progress Seminar at the ACI, National Convention, Washington, D.C.,
March 15-19, 1992.

PERFORMANCE OF HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE


INCORPORATING MINERAL BY-PRODUCTS
Tarun R. Naik*, Viral M. Patel** and Larry E. Brand***

ABSTRACT

This research was undertaken to investigate performance of


high-strength concrete incorporating mineral admixtures, fly ash and
silica fume.

For modern construction, the use of new construction

materials is increasing to achieve economy and improved final results.


An extensive literature search was carried out to review various
engineering properties of high-strength concrete.

In this study, three different mix proportions for high-strength


concretes were developed.

One mix was proportioned with fly ash

consisting of one third of total cementitious materials, and was


designed to achieve 10,000 psi (70 MPa) compressive strength at 28
days.

The other two mixes included both fly ash and silica fume to

obtain 11,000 psi (77 MPa) and 12,000 psi (85 MPa) compressive strength
at 28 days.

All mixes were produced at a ready mixed concrete plant.

Various tests, to determine physical properties of as delivered


*

Director, Center for By-Products Utilization, College


Engineering
and
Applied
Science,
University
Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI.

**

Research Associate, Center for By-Products Utilization.

***

Former Graduate Student.

of
of

concrete, such as slump, density, air-content, etc. were carried out.


Twenty-seven 6 x 12 in. (150 mm x 300 mm) cylinders were cast for
each mix for measuring modulus of elasticity and compressive strength
of concrete at various ages.

Additional twenty-seven 6 x 12 in. (150

mm x 300 mm) cylinders were also cast for measuring splitting tensile
strength for each mix at various ages.

Furthermore, forty-six 4 x

8 in. (100 mm x 200 mm) cylinders were cast and tested for compressive
strength for each mix for various ages up to one year.

Testing work

is still in progress to obtain long-term strength properties.


Standard 6 x 12 in. (150 mm x 300 mm) cylinder tests data are compared
with 4 x 8 in. (100 mm x 200 mm) cylinders; and all cylinder test
results are also compared with 4 x 8 in. (100 mm x 200 mm) cores obtained
from companion concrete structural members.

All tests were conducted

in accordance with appropriate ASTM standards.

Core test specimens

obtained from beams made with the three mixes were also tested for
chloride permeability using the AASHTO T-227 test method.

Test

results revealed that high-strength concrete can be made using high


volumes of Class C fly ash to obtain strength levels in the range
of 14,000 psi (100 MPa) at 1 year age and beyond.

Reinforcement

corrosion potential data are also planned for up to five years of


this study.

All of the available data is analyzed and graphs are

plotted to derive useful conclusions and recommendations for testing


and use of high-strength concrete with and without fly ash and silica
fume.

INTRODUCTION

Engineers are continuously faced with increasing demands for


improved efficiency and reduced construction costs from private and
public sectors.

As a result, the use of high-strength concrete to

accommodate higher stress levels is increasing.

Until recently

concrete with a strength in excess of 6000 psi (42 MPa) at 28 days


was rarely available from a ready mixed concrete producer.

However,

in recent years high-strength concrete has gradually evolved; and,


it is being put to a wider use.
developments

in

concrete

This has been made possible due to

making

materials

and

cost

effective

utilization of high-strength concretes.

DEFINITION OF HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE

High-strength concrete, as defined by the ACI, is a normal weight


concrete which has an uniaxial compressive strength of 6000 psi (42
MPa) or greater at 28 days (1).

However, concrete with a compressive

strength higher than that which is ordinarily available in a region


could also be regarded as high-strength concrete.

More recently,

some people define concrete with a compressive strength of 8000 psi


(56 MPa) and above as high-strength concrete.

Even though 6000 psi

(42 MPa) was selected as the lower limit by the ACI 318-89 Building
Code, it is not intended to imply that there is a drastic change in
material properties, its behavior, or production techniques, that

occur at this level of compressive strength.

In reality, all changes

that take place above 6000 psi (42 MPa) represent a gradual process
which starts with the "normal-strength" concretes and continues into
high-strength concretes.

SCOPE

There are distinct advantages in using concrete with higher


compressive strengths in both reinforced, prestressed, and precast
concrete construction.

Despite extensive research carried out over

the years and availability of low-cost production techniques of


high-strength concrete, the full utilization of this engineering
material has not been realized.

This has been particularly so in

prestressed and precast concrete construction applications in which


there would be some distinct advantages with the use of high-strength
concrete.

A possible reason why full utilization has not occurred

is that the practicality of everyday use of high-strength concrete,


particularly greater than 10,000 psi (70 MPa), has not yet been fully
determined, with or without the use of high-strength reinforcing
steel.

Also,

adequate

changes

in

various

building

code

specifications, such as ACI 318-89 Building Code, to provide for better


performance of structures using high-strength concretes has not yet
been accomplished.

Therefore, requirements for code equations and

structural design considerations must also be evaluated to determine


their applicability with higher strength concretes in the concrete

industry (2).

For example, equations for allowable tensile strength,

shear strength, and modulus of elasticity for a given value of


compressive strength must be developed for high-strength concrete.
This research answers some of these concerns.

This paper reviews and presents results from a research project


carried out at the Center for By-Products Utilization at the
UW-Milwaukee to determine the properties of fresh and hardened
high-strength concrete.

The project included 10,000, 11,000, and

12,000 psi (70, 77 and 84 MPa) concrete mixes.

Tests completed on

each mix were, axial compressive strength of cast cylinders, modulus


of elasticity, and splitting tensile strength.

Cores were taken from

beams cast with the same mixes and were tested for compressive strength
to be compared with the cylinder test results.

All results were

compared with the available ACI 318-89 Code equations for calculating
these properties based upon the concrete compressive strength.

These

three concretes were also tested to determine the rapid chloride ion
permeability at one year age.

CONCRETE MIX PROPORTIONING

This section details mix proportions tested in this project.


The research project consisted of three different mix proportions
to achieve nominal strengths of 10,000 psi (70 MPa) and higher at
the

28-day

age.

The

production

concrete

was

proportioned

in

consultation with a silica fume supplier and a ready-mixed concrete


company located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Production of high-strength

concrete

equipment

using

conventional

batching

and

techniques

requires better quality of materials (i.e., low coefficient of


variation) and accuracy in the batching of the mix, particularly in
measuring moisture level in the fine aggregates. The materials used
in the mixes were locally available.

Previous research has shown

that the selection of raw materials is extremely important for


high-strength concrete (3, 4, 5). The type and brand of cement also
influences the workability and the strength of concrete (6,7,8).
Type I Portland cement from a regional supplier, for which prior test
data were available (3,4,5), was used in all mixes.

Properties and type of both coarse aggregates and fine aggregates


used in the production of concrete are also important. The fine and
coarse aggregate used in the project met the requirements of ASTM
C-33.

Washed natural sand and coarse aggregate at SSD condition were

used for all mixes.

The maximum 1/2" size coarse aggregate was crushed

limestone with a compressive strength of 35,000 psi.

The water/cementitious ratios used in the past studies for the


production of high-strength concretes have been lower than 0.35 (3,
4, 5, 9). In this study, the w/c ratio included fly ash and/or silica
fume with the cement to provide a water/cementitious ratio of less
than 0.30.

One-third of the total cementitious materials was a Type C fly


ash (with CaO of about 26%) for the 10,000 psi (70 MPa) mix. The other
two mixes had both the Type C fly ash and a silica fume included as
a partial replacement of cement in the concrete.

The Class C fly

ash from the Pleasant Prairie Power Plant in Wisconsin was used in
this study.

Since silica fume is very fine, it was added in slurry

form, i.e. initially mixed with water.

This excess water was

accounted for in calculating the water/cementitious ratio.

The concrete tested was not air entrained because the structural
elements were for indoor use.

Various other admixtures, a retarder

and a superplasticizer, were also added to the concrete to lower the


water/cementitious ratio and to achieve a high workability of 6" (150
mm) slump or higher.

Details of all the mixes are given in Table

1.

CASTING AND CURING OF TEST SPECIMENS

A number of tests were conducted on fresh and hardened concrete.


The temperature of the concrete and the ambient air was measured
at the time of casting of test specimens.

The slump, density, and

air content of all the three concretes were also measured in accordance
with applicable ASTM standards.
Table 1.

These values are presented in the

Mechanical and elastic properties of hardened concrete were

determined, Tables 2-6.

There were two different diameters of

cylinders tested for comparison, Fig. 1.

Twenty seven 6 x 12 in.

(150 mm x 300 mm) cylinders were cast in reusable cast-iron molds


for measuring the compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity.
Another twenty eight 6 x 12 in. (150 mm x 300 mm) cylinders were
cast in plastic molds for measuring the splitting tensile strength
of concrete.

Also, forty-six 4 x 8 in. (100 mm x 200 mm) cylinders

were cast in cast iron molds for compressive strengths of concrete


at various later test ages.

All specimens were prepared in accordance

with ASTM and then sprayed with a curing compound ("confilm") to the
exposed surface which minimizes evaporation of the mix water from
the concrete surface.
bags and

The cylinders were then covered with plastic

immediately placed in a lime-saturated water tank at a

temperature of 73 F 3 F (27 C 1.5 C).

All specimens were stripped

after 24 hours and stored in the lime-saturated water tank until the
time of test.

One cylinder of each size and from each mix was used

for measuring the maturity of the concrete in order to compare it


with the maturity of in-situ concrete in structural beam elements.
The temperature probes were inserted into the cylinders and beams
soon after the top surface was finished.

PROPERTIES OF HARDENED CONCRETE

Compressive Strength

Two sizes of cylindrical specimens were tested in accordance


with ASTM C-39 to determine the compressive strength of concrete.
Three

4 x 8 in. (100 mm x 200 mm) cylinders were tested at each of

the following test ages: 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, 91, 182, and 365 days,
to determine the compressive strength of the three concrete mixes.
Three 6 x 12-in cylinders were tested at each test age for compressive
strength up to 28-day age.
for 2,3,4 and 5 years.

Compressive strength tests are scheduled

All the tests were done using a Tinius-Olsen

compressive testing machine meeting C-911 ASTM requirements.


test results are presented in Tables 2, 3 and 4.

The

The strength of

these mixes plotted against their test ages is shown in Fig. 2, 3


and 4.

As seen from the Fig. 2, 3 and 4, the desired compressive strengths


were achieved between 28 and 35 days.

It was possible to obtain such

high strengths by using a high cementitious content, addition of finer


additives like fly ash and silica fume and a lower w/c ratio in
combination with a superplasticizer.

This resulted in a denser matrix

and better bond between the aggregate and the mortar matrix surrounding
it.

Also

the

higher

compressive

strength

of

the

aggregates

contributed to the higher compressive strength of these concretes.

10

The compressive strength of low cementitious factor, low-strength,


concrete may not significantly increase after 91 days while the
compressive strength of high cementitious factor, high-strength,
concrete keeps increasing significantly up to approximately 180 days
and then it starts leveling off.

This is because of high-cementitious

content which continues to hydrate over a longer period of time.

Tensile Strength

The 6 x 12 in. (150 mm x 300 mm) cylinders were tested to determine


the splitting tensile strength of concrete.

Splitting tensile

strength tests were conducted in accordance with the ASTM C-496, at


1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days.
test age.

Three cylinders were tested at each

All cylinders were tested wet.

Detailed test data are

given in Tables 2, 3, and 4. Fig. 5, 6 and 7 show variation of the


tensile strength with age of concrete.

As can be expected, the tensile

strength increased with increasing age. Fig. 8 compares the test


results with the ACI 318-89 Eqn. 11.2.1.1 based upon the compressive
strength: fct= 6.7 (f'c)1/2, where fct is the predicted splitting
tensile strength from the compressive strength, f'c.

Fig. 8 shows that the ACI Eqn. 11.2.1.1 underpredicts the tensile
strength of the 10,000 psi (70 MPa) and higher strength concrete.
This is believed to be due to a denser matrix, as well as improved
aggregate mortar bond resulting in better tensile strength for

11

concrete containing fly ash with or without silica fume.

The tested

specimens showed that more than 95% of the aggregates failed in tension
indicating excellent aggregate mortar interface bond.

Very few

aggregate bond failures were observed after 14-day age of concrete.


After 28 days of curing, the increase in tensile strength was at
a diminishing rate for all mixes.

A new equation needs to be developed

to reliably estimate the tensile strength of the high strength


concrete.

It can be observed from Fig. 8 the ACI Eq. overpredicts the tensile
strength of concrete at strength lower than 6000 psi (42 MPa).

The

measured splitting tensile strengths were about 10-12% of the


compressive strength up to about 6,000 psi (42 MPa) compressive
strength.

On the other hand, the tensile strength, measured as a

percentage of the compressive strength, reduced to about 6% for higher


compressive strengths.

Similar results have been reported earlier

(10).

Modulus of Elasticity

The standard cylinders cast in cast-iron molds were tested to


determine the static modulus of elasticity and compressive strength
of concrete.

All the tests for the modulus of elasticity were carried

out in accordance with the ASTM C-469.


at 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 35, and 56 days.

12

These tests were conducted


Three cylinders were tested

at each test age.

For all mixes, at 1 and 3 day ages, the cylinders

were capped using a regular-strength sulfur capping compound.

While

for all other tests, a high strength sulfur capping compound was used.
This capping compound was recommended by the manufacturer for
concrete with compressive strengths of 6000 psi to 16000 psi (40 to
115 MPa).

Test specimens were air dried on the top and bottom surfaces

for capping.

They were then capped and tested wet, after reimmersing

them for sufficient amount of time in the water tank.

The strains

in the concrete were measured up to approximately 70% of the


compressive strength at that test age.

The secant modulus of

elasticity was then calculated by measuring the slope of the line


joining the points with stress corresponding to 0.40 fc' and stress
at 50 millionths strain, per ASTM C-469.
off to the nearest 50,000 psi.
Table 5.

The

This value was then rounded

test results are reported in

The modulus increased, as expected, with increasing age

at a decreasing rate after 14-day age.

The modulus of elasticity

determined for each stress-strain curve at each strength is plotted


against the compressive strength at each age and compared with the
ACI 318-89 Eqn. 8.5.1, Fig. 9.

Ec = 33 w1.5 (f'c)

It is clear from the Figure 9 that the ACI equation overpredicts


the modulus of elasticity after about 5,000 psi (35 MPa) compressive
strength of concrete.

Hence the prediction of the deflection of

13

structural members would be lower than actual, thereby predicting


reduced ductility for high-strength concrete members.

It is apparent

that the modulus of elasticity of high-strength is lower than predicted


than that of normal strength (less than 5000 psi, 35 MPa) concrete.
This is due to the fact that there are fewer microcracks in the normal
strength concrete at a given strain thereby increasing its modulus
of elasticity.

Also it is observed from Table 5 that the modulus

of elasticity increases at a decreasing rate after 14-day age.

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH FROM CORE TESTS

Concrete cores of 4" (100 mm) nominal diameter were cored using
a diamond tipped drill bit from beams cast from these three concrete
mixes.

Care was taken to avoid cutting the reinforcement.

The

direction of coring was perpendicular to the direction of casting


of concrete beams.

These cores were then conditioned and tested in

accordance with the ASTM Test C-42 and C-39. The length-to-diameter
(l/d) ratios for the cores were maintained at two.

High-strength

sulfur capping compound was used to cap these cores.

All cores were

tested in the same Tinus Olsen compression testing machine as the


cylindrical cast specimens.

The details of the core specimens and

tests data are given in the Table 6.


devised for ease of identification.

A core numbering system was


The numbering consists of two

numbers: B-N., where "B" is the beam # cored, and "N" is the number
of core. Three cores were tested from each beam. A correction factor

14

was used to predict the equivalent cylinder compressive strength of


the beam concrete (12).

The correction factor was chosen from the

Table 7 which is arrived at from the ACI 318-89 and Ref. 12.

This

corrected strength test value was used to compute the nominal cylinder
compressive strength based upon the core compressive strength.

It can be observed from the tests that the core strengths are
lower than the cylinder strengths at an equivalent age, Tables 2,
3, 4, and 6.

At higher design strengths, the core strengths were

much lower than the equivalent age cylinder strengths.

Thus as the

concrete strengths increases, a higher correction is required to


express the core strength in terms of equivalent cylinder strength
(12).

RAPID CHLORIDE PERMEABILITY TESTING

All three series of concrete under investigation were tested


in accordance with AASHTO T 277 procedure to determine the chloride
ion permeability of concrete mixes.

Values for chloride permeability

rating of concretes, as established by AASHTO (11), are listed below:

Permeability Rating
Negligible

Charge, Coulombs
Less than 100 Coulombs

Very Low

100 to 1,000 Coulombs

Low

1,000 to 2,000 Coulombs

15

Moderate

2,000 to 4,000 Coulombs

High

Greater than 4,000 Coulombs

The rapid chloride permeability test data obtained for this


series of concrete under study is presented in Table 8.

The Mix 1

tested to pass an average total charge of 259 Coulombs.

The Mix 2

and 3 showed an average total charge of 263 Coulombs and 260 Coulombs,
respectively.

Thus, according to AASHTO rating, all mixes had "very

low chloride ion permeability".

The plot of test time versus the

total charge passed for Mix 1, 2 and 3 at the age of one year is shown
in Figure 10.

CONCLUSIONS

On the basis of the research reviewed and test results obtained,


use of high-strength concrete in the construction industry would
definitely be of a great advantage.

However, before this is done

on a full scale, further research and modifications are required for


the building codes and specifications.

From this project it can be concluded that high-strength concrete


can be manufactured with a low water/cementitious ratio and use of
superplasticizer

to

achieve

high

workability.

However,

finishability of the concrete was a problem due to loss of effect


of the

superplasticizer.

16

17

The desired compressive strength for all mixes were achieved


at about 35 days of age.

At later ages, the compressive strengths

of concretes with fly ash only and concretes with both fly ash and
silica fume were almost the same.
with increasing age.

The tensile strength increased

However, the tensile strength measured as a

percentage of the compressive strength for all mixes reduced to about


6% of the compressive strengths as compared to about 10-12% for
concretes below 6000 psi compressive strengths.

The modulus of elasticity is overpredicted by the ACI 318-89


equation for concretes with compressive strengths above 5000 psi.
It is also observed that the modulus of elasticity increases at a
decreasing rate after 14 days of curing.

Core tests indicated that the core compressive strengths were


lower than the cylinder strengths.

This is true for all concretes.

As the concrete strength increases a larger correction was required


for the cores tests.

From the analysis of test results it is concluded that concretes


containing mineral admixtures have very low chloride ion permeability.

The test results of indicated that all the mixes had almost the
same chloride ion permeability.

Thus it can be concluded that

concretes containing Class C fly ash only and concretes containing

18

both fly ash and silica fume have nearly the same chloride ion
permeability.

Thus the compressive strength of concrete at higher

strength have a negligible influence on the rapid chloride ion


permeability of concrete.

Concretes containing mineral admixtures

have a dense matrix and hence a lower chloride ion permeability,


especially at later ages.

LIST OF REFERENCES

(1)ACI Committee 363,

"State-of-the Art Report on High-strength

Concrete, " ACI Journal, Proceedings V. 81, No. 4, July-August


1984, pp. 364-411.

(2)Anderson, A.R., "Research Answers Needed for Greater Utilization


of

High-Strength

Concrete,"

PCI

Journal,

V.

25,

No.

4,

July-August 1980, pp. 162-164.

(3)Naik, T.R., and Ramme, B.W., "Effects of High-Lime Fly Ash Content
on Water Demand, Time of Set, and Compressive Strength of
Concrete",

ACI

Materials

Journal,

Vol.

87,

No.

6,

November/December 1990, pp. 619-627.

(4)Naik, Tarun R., and Ramme, Bruce W.,

"Setting and Hardening of

High Fly Ash Content Concrete", 8th International Coal Ash

19

Utilization Symposium, ACAA, Washington, D.C., 1987.

(5)Naik, T.R., and Ramme, Bruce W., "High Early Strength Fly Ash
Concrete for Precast/Prestressed Products", PCI Journal, Nov.
Dec. 1990, pp.

(6)Chicago Committee on High-Rise Buildings, "High-Strength Concrete


in Chicago High-Rise Buildings", Task Force Report No. 5,
Chicago, IL, February 1977, 63 pages.

(7)Hester, W., "High-Strength Air-Entrained Concrete", Concrete


Construction, February 1977, pp. 77-82.

(8)Freedman, S., "High-Strength Concrete", Modern Concrete, Oct.,


Nov., Dec. 1970, and Jan., Feb. 1971.

(9)Perenchio, W.I., "An Evaluation of Some of the Factors


in Producing very High-Strength Concrete",

Involved

Bulletin No. RD014,

Portland Cement Association, Chicago, IL, 1973, 7 pages.

(10)ACI Committee 363, "Research Needs for High-Strength Concrete,"


ACI Materials Journal, V. 84, November-December 1987, pp.
559-561.

(11)AASHTO, "Specifications for Materials Testing", FHWA, 1989.

20

21

(12)Naik, T.R., "Evaluation of Factors Affecting High-Strength


Concrete Cores", Proceedings of the First Materials Engineering
Congress, ASCE, Denver, CO, August, 1991, pp. 216-222.

REP-125

22

TABLE 1:
CONCRETE SUPPLIER:

CONCRETE MIX AND TEST DATA

Central Ready-Mix Concrete Co., Milwaukee, WI.

Mix Number

Nominal Strength, psi

10,000

11,000

12,000

Cement, Type I, lbs./cu.yd.


600

700

700

Fly Ash, Type C, lbs./cu.yd.


350

100

100

Silica Fume, lbs./cu.yd.

70

100

Slurry, gallons

12.7

18.2

Water, lbs./cu.yd.

303

240

274

Water to cementitious ratio


0.3

0.29

.30

Sand, SSD, lbs./cu.yd

1,200

1,280

1,250

1/2" Max. crushed limestone,

SSD, lbs./cu.yd.

1,650

1,700

1,700

Slump, inches

7-1/4

10-1/2

Air Content, %

0.3

1.1

0.3

Air Temperature, Deg.F

68

68

69

Concrete Temperature, Deg.F.


72

69

68

Concrete Density, pcf

152

152

154

ASTM Type A Retarding

Admixture, oz/cu.yd.

28.5

20.8

21

ASTM Type F Super

Plasticizing Admixture,

198

210

240

oz./cu.yd.

S.I. Units:

1
1
1
1

lbs/cu yd. = 0.593 kg/cu m.


Liter = 29.57 x 103 oz.
inch = 25.4 mm
Deg. C = ( F - 32)/1.8

23

1 lbs/cu. ft. = 16.02 kg/cu. m.


TABLE 2:

Compressive Strength, psi

Test
Age
Days

4" x 8" Cyls

1
1
1
3
3
3
7
7
7
14
14
14
28
28
28
35
35
35
56
56
56
91
91
91
180
180
180
365
365
365

Concrete Strength Test Data,


10,000 psi (70 MPa) Specified Strength

6" x 12" Cyls

Actual Average

Actual

3519
3527
3343
5095
5573
5175
8280
7643
8917
8638
7245
8280
10191
8280
10151
9633
9514
9514
8837
10788
10800
12900
13850
9160
11940
12540
11150
14010
13820
12420

3731
3855
3183
6667
2263 X
6596
7463
6438
7746
8277
7728
9249
10350
10085
10209
----------------

3460
5280
8280
8050
9550
9550
10140
11970
11880
13420

Splitting Tensile Strength, psi

Actual

Average

Average
3590
6630
7220
8420
10210
---

384
406
371
424
539
565
508
548
486
592
570
574
752
730
699
699
690
743
606
920
774

390
510
510
560
730
710
770

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

X Discarded
S.I. Units:

24

1 psi = 0.0069 MPa

25

TABLE 3:

Test
Age
Days

Concrete Strength Test Data,


11,000 psi (77 MPa) Specified Strength

Compressive Strength, psi

4" x 8" Cyls

Splitting Tensile Strength, psi

6" x 12" Cyls

Actual

Average

Actual Average Actual Average


1
1
1
3
3
3
7
7
7
14
14
14
28
28
28
35
35
35
56
56
56
91
91
91
180
180
180
365
365
365

3384
3503
3702
6369
6449
5892
7484
7803
8121
9713
9475
11057
10350
10948
9953
11505
11226
12102
10828
11544
11146
11540
10788
11186
12938
14530
13933
14013
13455
13535

3530
6240
7800
10090
10420
11610
11170
11180
13700
13670

4494
4565
4547
5697
6016
7502
8563
8581
8139
10227
11058
10952
10580
10828
10757
--__
-------------

4590
6900
8430
10750
10720
---

354
358
385
367
429
376
557
584
601
690
659
760
836
849
915
924
902
937
841
1040
707

370
390
580
700
870
920
870

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

S.I. Units:
1 psi = 0.0069 MPa

26

TABLE 4:

Test
Age
Days

Concrete Strength Test Data,


12,000 psi (85 MPa) Specified Strength

Compressive Strength, psi

4" x 8" Cyls

Splitting Tensile Strength, psi

6" x 12" Cyls

Actual

Average

Actual Average Actual Average


1
1
1
3
3
3
7
7
7
14
14
14
28
28
28
35
35
35
56
56
56
91
91
91
180
180
180
365
365
365

2707
3185
3225
6430
6691
6487
8957
8599
9236
9912
10390
10549
12579
13137
12341
10987
12877
12141
11624
13375
10828
13176
14928
16082
-14800
14980
14700
14970
14850

3040
6540
8930
10280
12690
12035
11950
14730
14890
14880

3397
3450
3397
6522
6547
6729
7785
8528
7254
10386
10156
10315
--12452
----------------

3410
6600
7860
10290
12450
---

252
261
274
417
439
393
517
531
548
707
743
738
831
818
796
805
774
929
751
778
840

260
410
530
730
820
836
790

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

S.I. Units:
1 psi = 0.006895 MPa

27

TABLE 5:

Modulus of Elasticity Test Data

Age,
Average E, psi*
Average E, psi*

Average E, psi*
Days
f'c = 10,000 psi
f'c = 11,000 psi
f'c = 12,000 psi

3,750,000

3,700,000

3,650,000

4,050,000

4,100,000

3,950,000

4,850,000

5,150,000

5,000,000

14

5,400,000

5,750,000

5,650,000

28

5,450,000

6,000,000

6,150,000

35

5,700,000

6,050,000

6,100,000

56

5,750,000

6,000,000

5,800,000

S.I. Units
1 psi = 0.006895 MPa
1 in. = 2.54 cms
*

Average of three tests

28

TABLE 6: CORE STRENGTH TEST DATA*


Test Performed in Accordance with the ASTM Test C-42 (Compressive Strength)
Center for By-Products Utilization, UWM
Core
Number
2-1
2-2
2-3
4-1
4-2
4-3
8-1
8-2
8-3
9-1
9-2
9-3
12-1
12-2
12-3
14-1
14-2
14-3
26-1
26-2
26-3
13-1
13-2
13-3
16-1
16-2
16-3
20-1
20-2
20-3
15-1
15-2
15-3
17-1
17-2
17-3
19-1
19-2
19-3
21-1
21-2
21-3
22-1
22-2
22-3
25-1
25-2
25-3

Age
Days
160
160
160
160
160
160
122
122
122
122
122
122
167
167
167
167
167
167
130
130
130
174
174
174
174
174
174
137
137
137
160
160
160
160
160
160
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130

l/d
ratio**
1.99
1.98
2.02
2.05
2.05
2.05
1.98
1.97
1.98
2.01
1.95
1.93
2.06
2.06
2.05
2.05
2.04
2.04
2.06
2.04
2.06
2.04
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.01
2.03
2.02
2.02
2.03
2.02
2.05
2.04
2.12
2.01
1.99
2.06
2.03
2.06
2,06
ERR
2.03
2.04
2.05
2.05
2.06
2.06
2.08

Core Compressive
Strength (psi)
7,172
7,590
7,620
8,892
8,092
7,452
8,770
7,560
8,490
7,010
6,600
9,300
11,292
8,786
10,615
8,777
9,011
10,724
8,721
8,915
11,476
8,917
8,858
8,708
8,042
9,202
8,258
9,062
10,741
12,289
14,093
14,276
11,010
9,476
9,666
7,494
8,759
8,772
11,994
8,280
ERR
11,565
11,672
8,593
11,154
10,580
6,900
9,190

***
Correction
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65

29

Equival. Cyl. Compressive


Strength (psi)
9,563
10,120
10,160
11,856
10,789
9,936
11,690
10,080
11,320
9,350
8,800
12,400
16,132
12,531
15,164
12,538
12,872
13,927
13,416
13,715
17,655
12,738
12,654
12,440
11,488
13,145
11,797
13,941
16,524
18,906
20,132
20,394
15,728
13,537
13,808
10,705
13,475
13,495
18,453
12,738
17,792
17,957
13,220
17,160
16,277
10,615
14,138

Average
(psi)
9,950

10,860

11,030

10,180

14,620

13,130

14,930

12,610

12,140

16,460

18,750

12,680

15,140

15,270

15,990

13,680

* All cores were drilled in a direction perpendicular to the direction of casting the concrete structural beam element.
** Length measured after capping of the cores.
*** See Table 7 - Correction for determining equivalent cylinder ("design") strength. l/d correction was not required per ASTM C-42.
S.I. Units
1 psi = 0.006895 MPa
1 in. = 2.54 cms

30

TABLE 7:

Equivalent Cylinder Strength Correction


Factor for Core Strength (Ref. 12).

Core

Correction Factor

Strength, psi

for Core Strength*

3,000

0.95

4,000

0.90

6,000

0.85

8,000

0.80

10,000

0.75

12,000

0.70

15,000

0.65

*To obtain equivalent 6" x 12" (150 mm x 300 mm) Cylinder


Strength.

31

TABLE 8:

Mix
Number

Beam Core
Number

16

23

Rapid Chloride Ion Permeability Test Data

Test Slice
Location

Maximum Current
During Test
(Amperes)

Actual Total
Charge Passed
(Coulombs)

Top
Upper
Lower
Bottom

0.012
0.014
0.011
0.012

253
302
238
242

Top
Upper
Lower
Bottom*

0.012
0.013
0.012
--

238
300
252
--

Top
Upper
Lower
Bottom

0.009
0.014
0.015
0.014

177
294
283
284

Discarded because of a crack

**

Per AASHTO T-277 (Ref. 9)


Permeability Rating
Negligible
Very Low
Low
Moderate
High

Average Total
Charge Passed
(Coulombs)

AASHTO Chloride
Permeability
Designation**

259

Very Low

263

Very Low

260

Very Low

Charge, Coulombs

Less than 100 Coulombs


100 to 1,000 Coulombs
1,000 to 2,000 Coulombs
2,000 to 4,000 Coulombs
Greater than 4,000 Coulombs

REP-125

32